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Internet Engineering Task Force                 D. Clark / J. Wroclawski
INTERNET-DRAFT                                                   MIT LCS
draft-clark-diff-svc-alloc-00.txt                             July, 1997
                                                          Expires: 12/97

           An Approach to Service Allocation in the Internet


      This note describes the Service Allocation Profile scheme for
      differential service allocation within the Internet. The scheme is
      based on a simple packet drop preference mechanism at interior
      nodes, and highly flexible service profiles at edges and inter-
      provider boundary points within the net. The service profiles
      capture a wide variety of user requirements and expectations, and
      allow different users to receive different levels of service from
      the network in a scalable and efficient manner.

      The note describes the basic form of the mechanism, discusses the
      range of services that users and providers can obtain by employing
      it, and gives a more detailed presentation of particular
      technical, deployment, standardization, and economic issues
      related to its use.

Status of this Memo

   This document is an Internet-Draft.  Internet-Drafts are working
   documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas,
   and its working groups.  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress".

   To learn the current status of any Internet-Draft, please check the
   "1id-abstracts.txt" listing contained in the Internet- Drafts Shadow
   Directories on ftp.is.co.za (Africa), nic.nordu.net (Europe),
   munnari.oz.au (Pacific Rim), ds.internic.net (US East Coast), or
   ftp.isi.edu (US West Coast).

   NOTE: This draft is a snapshot of a document in progress, and was
   somewhat arbitrarily cast into its current form at the Internet-Draft

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   submission deadline for the Munich IETF. The authors apologize in
   advance for a certain raggedness of presentation..

1. Introduction

   This document describes a framework for providing what has been
   called differentiated service, or allocated capacity service, in the
   Internet. The goal of the mechanism is to allocate the bandwidth of
   the Internet to different users in a controlled way during periods of
   congestion. The mechanism applies equally to traditional applications
   based on TCP, such as file transfer, data base access or Web servers,
   and new sorts of applications such as real time audio or video.

   The mechanism we describe can provide users with a predictable
   expectation of what service the Internet will provide to them in
   times of congestion, and can allow different users to obtain
   different levels of service from the network. This contrasts with
   today's Internet, in which each user gets some unpredictable share of
   the capacity.

   Our mechanism provides two additional things that are important to
   this task. First, it allows users and providers with a wide range of
   business and administrative models to make capacity allocation
   decisions. In the public Internet, where commercial providers offer
   service for payment, the feedback will most often be different prices
   charged to customers with different requirements. This allows the
   providers to charge differential prices to users that attach greater
   value to their Internet access, and thus fund the deployment of
   additional resources to better serve them. But whether pricing, or
   some other administrative control is used (as might apply in a
   corporate or military network), the same mechanism for allocating
   capacity can be used.

   The mechanism also provides useful information to providers about
   provisioning requirements. With our mechanism in place, service
   providers can more easily allocate specific levels of 3assured2
   capacity to customers, and can easily monitor their networks to
   detect when the actual service needs of their customers are not being

   While this document does describe a mechanism, this is a small part
   of its goal. There are a number of mechanisms that might be proposed,
   and the issue is not just demonstrating which of them works (most do
   work in some fashion), but to discuss what the problem to be solved
   actually is, and therefore which of the possible mechanisms best
   meets the needs of the Internet. This document is thus as much about
   what the problem actually is, as it is about a preferred solution.

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1.1 Separating results from mechanism

   An essential aspect of this scheme is the range of services the user
   can obtain using the mechanism.  The mechanism is obviously not
   useful if it does not meet a current need. Some initial requirements
   we see for services are that they must be useful, easy to understand,
   possible to measure (so the user can tell whether he is getting the
   service he contracted for), and easy to implement.

   At the same time, we should try very hard not to embed a specific set
   of services into the core of the Internet. As we gain experience in
   the marketplace, we may discover that our first speculations are
   wrong about what service the user actually wants. It should be
   possible to change the model, evolve it, and indeed to try different
   models at the same time to see which better meets the needs of the
   user and the market. So this scheme has the two goals: defining and
   implementing a first set of services, but permitting these services
   to be changed without modifying the "insides" of the Internet,
   specifically the routers.

   We will return later to the discussion of different sorts of

2. Outline of this document

   This document is organized as follows:

   Section 3 describes the basic mechanism, to give a general idea of
   how such a service can be implemented.

   Section 4 discusses the services which might be desired. It proposes
   a first set of services that might be implemented, and discusses the
   range of services that can be built out of this mechanism.

   Section 5 describes the location of service profiles in the network.

   Section 6 describes details of the mechanism. These include our
   specific algorithm for the dropper, issues concerning rate control of
   TCP, and dealing with non-responsive flows.

   Section 7 compares this mechanism with some alternatives.

   Section 8 discusses deployment issues, incremental deployment, and
   what portions of the mechanism require standardization.

   Section 9 discusses security issues.

3. The basic scheme

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   The general approach of this mechanism is to define a service profile
   for each user, and to design a mechanism in the router that favors
   traffic that is within those service profiles. The core of the idea
   is very simple -- monitor the traffic of each user as it enters the
   network, and tag packets as being "in" or "out" of their service
   profile. Then at each router, if congestion occurs, preferentially
   drop traffic that is tagged as being "out".

   Inside the network, at the routers, there is no separation of traffic
   from different users into different flows or queues. The packets of
   all the users are aggregated into one queue, just as they are today.
   Different users can have very different profiles, which will result
   in different users having different quantities of "in" packets in the
   service queue. A router can treat these packets as a single
   commingled pool. This attribute of the scheme makes it very easy to
   implement, in contrast to a scheme like current RSVP reservations, in
   which the packets must be explicitly classified at each node. We have
   more to say about this issue below.

