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EAP                                                           F. Bersani
Internet-Draft                                        France Telecom R&D
Expires: March 7, 2005                                 September 6, 2004


           The EAP-PSK Protocol: a Pre-Shared Key EAP Method
                        draft-bersani-eap-psk-04

Status of this Memo

   This document is an Internet-Draft and is subject to all provisions
   of section 3 of RFC 3667.  By submitting this Internet-Draft, each
   author represents that any applicable patent or other IPR claims of
   which he or she is aware have been or will be disclosed, and any of
   which he or she become aware will be disclosed, in accordance with
   RFC 3668.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on March 7, 2005.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2004).

Abstract

   This document specifies EAP-PSK, an Extensible Authentication
   Protocol (EAP) method for mutual authentication and session key
   derivation using a Pre-Shared Key (PSK).
   In case mutual authentication is successful, EAP-PSK provides a
   protected channel for both parties to communicate over.  In this
   document, this protected channel is used to exchange protected result
   indications.  In the future, it may be used to implement extensions
   for EAP-PSK.



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   EAP-PSK is designed for authentication over insecure networks such as
   IEEE 802.11.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     1.1   Design goals for EAP-PSK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
       1.1.1   Simplicity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
       1.1.2   Wide Applicability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
       1.1.3   Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
       1.1.4   Extensibility  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     1.2   Specification of Requirements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     1.3   Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     1.4   Conventions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     1.5   Related Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   2.  Protocol overview  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     2.1   EAP-PSK key hierarchy  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
       2.1.1   The PSK  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
       2.1.2   The TEK  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
       2.1.3   The MSK  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
       2.1.4   The EMSK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
       2.1.5   The IV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     2.2   Cryptographic design of EAP-PSK  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
       2.2.1   The Key Setup  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
       2.2.2   The Authenticated Key Exchange . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
       2.2.3   The Protected Channel  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
     2.3   EAP-PSK Message Flows  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
       2.3.1   EAP-PSK Standard Authentication  . . . . . . . . . . . 20
       2.3.2   EAP-PSK Extended Authentication  . . . . . . . . . . . 21
   3.  EAP-PSK Message format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
     3.1   EAP-PSK First Message  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
     3.2   EAP-PSK Second Message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
     3.3   EAP-PSK Third Message  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
     3.4   EAP-PSK Fourth Message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
   4.  Rules of Operation for the EAP-PSK Protected Channel . . . . . 32
     4.1   Protected Result Indications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
       4.1.1   CONT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
       4.1.2   DONE_SUCCESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
       4.1.3   DONE_FAILURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
     4.2   Extended Authentication  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
   5.  IANA considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
     5.1   Allocation of an EAP-Request/Response Type for EAP-PSK . . 36
     5.2   Allocation of EXT Type numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
   6.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
     6.1   Mutual Authentications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
     6.2   Protected Result Indications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
     6.3   Integrity Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
     6.4   Replay Protection  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39



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     6.5   Dictionary Attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
     6.6   Key Derivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
     6.7   Denial of Service Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
     6.8   Session Independence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
     6.9   Exposition of the PSK  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
     6.10  Fragmentation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
     6.11  Channel Binding  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
     6.12  Fast Reconnect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
     6.13  Identity Protection  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
     6.14  Protected Ciphersuite Negotiation  . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
     6.15  Confidentiality  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
     6.16  Cryptographic Binding  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
     6.17  Implementation of EAP-PSK  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
   7.  Security Claims  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
   8.  Acknowledgments  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
   9.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
   9.1   Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
   9.2   Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
       Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
   A.  Generation of the PSK from a password - Discouraged  . . . . . 55
       Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . 56






























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1.  Introduction

1.1  Design goals for EAP-PSK

   The Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) [2] provides an
   authentication framework which supports multiple authentication
   methods.

   This document specifies an EAP method called EAP-PSK that uses a
   Pre-Shared Key (PSK).

   Because PSKs are of frequent use in security protocols, other
   protocols may also refer to a PSK or contain this word in their name.
   For instance, Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) [53], specifies an
   authentication mode called "WPA-PSK".  EAP-PSK is distinct from these
   protocols and should not be confused with them.

   Design goals for EAP-PSK were:
   o  Simplicity: EAP-PSK should be easy to implement and deploy without
      any pre-existing infrastructure.  It should be available quickly
      as new protocols, such as IEEE 802.11i [30], that employ EAP in a
      different threat model than PPP [48] and require such an EAP
      method, have been recently released.
   o  Wide applicability: EAP-PSK should be suitable to authenticate
      over any network, and in particular over IEEE 802.11 [31] wireless
      LANs.
   o  Security: EAP-PSK should be conservative in its cryptographic
      design.
   o  Extensibility: EAP-PSK should be easily extensible.

1.1.1  Simplicity

   For the sake of simplicity, EAP-PSK has chosen to rely on a single
   cryptographic primitive, AES-128 [9].

   Restricting to such a primitive, and in particular, not using
   asymmetric cryptography like Diffie-Hellman key exchange, makes
   EAP-PSK:
   o  Easy to understand and implement while avoiding cryptographic
      negotiations.
   o  Light-weight and well suited for any type of device, especially
      those with little processing power and memory.

   However, as further discussed in Section 6, this prevents EAP-PSK
   from offering advanced features such as identity protection, password
   support or Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS).  This choice has been
   deliberately made as a trade-off between simplicity and security.




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   For the sake of simplicity, EAP-PSK has also chosen a fixed message
   format and not a Type-Length-Value (TLV) design.

1.1.2  Wide Applicability

   EAP-PSK has been designed in a threat model where the attacker has
   full control over the communication channel.  This is the EAP threat
   model that is presented in Section 7.1 of [2].

1.1.3  Security

   Since the design of authenticated key exchange is notoriously known
   to be hard and error prone, EAP-PSK tries to avoid inventing any new
   cryptographic mechanism.  It attempts to build instead on existing
   primitives and protocols that have been reviewed by the cryptographic
   community, some of which enjoy proofs of security in the
   cryptographic provable security paradigm.

1.1.4  Extensibility

   EAP-PSK explicitly provides a mechanism to allow for future
   extensions within its protected channel (see Section 2.2.3).  Thanks
   to this mechanism, EAP-PSK will be able to provide more sophisticated
   services, as the need to do so appears.

1.2  Specification of Requirements

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [5].

1.3  Terminology

   Authentication, Authorization and Accounting (AAA) Please refer to
             [12] for more details.
   AES-128   A block cipher specified in the Advanced Encryption
             Standard, please refer to [9] for more details.
   Authentication Key (AK) A 16-byte key derived from the PSK that the
             EAP peer and server use to mutually authenticate.
   AKEP2     An authenticated key exchange protocol, please refer to [3]
             for more details.
   Backend Authentication Server A Backend Authentication Server is an
             entity that provides an authentication service to an
             Authenticator.  When used, this server typically executes
             EAP Methods for the Authenticator (This terminology is also
             used in [29], and has the same meaning in this document).





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   Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) Please refer to [2] for more
             details.
   EAP Authenticator (or simply Authenticator) The end of the EAP link
             initiating the EAP authentication methods.  (This
             terminology is also used in [29], and has the same meaning
             in this document).
   EAP peer (or simply peer) The end of the EAP link that responds to
             the Authenticator.  (In [29], this end is known as the
             Supplicant).
   EAP server (or simply server) The entity that terminates the EAP
             authentication with the peer.  In the case where there is
             no Backend Authentication Server, this term refers to the
             EAP Authenticator.  Where the EAP Authenticator operates in
             pass-through, it refers to the Backend Authentication
             Server.
   EAX       An authenticated-encryption with associated data mode of
             operation for block ciphers, please refer to [4] for more
             details.
   Extended Master Session Key (EMSK) Additional keying material derived
             between the EAP peer and server that is exported by the EAP
             method.  The EMSK is at least 64 bytes in length.  The EMSK
             is reserved for future uses that are not defined yet and is
             not provided to a third party.  Please refer to [10] for
             more details.
             EAP-PSK generates a 64-byte EMSK.
   Initialization Vector (IV) A quantity of at least 64 bytes, suitable
             for use in an initialization vector field, that is derived
             between the peer and EAP server.  Since the IV is a known
             value in methods such as EAP-TLS [13], it cannot be used by
             itself for computation of any quantity that needs to remain
             secret.  As a result, its use has been deprecated and EAP
             methods are not required to generate it.  However, when it
             is generated it MUST be unpredictable.  Please refer to
             [10] for more details.
             EAP-PSK does not generate an IV.
   Key-Derivation Key (KDK) A 16-byte key derived from the PSK that the
             EAP peer and server use to derive session keys (namely, the
             TEK, MSK and EMSK).
   Message Authentication Code (MAC) Informally, the purpose of a  MAC
             is to provide assurances regarding both the source of a
             message and its integrity.  Please refer to [42] for more
             details.  IEEE 80211i uses the acronym MIC (Message
             Integrity Check) to avoid confusion with the other meaning
             of the acronym MAC (Medium Access Control).  In this
             document, MAC shall mean Message Authentication Code.






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   Master Session Key (MSK) Keying material that is derived between the
             EAP peer and server and exported by the EAP method.  The
             MSK is at least 64 bytes in length.  In existing
             implementations a AAA server acting as an EAP server
             transports the MSK to the Authenticator.  Please refer to
             [10] for more details.
             EAP-PSK generates a 64-byte MSK.
   Network Access Identifier (NAI) The NAI is used to identify the
             parties that are communicating.  Please refer to [1] for
             more details.
   One Key CBC-MAC 1 (OMAC1) A method to generate a Message
             Authentication Code.  OMAC1 is the variant of the OMAC
             message authentication code family that is used by EAP-PSK.
             Please refer to [7] for more details.
   Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS) The confidence that the compromise of a
             long-term private key does not compromise any earlier
             session keys.  In other words, once an EAP dialog is
             finished and its corresponding keys are forgotten, even
             someone who has recorded all of the data from the
             connection and gets access to all of the long-term keys of
             the peer and the server cannot reconstruct the keys used to
             protect the conversation without doing a brute force search
             of the session key space.
             EAP-PSK does not have this property.
   Pre-Shared Key (PSK) A Pre-Shared Key simply means a key in symmetric
             cryptography.  This key is derived by some prior mechanism
             and shared between the parties before the protocol using it
             takes place.  It is merely a bit sequence of given length
             of which each bit has been chosen at random uniformly and
             independently.  For EAP-PSK, the PSK is the long term
             16-byte credential shared by the EAP peer and server.
   Protected Result Indication Please refer to Section 7.16 of [2] for a
             definition of this term.  This feature has been introduced
             because EAP-Success/Failure packets are unidirectional and
             are not protected.
   Pseudo-random function (PRF) Informally, a family of functions is
             pseudo-random if there is no efficient procedure to
             distinguish between a member of this family chosen at
             random and a function with the same domain and range chosen
             at random.  By improper though common extension, a member
             of a family of pseudo-random functions is itself called a
             pseudo-random function.  Please refer, for instance, to
             [4], for a precise cryptographic definition of this term.
   PRP (Pseudo-random permutation) Informally a family of permutations
             is pseudo-random if there is no efficient procedure to
             distinguish between a member of this family chosen at
             random and a permutation with the same domain chosen at
             random.  By improper though common extension, a member of a



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             family of pseudo-random permutations is itself called a
             pseudo-random permutation.  Please refer, for instance, to
             [4], for a precise cryptographic definition of this term.
   Transient EAP Key (TEK) A session key which is used to establish a
             protected channel between the EAP peer and server during
             the EAP authentication exchange.  The TEK is appropriate
             for use with the ciphersuite negotiated between the EAP
             peer and server to protect the EAP conversation.  Note that
             the ciphersuite used to set up the protected channel
             between the EAP peer and server during EAP authentication
             is unrelated to the ciphersuite used to subsequently
             protect data sent between the EAP peer and Authenticator.
             Please refer to [10] for more details.
             EAP-PSK uses a 16-byte TEK for its protected channel, which
             is the only ciphersuite available between the EAP peer and
             server to protect the EAP conversation.  This ciphersuite
             uses AES-128 in the EAX mode of operation.

