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Versions: 00 01 02 draft-ietf-v6ops-isp-scenarios

V6OPS                                                       B. Carpenter
Internet-Draft                                         Univ. of Auckland
Intended status: Informational                                  S. Jiang
Expires: October 15, 2010                   Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd
                                                          April 13, 2010


        Emerging Service Provider Scenarios for IPv6 Deployment
                 draft-carpenter-v6ops-isp-scenarios-02

Abstract

   This document describes practices and plans that are emerging among
   Internet Service Providers for the deployment of IPv6.  They are
   based on practical experience so far, as well as current plans and
   requirements, reported in a survey carried out in early 2010.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
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   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on October 15, 2010.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2010 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
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   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.



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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Survey of ISP experience, plans and requirements . . . . . . .  4
   3.  Lessons from experience and planning . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   4.  Gap analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   5.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   6.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   7.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   8.  Change log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   9.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   Appendix A.  Summary of replies  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   Appendix B.  Questionnaire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18





































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1.  Introduction

   As is well known, the approaching exhaustion of IPv4 address space
   will bring about a situation in which Internet Service Providers
   (ISPs) are faced with a choice between one or more of three major
   alternatives:
   1.  Squeeze the use of IPv4 addresses even harder than today, using
       smaller and smaller address blocks per customer, and possibly
       trading address blocks with other ISPs.
   2.  Install multiple layers of network address translation
       [I-D.nishitani-cgn], or share IPv4 addresses by other methods
       such as address-plus-port mapping [I-D.ymbk-aplusp],
       [I-D.boucadair-port-range].
   3.  Deploy IPv6, and operate IPv4-IPv6 coexistence and interworking
       mechanisms.
   This document focuses on alternative (3), while recognizing that many
   ISPs may be obliged by circumstances to prolong the life of IPv4 by
   using (1) or (2) while preparing for (3).

   The document describes IPv6 deployment scenarios already adopted or
   currently planned by a set of ISPs who responded to a technical
   questionnaire.  Thus, it is a factual record of the responses from
   those ISPs.  It makes no recommendations; the best choice of
   scenarios will depend on the circumstances of individual ISPs.

   We consider various aspects of IPv6 deployment: addressing, routing,
   DNS, management and of course IPv4-IPv6 coexistence and interworking.
   We do not consider application services in detail, but we do cover
   general aspects.

   The reader is assumed to be familiar with IPv6.  The IETF's view of
   core IPv6 requirements is to be found in [RFC4294] (currently being
   updated as [I-D.ietf-6man-node-req-bis]).  However, this does not
   give a complete view of mechanisms an ISP may need to deploy, since
   it considers the requirements for an individual node, not for a
   network as a whole.

   [RFC4029] discusses scenarios for introducing IPv6 into ISP networks,
   as the problem was viewed some years ago.  The end goal described in
   RFC 4029 is simply a dual-stack ISP backbone.  Today's view is that
   this is insufficient, as it does not allow for interworking between
   IPv6-only and legacy (IPv4-only) hosts.  Indeed, the end goal today
   might be an IPv6-only ISP backbone, with some form of legacy IPv4
   support.

   [RFC4779] discusses deployment in broadband access networks such as
   CATV, ADSL and wireless.  [RFC5181], [RFC5121] and
   [I-D.ietf-16ng-ip-over-ethernet-over-802-dot-16] deal specifically



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   with IEEE 802.16 access networks.  MPLS-based ISPs may use the 6PE
   [RFC4798] mechanism.

   [RFC4942] covers IPv6 security issues, especially those that are
   specific to transition and coexistence scenarios.  Also related to
   security, [RFC4864] discusses "Local Network Protection", i.e., how
   the internal structure of an IPv6 site network can be protected.
   Although not directly part of ISP operations, this topic does affect
   the issue of how well an ISP's customers are protected after they
   deploy IPv6.

   Although the basic IPv6 standards have long been stable, it should be
   noted that considerable work continues in the IETF, particularly to
   resolve the issue of highly scalable multihoming support for IPv6
   sites, and to resolve the problem of IP layer interworking between
   IPv6-only and IPv4-only hosts.  IPv6/IPv4 interworking at the
   application layers is handled within the original dual-stack model of
   IPv6 deployment: either one end of an application session will have
   dual-stack connectivity, or a dual-stack intermediary such as an HTTP
   proxy or SMTP server will interface to both IPv4-only and IPv6-only
   hosts.

   [RFC5211] describes an independent view of a possible sequence of
   events for IPv6 adoption in the Internet as a whole, with direct
   implications for ISPs.  Its main point, perhaps, is that by 2012 it
   will be necessary to regard IPv4 networks as the legacy solution.