   To implement this scheme, the routers must be augmented to implement
   our dropping scheme, and a new function must be implemented to tag
   the traffic according to its service profile. This algorithm can be
   implemented as part of an existing network component (host, access
   device or router) or in a new component created for the purpose.
   Conceptually, we will refer to it as a distinct device called a
   "profile meter". We use the term "meter" rather than "tagger",
   because, as we will discuss below, the profile meter can actually
   take a more general set of actions.

   The idea of a service profile can be applied at any point in the
   network where a customer-provider relationship exists. A profile may
   describe the needs of a specific user within a campus, the service
   purchased by a corporate customer from an ISP, or the traffic
   handling agreement between two international providers. We discuss
   the location of profiles further in Section 5.

   The description above associates the profile with the traffic sender.
   That is, the sender has a service profile, the traffic is tagged at
   the source according to that profile, and then dropped if necessary
   inside the network. In some circumstances, however, it is the
   receiving user that wishes to control the level of service. The web
   provides a simple example; a customer using his browser for business
   research may be much more interested in a predictable level of
   performance than the casual surfer. The key observation is that
   "value" in the network does not always flow in the same direction as
   the data packets.

   Thus, for full generality, a "dual" mechanism is required, that can

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   be either "sender driven" or "receiver driven". Most of this document
   is written, for simplicity, in terms of a sender scheme, but we
   briefly describe the receiver version as well, and discuss the
   circumstances in which it is important. In evaluating alternative
   mechanisms, it is important to see if both a sender and receiver
   version can be built.

   In later sections, we discuss the specifics of the profiling or
   tagging mechanism and the treatment of profiled packets within the
   network. First we turn to the question of the range of services the
   mechanism ought to support.

4. Range of services

   As discussed above, there are two general issues concerning service
   models. First, we want to start out by implementing a simple set of
   services, which are useful and easy to understand. At the same time,
   we should not embed these services into the mechanism, but should
   build a general mechanism that allows us to change the services as
   our experience matures.

   Our scheme provides this flexibility.  To oversimplify, a service is
   defined by the profile meter, which implements the user's service
   profile. To change the service, it is necessary "only" to change the
   profile meter. The  routers in the interior of the network implement
   a single common mechanism which is used by the different meters to
   provide different services.

   Three things must be considered when describing a service:
     - what exactly is provided to the customer (an example might be
     "one megabit per second of bandwidth, continuously available")

     - to where this service is provided (examples might be a specific
     destination, a group of destinations, all nodes on the local
     provider, or "everywhere")

     - with what level of assurance is the service provided (or
     alternately, what level of performance uncertainty can the user
   These things are coupled; it is much easier to provide "a guaranteed
   one megabit per second" to a specific destination than to anywhere in
   the Internet.

4.1 A first service model

   As a place to start, a particularly simple service might provide the
   equivalent of a dedicated link of some specified bandwidth from
   source to destination.  (The virtue of this simple model has been

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   clearly articulated by Van Jacobson.) This model is easy for the user
   to understand -- he can take his existing application, connect it
   across a physical link and see how it performs. If he can make it
   work in that context, then this service will allow him to run that
   application over the Internet.

   This model has been implemented in a number of network architectures,
   with different "enhancements". The CBR service of ATM is an example,
   as is (to some extent) the CIR mechanism of Frame Relay. However,
   there are some issues and limitations to this very simple model.

   One very important limit to a pure virtual link model is that the
   user may not wish to purchase this virtual link full time. He may
   need it only some of the time, and in exchange would hope to obtain a
   lower cost. A provider could meet this desire by offering a more
   expressive profile; say a committed bandwidth with some duty cycle,
   e.g. "3 mb/s with a 5% duty cycle measured over 5 minutes". Or, the
   provider could offer the user a rebate based on observed (non)usage,
   or allow him to reserve the capacity dynamically on demand.

   A second issue is whether the user can exceed the capacity of the
   virtual link when the network is unloaded. Today, the Internet allows
   its users to go faster under that circumstance. Continuing to capture
   that benefit may be important in user acceptance. The CIR of Frame
   Relay works this way, and it is an important aspect of its market

   An equally important issue is that the user may not wish to set up
   different distinguished committed bandwidth flows to different
   destinations, but may prefer to have a more aggregated commitment.
   There are several drawbacks to making distinct bandwidth commitments
   between each source and destination. First, this may result in a
   large number of flow specifications. If the user is interested in
   1000 network access points, he must specify one million source-
   destination pairs. Frame Relay has this specification problem.
   Second, the sum of the distinct commitments for any source (or
   destination) cannot exceed the physical capacity of the access link
   at that point, which may force each individual assurance to be rather
   small. Finally, the source-destination model implies that the user
   can determine his destinations in advance, and in some cases that he
   understands the network topology; two situations which are not
   universally true.

   In fact, several variations of service commitment might make sense to
   different users; from one source to a specific destination, from a
   source to a pool of specified destinations (one might configure a
   Virtual Private Network in this way) and finally from a source to
   "anywhere", which could mean either all points on the ISP, on a

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   collection of ISPs, or any reachable node.

   The latter sorts of commitments are by their nature more difficult to
   offer with high assurance.  There is no way to know for sure what the
   service will be to any specific destination, because that depends on
   what other traffic is leaving the source, and what other traffic is
   arriving at the destination. Offering commitments to "anywhere within
   the ISP" implies that the ISP has provisioned its resources
   adequately to support all in-profile users simultaneously to the same
   destination. Offering commitments to "anywhere at all" implies that
   all ISPs in any reachable path from the user have provisioned
   sufficiently, which is most unlikely.

4.2 Managing bursty traffic

   Not all Internet traffic is continuous in its requirement for
   bandwidth. Indeed, based on measurements on the Internet, much of the
   traffic is very bursty. It may thus be that a service model based on
   a fixed capacity "virtual link" does not actually meet user's needs
   very well.  Some other more complex service profile that permits
   bursty traffic may be more suitable.