1.4  Conventions

   All numbers presented in this document are considered in network-byte
   order.

   || denotes concatenation of strings (and not the logical OR).

   MAC(K, String) denotes the MAC of String under the key K (the
   algorithm used in this document to compute the MACs is OMAC1 with
   AES-128, see Section 2.2.2).

   [String] denotes the concatenation of String with the MAC of String
   calculated as specified by the context.  Hence, we have, with K
   specified by the context:
   [String]=String||MAC(K,String) .

   ** denotes integer exponentiation.

   "i" denotes the unsigned binary representation on 16 bytes of the
   integer i in network byte order.  Therefore this notation only makes
   sense when i is between 0 and 2**128-1.

   <i> denotes the unsigned binary representation on 4 bytes of the
   integer i in network byte order.  Therefore this notation only makes
   sense when i is between 0 and 2**32-1.

1.5  Related Work

   At the time this document is written, only three EAP methods are
   standards track EAP methods per IETF terminology (see [18]), namely:



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   o  MD5-Challenge (EAP-Request/Response type 4), defined in [2], which
      uses a MD5 challenge similar to [49].
   o  OTP (EAP-Request/Response type 5), defined in [2], which aims at
      providing One-Time Password support similar to [24] and [43].
   o  GTC (EAP-Request/Response type 6), defined in [2], which aims at
      providing Generic Token Card Support.

   Unfortunately, all three methods are deprecated for security reasons
   that are explained in part in [2].

   Myriads of EAP methods have however been otherwise proposed:
   o  One as an experimental RFC (EAP-TLS [13]) - which therefore is not
      a standard (see [28])
   o  Some as individual Internet-Drafts submissions (e.g., [46] or this
      document).
   o  And some even undocumented (e.g., Rob EAP which has EAP-Request/
      Response type 31).

   However, no secure and mature Pre-Shared Key EAP method is yet easily
   and widely available, which is all the more regrettable that
   Pre-Shared Key methods are the most basic ones!

   The existing proposals for a future Pre-Shared Key EAP method are
   briefly reviewed hereafter (please refer to [17] for a more thorough
   synthesis on EAP methods).

   Among these proposals, there are some which:
   o  Are broken from a security point of view, e.g.:
      *  LEAP which is specified in [41] and which vulnerabilities are
         discussed in [54].
      *  EAP-MSCHAPv2 which is specified in [36] and which
         vulnerabilities are indirectly discussed in [47].
   o  Essentially require additional infrastructure, e.g., EAP-SIM [27],
      EAP-AKA [14] or OTP/token card methods like [33].
   o  Are not shared key methods but often confused with them, namely
      the password methods, e.g., EAP-SRP [19] or SPEKE [32] - which
      very unfortunately seem to have raise Intellectual Property Rights
      issues.
   o  Are generic tunneling methods that require a public-key
      certificate for the server and allow the peer to authenticate with
      another EAP method or even other authentication mechanisms, namely
      [34] and [23].
   o  Are abandoned but have provided the basis for EAP-PSK, namely,
      EAP-Archie [52].
   o  Are possible alternatives to EAP-PSK (i.e., claimed to be secure
      and subject of active work):
      *  EAP-FAST [46].




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      *  EAP-IKEv2 [51].
      *  EAP-TLS (when shared key/password support is added to TLS, see
         [55]).

   EAP-PSK differs from the aformentioned methods on the following
   points:
   o  No attacks on EAP-PSK within its threat modeal has yet been found.
   o  EAP-PSK was not designed to leverage a pre-existing
      infrastructure.  Thus, it does not inherit potential limitations
      of such an infrastructure and it does and should be easier to
      deploy "from scratch".
   o  EAP-PSK wished to avoid IPR blockages.
   o  EAP-PSK does not have any dependencies on protocols other than
      EAP.
   o  EAP-PSK restricted to simply proposing a Pre-Shared Key method
      with symmetric cryptography
      *  To remain simple to understand and implement
      *  To avoid potentially complex configurations and negotiations
   o  EAP-PSK was designed with efficiency in mind.
































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2.  Protocol overview

2.1  EAP-PSK key hierarchy

   This section prsents the key hierarchy used by EAP-PSK.  This
   hierarchy is inspired by the EAP Key hierarchy described in [10].

2.1.1  The PSK

   EAP-PSK uses a 16-byte Pre-Shared Key called the PSK as its long term
   credential.

   This PSK is shared between the EAP peer and the EAP server.

   EAP-PSK assumes that the PSK is known only to the EAP peer and EAP
   server.  The security properties of the protocol may be compromised
   if it has wider distribution.

   EAP-PSK also assumes the EAP server and EAP peer identify the correct
   PSK to use with each other by their respective NAIs.

   This PSK is used, as shown in Figure 1, to derive two 16-byte
   subkeys, respectively called the Authentication Key (AK) and the
   Key-Derivation Key (KDK).  This derivation need only be done once: it
   is called the key setup, see Section 2.2.1.

                   +---------------------------+
                   |            PSK            |
                   |        (16 bytes)         |
                   +---------------------------+
                      |                     |
                      v                     v
   +---------------------------+     +---------------------------+
   |            AK             |     |            KDK            |
   |        (16 bytes)         |     |        (16 bytes)         |
   +---------------------------+     +---------------------------+

            Figure 1: Derivation of AK and KDK from the PSK


2.1.1.1  AK

   EAP-PSK uses AK to mutually authenticate the EAP peer and the EAP
   server.

2.1.1.2  KDK

   EAP-PSK uses KDK to derive session keys shared by the EAP peer and



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   the EAP server (namely, the TEK, MSK and EMSK).

2.1.2  The TEK

   EAP-PSK derives a 16-byte TEK thanks to a random number exchanged
   during authentication (RAND_S, see Section 3.1) and KDK.

   This TEK is used to implement a protected channel for both mutually
   authenticated parties to communicate over securely.

2.1.3  The MSK

   EAP-PSK derives a MSK thanks to a random number exchanged during
   authentication (RAND_S, see Section 3.1) and the KDK.

   The MSK is 64 bytes long, which complies with [2].

2.1.4  The EMSK

   EAP-PSK allows for EMSK derivation thanks to a random number
   exchanged during authentication (RAND_S, see Section 3.1) and the
   KDK.

   The EMSK is 64 bytes long, which complies with [2].

2.1.5  The IV

   EAP-PSK does not derive any IV, which complies with [10].

2.2  Cryptographic design of EAP-PSK

   EAP-PSK relies on a single cryptographic primitive, a block cipher,
   which is instantiated with AES-128.  AES-128 takes as inputs a
   16-byte Pre-Shared Key and a 16-byte Plain Text block.  It outputs a
   16-byte Cipher Text block.  For a detailed description of AES-128,
   please refer to [9].

   AES-128 has been chosen because:
   o  It is standardized and implementations are widely available.
   o  It has been carefully reviewed by the community and is believed to
      be secure.

   Other block ciphers could easily be proposed for EAP-PSK, as it does
   not intricately depend on AES-128.  The only parameters of AES-128
   that EAP-PSK depends on, are its block size (16 bytes) and its key
   size (16 bytes).  For the sake of simplicity, it has however been
   chosen to restrict to a single mandatory block cipher and not allow
   the negotiation of other block ciphers.  In case AES-128 is



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   deprecated for security reasons, EAP-PSK should also be deprecated
   and a cut-and-paste EAP-PSK' should be defined with another block
   cipher.  This EAP-PSK' should not be backward compatible with EAP-PSK
   because of the security issues with AES-128.  EAP-PSK' should
   therefore use a different EAP-Request/Response Type number.  With the
   EAP-Request/Response Type number space structure defined in [2], this
   should not be a problem.

   EAP-PSK uses three cryptographic parts:
   o  A key setup to derive AK and KDK from the PSK.
   o  An authenticated key exchange protocol to mutually authenticate
      the communicating parties and derive session keys.
   o  A protected channel protocol for both mutually authenticated
      parties to communicate over.

2.2.1  The Key Setup

   EAP-PSK needs two cryptographically separated 16-byte subkeys for
   mutual authentication and session key derivation.  Indeed, it is a
   rule of the thumb in cryptography to use different keys for different
   applications.

   It could have implemented these two subkeys either by specifying a
   32-byte PSK that would then be split in two 16-byte subkeys, or by
   specifying a 16-byte PSK that would then be cryptographically
   expanded to two 16-byte subkeys.

   Because provisioning a 32-byte long term credential is more
   cumbersome than a 16-byte one, and the strength of the derived
   session keys is 16 bytes either ways, the latter option was chosen.

   Hence, the PSK is only used by EAP-PSK to derive AK and KDK.  It is
   RECOMMENDED that this derivation be done only once, immediately after
   the PSK has been provisioned.  As soon as AK and KDK have been
   derived, the PSK MAY be deleted.  If the PSK is deleted, it SHOULD be
   done so securely (see, for instance, [20] for guidance on secure
   deletion of the PSK).

   Derivation of AK and KDK from the PSK is called the key setup:
   o  The input to the key setup is the PSK.
   o  The outputs of the key setup are AK and KDK.