2.  Survey of ISP experience, plans and requirements

   To obtain a view of the IPv6 experience, plans and requirements of
   ISPs, a questionnaire was issued by the authors in December 2009 and
   announced widely to the operational community.  We promised to keep
   the replies strictly confidential and to publish only combined
   results, without identifying information about individual ISPs in any
   published results.  The raw technical questions are shown in
   Appendix B, and a detailed summary of the replies is in Appendix A.
   Note that although the questionnaire was widely announced, those who
   chose to reply were self-selected and we can make no claim of
   statistical significance or freedom from bias in the results.  In
   particular, we assume that ISPs with a pre-existing interest in IPv6
   are more likely to have replied than others.  The results should
   therefore be interpreted with some care.

   Thirty ISPs replied before the cutoff date for this analysis. 66% of
   responses were from European ISPs but large operators in North
   America and Asia/Pacific regions are included.  Commercial ISPs
   operating nationally predominate, with a vast range of size (from 30



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   customers up to 40 million).  Note that some providers chose not to
   answer about the exact number of customers.  Nevertheless, it can be
   stated that 6 providers each had millions of customers, the next 9
   each had more than 10,000 customers, and the remaining 15 each had
   fewer than 10,000 customers.

   80% of the respondents offer both transit and origin-only service;
   27% offer IP multicast service; 80% have multihomed customers.  A
   very wide variety of access technologies is used: xDSL, DOCSIS,
   leased line (X.25, TDM/PDH, SDH), frame relay, dialup, microwave,
   FTTP, CDMA, UMTS, LTE, WiMAX, BWA, WiFi, Ethernet (100M-10G),
   MetroEthernet/MPLS.  Most ISPs provide CPE to some or all of their
   customers, but these CPE are often unable to support IPv6.

   Estimates of when ISPs will run out of public IPv4 address space for
   internal use vary widely, between "now" and "never".  Public IPv4
   address space for customers is mainly expected to run out between
   2010 and 2015, but three or four ISPs suggested it will never happen.
   About 20% of ISPs offer RFC 1918 space to customers, and about 40%
   use such addresses internally.

   60% of ISPs report that some big customers are requesting IPv6.
   Predictions for when 10% of customers will require IPv6 range from
   2010 to 2017, and for 50% from 2011 to 2020.  These ISPs require IPv6
   to be a standard service by 2010 to 2015; the most common target date
   is 2011. 40% already offer IPv6 as a regular service, although in
   general it is used by fewer than 1% of customers.  Another 47% of
   ISPs have IPv6 deployment in progress or planned.  These all plan at
   least beta-test service in 2010.  Planned dates for regular service
   are between 2010 and 2013 (except for one ISP who replied that it
   depends on the marketing department).  When asked when IPv6 will
   reach 50% of total traffic, the most common answer is 2015.

   Turning to technology choices, the overwhelming choice of approach
   (93%) is a dual stack routing backbone, and the reason given is
   simplicity and cost. 40% run, or plan to run, a 6to4 relay as well,
   and 17% run or plan a Teredo server.  However, 77% of ISPs don't have
   or plan any devices dedicated to IPv6.  A different 77% don't see
   IPv6 as an opportunity to restructure their network topology.

   When asked which types of equipment are unable to support IPv6, the
   most common answer was CPE (9 mentions).  Also mentioned: handsets;
   DSLAMs; routers (including several specific models); traffic
   management boxes; load balancers; VPN boxes; management interfaces &
   systems; firewalls; billing systems.  When asked if such devices can
   be field-upgraded, the answers were gloomy: 5 yes, 4 partially, 10
   no, and numerous "don't know" or "hopefully".




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   83% support or plan DNS AAAA queries over IPv6, and all but one of
   these include reverse DNS lookup for IPv6.

   The ISPs have prefixes ranging from /19 to /48, and have a variety of
   policies for customer prefixes.  Fifteen ISPs offer more than one of
   /48, /52, /56, /60 or /64.  Two offer /56 only, seven offer /48 only.
   Two wired operators offer /64 only.  Mobile operators offer /64 in
   accordance with 3GPP, but at least one would like to be allowed to
   offer /128 or /126.  Also, as many as 30% of the operators already
   have IPv6 customers preferring a PI prefix.  The methods chosen for
   prefix delegation to CPEs are manual, DHCPv6[-PD], SLAAC, RADIUS, and
   PPoE.