   It is possible to support bursty traffic by changing the profile
   meter to implement this new sort of service. The key issue is to
   insure, in the center of the network, that there is enough capacity
   to carry this bursty traffic, and thus actually meet the commitments
   implied by the outstanding profiles. This requires a more
   sophisticated provisioning strategy than the simple "add 'em up"
   needed for constant bit-rate virtual links.  A body of mathematics
   that is now maturing provides a way to relate the bursty behavior of
   a single flow to the resulting implications for the required overall
   bandwidth when a number of such flows are combined. (see, for example
   [Kelly97]). This sort of analysis can be employed as a way to predict
   the capacity that must be provided to support profiles describing
   bursty traffic.   As a practical matter, in the center of the
   existing Internet, at the backbone routers of the major ISPs, there
   is such a high degree of traffic aggregation that the bursty nature
   of individual traffic flows is essentially invisible. So providing
   bursty service profiles to individual users will not create a
   substantial provisioning issue in the center of the network, while
   possibly adding significant value to the service as perceived by the

4.3 Degrees of assurance

   The next aspect of sorting out services is to consider the degree of
   assurance that the user will receive that the contracted capacity
   will actually be there when he attempts to use it.

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   Statistical bandwidth allocation allows the Internet to support an
   increased number of users, use bandwidth vastly more efficiently, and
   deal flexibly with new applications and services. However, it does
   lead to some uncertainty as to the bandwidth that will be available
   at any instant.  Our approach to allocating traffic is to follow this
   philosophy to the degree that the user can tolerate the uncertainty.
   In other words, we believe that a capacity allocation scheme should
   provide a range of service assurance. At one extreme, the user may
   demand an absolute service assurance, even in the face of some number
   of network failures. (Wall Street traders often have two phones on
   their desk, connected by different building wiring to different phone
   exchanges, so that they can continue to make money even if a central
   office goes down or half the building burns.)  Less demanding users
   may wish to purchase a service profile that is "usually" available,
   but may still fail with low probability.  The presumption is that a
   higher assurance service will cost substantially more to implement.

   We have called these statistically provisioned service profiles
   "expected capacity" profiles. This term was picked to suggest that
   the profiles do not describe a strict guarantee, but rather an
   expectation that the user can have about the service he will receive
   during times of congestion. This sort of service will somewhat
   resemble the Internet of today in that users today have some
   expectation of what performance they will receive; the key change is
   that our mechanism by which different users can have very different

   Statistical assurance is a matter of provisioning. In our scenario,
   an ISP can track the amount of traffic tagged as "in" crossing
   various links over time, and provide enough capacity to carry this
   subset of the traffic, even at times of congestion. This is how the
   Internet is managed today, but the addition of tags gives the ISP a
   better handle on how much of the traffic at any instant is "valued"
   traffic, and how much is discretionary or opportunistic traffic for
   which a more relaxed attitude can be tolerated.

   For traffic that requires a higher level of commitment, more explicit
   actions must be taken.  The specific sources and destinations must be
   determined, and then the paths between these points must be inspected
   to determine if there is sufficient capacity. There are two
   approaches. The static approach involves making a long term
   commitment to the user, and reserving the network resources to match
   this commitment.  This involves some computation based on the
   topology map of the network to allocate the needed bandwidth along
   the primary (and perhaps secondary) routes.  The dynamic approach
   involves using a setup or reservation protocol such as RSVP to
   request the service.  This would explore the network path at the time
   of the request, and reserve the bandwidth from a pool available for

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   dynamic services. Information concerning this pool would have to be
   stored in the routers themselves, to support the operation of RSVP.
   We have proposed a lightweight version of RSVP, called RSVP with
   Trusted TOS Tags, or T3, as a way to implement this dynamic service
   efficiently.  Within one ISP, the reservation could be submitted to a
   central location for acceptance, depending on the design adopted for
   bandwidth management.

   It is important to note that traffic requiring this higher level of
   assurance can still be aggregated with other similar traffic. It is
   not necessary to separate out each individual flow to insure that it
   receives it promised service. It is necessary only to insure that
   sufficient capacity is available between the specific sources and
   destinations desiring the service, and that the high-assurance
   packets can draw on that capacity. This implies that there would be
   two queues in the router, one for traffic that has received a
   statistical assurance, and one for this higher or "guaranteed"
   assurance. Within each queue, "in" and "out" tags would be used to
   distinguish the subset of the traffic that is to receive the
   preferred treatment.  However, some other discriminator must be used
   to separate the two classes, and thus sort packets into the two
   queues. Our specific proposal, which we detail later, is that two
   values of the TOS field be used, one to mean statistical assurance,
   and one to mean guaranteed assurance. Statistical assurance would
   correspond to the service delivered across the Internet today,
   augmented with "in" and "out" tags.

   An ISP could avoid the complexity of multiple queues and still
   provide the high-assurance service by over-provisioning the network
   to the point where all "in" traffic is essentially never dropped, no
   matter what usage patterns the users generate. It is an engineering
   decision of the ISP whether this approach is feasible.

4.4 A service profile for the access path

   In some cases, what the user is concerned with is not the end-to-end
   behavior he achieves, but the profile for utilizing his access path
   to the network.  For example, users today buy a high-speed access
   path for two different reasons. One is to transfer a continuous flow
   of traffic, the other to transfer bursts at high speed. The user who
   has bursty traffic might want on the one hand an assurance that the
   bursts can go through at some known speed, but on the other hand a
   lower price than the user who delivers a continuous flow into the
   Internet.  Giving these two sorts of users different service profiles
   that describe the aggregated traffic across the access link will help
   discriminate between them, and provide a basis for differential

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   A service profile of the sort discussed here is a reasonable way to
   capture this sort of requirement. By tagging the traffic that crosses
   the access path according to some service profile, the ISP commits to
   forward that subset of the traffic within its region, and only
   delivers the rest if the network is underloaded.  It is instructive
   to compare this approach to pricing an access path to the more
   traditional "usage-based" scheme. In the traditional scheme, the
   actual usage is metered, and the user is charged a fee that depends
   on the usage. If the user sends more, he pays more. However, since
   TCP goes faster if the net is underloaded, it is hard for the user
   (or the ISP aggregating his traffic) to actually regulate his usage.
   In contrast, a service profile allows two users with different needs
   to be distinguished (and presumably charged differently) but each
   user could be charged a known price based on the profile. If the
   traffic exceeds the profile, the consequence is not increased fees,
   but congestion pushback if the network is congested.