   AK and KDK are derived from the PSK using the modified counter mode
   of AES-128.  The modified counter mode is a length increasing
   function, i.e., it expands one AES-128 input block into a longer
   t-block output, where t>=2.  This mode was chosen for the key setup
   because it had already been chosen for the derivation of the session
   keys (see Section 2.2.2).



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   The details of the derivation of AK and KDK from the PSK are shown in
   Figure 2.

   +--------------------------+
   |            "0"           |
   |  Input Block (16 bytes)  |
   +--------------------------+
                 |
                 v
        +----------------+
        |                |
        | AES-128(PSK,.) |
        |                |
        +----------------+
                 |
                 |
                 +----------------------------+
                 |                            |
                 v                            v
   +--------+  +---+            +--------+  +---+
   | c1="1" |->|XOR|            | c2="2" |->|XOR|
   |16 bytes|  +---+            |16 bytes|  +---+
   +--------+    |              +--------+    |
                 |                            |
        +----------------+            +----------------+
        |                |            |                |
        | AES-128(PSK,.) |            | AES-128(PSK,.) |
        |                |            |                |
        +----------------+            +----------------+
                 |                            |
                 |                            |
                 v                            v
    +------------------------+    +------------------------+
    |           AK           |    |          KDK           |
    |       (16 bytes)       |    |      (16 bytes)        |
    +------------------------+    +------------------------+

       Figure 2: Derivation of AK and KDK from the PSK in Details

   The input block is "0".  For the sake of simplicity, this input block
   has been chosen constant: it could have been set to a value depending
   on the peer and the server (for instance, the XOR of their respective
   NAIs appropriately truncated or zero-padded), but this did not seem
   to add any security to the scheme.  Any 16-byte constant could have
   been chosen, as the security is not supposed to depend on the
   particular value taken by the constant.  "0" was arbitrarily chosen.





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2.2.2  The Authenticated Key Exchange

   The authentication protocol used by EAP-PSK is loosely inspired of
   AKEP2 which is described in [3].

   AKEP2 consists of a one and half round trip exchange, as shown in
   Figure 3.

   Bob                                                       Alice
    |                         A||RA                            |
    |<---------------------------------------------------------|
    |                                                          |
    |                     [B||A||RA||RB]                       |
    |--------------------------------------------------------->|
    |                                                          |
    |                        [A||RB]                           |
    |<---------------------------------------------------------|

                      Figure 3: Overview of AKEP2

   In AKEP2,
   o  RA and RB are random numbers chosen respectively by Alice and Bob.
   o  A and B are Alice's and Bob's respective identities.  They allow
      Alice and Bob to retrieve the key that they have to use to run an
      authenticated key exchange between each other.  They are also
      included in the protocol for cryptographic reasons.
   o  The MACs (see Section 1.4 for the notation "[]") are calculated
      using a dedicated key.

   EAP-PSK instantiates this protocol with:
   o  The server as Alice and the peer as Bob.
   o  RA and RB as 16-byte random numbers.
   o  A and B as Alice's and Bob's respective NAIs.
   o  The MAC algorithm as OMAC1 with AES-128 using AK and producing a
      tag length of 16 bytes.
   o  The modified counter mode of operation of AES-128 using KDK, to
      derive session keys as a result of this exchange.

   OMAC1 was chosen as the MAC algorithm because it is capable of
   handling of arbitrary length messages, and its design is simple.  It
   also enjoys a security proof, which has not been found to be flawed
   so far.  For a detailed description of OMAC1, please refer to [7].

   In AKEP2 the key exchange is "implicit": the session keys are derived
   from RB using KDK.  This cryptographic derivation is realized using
   the modified counter mode described in [6].  This mode was chosen
   because it is a simple key derivation schemes that relies on a block
   cipher and has a proof of its security.  It is a length increasing



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   function, i.e., it expands one AES-128 input block into a longer
   t-block output, where t>=2.  The derivation of the session keys is
   shown in Figure 4.

   +--------------------------+      +-------------------------------+
   |           RB             |      |              KDK              |
   |  Input Block (16 bytes)  |      | Key Derivation Key (16 bytes) |
   +--------------------------+      +-------------------------------+
               |                                     |
               v                                     v
   +-----------------------------------------------------------------+
   |                                                                 |
   |                         Modified Counter Mode                   |
   |                                                                 |
   +-----------------------------------------------------------------+
          |                     |                         |
          v                     v                         v
   +------------+   +----------------------+   +----------------------+
   |     TEK    |   |          MSK         |   |         EMSK         |
   | (16 bytes) |   |      (64 bytes)      |   |      (64 bytes)      |
   +------------+   +----------------------+   +----------------------+

                Figure 4: Derivation of the Session Keys

      The input to the session keys derivation is RB.
      The outputs of the session keys derivation are:
      *  The 16-byte TEK (the first output block).
      *  The 64-byte MSK (the concatenation of the second to fifth
         output blocks).
      *  The 64-byte EMSK (the concatenation of the sixth to ninth
         output blocks).

   The details of the derivation of the session keys are shown in Figure
   5.

   +--------------------------+
   |           RB             |
   |  Input Block (16 bytes)  |
   +--------------------------+
                 |
                 v
        +----------------+
        |                |
        | AES-128(KDK,.) |
        |                |
        +----------------+
                 |
                 |



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                 +---------------------+-- - - - - - - - - - --+
                 |                     |                       |
                 v                     v                       v
   +--------+  +---+     +--------+  +---+       +--------+  +---+
   | c1="1" |->|XOR|     | c2="2" |->|XOR|.......| c9="9" |->|XOR|
   |16 bytes|  +---+     |16 bytes|  +---+       |16 bytes|  +---+
   +--------+    |       +--------+    |         +--------+    |
                 |                     |                       |
        +----------------+   +----------------+      +----------------+
        |                |   |                |      |                |
        | AES-128(KDK,.) |   | AES-128(KDK,.) |......| AES-128(KDK,.) |
        |                |   |                |      |                |
        +----------------+   +----------------+      +----------------+
                 |                     |                       |
                 |                     |                       |
                 v                     v                       v
        +-----------------+  +-----------------+     +------------------+
        | Output Block #1 |  | Output Block #2 |     | Output Block #9  |
        |    (16 bytes)   |  |    (16 bytes)   |.....|    (16 bytes)    |
        |      TEK        |  | MSK (block 1/4) |     | EMSK (block 4/4) |
        +-----------------+  +-----------------+     +------------------+

          Figure 5: Derivation of the Session Keys in Details

   The counter values are set respectively to the first t integers (that
   is ci="i", with i=1 to 9).

   Keying material is sensitive information and SHOULD be handled
   accordingly (see Section 6.9 for further discussion.

2.2.3  The Protected Channel

   EAP-PSK provides a protected channel for both parties to communicate
   over, in case of a successful authentication.  This protected channel
   is currently used to exchange protected result indications and may be
   used in the future to implement extensions (such as account reporting
   and provisioning).

   EAP-PSK uses the EAX mode of operation to provide this protected
   channel.  For a detailed description of EAX, please refer to [4].
   Figure 6 shows how EAX is used to implement EAP-PSK protected
   channel.









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   +-----------+ +----------------+ +---------------------+ +----------+
   |  Nonce N  | |    Header H    | | Plain Text Payload  | |   TEK    |
   |  4 bytes  | |    22 bytes    | |  Variable length L  | | 16 bytes |
   +-----------+ +----------------+ +---------------------+ +----------+
         |                 |                   |                 |
         v                 v                   v                 v
   +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
   |                                                                   |
   |                                EAX                                |
   |                                                                   |
   +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
                           |                   |
                           v                   v
                +---------------------+   +----------+
                | Plain Text Payload  |   |   Tag    |
                |  Variable length L  |   | 16 bytes |
                +---------------------+   +----------+

                    Figure 6: The Protected Channel

   This protected channel:
   o  Provides replay protection.
   o  Encrypts and authenticates a Plain Text Payload that is becomes an
      Encrypted Payload.  The Plain Text Payload MUST not exceed 960
      bytes, see Section 3.3, Section 3.4 and Section 6.10.
   o  Only authenticates a Header that is thus sent in clear.

   EAX is instantiated with AES-128 as the underlying block cipher keyed
   with the TEK.

   The nonce N is used to provide cryptographic security to the
   encryption and to the MAC as well as to provide protection replay.
   Indeed, N is a 4-byte sequence number starting from <0> that is
   monotonically incremented at each EAP-PSK message within one EAP-PSK
   dialog, except retransmissions of course.
   N was taken to be 4 bytes to avoid 16-byte arithmetic.  Since EAX
   uses a 16-byte nonce, N is padded with 96 zero bits for its high
   order bits.
   For cryptographic reasons, N is not allowed to wrap up.  In the
   unlikely yet possible event of the server having sent an EAP-PSK
   message with N set to <2**32-2>, it MUST NOT send any further message
   on this protected channel, which would cause to reuse the value 0.
   Either the conversation is finished after the server receives the
   EAP-PSK answer from the peer with N set to <2**32-1> and the server
   proceeds (typically by sending an EAP-Success or Failure), or the
   conversation is not finished and MUST then be aborted (a new EAP-PSK
   dialog MAY subsequently be started to try again to authenticate).
   Thus, the maximum number of messages that can be exchanged over the



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   same protected channel is 2**32 (which should not be a limitation in
   practice as this is approximately equal to 4 billions).

   The Header H consists in the first 22 bytes of the EAP Request or
   Response packet (i.e.  the EAP Code, Identifier, Length and Type
   fields followed by the EAP-PSK Flags and RAND_S fields).  Although it
   may appear unorthodox that an upper layer (EAP- PSK) protects some
   information of the lower layer (EAP), this was chosen to comply with
   EAP recommendation (see Section 7.5.  of [2]) and seems to be
   existing practice at IETF (see, for instance, [38]).

   The Plain Text Payload is the payload that is to be encrypted and
   integrity protected.

   The Tag is a MAC that protects both the Header and the Plain Text
   Payload.
   The verification of the Tag MUST only be done after a succesful
   verification of the Nonce for replay protection.
   If the verification of the Tag succeeds, then the Encrypted Payload
   is decrypted to recover the Plain Text Payload.  If the verification
   of the Tag fails, then no decryption is performed and this MAC
   failure is reported.
   The tag length is chosen to be 16 bytes for EAX within EAP-PSK.  This
   length is considered appropriate by the cryptographic community.

   EAX was mainly chosen because:
   o  It strongly relies on OMAC in its design and OMAC1, a variant of
      OMAC, had already been chosen in EAP-PSK for the authentication
      part.
   o  Its design is simple.
   o  It enjoys a security proof.
   o  It is free of any Intellectual Property Rights claims.