   About 50% of ISPs already operate or plan dual-stack SMTP, POP3, IMAP
   and HTTP services.  In terms of internal services, it seems that
   firewalls, intrusion detection, address management, monitoring, and
   network management tools are also around the 50% mark.  However,
   accounting and billing software is only ready at 23% of ISPs.

   Considering IPv4-IPv6 interworking, 57% of ISPs don't expect to have
   IPv6-only customers (but mobile operators are certain they will have
   millions).  Five ISPs report customers who explicitly refused to
   consider IPv6.  When asked how long customers will run IPv4-only
   applications, the most frequent answer is "more than ten years".
   Only three ISPs state that IPv6-IPv4 interworking at the the IP layer
   is not needed.  On the other hand, only three (a different three!)
   run or plan to run NAT-PT.  At least 30% plan to run some kind of
   translator (presumably NAT64/DNS64), but only one felt that a
   multicast translator was essential.  Among those who do not plan a
   translator, when asked how they plan to connect IPv6-only customers
   to IPv4-only services, seven rely on dual stack and three have no
   plan (one said, paraphrasing, "it's their problem").

   Asked about plans for Mobile IPv6 (or Nemo mobile networks), 20% said
   yes, and 70% said no, with the others uncertain.  A detailed analysis
   shows that of the six ISPs who responded positively, three are large
   mobile operators (and a fourth mobile operator said "No").  The other
   three who were positive were broadband ISPs ranging from small to
   very large.

   We examined the data to see whether any other differences emerge
   between the very large (millions of customers), medium (at least
   10,000), and small (fewer than 10,000) operators.  However, the range
   of answers seems to be broadly similar in all cases.  The major
   exception is that among the six very large operators, one plans to
   use 6PE and DS-lite, and another to use 6VPE, instead of a simple
   dual stack.  The other large operators and all the medium and small
   operators prefer a simple dual stack.



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3.  Lessons from experience and planning

   This section is assembled and paraphrased from general comments made
   in the various questionnaire responses.  Any inconsistencies or
   contradictions are present in the original data.  Comments related to
   missing features and products have been included in Section 4.

   As noted in the summary above, the ISPs that responded overwhelmingly
   prefer a native dual stack deployment.  Numerous comments mentioned
   the simplicity of this model and the complexity and sub-optimal
   routing of tunnel-based solutions.  Topology redesign is not generall
   considered desirable, because congruent IPv4 and IPv6 topology
   simplifies maintenance and engineering.  Nevertheless, 6to4 is
   considered convenient for cable modem (DOCSIS) users and 6RD is
   considered an attractive model by some.  Various operators, but by no
   means all, also see a need for Teredo.  One very large MPLS-based
   operator prefers 6PE because it avoids an IPv6 IGP and reduces
   operational costs.  This operator also sees IPv4 scarcity addressed
   by DS-lite [I-D.ietf-softwire-dual-stack-lite] and Carrier Grade NAT,
   also acting as a catalyst for IPv6.  Another very large operator with
   an existing NAT44 infrastructure plans to use 6VPE [RFC4659] and
   believes that NAT64 will be similar to NAT44 in support requirements.

   Several ISPs observe that IPv6 deployment is technically not hard.
   The most eloquent statement: "Just do it, bit by bit.  It is very
   much an 'eating the elephant' problem, but at one mouthful at a time,
   it appears to be surprisingly easy."  Other comments paraphrased from
   the replies are:
   o  Despite the known gaps, the tools and toolkits are fairly mature
      at this point.
   o  Managerial commitment and a systematic approach to analysing
      requirements and readiness are essential.
   o  Evangelization remains a must, as it seems that many ISP and IT
      managers are still unaware of the need for an IPv6 plan, and are
      inclined to dismiss IPv4 depletion as a false alarm, and also seem
      unaware that NATs create expensive support requirements.
   o  Without customers wanting IPv6, getting business backing is very
      hard, and IPv6 security and scale was not a focus for vendors
      until very recently.
   o  Operators lack real experience with customer usage of IPv6, and
      the resulting lack of confidence causes delay.

   Three further quotations are of interest:

   "We are planning to move all our management addressing from IPv4 to
   IPv6 to free up IPv4 addresses."

   "I am actively pushing our larger customers to start testing IPv6 as



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   our development has pretty much stopped as we need some real world
   testing to be done."

   "Customer support needs to be aware that IPv6 is being started in
   your network, or servers.  We experienced many IPv6 blocking
   applications, applications that do not fall back to IPv4, etc.  The
   most difficult part may be to get engineers, sales, customer support
   personnel to like IPv6."


4.  Gap analysis

   The survey has shown a certain number of desirable features to be
   missing, either in relevant specifications, or in many products.
   This section summarizes those gaps.