4.5 An example of a more sophisticated profile

   Our initial service profile modeled a dedicated link of some set
   capacity. This service profile is easy to understand at one level,
   but once one runs TCP over this link, it becomes much harder to
   predict what behavior can actually be achieved. TCP hunts for the
   correct rate by increasing its window size until a packet is
   discarded at the bottleneck point, and then cutting its window size
   by two (in many current implementations). How this behavior interacts
   with a link of fixed size is a function of buffer size and
   implementation details in TCP.

   A more sophisticated service profile would be one that attempted to
   provide a specified and predictable throughput to a TCP stream, so
   long as the TCP was "well-behaved". This would actually make it
   easier for the user to test the profile, because he could just run a
   TCP-based application and observe the throughput. This is an example
   of a "higher-level" profile, because it provides a service which is
   less closely related to some existing network component and more
   closely related to the user's actual needs. These profiles are more
   difficult to define, because they depend on the behavior of both the
   network and the end-nodes. However, we have experimented with the
   design of such a profile, and believe that it is possible to
   implement this sort of service as well. A more detailed description
   of the profile needed to fix a TCP transfer rate is given in Appendix

5. Location of Service Profiles in the Network

   In the simple sender-based scheme described so far, the function that
   checks whether traffic fits within a profile is implemented by

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   tagging packets as in or out of profile at the edge of the network.
   The complete story is more complex. A profile describes an
   expectation of service obtained by a customer from a provider. These
   relationships exist at many points in the network, ranging from
   individual users and their campus LANs to the peering relationships
   between global ISP's. Any such boundary may be an appropriate place
   for a profile meter.

   Further, the packet tagging associated with this service profile
   will, in the general case, be performed by devices at either side of
   the boundary. One sort, located on the traffic sourcing side of a
   network boundary, is a "policy meter". This sort implements some
   policy by choosing the packets that leave the network (or user's
   machine) with their in-profile bit set, and thus receive the assured
   service. Another sort, a "checking meter", sits on the arriving-
   traffic side of a network boundary, checks the incoming traffic, and
   marks packets as out of profile (or turns off excess in-profile bits)
   if the arriving traffic exceeds the assigned profile.

   A general model is that the first meter that the traffic encounters
   should provide the highest degree of discrimination among the flows.
   A profile meter could be integrated into a host implementation of TCP
   and IP, where it could serve to regulate the relative use of the
   network by individual flows. The subsequent meters, looking only at
   larger aggregates, serve to verify that there is a large enough
   overall service contract in place at that point to carry all of the
   traffic tagged as "in" (the valuable traffic) at the interior points.
   When a traffic meter is placed at the point where a campus or
   corporate network connects to an ISP, or one ISP connects to another,
   the traffic being passed across the link is highly aggregated. The
   ISP, on the arriving- traffic side of the link, will check only to
   verify the total behavior. On the traffic sourcing side of the link,
   an additional profile meter can be installed to verify that tags have
   been applied according to policy of the user.

   Additional profile meters installed at intermediate points can
   provide good feedback on network demand.  Consider a specific
   situation, where traffic is tagged at individual hosts according to
   policies specific to these hosts, and then passes through a second
   meter at the point of attachment from the private network to the
   public Internet. If the number of "in" packets arriving at that point
   exceeds the aggregate service profile purchased at that point, this
   means that the user has not purchased enough aggregate capacity to
   match the needs of his individual policy setting. In the short run,
   there is no choice but to turn some of these "in" packets to "out",
   (or to charge an extra fee for carrying unexpected overloads), but in
   the long run, this provides a basis to negotiate a higher service
   level with the ISP.  So traffic meters actually provide a basis for

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   monitoring user needs, and moving users to a higher service profile
   as needed.

5.1 Controlling the scope of profiles

   Even in the case where the user wants to obtain a service profile
   that is not specific to one destination, but rather applies to "all"
   possible destinations, it is clear that the "all" cannot be literally
   true.  Any service profile that involves an unspecified set of
   destinations will have to bound the scope of the agreement. For
   example, a single ISP or a set of co-operating ISPs may agree to
   provide an assured service profile among all of their end points, but
   if the traffic passes beyond that point, the profile will cease to

   The user might be given further options in the design of his profile.
   For example, if there are regions of restricted bandwidth within the
   Internet, some users may wish to pay more in order to have their "in"
   tags define their service across this part of the net, while others
   may be willing to have their "in" tags reset if the traffic reaches
   this point.

   This could be implemented by installing a profile meter at that point
   in the network, with explicit lists of source-destination pairs that
   are and are not allowed to send "in" traffic beyond this point. The
   alternative would be some sort of "zone system" for service profiles
   that is specified in the packets themselves. See [Clark97] for a
   discussion of a zone system.

6. Details of the Mechanism

   This section describes several aspects of our proposed mechanism in
   more detail.

6.1 Design of the dropper

   One of the key parts of this scheme is the algorithm in the router
   that drops "out" packets preferentially during times of congestion.
   The behavior of this algorithm must be well understood and agreed on,
   because the taggers at the edge of the network must take this
   behavior into account in their design. There can be many taggers,
   with different goals as to the service profile, the degree of
   aggregation etc. There is only one dropper, and all the routers have
   to perform an agreed behavior.