2.3  EAP-PSK Message Flows

   EAP-PSK may consist of two different types of message flows:
   o  The "standard authentication", which is:
      *  Mandatory to implement.
      *  Fully specified in this document.
      *  The simpler type of message flow that is expected to be used
         frequently.
   o  The "extended authentication", which is:
      *  Optional to implement (i.e., there are no mandatory
         extensions).
      *  Partly specified in this document since it depends on
         extensions and none are currently specified, let alone in this
         document.




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      *  The type of message flow that should be used when extensions of
         EAP-PSK are needed by more sophisticated usage scenarios and
         when they are available.

   EAP-PSK introduces the concept of session to facilitate its analysis
   and provide a cleaner interface to other layers.  A session is a
   particular instance of an EAP-PSK dialog between two parties.  This
   session is identified by a session identifier.

2.3.1  EAP-PSK Standard Authentication

   EAP-PSK standard authentication is comprised of four messages, i.e.,
   two round trips.

   EAP-PSK standard authentication is presented in Figure 7.

   peer                                                      server
    |                                    Flags||RAND_S||ID_S   |
    |<---------------------------------------------------------|
    |                                                          |
    |   Flags||RAND_P||MAC_P||ID_P                             |
    |--------------------------------------------------------->|
    |                                                          |
    |                     Flags||RAND_P||MAC_S||PCHANNEL_S_0   |
    |<---------------------------------------------------------|
    |                                                          |
    |   Flags||RAND_P||PCHANNEL_P_1                            |
    |--------------------------------------------------------->|
    |                                                          |

               Figure 7: EAP-PSK Standard Authentication

   o  The first message is sent by the server to the peer to:
      *  Send a 16-byte random challenge (RAND_S)
      *  State its identity (ID_S)
   o  The second message is sent by the peer to the server to:
      *  Send another 16-byte random challenge (RAND_P)
      *  State its identity (ID_P)
      *  Authenticate to the server by proving that it is able to
         compute a particular MAC (MAC_P), which is a function of the
         two challenges and AK:
         MAC_P = OMAC1-AES-128(AK, ID_P||ID_S||RAND_S||RAND_P)
   o  The third message is sent by the server to the peer to:
      *  Authenticate to the peer by proving that it is able to compute
         another MAC (MAC_S), which is a function of the peer's
         challenge and AK:
         MAC_S = OMAC1-AES-128(AK, ID_S||RAND_P)




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      *  Set up the protected channel (P_CHANNEL_S_0) to:
         +  Confirm that it has derived session keys (at least the TEK).
         +  Give a protected result indication of the authentication.
   o  The fourth message is sent by the peer to the server to finish the
      setup of the protected channel (P_CHANNEL_P_1) to:
      *  Confirm that it has derived session keys (at least the TEK).
      *  Give a protected result indication of the authentication.

   All EAP-PSK messages include a sort of header which is comprised of
   two fields:
   o  Flags which is a 1-byte field that is currently only used to
      number EAP-PSK messages.
   o  RAND_P which is the 16-byte challenge sent by the server that is
      used as a session identifier.

   This standard message flow could be comprised of only three messages,
   like AKEP2, were it not the request/response nature of EAP that
   prevents the third message to be the last one.  Since the fourth
   message is mandatory, EAP-PSK chose to take advantage of this and set
   up the protected channel.

   The standard message flow also includes a statement by the peer of
   its identity, in addition to the EAP-Response/Identity it may have
   sent.  This behavior follows Section 5.1 of [2] which recommends that
   the EAP-Response/Identity be used primarily for routing purposes and
   selecting which EAP method to use.

2.3.2  EAP-PSK Extended Authentication

   To remain simple and yet be extensible to meet future requirements,
   EAP-PSK provides an extension mechanism within its protected channel:
   the payload of the protected channel may contain an optional
   extension field (EXT).

   EAP-PSK standard authentication is presented in Figure 8.

   Although support of the EXT field is mandatory, there is no mandatory
   extension type to support.  The mandatory support of the EXT field is
   dictated:
   o  To guarantee a robust behavior in the future where some peers
      might support some extensions and others not.  All peers will thus
      be able to understand that an extended authentication is being
      attempted and indicate whether or not they support the extension
      that is tried.
   o  To ensure that all implementations will indeed be extensible.

   No extension is currently defined.




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   One extension at most may be run within an EAP-PSK dialog: there can
   neither be sequences of extensions nor interleaved extensions.
   However, extensions may take a variable number of round trips to
   complete.

   Only the server can start an extension and, if it does so, it MUST
   start it in the first payload it sends over the protected channel.

   peer                                                      server
    |                                    Flags||RAND_S||ID_S   |
    |<---------------------------------------------------------|
    |                                                          |
    |   Flags||RAND_S||RAND_P||MAC_P||ID_P                     |
    |--------------------------------------------------------->|
    |                                                          |
    |                Flags||RAND_S||MAC_S||PCHANNEL_S_0(EXT)   |
    |<---------------------------------------------------------|
    |                                                          |
    |   Flags||RAND_S||PCHANNEL_P_1(EXT)                                      |
    |--------------------------------------------------------->|
    |                                                          |
    .                                                          .
    .                                                          .
    .                                                          .
    |                       Flags||RAND_S||PCHANNEL_S_2i(EXT)  |
    |<---------------------------------------------------------|
    |                                                          |
    |   Flags||RAND_S||PCHANNEL_P_2i+1(EXT)                                   |
    |--------------------------------------------------------->|
    |                                                          |

               Figure 8: EAP-PSK Extended Authentication



















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3.  EAP-PSK Message format

   For the sake of simplicity, EAP-PSK uses a fixed message format.
   There are four different types of EAP-PSK messages:
   o  The first EAP-PSK message, which is sent by the server to the
      peer.
   o  The second EAP-PSK message, which is sent by the peer to the
      server.
   o  The third EAP-PSK message, which is sent by the server to the
      peer.
   o  The fourth EAP-PSK message, which is sent by the peer to the
      server.  This is also the type of the message that the peer
      further sends to the server in case       of an extended authentication.
      This is also essentially the type of message that the server
      further sends to the peer in case of an extended authentication
      (the only slight modification that occurs is the EAP Code that is
      set to 1 instead of 2).

   For the sake of clarity, the whole EAP packet that encapsulates the
   EAP-PSK message, i.e., the EAP-PSK message plus its EAP headers, are
   depicted here after.

3.1  EAP-PSK First Message

   The first EAP-PSK message is sent by the server to the peer.  It has
   the format presented in Figure 9.

























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   0                   1                   2                   3
   0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |    Code=1     |  Identifier   |            Length             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Type EAP-PSK |     Flags     |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                               +
   |                                                               |
   +                                                               +
   |                             RAND_S                            |
   +                                                               +
   |                                                               |
   +                               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                               |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                               +
   :                                                               :
   :                              ID_S                             :
   :                                                               :
   +                               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                    Figure 9: EAP-PSK First Message

   The first EAP-PSK message consists of:
   o  A 1-byte Flags field
   o  A 16-byte random number: RAND_S
   o  A variable length field that conveys the server's NAI: ID_S.  The
      length of this field is deduced from the EAP length field.  This
      peer's NAI MUST NOT exceed 966 bytes.  This restriction aims at
      avoiding fragmentation issues (see Section 6.10).

   The Flags field has the format presented in Figure 10.

   0
   0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   | T | Reserved  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


                     Figure 10: EAP-PSK Flags Field

   The Flags field is comprised of two subfields:
   o  A 2-bit T subflied which indicates the type of the EAP-PSK
      message:
      *  T=0 for the first EAP-PSK message presented in Section 3.1.




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      *  T=1 for the second EAP-PSK message presented in Section 3.2.
      *  T=2 for the third EAP-PSK message presented in Section 3.3.
      *  T=3 for the fourth EAP-PSK message presented in Section 3.4 and
         the subsequent EAP-PSK messages that may be exchanged during
         extended authentication.
   o  A 6-bit Reserved subfield that is set to zero on transmission and
      ignored on reception.

   The PCHANNEL Nonce field N (see Section 3.3) is used to distinguish
   between the different EAP-PSK messages that may be exchanged during
   extended authentication which all have T set to 3, i.e., the fourth
   EAP-PSK message and possibly the next ones.

3.2  EAP-PSK Second Message

   The second EAP-PSK message is sent by the peer to the server.  It has
   the format presented in Figure 11.

   0                   1                   2                   3
   0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |    Code=2     |  Identifier   |            Length             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Type EAP-PSK |     Flags     |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                               +
   |                                                               |
   +                                                               +
   |                             RAND_S                            |
   +                                                               +
   |                                                               |
   +                               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                               |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                               +
   |                                                               |
   +                                                               +
   |                             RAND_P                            |
   +                                                               +
   |                                                               |
   +               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |               |                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                                               +
   |                                                               |
   +                                                               +
   |                             MAC_P                             |
   +                                                               +
   |                                                               |
   +               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |               |                                               |



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   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                                               +
   :                              ID_P                             :
   :                                                               :
   +                               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                   Figure 11: EAP-PSK Second Message

   It consists of:
   o  A 1-byte Flags field
   o  The 16-byte random number sent by the server in the first EAP-PSK
      message (RAND_S) that serves as a session identifier
   o  A 16-byte random number: RAND_P
   o  A 16-byte MAC: MAC_P
   o  A variable length field that conveys the peer's NAI: ID_P.  The
      length of this field is deduced from the EAP length field.  This
      peer's NAI MUST NOT exceed 966 bytes.  This restriction aims at
      avoiding fragmentation issues (see Section 6.10).

   The Flags field format is presented in Figure 10.

3.3  EAP-PSK Third Message

   The third EAP-PSK messageis sent by the server to the peer.  It has
   the format presented in Figure 12.

























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   0                   1                   2                   3
   0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |    Code=1     |  Identifier   |            Length             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Type EAP-PSK |     Flags     |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                               +
   |                                                               |
   +                                                               +
   |                             RAND_S                            |
   +                                                               +
   |                                                               |
   +                               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                               |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                               +
   |                                                               |
   +                                                               +
   |                             MAC_S                             |
   +                                                               +
   |                                                               |
   +               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |               |                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                                               +
   :                            PCHANNEL                           :
   :                                                               :
   :                                                               :
   +                               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                    Figure 12: EAP-PSK Third Message

   It consists of:
   o  A 1-byte Flags field
   o  The 16-byte random number sent by the server in the first EAP-PSK
      message (RAND_S) that serves as a session identifier
   o  A 16-byte MAC: MAC_S
   o  A variable length field that constitutes the protected channel:
      PCHANNEL

   The Flags field format is presented in Figure 10.