   As noted above, numerous models of various types of product still do
   not support IPv6:
      CPE
      handsets
      DSLAMs
      routers
      traffic management boxes
      load balancers
      VPN boxes
      other appliances
      management interfaces and systems
      firewalls
      intrusion detection systems
      accounting and billing systems

   It is not the purpose of this document to name and shame vendors, but
   it is today becoming urgent for all such products to avoid becoming
   part of the IPv4 legacy.  ISPs stated that they want consistent
   feature-equal support for IPv4 and IPv6 in all equipment and software
   at reasonable or no extra cost.  The problems can be quite subtle:
   for example, one CPE with "full" IPv6 support does not support IPv6
   traffic shaping, so the ISP cannot cap IPv6 traffic to contractual
   limits.  Other needs and issues mentioned:
   o  A specific CPE need is an intelligent prefix sub-delegation
      mechanism (ease of use issue).
   o  Full RA support on LAN side of ADSL CPE.
   o  PPPoE and RADIUS support.  Specifically, global unicast address
      assignment for L2TP/PPPoE.  Currently the PPPoE client will be
      assigned a link-local address, requiring a second step (DHCPv6 or
      SLAAC).





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   o  Simple automatic distribution of DNS server details is essential;
      a DNS server option in RA [RFC5006] is wanted.
   o  ISPs need fully featured DHCPv6, especially since SLAAC does not
      allow settings to be pushed out (except for RFC 5006).
   o  Firewall systems should not use separate IPv4 and IPv6 rules.
   o  Customer side firewalls/routers which can do 25-100 Mbit/s.
   o  Gaps in infrastructure security for IPv6 management.
   o  Gaps in routers' treatment of header options.
   o  RA-Guard in switches.
   o  VRRP support.
   o  PE-CE routing protocols (OSPF and IS-IS).
   o  Problems using a single BGP session to exchange routes for both
      IPv4 and IPv6.
   o  IPv6 support in all the best open source tools.

   Several ISPs also noted that much commercial applications software
   does not correctly support IPv6 and that this will cause customer
   problems.  Also, some operating systems are still shipped with IPv6
   disabled by default, or with features such as IPv4-mapped addresses
   disabled by default.

   Numerous ISPs want a scaleable NAT64/DNS64 product.  Other protocol-
   related needs are:
   o  "Getting it right" so that a dual stack client doesn't end up
      trying to use the wrong transport to reach a site.
   o  User-side port allocation mechanisms.  UPnP IGD and NAT-PMP can be
      used for IPv4, but nothing exists for IPv6 (yet).  [Editor's
      comment: even though port mapping is in principle unnecessary for
      IPv6, a method of opening ports through firewalls on demand seems
      necessary.]

   Global IPv6 connectivity still has issues; for example ISPs in the
   Pacific region may have to obtain IPv6 transit via the USA (a
   situation faced by IPv4 operators in Europe about twenty years ago).
   Also, there are persistent PMTUD issues in various places on the net,
   and a lack of multicast peering.

   Finally, there was a comment that real deployment case studies must
   be shown to operators, along with multihoming and traffic engineering
   best practices.


5.  Security Considerations

   As a report on a survey, this document creates no security issues in
   itself.  ISPs did not register any general concerns about IPv6
   security.  However, we note that about half of all firewall and
   intrusion detection products are still reported not to support IPv6.



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   Some ISPs expressed concern about firewall performance and about the
   need for separate firewall configurations for IPv4 and IPv6.


6.  IANA Considerations

   This document makes no request of the IANA.


7.  Acknowledgements

   We are grateful to all those who answered the questionnaire: Pete
   Barnwell, Cameron Byrne, Gareth Campling, David Freedman, Wesley
   George, Steinar Haug, Paul Hoogsteder, Mario Iseli, Christian
   Jacquenet, Kurt Jaeger, Seiichi Kawamura, Adrian Kennard, Simon
   Leinen, Riccardo Loselli, Janos Mohacsi, Jon Morby, Michael Newbery,
   Barry O'Donovan, Al Pooley, Antonio Querubin, Anthony Ryan, Marc
   Schaeffer, Valeriu Vraciu, Bill Walker and those who preferred to
   remain anonymous.

   The ISPs willing to be named were: AISP, Alphanet, Breedband Delft,
   Claranet, E4A, Fidonet, Finecom, France Telecom, Hungarnet, Imagine,
   LavaNet, NEC BIGLOBE, Nepustilnet, Net North West, RoEduNet, SWITCH,
   Snap, Sprint, Star Technology, T-Mobile USA, Ventelo, and Whole Ltd.