   The essence of our dropper is an algorithm which processes all
   packets in order as received, in a single queue, but preferentially
   drops "out" packets. There are other designs that could be proposed

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   for queue management, for example to put the "in" packets in a higher
   priority queue. There are specific reasons why we prefer drop
   preference to priority queuing for the allocation of best effort
   traffic, but we delay that discussion until Section 7.

   The primary design goals of the dropper are the following:
     - It must allow the taggers to implement a range of service
     profiles in a useful and understandable way.

     - If the router is flooded with "out" packets, it must be able to
     discard them all without harming the "in" packets. In other words,
     it must deal well with non-conforming flows that do not adjust
     their sending rate when they observe packet loss.

     - If the router is receiving a number of "well-behaved" TCP flows,
     which will (as TCP always does) speed up until they encounter a
     lost packet, it must have enough real buffering available that once
     it starts to get overloaded with packets, it can discard "out"
     packets and still receive traffic bursts for a round trip until the
     affected TCP slows down.

6.2 RIO -- RED with In and Out

   Our specific dropping scheme is an extension of the Random Early
   Detection scheme, or RED, that is now being deployed in the Internet.
   The general behavior of RED is that, as the queue begins to build up,
   it drops packets with a low but increasing probability, instead of
   waiting until the queue is full and then dropping all arriving
   packets.  This results in better overall behavior, shorter queues,
   and lower drop rates.

   Our approach is to run two RED algorithms at the same time, one for
   "in" packets, and one for "out" packets. The "out" RED algorithm
   starts dropping at a much shorter average queue length, and drops
   much more aggressively than the "in" algorithm. With proper setting
   of the parameters, the "out" traffic can be controlled before the
   queue grows to the point that any "in" traffic is dropped.  We call
   this scheme RIO.

   There are some subtle aspects to this scheme. The "in" dropper must
   look at the number of "in" packets in the queue. The "out" dropper
   must look at the total queue length, taking into account both "in"
   and "out". This is because the link can be subjected to a range of
   overloads, from a mix of "in" and "out" traffic to just "out". In
   both cases, the router must start dropping "outs" before the "in"
   traffic is affected, and must continue to achieve the basic function
   of RED; preserving enough free buffer space to absorb transient loads
   with a duration too short to be affected by feedback congestion

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6.3. Rate control of TCP

   A useful, but challenging, problem is to build a traffic meter that
   causes a TCP to send at a specified maximum rate in periods of
   congestion. Such a meter works by causing the TCP's bandwidth usage
   (actually congestion avoidance) algorithm to "hunt" between somewhat
   over and somewhat under the target rate, by tagging packets such that
   the RIO algorithm will drop them appropriately when the network is
   loaded. An important aspect of this is that the meter and RIO work
   together to avoid *too many* closely spaced packet discards, forcing
   the TCP into slow-start and causing it to obtain less than the
   desired bandwidth.

   A detailed description of a traffic meter which meets these
   objectives is given in Appendix B of this note.

6.4. Dealing with non-responsive flows

   A well-behaved TCP, or other traffic source that responds similarly
   to congestion signaled by packet loss, will respond well to the RIO
   dropper. As more of its packets are marked as "out", one will
   eventually be dropped. At this point, the source will back off. As a
   result, most of the time a network of well-behaved TCPs will contain
   just enough "out" packets to use up any excess capacity not claimed
   by the "in" packets being sent.

   But what if there is a source of packets that does not adjust?  This
   could happen because of a poorly implemented TCP, or from a source of
   packets, such as a video data application, that does not or cannot

   In this circumstance, if the unresponsive flow1s  packets are marked
   as out of profile, the  flood of "out" packets will cause a RIO
   router to operate in a different way, but well behaved TCPs and
   similar flows must continue to receive good service. (If the
   unresponsive flow1s packets are in profile, the network should be
   able carry them, and there is no issue.)

6.4.1. Robustness against non-responsive flows

   In the RIO scheme, once the level of "out" packets exceeds a certain
   average level, all the incoming "out" packets will be discarded (this
   is similar to the non-RIO RED behavior). This behavior has the
   consequence of increasing the router1s queue length. The average
   queue length will increase by the number of "out" packets that are
   allowed to sit in the queue before RIO switches over to the phase

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   where it drops every "out".  There must be enough physical room in
   the buffer so that even when there are this many "out" packets
   present, there is enough room for the normal instantaneous bursts of
   "in" packets which would be seen in any event. Thus,  a RIO router
   may require slightly larger queues than a non-RIO router.

   In the simulations summarized in Appendix B, the maximum number of
   "out" packets is approximately 15. (This particular number is not
   magic -- the point is that it is not 1, nor 100.) So to operate RIO,
   it will be necessary to increase the minimum physical buffer size by
   perhaps this amount, or a little more, to allow for swings in the
   instantaneous numbers of "out" packets as well.   But in most
   circumstances, this is a modest increase in the buffer size.

6.4.2. Filtering out non-responsive flows

   Although RIO is reasonably robust against overload from non-
   responsive flows, it may be useful to consider the alternative
   strategy of singling out non-conforming flows and selectively
   dropping them in the congested router. There has been work [FF97]
   towards enhancing the traditional RED scheme with a mechanism to
   detect and discriminate against non-conforming flows. Discriminating
   against these flows requires the installation of a  packet classifier
   or filter that can select these packet flows, so that they can be
   discarded.  This adds complexity and introduces scaling concerns to
   the scheme. These concerns are somewhat mitigated because only the
   misbehaving flows, not the majority of flows that behave, need be
   recognized.  Whatever classification scheme that basic RED might use
   can be used by RIO as well.