   If there is no extension, i.e., if the authentication is standard,
   the PCHANNEL field consists of:
   o  A 4-byte Nonce N (see Section 2.2.3).
   o  A 16-byte Tag (see Section 2.2.3).
   o  A 2-bit result indication flag R.




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   o  A 1-bit extension flag E, which is set to 0.
   o  A 5-bit Reserved field, which is set to zero on emission and
      ignored on reception.

   R, E and Reserved are sent encrypted by the protected channel (see
   Section 2.2.3).

   If there is no extension, PCHANNEL has the format presented in Figure
   13.

   0                   1                   2                   3
   0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                             Nonce                             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   +                                                               +
   |                              Tag                              |
   +                                                               +
   |                                                               |
   +                                                               +
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   | R |0| Reserved|
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                 Figure 13: The PCHANNEL Field with E=0

   If there is an extension, i.e., if the authentication is extended,
   the PCHANNEL field consists of:
   o  A 4-byte Nonce N (see Section 2.2.3).
   o  A 16-byte Tag (see Section 2.2.3).
   o  A 2-bit result indication flag R.
   o  A 1-bit extension flag E, which is set to 1.
   o  A 5-bit Reserved field, which is set to zero on emission and
      ignored on reception.
   o  A variable length EXT field.

   R, E, Reserved and EXT are sent encrypted by the protected channel
   (see Section 2.2.3).

   If there is an extension, PCHANNEL has the format presented in Figure
   14.








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   0                   1                   2                   3
   0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                             Nonce                             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   +                                                               +
   |                              Tag                              |
   +                                                               +
   |                                                               |
   +                                                               +
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   | R |1| Reserved|                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                                               +
   :                            EXT                                :
   :                                                               :
   +                               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                 Figure 14: The PCHANNEL Field with E=1

   This EXT field is split in two subfields:
   o  The EXT_Type subfield which indicates the type of the extension
   o  The EXT_Payload subfield which consists in the payload of the
      extension.  The EXT_Payload length is derived from the EAP Length
      field.  EXT_Payload MUST have a bit-length that is a multiple of 8
      bits and MUST NOT exceed 960 bytes.  The latter restriction aims
      at avoiding fragmentation issues (see Section 6.10).

   The format of the EXT field is presented in Figure 15.



















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   0                   1                   2                   3
   0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |   EXT_Type    |                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                                               +
   :                           EXT_Payload                         :
   :                                                               :
   +                               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                        Figure 15: The EXT Field


3.4  EAP-PSK Fourth Message

   The fourth EAP-PSK message is sent by the peer to the server.  It has
   the format presented in Figure 16.

   0                   1                   2                   3
   0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |    Code=2     |  Identifier   |            Length             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Type EAP-PSK |     Flags     |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                               +
   |                                                               |
   +                                                               +
   |                             RAND_S                            |
   +                                                               +
   |                                                               |
   +                               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                               |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                               +
   :                                                               :
   :                            PCHANNEL                           :
   :                                                               :
   :                                                               :
   +                               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                   Figure 16: EAP-PSK Fourth Message

   It consists of:
   o  A 1-byte Flags field
   o  The 16-byte random number sent by the server in the first EAP-PSK
      message (RAND_S) that serves as a session identifier



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   o  A variable length field that constitutes the protected channel:
      PCHANNEL

   The Flags field format is presented in Figure 10.

   The PCHANNEL field has the following structure, which was already
   described in Section 3.3.

   If there is no extension, i.e., if the authentication is standard,
   the PCHANNEL field consists of:
   o  A 4-byte Nonce N (see Section 2.2.3).
   o  A 16-byte Tag (see Section 2.2.3).
   o  A 2-bit result indication flag R.
   o  A 1-bit extension flag E, which is set to 0.
   o  A 5-bit Reserved field, which is set to zero on emission and
      ignored on reception.

   R, E and Reserved are sent encrypted by the protected channel (see
   Section 2.2.3).

   If there is no extension, PCHANNEL has the format presented in Figure
   13.

   If there is an extension, i.e., if the authentication is extended,
   the PCHANNEL field consists of:
   o  A 4-byte Nonce N (see Section 2.2.3).
   o  A 16-byte Tag (see Section 2.2.3).
   o  A 2-bit result indication flag R.
   o  A 1-bit extension flag E, which is set to 1.
   o  A 5-bit Reserved field, which is set to zero on emission and
      ignored on reception.
   o  A variable length EXT field.

   R, E, Reserved and EXT are sent encrypted by the protected channel
   (see Section 2.2.3).

   If there is an extension, PCHANNEL has the format presented in Figure
   14.

   This EXT field is split in two subfields:
   o  The EXT_Type subfield which indicates the type of the extension
   o  The EXT_Payload subfield which consists in the payload of the
      extension.  The EXT_Payload length is derived from the EAP Length
      field.  EXT_Payload MUST have a bit-length that is a multiple of 8
      bits and MUST NOT exceed 960 bytes.  The latter restriction aims
      at avoiding fragmentation issues (see Section 6.10).

   The format of the EXT field is presented in Figure 15.



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4.  Rules of Operation for the EAP-PSK Protected Channel

   In this section, the rules of operation of the EAP-PSK protected
   channel are presented:
   o  How protected result indications are implemented.
   o  How an extended authentication works in details.

4.1  Protected Result Indications

   The R flag of the PCHANNEL field in the third and fourth EAP-PSK
   messages is used to provide result indications.

   Since this 2-bit flag is communicated over the protected channel, it
   is:
   o  Encrypted so that only the peer and the server can know its value.
   o  Integrity-protected so that it cannot be modified by an attacker
      without the peer or the server detecting this modification.
   o  Protected against replays.

   This 2-bit R flag can take the following values:
   o  01 to mean CONT
   o  10 to mean DONE_SUCCESS
   o  11 to mean DONE_FAILURE

   The peer and the server each remember some information about both the
   R's that they have sent and the R's they have received.  It is the
   conjunction of both sent and received R values that indicate the
   success or the failure of the EAP-PSK dialog.

   In case of a standard authentication, the following R's should be
   exchanged:
   o  Either the server sends a DONE_SUCCESS in the PCHANNEL of the
      third EAP-PSK message, to which the peer replies with a
      DONE_SUCCESS in the PCHANNEL of the fourth EAP-PSK message, which
      successfully ends the EAP-PSK dialog.
   o  Or the server sends a DONE_FAILURE in the PCHANNEL of the third
      EAP-PSK message, to which the peer replies with a DONE_FAILURE in
      the PCHANNEL of the fourth EAP-PSK message, which unsuccessfully
      ends the EAP-PSK dialog.

   In case of an extended authentication, more complex exchanges may
   occur, which is why the CONT value was introduced.

   The rules of operation for each value R may take are presented in
   details hereafter.






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4.1.1  CONT

   The server and the peer each initialize the values of R they intend
   to send and receive as CONT.

   CONT stands for "Continue".  It indicates that the EAP-PSK dialog is
   not yet successful and that the party sending it wants to continue
   the dialog to try and reach success.

   Indeed, although the peer and the server MUST have successfully
   authenticated each other, thanks to MAC_P and MAC_S, before they
   start communicating over the protected channel, the EAP-PSK dialog
   may not yet be deemed successful after this mutual authentication
   because of authorization issues.  For instance, a prepaid customer of
   a wireless Hot-Spot might have successfully authenticated but has to
   refill its account, e.g., with a credit card transaction over the
   protected channel, before it is authorized.

4.1.2  DONE_SUCCESS

   DONE_SUCCESS indicates that the party that sent it deems the EAP-PSK
   dialog successful and therefore proposes to end this dialog.

   Once the server has sent a DONE_SUCCESS, it MUST keep sending this
   value for R.

   The peer MUST first receive a DONE_SUCCESS from the server before it
   is allowed to send a DONE_SUCCESS.

   After the peer has received a DONE_SUCCESS from the server, it MAY:
   o  Send a CONT to the server if it has not reached success on its
      side.  The server that receives a CONT SHOULD continue the EAP-PSK
      dialog (see Section 6.2 for some discussion on the security
      implications of this SHOULD).
   o  Send a DONE_SUCCESS to the server, which will end the EAP-PSK
      dialog with success.
   o  Send a DONE_FAILURE to the server, which will end the EAP-PSK
      dialog with failure.

4.1.3  DONE_FAILURE

   DONE_FAILURE indicates that the party that sent it deems the EAP-PSK
   dialog unsuccessful and proposes to end this dialog because nothing
   will make it change its mind.

   If the server is the first to send a DONE_FAILURE, then, the peer
   that receives this DONE_FAILURE MUST reply with a DONE_FAILURE and
   fail, which ends the EAP-PSK dialog.



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   If the peer is the first to send a DONE_FAILURE, then, the server
   that receives this DONE_FAILURE MUST immediately end this EAP-PSK
   dialog without sending any further EAP-PSK message, and fail.

4.2  Extended Authentication

   An extended authentication can only be started by the server.

   Exactly one extension (identified by the EXT_Type subfield of the EXT
   field) MUST be run during an EAP-PSK extended authentication dialog.

   The extension is run over the protected channel: it can assume
   confidentiality, integrity and replay protection.

   To start an extended authentication, the server sets the PCHANNEL E
   flag to 1 and includes the EXT_Payload of the extension it has
   chosen.

   Since EAP-PSK does not provide fragmentation, the extension MUST NOT
   send an EXT_Payload larger than 960 bytes, which corresponds to the
   1020-byte EAP MTU that may minimally be assumed (see [2]).

   Moreover, an extension MUST NOT send an empty EXT_Payload (because
   this has a particular meaning for EAP-PSK, see below).

   When the peer receives the third EAP-PSK message with the E flag set
   to 1, it checks whether it is able to process the proposed extension.

   If the peer is not able to process the proposed extension, i.e., it
   does not recognize the EXT_Type of the proposed extension, it sets
   E=1 in its reply (the fourth EAP-PSK message) and include an EXT
   field of the same EXT_Type but with an empty EXT_Payload.
   Depending on the values taken by the R flags, the EAP-PSK dialog MAY:
   o  End
      *  In case the peer's policy mandates that it fails in case of an
         unrecognized extension, it sends a DONE_FAILURE in the fourth
         EAP-PSK message.
      *  In case the server has sent a DONE_SUCCESS in the third EAP-PSK
         message and the peer's policy authorizes it to succeed even if
         the extension is not recognized, the peer sends a DONE_SUCCESS
   o  Continue for exactly one round-trip, namely, in case the server
      has sent a CONT in the third EAP-PSK message and the peer's policy
      authorizes it to succeed even if the extension is not recognized,
      the peer replies with a CONT in the fourth EAP-PSK message.  The
      server MUST then, depending on its policy, either send a
      DONE_SUCCESS or a DONE_FAILURE to the peer in the fifth EAP-PSK
      message.  If the server sent a DONE_SUCCESS in the fifth EAP-PSK
      message, the peer MUST send a DONE_SUCCESS in the sixth EAP-PSK



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      message.  All these messages MUST have the E flag sent to 1 with
      an EXT field of with the EXT_Type of the extension that was
      proposed and an empty EXT_Payload (this behavior was chosen to
      simplify implementations).