   Useful comments and contributions were also made by Mohamed
   Boucadair, and others.

   This document was produced using the xml2rfc tool [RFC2629].


8.  Change log

   draft-carpenter-v6ops-isp-scenarios-02: updated summary and
   discussion of questionnaire results, deleted material to repurpose
   document as survey results only, 2010-04-13

   draft-carpenter-v6ops-isp-scenarios-01: added summary and discussion
   of questionnaire results, 2010-02-23

   draft-carpenter-v6ops-isp-scenarios-00: original version, 2009-10-13


9.  Informative References

   [I-D.boucadair-port-range]
              Boucadair, M., Levis, P., Bajko, G., and T. Savolainen,
              "IPv4 Connectivity Access in the Context of IPv4 Address



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              Exhaustion: Port Range based IP Architecture",
              draft-boucadair-port-range-02 (work in progress),
              July 2009.

   [I-D.ietf-16ng-ip-over-ethernet-over-802-dot-16]
              Jeon, H., Riegel, M., and S. Jeong, "Transmission of IP
              over Ethernet over IEEE 802.16 Networks",
              draft-ietf-16ng-ip-over-ethernet-over-802-dot-16-12 (work
              in progress), September 2009.

   [I-D.ietf-6man-node-req-bis]
              Jankiewicz, E., Loughney, J., and T. Narten, "IPv6 Node
              Requirements RFC 4294-bis",
              draft-ietf-6man-node-req-bis-04 (work in progress),
              March 2010.

   [I-D.ietf-softwire-dual-stack-lite]
              Durand, A., Droms, R., Haberman, B., Woodyatt, J., Lee,
              Y., and R. Bush, "Dual-Stack Lite Broadband Deployments
              Following IPv4 Exhaustion",
              draft-ietf-softwire-dual-stack-lite-04 (work in progress),
              March 2010.

   [I-D.ietf-v6ops-cpe-simple-security]
              Woodyatt, J., "Recommended Simple Security Capabilities in
              Customer Premises Equipment for Providing Residential IPv6
              Internet Service", draft-ietf-v6ops-cpe-simple-security-10
              (work in progress), March 2010.

   [I-D.ietf-v6ops-ipv6-cpe-router]
              Singh, H., Beebee, W., Donley, C., Stark, B., and O.
              Troan, "Basic Requirements for IPv6 Customer Edge
              Routers", draft-ietf-v6ops-ipv6-cpe-router-04 (work in
              progress), January 2010.

   [I-D.nishitani-cgn]
              Yamagata, I., Nishitani, T., Miyakawa, S., Nakagawa, A.,
              and H. Ashida, "Common requirements for IP address sharing
              schemes", draft-nishitani-cgn-04 (work in progress),
              March 2010.

   [I-D.ymbk-aplusp]
              Bush, R., "The A+P Approach to the IPv4 Address Shortage",
              draft-ymbk-aplusp-05 (work in progress), October 2009.

   [RFC2629]  Rose, M., "Writing I-Ds and RFCs using XML", RFC 2629,
              June 1999.




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   [RFC4029]  Lind, M., Ksinant, V., Park, S., Baudot, A., and P.
              Savola, "Scenarios and Analysis for Introducing IPv6 into
              ISP Networks", RFC 4029, March 2005.

   [RFC4294]  Loughney, J., "IPv6 Node Requirements", RFC 4294,
              April 2006.

   [RFC4659]  De Clercq, J., Ooms, D., Carugi, M., and F. Le Faucheur,
              "BGP-MPLS IP Virtual Private Network (VPN) Extension for
              IPv6 VPN", RFC 4659, September 2006.

   [RFC4779]  Asadullah, S., Ahmed, A., Popoviciu, C., Savola, P., and
              J. Palet, "ISP IPv6 Deployment Scenarios in Broadband
              Access Networks", RFC 4779, January 2007.

   [RFC4798]  De Clercq, J., Ooms, D., Prevost, S., and F. Le Faucheur,
              "Connecting IPv6 Islands over IPv4 MPLS Using IPv6
              Provider Edge Routers (6PE)", RFC 4798, February 2007.

   [RFC4864]  Van de Velde, G., Hain, T., Droms, R., Carpenter, B., and
              E. Klein, "Local Network Protection for IPv6", RFC 4864,
              May 2007.

   [RFC4942]  Davies, E., Krishnan, S., and P. Savola, "IPv6 Transition/
              Co-existence Security Considerations", RFC 4942,
              September 2007.