   The difference between our framework and RED is that the designers of
   RED are working to design an algorithm that runs locally in each
   router to detect non-conforming flows, without any concept of a
   service profile. In that case, the only sort of traffic allocation
   that can be done is some form of local fairness. However, with the
   addition of profile tags, the router can look only at the "out"
   packets, which by definition represent that portion of a flow that is
   in excess.  This might make it easier to detect locally flows that
   were non- conforming.  The alternative approach would be an
   indication from the traffic meter that the flow is persistently
   exceeding the service profile in a time of congestion. This
   indication, a control packet, could either install a classifier in
   each potential point of congestion, or flow all the way back to the
   traffic meter nearest the sender, where the traffic can be
   distinguished and discarded (or otherwise discriminated against). The
   latter approach has the benefit that the control packet need not
   follow the detailed hop-by-hop route of the data packet in reverse,
   which is hard to do in today's Internet with asymmetric routes.

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   We consider the question of whether such a mechanism provides
   sufficient benefit over the approach of employing local detection of
   non-responsive flows at each node to be unresolved at present.

7. Alternatives to the mechanism

   Schemes for differential service or capacity allocation differ in a
   number of respects. Some standardize on the service profiles, and
   embed them directly in the routers. As discussed above, this scheme
   has the advantage that the actual service profile is not a part of
   what is standardized, but is instead realized locally in the traffic
   meter, which gives this scheme much greater flexibility in changing
   the profile.

7.1. Drop preference vs. priority

   One possible difference is what the router does when it is presented
   with an overload. Our scheme is based on a specific algorithm for
   drop preference for packets marked as "out". An alternative would be
   to put packets marked as "out" in a lower priority queue. Under
   overload that lower priority queue would be subjected to service
   starvation, queue overflow and eventually packet drops. Thus a
   priority scheme might be seen as similar to a drop preference scheme.

   They are similar, but not the same. The priority scheme has the
   consequence that packets in the two queues are reordered by the
   scheduling discipline that implements the priority behavior. If
   packets from a single TCP flow are metered such that some are marked
   as "in" and some as "out", they will in general arrive at the
   receiver out of order, which will cause performance problems with the
   TCP. In contrast, the RIO scheme always keeps the packets in order,
   and just explicitly drops some of the "out" packets if necessary.
   That makes TCP work much better under slight overload.

   The priority scheme is often proposed for the case of a restricted
   class of service profiles in which all the packets of a single flow
   are either "in" or "out". These schemes include the concept of a
   "premium" customer (all its packets are "in"), or a rate-limited flow
   (packets that exceed the service profile are dropped at the meter,
   rather than being passed on.) These proposals are valid experiments
   in what a service profile should be, but they are not the only
   possibilities. The drop preference scheme has the advantage that it
   seems to support a wider range of potential service profiles
   (including the above two), and thus offers an important level of

7.2. More bits?

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   A variation on this scheme is to have more than two levels of control
   -- more than simple "in" and "out". One reason to have more than two
   levels is to allow the user to express his range of values more
   completely. With three or four levels of tagging, the user could
   express what service profile he would like at different levels of
   congestion -- none, low, medium and severe.  The question is whether
   this actually brings much real incremental value. In commercial
   networks, which are usually provisioned in a conservative fashion, it
   is not clear that there will be enough congestion to discriminate
   between more than two states.  In other circumstances, for example
   military networks where severe service degradation might occur under
   adverse circumstances, having several levels of usage preference
   might be helpful.  Asking the user to define these several tiers of
   service profiles raises one issue, however; it presumes that the user
   is actually able to determine what his needs are to this degree of
   precision. It is not actually clear that the user has this level of
   understanding of how he would trade off usage against cost.

   There is an alternative way to deal with variation in the degree of
   congestion. Instead of coding the user's desires into each packet,
   one could imagine a management protocol running in the background
   that reports to the edges of the network what the current level of
   congestion is, or whether a special or crisis circumstance exists.
   Based on information from that protocol, the service profile of the
   user could be changed. Both approaches may have advantages. An
   advantage of the first is the lack of need for a management protocol.
   An advantage of the second is that the management protocol can
   express a much wider range of policies and reallocation actions.

   Another reason to have multiple levels of control is to achieve a
   smoother transition between the two states of a flow.   As discussed
   above, when controlling TCP, because of the specific congestion
   schemes used in TCP, it is helpful not to drop a number of packets
   from one flow at once, because it is likely to trigger a full TCP
   slow- start, rather then the preferable fast recovery action. Having
   more bits might enhance this discrimination. However, based on our
   simulations, if we are going to use more bits from the packet header
   for control, it might be a better option to move to an Explicit
   Congestion Notification design for the Internet, which seems to
   provide a better degree of control overall.

8. Deployment Issues

8.1. Incremental deployment plan.

   No scheme like this can be deployed at once in all parts of the
   Internet. It must be possible to install it incrementally, if it is
   to succeed at all.

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   The obvious path is to provide these capabilities first within a
   single ISP. This implies installing RIO routers within the ISP, and
   tagging the traffic at the access points to that ISP.  This requires
   a profile meter at each access link into that ISP. The meter could
   maintain a large amount of user-specific information about desired
   usage patterns between specific sources and destinations (and this
   might represent a business opportunity), but more likely would
   provide only rough categories of traffic classification.

   A user of this ISP could then install a profile meter on his end of
   the access link, which he controls and configures, to provide a
   finer- grained set of controls over which traffic is to be marked as
   "in" and "out". Eventually, meters might appear as part of host
   implementations, which would permit the construction of profiles that
   took into account the behavior of specific applications, and which
   would also control the use of network resources within the campus or
   corporate area.

   At the boundary to the region of routers implementing RIO, all
   traffic must be checked, to make sure that no un-metered traffic
   sneaks into the network tagged as "in". So the implementation of this
   scheme requires a consistent engineering of the network configuration
   within an administrative region (such as an ISP) to make sure that
   all sources of traffic have been identified, and either metered or
   "turned out".

   If some routers implement RIO, and some do not, but just implement
   simple RED, the user may fail to receive the committed service
   profile. But no other major failures will occur. That is, the worst
   that the user will see is what he sees today. One can achieve
   substantial incremental improvements by identifying points of actual
   congestion, and putting RIO routers there first.