   If the peer is able to process the proposed extension, then it does
   so.  In this case, the extension MUST be aware of the R values sent
   and received and able to propose to update them.  All the subsequent
   messages exchanged between the peer and the server MUST have the E
   flag sent to 1 with an EXT field of the EXT_Type of the extension
   that was proposed and a non-empty EXT_Payload.








































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5.  IANA considerations

   This section provides guidance to the IANA regarding registration of
   values related to the EAP-PSK protocol, in accordance with [8].

   The following terms are used here with the meanings defined in [8]:
   "name space" and "registration".

   The following policies are used here with the meanings defined in
   [8]: "Expert Review" and "Specification Required".

   This document introduces two new Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
   (IANA) considerations:
   o  It requires IANA to allocate an EAP-Request/Response Type for
      EAP-PSK.
   o  There is one name space in EAP-PSK that requires registration: the
      EXT_Type values (see Section 3.3 and Section 3.4).

   For registration requests where a Designated Expert should be
   consulted, the responsible IESG area director should appoint the
   Designated Expert.  The intention is that any allocation will be
   accompanied by a published RFC.  But in order to allow for the
   allocation of values prior to the RFC being approved for publication,
   the Designated Expert can approve allocations once it seems clear
   that an RFC will be published.  The Designated expert will post a
   request to the EAP WG mailing list (or a successor designated by the
   Area Director) for comment and review, including an Internet-Draft.
   Before a period of 30 days has passed, the Designated Expert will
   either approve or deny the registration request and publish a notice
   of the decision to the EAP WG mailing list or its successor, as well
   as informing IANA.  A denial notice must be justified by an
   explanation and, in the cases where it is possible, concrete
   suggestions on how the request can be modified so as to become
   acceptable.

5.1  Allocation of an EAP-Request/Response Type for EAP-PSK

   This document requires IANA to allocate a new EAP Type for EAP-PSK, .

5.2  Allocation of EXT Type numbers

   EAP-PSK is not intended as a general-purpose protocol, and
   allocations of EXT_Type SHOULD NOT be made for purposes unrelated to
   authentication, authorization and accounting.

   EXT_Type numbers have a range from 1 to 255.

   EXT_Type 255 has been allocated for Experimental use.



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   EXT_Type 1-254 may be allocated on the advice of a Designated Expert,
   with Specification Required.

















































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6.  Security Considerations

   [2] highlights several attacks that are possible against EAP as EAP
   does not provide any robust security mechanism.

   This section discusses the claimed security properties of EAP-PSK as
   well as vulnerabilities and security recommendations in the threat
   model of [2].

6.1  Mutual Authentications

   EAP-PSK provides mutual authentication.

   The server believes that the peer is authentic because it can
   calculate a valid MAC and the peer believes that the server is
   authentic because it can calculate another valid MAC.

   The authentication protocol which inspired EAP-PSK, AKEP2, enjoys a
   security proof in the provable security paradigm, see [3].

   The MAC algorithm used in the instantiation of AKEP2 within EAP-PSK,
   OMAC1, also enjoys a security proof in the provable security
   paradigm, see [7].  A tag length of 16 bytes for OMAC1 is deemed
   appropriate by the cryptographic community for authentication.

   The underlying block cipher used, AES-128, is widely believed to be a
   secure block cipher.

   Finally, the key used for mutual authentication, AK, is only used for
   that purpose, which makes  this part cryptographically independent of
   the other parts of the protocol.

6.2  Protected Result Indications

   EAP-PSK provides protected result indications thanks to its 2-bit R
   flag (see Section 4.1).

   Care MAY be taken against Byzantine failures, that is to say, for
   instance, when a peer tries to force a server to engage in a never
   ending conversation.  This could for example, be done by a peer that
   keeps sending a CONT after it has received a DONE_SUCCESS from the
   server.  A policy MAY limit the number of rounds in an EAP-PSK
   extended authentication to mitigate this threat, which is outside our
   threat model.

   It should also be noted that the cryptographic protection of the
   result indications does not prevent message deletion.




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   For instance, let us consider a scenario in which:
   o  A server sends a DONE_SUCCESS to a peer.
   o  The peer replies with a DONE_SUCCESS.

   In case the last message from the peer is intercepted, and an EAP
   Success is sent to the peer before any retransmission from the server
   reaches it or the retransmissions from the server are also deleted,
   the peer will believe that it has successfully authenticated to the
   server while the server will fail.

   This behavior is well known (see e.g., [26]) and in a sense
   unavoidable.  There is a trade-off between efficiency and the "level"
   of information sharing that is attainable.  EAP-PSK specified a
   single round trip of DONE_SUCCESS because, it is believed that:
   o  In case there is an adversary capable of disrupting the
      communication channel, it can do so whenever it wants (be it after
      one or 10 round trip or even during data communication).
   o  Other layers/applications will generally start by doing a specific
      key exchange and confirmation procedure using the keys derived by
      EAP-PSK.  This is typically done by IEEE 802.11i "four-way
      handshake".  In case the error is not detected by EAP- PSK, it
      should be detected then (please note however, that it is bad
      practice to rely on external mechanism to ensure synchronization,
      unless this is an explicit property of the external mechanism).

6.3  Integrity Protection

   EAP-PSK provides integrity protection thanks to the Tag of its
   protected channel (see Section 2.2.3).

6.4  Replay Protection

   EAP-PSK provides replay protection thanks to the Nonce of its
   protected channel (see Section 2.2.3).

6.5  Dictionary Attacks

   Because EAP-PSK is not a password protocol, it is not vulnerable to
   dictionary attacks.

   Indeed, the PSK used by EAP-PSK MUST NOT be derived from a password.
   Derivation of the PSK from a password may lead to dictionary attacks.

   However using a 16-byte PSK key has:
   o  Ergonomic impacts: some people may find it cumbersome to manually
      provision a 16-byte PSK.
   o  Deployment impacts: some people may want to reuse existing
      credential databases that contain passwords and not PSKs.



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   Since, despite the warning not to use passwords, people will probably
   do that anyway, guidance to derive a PSK from a password is provided
   in Appendix A.  The method proposed in Appendix A only tries to make
   dictionary attacks harder.  It does not eliminate them.

   It is however not a fatality that passwords be used instead of PSKs:
   people rarely use password derived certificates, so why should they
   do so for shared keys?

6.6  Key Derivation

   EAP-PSK supports key derivation.

   The key hierarchy is specified in Section 2.1.

   The mechanism used for key derivation is the modified counter mode.

   The instantiation of the modified counter in EAP-PSK complies with
   the conditions stated in [6] so that the security proof in the
   provable security paradigm of [6] holds.

   The underlying block cipher used, AES-128, is widely believed to be a
   secure block cipher.

   A first key derivation occurs to calculate AK and KDK from the PSK:
   it is called the key setup (see Section 2.2.1).
   It uses the PSK as the key to the modified counter mode.  The input
   block to the modified counter mode is a public constant.
   Thus, AK and KDK are believed to be cryptographically separated and
   computable only to those who have knowledge of the PSK.

   A second key derivation occurs to derive session keys, namely, the
   TEK, MSK and EMSK (see Section 2.2.2).
   It uses KDK as the key to the modified counter mode.  The input block
   to the key derivation is taken to be RB as specified in AKEP2.

   It should be emphasized that the peer has control of the session keys
   derived by EAP-PSK.  In particular, it can easily choose RB so that
   one of the 9 derived 16-byte key blocks (see Section 2.1) takes a
   pre-specified value.

   It was chosen not to prevent this peer control of the session keys
   because:
   o  Preventing it would have added some complexity to the protocol
      (typically, the inclusion of a one-way mode of operation of AES in
      the key derivation part).
   o  It is believed that the peer won't try to force the server to use
      some pre- specified value for the session keys.  Such an attack is



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      outside the threat model and seems to have little value compared
      to a peer sharing its PSK.

   This session keys control by the peer is however not the behavior
   recommended by EAP in section 7.10 of [2].

   Since deriving the session keys requires some cryptographic
   computations, it is RECOMMENDED that the session keys be derived only
   once authentication has succeeded (i.e., once the server has
   successfully verified MAC_P for the server side, and once the peer
   has successfully verified MAC_S for the peer side).

   It is RECOMMENDED to take great care in implementations, so that
   derived keys are not made available if the EAP-PSK dialog fails,
   e.g., ends with DONE_FAILURE.

   The TEK MUST NOT be made available to anyone except to the current
   EAP-PSK dialog.

6.7  Denial of Service Resistance

   Denial of Service resistance (DoS) has not been a design goal for
   EAP-PSK.

   It is however believed that EAP-PSK does not provide any obvious and
   avoidable venue for such attacks.

   It is worth noting that the server has to maintain some state and do
   a cryptographic calculation when it engages in an EAP-PSK
   conversation, namely the 16-byte RAND_S.  This should however not
   lead to resource exhaustion as this state and the associated
   computation are fairly lightweight.

   It is RECOMMENDED that EAP-PSK does not allow EAP notifications to be
   interleaved in its dialog to prevent potential DoS attacks.  Indeed,
   since EAP Notifications are not integrity protected, they can easily
   be spoofed by an attacker.  Such an attacker could force a peer that
   allows Notifications to engage in a discussion which would delay his
   authentication or result in the peer taking unexpected actions (e.g.,
   in case the Notification is used to prompt the peer to do some "bad"
   action).

   It is up to the implementation of EAP-PSK or to the peer and the
   server to specify the maximum number of failed cryptographic checks
   that are allowed.  For instance, does the reception of a bogus MAC_P
   in the second EAP-PSK message cause a fatal error or is it discarded
   to continue waiting for the valid response of the valid peer? There
   is a trade-off between possibly allowing multiple tentative forgeries



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   and allowing a direct DoS (in case the first error is fatal).

6.8  Session Independence

   Thanks to its key derivation mechanisms, EAP-PSK provides session
   independence: passive attacks (such as capture of the EAP
   conversation) or active attacks (including compromise of the MSK or
   EMSK) does not enable compromise of subsequent or prior MSKs or
   EMSKs.