   [RFC5006]  Jeong, J., Park, S., Beloeil, L., and S. Madanapalli,
              "IPv6 Router Advertisement Option for DNS Configuration",
              RFC 5006, September 2007.

   [RFC5121]  Patil, B., Xia, F., Sarikaya, B., Choi, JH., and S.
              Madanapalli, "Transmission of IPv6 via the IPv6
              Convergence Sublayer over IEEE 802.16 Networks", RFC 5121,
              February 2008.

   [RFC5181]  Shin, M-K., Han, Y-H., Kim, S-E., and D. Premec, "IPv6
              Deployment Scenarios in 802.16 Networks", RFC 5181,
              May 2008.

   [RFC5211]  Curran, J., "An Internet Transition Plan", RFC 5211,
              July 2008.


Appendix A.  Summary of replies

   This summarises the 30 replies received by February 16, 2010.  Note
   that the answers to some questions do not total to 30, due to missing



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   answers or to multiple choices in some cases.  The ISPs are
   distributed as follows:
      Europe: 20
      North America: 6
      Asia/Pacific: 4

   They can additionally be classified as:
      Commercial: 26
      Academic/research: 4
      Operating internationally: 5
      Operating nationally: 25

   Basic data about IP service offerings:
   o  Offering both origin-only and transit service: 24
   o  Offering no transit: 6
   o  Number of private/small office customers (one IPv4 address): a few
      with zero, then from 30 units up to 40 million
   o  Number of corporate customers (block of IPv4 addresses): a few
      with zero, then from 40 units up to 40000
   o  IP multicast service? 8 yes, 22 no
   o  Do any customers require multihoming to multiple ISPs? 24 yes, 6
      no
   o  Access technologies used: xDSL, DOCSIS, leased line (X.25, TDM/
      PDH, SDH), frame relay, dialup, microwave, FTTP, CDMA, UMTS, LTE,
      WiMAX, BWA, WiFi, Ethernet (100M-10G), Ether/MPLS, IPv6-in-IPv4
      tunnels

   Customer Premises Equipment:
   o  Do customers use CPE that ISP supplies? 26 yes (20% to 100% of
      customers), 4 no
   o  Does the CPE provided support native IPv6? 16 yes (some), 10 no
   o  (Note that these numbers include answers that apply to tens of
      millions of mobile handsets.)

   IPv4 Address Space:
   o  When do you expect to run out of public IPv4 address space inside
      your own network?  Estimates run from "now" to 2020, but 4 ISPs
      say "never" or "unforeseeable".
   o  Do you run RFC1918 addresses and NAT within your network? 9 yes;
      17 no; 3 others say yes, but only for equipment management or
      L3VPN.
   o  What % of IPv4 space is needed for ISP use (not for customers)? 1%
      to 30% (and 100% for NRENs with PI customers).
   o  When do you expect to run out of public IPv4 address space for
      customers?  Answers range from 2010 to 2015; 4 ISPs say it depends
      on their registry. 3 or 4 give answers suggesting it will never
      happen.




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   o  Do you offer RFC1918 addresses to customers? 6 yes, 23 no

   IPv6 Requirements:
   o  Are some big customers requesting IPv6? 18 yes, 12 no
   o  When do you predict 10% and 50% of customers to require IPv6
      service?  Ignoring unclear answers, answers for 10% range from
      2010 to 2017, and for 50% from 2011 to 2020.
   o  When do you require IPv6 to be a standard service available to all
      customers?  Answers range from 2010 to 2015; the most common
      answer is 2011.
   o  When do you predict IPv6 traffic to reach 50% of total traffic?
      Answers range from 2011 to 2020; the most common answer is 2015.

   IPv6 Status and Plans:
   o  Do you currently offer IPv6 as a regular service? 12 yes, 5
      partial, 12 no
   o  What % of customers currently use IPv6? <1% to 30%; mostly 0 or
      <1%
   o  When do you plan to start IPv6 deployment? 11 complete, 12 in
      progress, 3 in plan, 4 have no plan
   o  When do you plan to offer IPv6 as a special or beta-test service?
      For all those in progress or with a plan, the answer was either
      "now" or during 2010.
   o  When do you plan to offer IPv6 as a regular service to all
      customers?  For all those in progress or with a plan, the answer
      was between "now" and 2013 (except for one ISP who replied that it
      depends on the marketing department).