8.2. What has to be standardized

   In fact, very little of this scheme needs to be standardized in the
   normal pattern of IETF undertakings. What is required is to agree on
   the general approach, and set a few specific standards.

8.2.1. Semantics of router behavior

   It is necessary to agree on the common semantics that all routers
   will display for "in" and "out" bits. Our proposal is that routers
   implement the RIO scheme, as described above.  The parameters should
   be left for operational adjustment.

   For the receiver-based scheme, the router has to tag packets rather
   than drop them.  We omit the description of the tagging algorithm,

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   only noting that it, too, must be agreed to if a receiver-based
   scheme is to be deployed.

8.2.2. Use of IP precedence field

   Currently, the three bit precedence field in the IP header is not
   widely used. Bit x of this field will be used as the "in/out" bit.
   This bit will be known as the In Profile Indicator, or IPI. The
   meaning of the IPI is that a 1 value implies "in".  This has the
   effect that the normal default value of the field, 0, will map to the
   baseline behavior, which is out of profile service.

8.2.3. Use of IP TOS field

   This document proposes to view Type of Service in a slightly
   different way than has been usual in the past. While previous RFCs
   have not been explicit (e.g. RFC 1349), the role of the ToS field has
   been thought of more to control routing than scheduling and dropping
   within the router. This document explicitly proposes to specify these
   features. The TOS field can be used for this purpose, but doing so
   will preclude its use in the same packet to select the service
   defined in RFC 1349 and RFC 1700: low delay, high throughput, low
   cost, high reliability and high security.

   According to RFC 1349, the TOS field should be viewed as a 4 bit
   integer value, with certain values reserved for backwards
   compatibility. We propose that the six defined values of TOS  be
   associated with the statistical service profiles ("expected capacity
   profiles") defined in this document. That is, the use of the IPI  is
   legal with any of these value of TOS, and the difference among them
   is routing options.

   A new value of TOS (yyyy) shall be used to specify the assured
   service profile, which has a level of assurance for the service
   profile that is not statistical in nature. As part of the design of
   this type of service, the routing will have to be controlled to
   achieve this goal, so the value yyyy for the TOS will also imply some
   routing constraints for the ISPs.  It is an engineering decision of
   the service provider how this sort of traffic is routed, so that it
   follows the routes along which the resources have been reserved.

8.2.4. Additional issues for the sender/receiver based scheme

   The combined sender-receiver scheme is capable of expressing a much
   more complex set of value relationships than the sender-based scheme.
   However, it implies more complexity and more bits in the header.  It
   does not appear possible to encode all the necessary information for
   the combined scheme in an IPv4 header. This option is thus proposed

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   as a consideration for IPv6, if there seems to be sufficient demand.

9. Security considerations

   This scheme is concerned with resource allocation, and thus the major
   security concern is theft of resources.  Resources can be stolen by
   injecting traffic that is marked as "in" but which has not passed
   through a legitimate profile meter into a RIO-controlled region of
   the network.

   To protect against this, it is necessary to define "regions of shared
   trust", and engineer and audit all the links that bring traffic into
   each of these regions to insure that a profile meter has been
   installed in each such link. Such a region might correspond to a
   single ISP, the backbone component of a single ISP, a collection of
   co-operating ISPs and so on. In general, the presence of a profile
   meter is an indication of a possible boundary where trust is not
   shared, and the traffic has to be verified.

   It is a matter for further research whether algorithms can be
   designed to detect (locally, at each router) a flow of packets that
   is not legitimate.

10. Acknowledgments

   The simulations reported in this paper were performed by Wenjia Fang.
   Earlier simulations that proved the concepts of the profile meter and
   the receiver-based scheme were performed by Pedro Zayas.  We
   acknowledge the valuable discussions with the members of the End-to-
   End research group.

Appendix A: Description of a receiver-based scheme

   The tagging scheme described above implements a model in which the
   sender, by selecting one or another service profile, determines what
   service will govern each transfer.  However, the sender- controlled
   model is not the only appropriate model for determining how Internet
   transmissions should be regulated.  For much of the traditional
   Internet, where information has been made available, often for free,
   to those users who care enough to retrieve it, it is the value that
   the receiver places on the transfer, not the sender, that would
   properly dictate the service allocated to the transfer. In this
   document, we do not debate the philosophical tradeoff between sender
   and receiver controlled schemes. Instead, we describe a mechanism
   that implements receiver control of service, which is similar in
   approach and meshes with the sender controlled tagging scheme.

   One technique that does not work is to have the receiver send some

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   credentials to the sender, on the basis of which a flag is set in the
   packet. This runs the risks of great complexity, but more
   fundamentally does not deal with multicast, where one packet may go
   to several receivers, each of which attaches a different value to the

   A critical design decision is whether the scheme must react to
   congestion instantly, or with one round trip delay. If it must react
   instantly, then each point of congestion must have stored state,
   installed by the receiver, that will allow that point to determine if
   the packet is "in" or "out" of profile.  This runs the risk of
   formidable complexity.  If, however, we are willing to have the
   reaction to congestion occur one round trip later, several quite
   tractable schemes can be proposed, which are similar to the sender
   controlled scheme in spirit.

   A receiver controlled scheme can be built using a traffic meter at
   the receiver, similar to the traffic meter at the sender in the
   sender tagging scheme. The meter knows what the current usage profile
   of the receiver is, and thus can check to see whether a stream of
   received packets is inside of the profile.  A (different) new flag in
   the packet, called Forward Congestion Notification, or FCN, is used
   to carry information about congestion to the receiver's traffic
   meter. A packet under this receiver controlled scheme starts out from
   the sender with the FCN bit off, and when the packet encounters
   congestion the bit is set on. As the packet reaches the destination,
   the receiver's traffic meter notes that the bit is on, and checks to
   see if the packet fits within the profile of the receiver. If it
   does, the service profile of the receiver is debited, and the bit is
   turned off in the packet. If the packet cannot fit within the profile
   of the user, the bit remains on.