6.9  Exposition of the PSK

   EAP-PSK does not provide perfect forward secrecy.  Compromise of the
   PSK leads to compromise of recorded past sessions.

   Compromise of the PSK enables the attacker to impersonate the peer
   and the server: compromise of the PSK leads to "full" compromise of
   future sessions.

   EAP-PSK provides no protection against a legitimate peer sharing its
   PSK with a third party.  Such protection may be provided by
   appropriate repositories for the PSK, which choice is outside the
   scope of this document.  The PSK used by EAP-PSK MUST only be shared
   between two parties: the peer and the server.  In particular, this
   PSK MUST NOT be shared by a group of peers communicating with the
   same server.

   The PSK used by EAP-PSK MUST be cryptographically separated from keys
   used by other protocols, otherwise the security of EAP-PSK may be
   compromised.  It is a rule of the thumb in cryptography to use
   different keys for different applications.

6.10  Fragmentation

   EAP-PSK does not support fragmentation and reassembly.

   Indeed, the largest EAP-PSK frame is at most 1015 bytes long,
   because:
   o  The maximum length for the peer NAI identity used in EAP- PSK is
      966 bytes (see Section 3.2.  This should not be a limitation in
      practice (see Section 2.2 of [11] for more considerations on NAI
      length).
   o  The maximum length for the EXT_Payload field used in EAP-PSK is
      960 bytes (see Section 3.3 and Section 3.4).

   Per Section 3.1 of [2], the lower layers over which EAP MAY be run
   are assumed to have an EAP MTU of 1020 bytes or greater.  Since the
   EAP header is 5 bytes long, supporting fragmentation for EAP-PSK is



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   unnecessary.

   Extensions that require sending a payload larger than 960 bytes
   should provide their own fragmentation and reassembly mechanism.

6.11  Channel Binding

   EAP-PSK does not provide channel binding as this feature is still
   very much work in progress (see [15]).

   However, it should be easy to add it to EAP-PSK as an extension (see
   Section 2.3.2).

6.12  Fast Reconnect

   EAP-PSK does not provide any fast reconnect capability.

   Indeed, as noted for instance in [16], mutual authentication (without
   counters or timestamps) requires three exchanges, thus four exchanges
   in EAP since any EAP-Request MUST be answered to by an EAP-Response.

   Since this minimum bound is already reached in EAP-PSK standard
   authentication, there is no way the number of round-trips used within
   EAP-PSK can be reduced without using timestamps or counters.
   Timestamps and counters were deliberately avoided for the sake of
   simplicity and security (e.g., synchronization issues).

6.13  Identity Protection

   Since it was chosen to restrict to a single cryptographic primitive
   from symmetric cryptography, namely the block cipher AES-128, it
   appears that it is not possible to provide "reasonable" identity
   protection without failing to meet the simplicity goal.

   Hereafter is an informal discussion of what is meant by identity
   protection and the rationale behind the requirement of identity
   protection.  For some complementary discussion, refer to [40].

   Identity protection basically means preventing the disclosure of the
   identities of the communicating parties over the network, which is
   quite contradictory with authentication.  There are two levels of
   identity protection: protection against passive attackers and
   protection against active eavesdroppers.

   As explained in [40], "a common example [for identity protection] is
   the case of mobile devices wishing to prevent an attacker from
   correlating their (changing) location with the logical identity of
   the device (or user)".



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   In case only symmetric cryptography is used, only a weak form of
   identity protection may be offered, namely pseudonym management.  In
   other words, the peer and the server agree on pseudonyms that they
   use to identify each other and usually change them periodically,
   possibly in a protected way so that an attacker cannot learn new
   pseudonyms before they are used.

   With pseudonym management, there is a trade-off between allowing for
   pseudonym resynchronization (thanks to a permanent identity) and
   being vulnerable to active attacks (in which the attacker forges
   messages simulating a pseudonym desynchronization).
   Indeed, a protocol using time-varying pseudonyms may want to
   anticipate "desynchronization" situations such as, for instance, when
   the peer believes that its current pseudonym is "pseudo1@bigco.com"
   whereas the server believes this peer will use the pseudonym
   "pseudo2@bigco.com" (which is the pseudonym the server has sent to
   update "pseudo1@bigco.com").

   Because pseudonym management adds complexity to the protocol and
   implies this unsatisfactory trade-off, it was decided not to include
   this feature in EAP-PSK.

   However, EAP-PSK may provide protection against the two main attacks
   that account, in our opinion, for the identity protection requirement
   placed on EAP methods.

   The first attack is an active probing attack, i.e.  the attacker
   probes a device in order to learn its logical identity.
   This attack does not apply to EAP-PSK since it is the initiator of
   the EAP-PSK conversation that has to disclose and prove its identity
   first.  In fact, the server never discloses its identity (see Section
   2.2.2).

   The second attack is passive and aims at learning valuable
   information on the peer.
   For instance, let us take the example of user John Doe that roams and
   connects to a Hot-Spot owned and operated by Wireless Internet
   Service Provider (WISP) BAD.  Suppose this user authenticates to his
   home WISP (WISP GOOD) with an EAP method under an identity (e.g.,
   "john.doe@wispgood.com") that allows WISP BAD (or an attacker) to
   recover his "real-life" identity, i.e.  John Doe.  An example
   drawback of this, is that a competitor of John Doe's WISP may want to
   win John Doe as a new customer by sending him some special targeted
   advertisement.
   EAP-PSK can very simply thwart this attack, merely by avoiding to
   provide John Doe with a NAI that allows easy recovery of his real-
   life identity.  EAP-PSK believes that, when a NAI that is
   decorrelated to a real-life identity, is used, no valuable



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   information leaks because of the EAP method.
   Indeed, the identity of the WISP used by a peer has to be disclosed
   anyway in the realm portion of its NAI to allow AAA routing.
   Moreover, the Medium Access Control Address of the peer's Network
   Interface Card can generally be used to track the peer as efficiently
   as a fixed NAI.

6.14  Protected Ciphersuite Negotiation

   EAP-PSK does not allow to negotiate cipher suites.  Hence, it is not
   vulnerable to negotiation attacks and does not implement protected
   cipher suite negotiation.

6.15  Confidentiality

   Although EAP-PSK provides confidentiality in its protected channel,
   it cannot claim to do so as per Section 7.2.1 of [2]: "A method
   making this claim MUST support identity protection".

6.16  Cryptographic Binding

   Since EAP-PSK is not intended to be tunneled within another protocol
   that omits peer authentication, it does not implement cryptographic
   binding.

6.17  Implementation of EAP-PSK

   To really provide security, not only must a protocol be well-thought
   and correctly specified, but its implementation must take special
   care.

   For instance, implementing cryptographic algorithms requires special
   skills since cryptographic software is not only vulnerable to
   classical attacks (e.g., buffer overflow or missing checks) but also
   to some special cryptographic attacks (e.g., side channels attacks
   like timing ones, see [39]).  In particular, care must be taken to
   avoid such attacks in EAX implementation, please refer to [4] for a
   note on this point.

   An EAP-PSK implementation SHOULD use a good source of randomness to
   generate the random numbers required in the protocol.  Please refer
   to [22] for more information on generating random numbers for
   security applications.

   Handling sensitive material (namely, keying material such as the PSK,
   AK, KDK, etc.) SHOULD be done so in a secure way (see, for instance,
   [20] for guidance on secure deletion).




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   The specification of a repository for the PSK that EAP-PSK uses is
   outside of the scope of this document.  In particular, nothing
   prevents from storing this PSK on a tamper-resistant device such as a
   smart card rather than having it memorized or written down on a sheet
   of paper.  The choice of the PSK repository may have important
   security impacts.













































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7.  Security Claims

   This section provides the security claims required by [2].

   [a] Mechanism.  EAP-PSK is based on symmetric cryptography (AES-128)
       and uses a 16-byte Pre-Shared Key (PSK).
   [b] Security claims.  EAP-PSK provides:
       *  Mutual authentication (see Section 6.1)
       *  Integrity protection (see Section 6.3)
       *  Replay protection (see Section 6.4)
       *  Key derivation (see Section 6.6)
       *  Dictionary attack resistance (see Section 6.5)
       *  Session independence (see section Section 6.5)
   [c] Key strength.  EAP-PSK provides a 16-byte effective key strength.
   [d] Description of key hierarchy.  Please see Section 2.1.
   [e] Indication of vulnerabilities.  EAP-PSK does not provide:
       *  Identity protection (see Section 6.13)
       *  Confidentiality (see Section 6.15)
       *  Fast reconnect (see Section 6.12)
       *  Fragmentation (see Section 6.10)
       *  Cryptographic binding (see Section 6.16)
       *  Protected cipher suite negotiation (see Section 6.14)
       *  Perfect Forward Secrecy (see Section 6.6)
       *  Key agreement: the session key is chosen by the peer (see
          Section 6.6)
       *  Channel binding (see Section 6.11)

























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8.  Acknowledgments

   This EAP method has been inspired by EAP-SIM and EAP-Archie.  Many
   thanks to their respective authors: Jesse Walker, Russ Housley, Henry
   Haverinen and Joseph Salowey.

   Extra thanks to Jesse Walker for his thorough and challenging review
   of EAP-PSK.

   Special thanks to
   o  Henri Gilbert for some interesting discussions on the
      cryptographic parts of EAP-PSK.
   o  Aurelien Magniez for his valuable feedback on network aspects of
      EAP-PSK, his curiosity and rigor that led to numerous
      improvements, and his help in the first implementation of EAP-PSK
      under Microsoft Windows and Freeradius [56].
   o  Thomas Otto for his valuable feedback on EAP-PSK and the
      implementation of the first version of EAP-PSK under Xsupplicant
      [57].

   EAP-PSK also benefited from exchanges with other EAP methods
   designers: many thanks to Hannes Tschofenig (EAP-IKEv2) and Nancy
   Cam-Winget (EAP-FAST).

   Finally, thanks to Jari Arkko and Bernard Aboba, the beloved EAP WG
   chairs, for the work they stimulate!

























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9.  References

9.1  Normative References

   [1]  Aboba, B. and M. Beadles, "The Network Access Identifier", RFC
        2486, January 1999.

   [2]  Aboba, B., Blunk, L., Vollbrecht, J., Carlson, J. and H.
        Levkowetz, "Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP)", RFC 3748,
        June 2004.

   [3]  Bellare, M. and P. Rogaway, "Entity Authentication and Key
        Distribution", CRYPTO 93, Springer-Verlag LNCS 773, 1994.