   IPv6 Technologies.  Note the answers refer to actual deployment or to
   plans, as the case may be:
   o  Which basic IPv6 access method(s) apply?
      *  Dual stack routing backbone: 28 yes, 1 maybe
      *  Separate IPv4 and IPv6 backbones: 2 yes, 1 maybe
      *  6to4 relay: 12 yes
      *  Teredo server: 5 yes
      *  Tunnel broker: Unfortunately this question was unclear and
         obviously misunderstood by most respondents.  Several
         respondents mentioned that they are getting their own transit
         connectivity via static tunnels.
      *  Something else: Answers were 6VPE + NAT64/DNS64; PNAT;
         "considering 6RD"
   o  Please briefly explain the main reasons/issues behind your choice:
      The best summary of the answers is "dual stack is simplest, why do
      anything else?".
   o  Which types of equipment in your network are unable to support
      IPv6?  The most common answer was CPE (9 mentions).  Also
      mentioned: handsets; DSLAMs; routers (including several specific
      models); traffic management boxes; load balancers; VPN boxes;



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      management interfaces & systems; firewalls; billing systems.
   o  Can they be field-upgraded? 5 yes, 4 partially, 10 no and numerous
      "don't know" or "hopefully"
   o  Is any equipment 100% dedicated to IPv6? 7 yes, 23 no
   o  Is IPv6 an opportunity to restructure your whole topology? 2 yes,
      5 partial, 23 no
   o  Do you include support for DNS AAAA queries over IPv6? 20 yes, 5
      plan, 4 no
   o  Do you include support for reverse DNS for IPv6 addresses? 21 yes,
      3 plan, 5 no
   o  What length(s) of IPv6 prefix do you have or need from the
      registry? 1 /19, 1 /21 (plus several /32s), 1 /22 1 /30, 3
      multiple /32s, 20 /32, 3 /48
   o  What length(s) of IPv6 prefix are offered to customers? 15 ISPs
      offer more than one of /48, /52, /56, /60 or /64. 2 offer /56
      only, 7 offer /48 only.  Two wired operators offer /64 only.
      Mobile operators offer /64 in accordance with 3GPP, but at least
      one would like to be allowed to offer /128 or /126.
   o  Do any customers share their IPv6 prefix among multiple hosts?
      Unfortunately this question was unclear and obviously
      misunderstood by most respondents.
   o  Do any of your customers prefer to use PI IPv6 prefixes? 9 yes, 17
      no
   o  How are IPv6 prefixes delegated to CPEs? 15 manual, 10
      DHCPv6[-PD], 8 SLAAC, 8 RADIUS, 2 PPoE
   o  Are your SMTP, POP3 and IMAP services dual-stack? 10 yes, 6 plan,
      12 no
   o  Are your HTTP services, including caching and webmail, dual-stack?
      9 yes, 1 partial, 4 plan, 14 no
   o  Are any other services dual-stack? 11 yes, 2 plan, 10 no
   o  Is each of the following dual-stack?
      *  Firewalls: 12 yes, 3 partial, 3 plan, 8 no
      *  Intrusion detection: 10 yes, 2 plan, 12 no
      *  Address management software: 15 yes, 1 plan, 12 no
      *  Accounting software: 7 yes, 20 no
      *  Monitoring software: 16 yes,2 partial,2 plan, 10 no
      *  Network management tools: 13 yes, 4 partial,1 plan, 10 no
   o  Do you or will you have IPv6-only customers? 13 yes (or maybe), 17
      no (or not likely)
   o  Do you have customers who have explicitly refused to consider
      IPv6? 5 yes, 22 no
   o  Interworking issues:
      *  How many years do you expect customers to run any IPv4-only
         applications?  Answers range from 2 years to infinity, most
         frequent answer is >10 years.
      *  Is IPv6-IPv4 interworking at the the IP layer needed? 15 yes,9
         uncertain, 3 no




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      *  Do you include a NAT-PT IPv6/IPv4 translator? 2 yes,1 plan, 25
         no
      *  If yes, does that include DNS translation? 1 plan, 2 no
      *  If not, do you plan to operate an IPv6/IPv4 translator? 10 plan
         (NAT64), 7 no, others uncertain
      *  If not, how do you plan to connect IPv6-only customers to IPv4-
         only services? 7 rely on dual stack; 3 have no plan (one said
         "their problem")
      *  If you offer IP multicast, will that need to be translated too?
         1 yes, 2 uncertain, 5 no
   o  Any plans for Mobile IPv6 (or Nemo mobile networks)? 6 yes,2
      uncertain, 21 no


Appendix B.  Questionnaire

   This appendix reproduces the technical body of the questionnaire that
   was made available for ISPs to express their requirements, plans and
   experience.

      I. General questions about IP service
      1.Do you offer origin-only (stub, end-user) IP service, transit IP
      service, or both?
      2.Approximate number of private/small office customers (one IPv4
      address)
      3.Approximate number of corporate customers (block of IPv4
      addresses, not included in Q2)
      4.Do you offer IP multicast service?
      5.Do any of your customers require multihoming to multiple ISPs?
      6.Access technologies used (ADSL,etc.)
      7.Do your customers use CPE that you supply?
      7.1.What % of customers?
      7.2.Does the CPE that you provide support native IPv6?
      8.When do you expect to run out of public IPv4 address space
      inside your own network?
      8.1.Do you run private (RFC1918) addresses and NAT within your
      network (i.e., a second layer of NAT in the
      case of customers with their own NAT)?
      8.2.What % of your IPv4 space is needed for your own use (not for
      customers)?
      9.When do you expect to run out of public IPv4 address space for
      customers?
      9.1.Do you offer private (RFC1918) addresses to your customers?
      II.  Questions about requirements for IPv6 service
      10.Are some big customers requesting IPv6?
      11.When do you predict 10% and 50% of your customers to require
      IPv6 service?




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      12.When do you require IPv6 to be a standard service available to
      all customers?
      13.When do you predict IPv6 traffic to reach 50% of total traffic?
      III.  Questions about status and plans for IPv6 service
      14.Do you currently offer IPv6 as a regular service?
      14.1.What % of your customers currently use IPv6?
      14.2.When do you plan to start IPv6 deployment?
      14.3.When do you plan to offer IPv6 as a special or beta-test
      service to customers?
      15.When do you plan to offer IPv6 as a regular service to all
      customers?
      IV.  Questions about IPv6 technologies
      16.Which basic IPv6 access method(s) apply:
      16.1. dual stack routing backbone?
      16.2. separate IPv4 and IPv6 backbones?
      16.3. 6to4 relay?
      16.4.  Teredo server?
      16.5. tunnel broker?  If so, which one?
      16.6.  Something else?  Please briefly describe your method:
      16.7.  If possible, please briefly explain the main reasons/issues
      behind your choice.
      17.Which types of equipment in your network are unable to support
      IPv6?
      17.1.Can they be field-upgraded to support IPv6?
      17.2.Is any equipment 100% dedicated to IPv6?
      18.Is IPv6 an opportunity to restructure your whole topology?
      19.Do you include support for DNS AAAA queries over IPv6?
      20.Do you include support for reverse DNS for IPv6 addresses?
      21.What length(s) of IPv6 prefix do you have or need from the
      registry?
      22.What length(s) of IPv6 prefix are offered to customers?
      22.1.Do any customers share their IPv6 prefix among multiple
      hosts?
      23.Do any of your customers prefer to use PI IPv6 prefixes instead
      of a prefix from you?
      24.How are IPv6 prefixes delegated to CPEs?  (Manual, PPPoE,
      RADIUS, DHCPv6, stateless autoconfiguration/RA, etc...)
      25.Are your SMTP, POP3 and IMAP services dual-stack?
      26.Are your HTTP services, including caching and webmail, dual-
      stack?
      27.Are any other services dual-stack?
      28.Is each of the following dual-stack?
      28.1.Firewalls
      28.2.Intrusion detection
      28.3.Address management software
      28.4.Accounting software





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      28.5.Monitoring software
      28.6.Network management tools
      29.Do you or will you have IPv6-only customers?
      30.Do you have customers who have explicitly refused to consider
      IPv6?
      31.How many years do you expect customers to run any IPv4-only
      applications?
      32.Is IPv6-IPv4 interworking at the the IP layer needed?
      33.Do you include a NAT-PT IPv6/IPv4 translator?
      33.1.If yes, does that include DNS translation?
      33.2.If not, do you plan to operate an IPv6/IPv4 translator?
      33.3.If not, how do you plan to connect IPv6-only customers to
      IPv4-only services?
      33.4.If you offer IP multicast, will that need to be translated
      too?
      34.Any plans for Mobile IPv6 (or Nemo mobile networks)?
      35.What features and tools are missing today for IPv6 deployment
      and operations?
      36.Any other comments about your IPv6 experience or plans?  What
      went well, what was difficult, etc.


Authors' Addresses

   Brian Carpenter
   Department of Computer Science
   University of Auckland
   PB 92019
   Auckland,   1142
   New Zealand

   Email: brian.e.carpenter@gmail.com


   Sheng Jiang
   Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd
   KuiKe Building, No.9 Xinxi Rd.,
   Shang-Di Information Industry Base, Hai-Dian District, Beijing
   P.R. China

   Email: shengjiang@huawei.com










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