   [4]  Bellare, M., Rogaway, P. and D. Wagner, "The EAX mode of
        operation", FSE 04, Springer-Verlag LNCS 3017, 2004.

   [5]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
        Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [6]  Gilbert, H., "The Security of One-Block-to-Many Modes of
        Operation", FSE 03, Springer-Verlag LNCS 2287, 2003.

   [7]  Iwata, T. and K. Kurosawa, "OMAC: One-Key CBC MAC", FSE 03,
        Springer-Verlag LNCS 2887, 2003.

   [8]  Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an IANA
        Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 2434, October 1998.

   [9]  National Institute of Standards and Technology, "Specification
        for the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)", Federal Information
        Processing Standards (FIPS) 197, November 2001.

9.2  Informative References

   [10]  Aboba, B., "Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) Key
         Management Framework", draft-ietf-eap-keying-03 (work in
         progress), July 2004.

   [11]  Aboba, B., "The Network Access Identifier",
         draft-arkko-roamops-rfc2486bis-02 (work in progress), July
         2004.

   [12]  Aboba, B., Calhoun, P., Glass, S., Hiller, T., McCann, P.,
         Shiino, H., Zorn, G., Dommety, G., Perkins, C., Patil, B.,
         Mitton, D., Manning, S., Beadles, M., Walsh, P., Chen, X.,
         Sivalingham, S., Hameed, A., Munson, M., Jacobs, S., Lim, B.,
         Hirschman, B., Hsu, R., Xu, Y., Campbell, E., Baba, S. and E.



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         Jaques, "Criteria for Evaluating AAA Protocols for Network
         Access", RFC 2989, November 2000.

   [13]  Aboba, B. and D. Simon, "PPP EAP TLS Authentication Protocol",
         RFC 2716, October 1999.

   [14]  Arkko, J. and H. Haverinen, "EAP AKA Authentication",
         draft-arkko-pppext-eap-aka-12 (work in progress), April 2004.

   [15]  Arkko, J. and P. Eronen, "Authenticated Service Identities for
         the Extensible Authentication Protocol  (EAP)",
         draft-arkko-eap-service-identity-auth-00 (work in progress),
         April 2004.

   [16]  Bellare, M., Pointcheval, D. and P. Rogaway, "Authenticated Key
         Exchange Secure   Against Dictionary attacks", EUROCRYPT 00,
         Springer-Verlag LNCS 1807, 2000.

   [17]  Bersani, F., "EAP shared key methods: a tentative synthesis of
         those proposed so far",
         draft-bersani-eap-synthesis-sharedkeymethods-00 (work in
         progress), April 2004.

   [18]  Bradner, S., "The Internet Standards Process -- Revision 3",
         BCP 9, RFC 2026, October 1996.

   [19]  Carlson, J., Aboba, B. and H. Haverinen, "EAP SRP-SHA1
         Authentication Protocol", draft-ietf-pppext-eap-srp-03.txt
         (work in progress), July 2001.

   [20]  Department of Defense of the United States, "National
         Industrial Security Program Operating Manual", DoD 5220-22M,
         January 1995.

   [21]  Dierks, T. and C. Allen, "The TLS Protocol Version 1.0", RFC
         2246, January 1999.

   [22]  Eastlake, D., Crocker, S. and J. Schiller, "Randomness
         Recommendations for Security", RFC 1750, December 1994.

   [23]  Funk, P. and S. Blake-Wilson, "EAP Tunneled TLS Authentication
         Protocol (EAP-TTLS)", draft-ietf-pppext-eap-ttls-05 (work in
         progress), July 2004.

   [24]  Haller, N., Metz, C., Nesser, P. and M. Straw, "A One-Time
         Password System", RFC 2289, February 1998.

   [25]  Harkins, D. and D. Carrel, "The Internet Key Exchange (IKE)",



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         RFC 2409, November 1998.

   [26]  Halpern, J. and Y. Moses, "Knowledge and common   knowledge in
         a distributed environment", Journal of the ACM 37:3, 1990.

   [27]  Haverinen, H. and J. Salowey, "Extensible Authentication
         Protocol Method for GSM Subscriber Identity  Modules
         (EAP-SIM)", draft-haverinen-pppext-eap-sim-13 (work in
         progress), April 2004.

   [28]  Huitema, C., Postel, J. and S. Crocker, "Not All RFCs are
         Standards", RFC 1796, April 1995.

   [29]  Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, "Local and
         Metropolitan Area Networks: Port-Based Network Access Control",
         IEEE Standard 802.1X, September 2001.

   [30]  Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, "Approved
         Draft Supplement to Standard for Telecommunications and
         Information Exchange Between Systems-LAN/MAN Specific
         Requirements - Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control
         (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications: Specification
         for Enhanced Security", IEEE 802.11i-2004, 2004.

   [31]  Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, "Standard
         for Telecommunications and Information Exchange Between Systems
         - LAN/MAN Specific Requirements - Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium
         Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications",
         IEEE Standard 802.11, 1999.

   [32]  Jablon, D., "The SPEKE Password-Based Key Agreement Methods",
         draft-jablon-speke-02 (work in progress), November 2002.

   [33]  Josefsson, S., "The EAP SecurID(r) Mechanism",
         draft-josefsson-eap-securid-01 (work in progress), February
         2002.

   [34]  Josefsson, S., Palekar, A., Simon, D. and G. Zorn, "Protected
         EAP Protocol (PEAP) Version 2",
         draft-josefsson-pppext-eap-tls-eap-08 (work in progress), July
         2004.

   [35]  Kaliski, B., "PKCS #5: Password-Based Cryptography
         Specification Version 2.0", RFC 2898, September 2000.

   [36]  Kamath, V. and A. Palekar, "Microsoft EAP CHAP Extensions",
         draft-kamath-pppext-eap-mschapv2-01 (work in progress), April
         2004.



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   [37]  Kaufman, C., "Internet Key Exchange (IKEv2) Protocol",
         draft-ietf-ipsec-ikev2-15 (work in progress), August 2004.

   [38]  Kent, S. and R. Atkinson, "IP Authentication Header", RFC 2402,
         November 1998.

   [39]  Kocher, P., "Timing Attacks on Implementations of
         Diffie-Hellman, RSA, DSS, and Other Systems", CRYPTO 96,
         Springer-Verlag LNCS 1109, 1996.

   [40]  Krawczyk, H., "SIGMA: the `SIGn-and-MAc' Approach to
         Authenticated Diffie-Hellman and its Use in the IKE Protocols",
         CRYPTO 03, Springer-Verlag LNCS 2729, June 2003.

   [41]  MacNally, C., "Cisco LEAP protocol description", September
         2001.

   [42]  Menezes, A., van Oorschot, P. and S. Vanstone, "Handbook of
         Applied Cryptography", , 1996.

   [43]  Metz, C., "OTP Extended Responses", RFC 2243, November 1997.

   [44]  National Institute of Standards and Technology, "Password
         Usage", Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) 112,
         May 1985.

   [45]  Rescorla, E., "A Survey of Authentication Mechanisms",
         draft-iab-auth-mech-03 (work in progress), March 2004.

   [46]  Salowey, J., "EAP Flexible Authentication via Secure Tunneling
         (EAP-FAST)", draft-cam-winget-eap-fast-00 (work in progress),
         February 2004.

   [47]  Schneier, B., Mudge and D. Wagner, "Cryptanalysis of
         Microsoft's PPTP Authentication Extensions (MS-CHAPv2)", CQRE
         99, Springer-Verlag LNCS 1740, October 1999.

   [48]  Simpson, W., "The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)", STD 51, RFC
         1661, July 1994.

   [49]  Simpson, W., "PPP Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol
         (CHAP)", RFC 1994, August 1996.

   [50]  Stanley, D., Walker, J. and B. Aboba, "EAP Method Requirements
         for Wireless LANs", draft-walker-ieee802-req-04 (work in
         progress), August 2004.

   [51]  Tschofenig, H. and D. Kroeselberg, "EAP IKEv2 Method



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         (EAP-IKEv2)", draft-tschofenig-eap-ikev2-04 (work in progress),
         July 2004.

   [52]  Walker, J. and R. Housley, "The EAP Archie Protocol",
         draft-jwalker-eap-archie-01 (work in progress), June 2003.

   [53]  Wi-Fi Alliance, "Wi-Fi Protected Access, version 2.0", April
         2003.

   [54]  Wright, J., "Weaknesses in LEAP Challenge/Response", Defcon 03,
         August 2003.

   [55]  Eronen, P., "Pre-Shared Key Ciphersuites for Transport Layer
         Security (TLS)", draft-ietf-tls-psk-01 (work in progress),
         August 2004.




































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URIs

   [56]  <http://perso.rd.francetelecom.fr/bersani/EAP_PSK/EAPPSKimplementation.htm.htm>

   [57]  <http://t13.mine.nu/EAP-PSK/>


Author's Address

   Florent Bersani
   France Telecom R&D
   38, rue du General Leclerc
   Issy-Les-Moulineaux  92794 Cedex 9
   FR

   EMail: florent.bersani@francetelecom.com



































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Appendix A.  Generation of the PSK from a password - Discouraged

   It is formally discouraged to use a password to generate the PSK,
   since this opens the door to exhaustive search or dictionary, two
   attacks that would not otherwise be possible.

   However, as people will probably do this anyway, guidance is provided
   hereafter to generate the PSK from a password.

   For some hints on how passwords should be selected, please refer to
   [44].

   The technique presented herein is drawn from [35].  It is intended to
   try to mitigate the risks associated with password usage in
   cryptography, typically dictionary attacks.

   If the binary representation of the password is strictly fewer than
   16 bytes long (which by the way means that the chosen password is
   probably weak because it is too short), then it is padded to 16 bytes
   with zeroes as its high order bits.

   If the binary representation of the password is strictly more than 16
   bytes long, then it is hashed down to exactly 16 bytes using the
   Matyas-Meyer-Oseas hash (please refer to [42] for a description of
   this hash) with IV=0x0123456789ABCDEFFEDCBA9876543210 (this value has
   been arbitrarily selected).

   We now assume that we have a 16-byte number derived from the initial
   password (that can be the password itself if its binary
   representation is exactly 16 bytes long).  We shall call this number
   P16.

   Following the notations used in [35], the PSK is derived thanks to
   PBKDF2 instantiated with:
   o  P16 as P
   o  The first 96 bits of the XOR of the peer and server NAIs as Salt
      (zero-padded if necessary).
   o  5000 as c
   o  48 as dkLen

   Although this gives better protection than nothing, this derivation
   does not stricto sensu protect against dictionary attacks.  It only
   makes dictionary precomputation harder.








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