   When the receiver receives a packet with the FCN on, which means that
   the receiver's profile does not have sufficient capacity to cover all
   the packets that encountered congestion, the sender must be
   instructed to slow down. This can occur in a number of ways. One, for
   TCP, the receiver could reduce the window size. That is, the receiver
   as well as the sender could compute a dynamic congestion window.
   This is complex to design.  Second, again for TCP, the ACK packet or
   a separate control message (such as an ICMP Source Quench) could
   carry back to the sender some explicit indication to slow down.
   Third, for TCP, if the traffic meter noted that the receiver seemed
   to have taken no action in response to the FCN bit, the meter can
   delete some returning ACKs or an incoming data packet, which will
   trigger a congestion slowdown in the sender.

   The paper by Floyd [Floyd95] contains a detailed discussion of
   enhancing TCP to include explicit congestion notification, using

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   either bits in the header or the ICMP Source Quench message with
   redefined semantics. The range of algorithms explored there for
   implementing explicit notification are directly applicable to this
   scheme. In fact, the end node behavior (the source and destination
   TCP) for her scheme is exactly the same as the scheme here. What is
   different is the method of notifying the end node of the congestion.
   In her scheme, random packets are selected to trigger congestion
   notification. In this scheme, during periods of congestion all
   packets are marked, but these marks are then removed by the
   receiver's traffic meter, unless the rate exceeds the installed
   service profile.

   We have simulated the receiver-based scheme, using the ECN mechanism
   proposed by Floyd to notify the sending TCP to slow down. Because of
   the very well-behaved characteristics of the ECN scheme, we can
   regulate TCPs to different sending rates essentially flawlessly.

   A key question in the successful implementation of the receiver
   scheme is defining what constitutes congestion in the router -- under
   what conditions the router should start setting the FCN bit.
   Hypothetically, the router should start setting the bit as soon as it
   detects the onset of queuing in the router. It is important to detect
   congestion and limit traffic as soon as possible, because it is very
   undesirable for the queue to build up to the point where packets must
   be discarded.

Key differences between sender and receiver control

   There are a number of interesting asymmetries between the sender and
   the receiver versions of this tag and profile scheme, asymmetries
   that arise from the fact that the data packets flow from the sender
   to the receiver. In the sender scheme, the packet first passes
   through the meter, where it is tagged, and then through any points of
   congestion, while in the receiver payment scheme the packet first
   passes through any points of congestion, where it is tagged, and then
   through the receiver's meter. The receiver scheme, since it only sets
   the FCN bit if congestion is actually detected, can convey to the end
   point dynamic information about current congestion levels.   The
   sender scheme, in contrast, must set the IPI and tag the packet as
   "in" or "out" without knowing if congestion is actually present.
   Thus, it would be harder, in the sender scheme, to construct a
   service that billed the user for actual usage during periods of

   While the receiver scheme seems preferable in that it can naturally
   implement both static and dynamic payment schemes, the sender scheme
   has the advantage that since the packet carries in it the explicit
   assertion of whether it is in or out of profile, when it reaches a

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   point of congestion, the treatment of the packet is evident. In the
   receiver scheme, the data packet itself carries no indication of
   whether it is in or out of profile, so all the point of congestion
   can do is set the FCN bit, attempt to forward the packet, and trust
   that the sender will correctly adjust its transmission rate. The
   receiver scheme is thus much more indirect in its ability to respond
   to congestion.  Of course, the controller at the point of congestion
   may employ a scheme to discard a packet from the queue, as it does
   now.  However, the receiver scheme gives no guidance as to which
   packet to delete.

   Another difference between the two schemes is that in the sender
   scheme, the sending application can set the In Profile Indicator in
   different packets to control which packets are favored during
   congestion.  In the receiver scheme, all packets sent to the receiver
   pass through and debit the traffic meter before the receiving host
   gets to see them. Thus, in order for the receiving host to
   distinguish those packets that should receive preferred service, it
   would be necessary for it to install some sort of packet filter in
   the traffic meter.  This seems feasible but potentially complex.
   However, it is again a local matter between the traffic meter and the
   attached host.

   While this scheme works well to control TCP, what about a source that
   does not adjust when faced with lost packets, or otherwise just
   floods the congested router? In the receiver-based scheme, there is
   an increase need for some sort of notification message that can flow
   backwards through the network from the receiver's traffic meter
   towards the source of the traffic (or towards the congested routers
   along the path) so that offending traffic can be distinguished and
   discriminated against. This sort of mechanism was discussed above in
   the section on Filtering out Non-Responsive Flows.

Appendix B: Designing traffic meters to control TCP throughput

   We have suggested that a useful goal for a traffic meter is to let a
   well-behaved TCP operate at a specific speed. This is more complex
   than a service that mimics a link of a specific speed, since a TCP
   may not be able to fully utilize a physical link because of its
   behavior dealing with congestion. In order to design a traffic meter
   that allows a TCP to go at a set speed, the designer must take into
   account the behavior of TCP. This appendix presents a quick review of
   the relevant TCP behavior, describes the preliminary design of a
   traffic meter that directly controls TCP bandwidth, and summarizes
   some simulation results. Further details of this work can be found in

   TCP attempts to adjust its performance by varying its window size.

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   Within the limit imposed by the receive window, the sender increases
   its window size until a packet is discarded; then reduces its window
   size and begins again. This process controls the TCP1s effective
   throughput rate.

   There are several different operating regions for TCP. When a number
   of packets are lost, a TCP reduces its window size to 1, and then
   (roughly) doubles it each round trip until a threshold is reached.
   (This threshold is often referred to by the variable name used to
   implement it in the Berkeley Unix code: ss-thresh.)  Once the send
   window has exceeded ss-thresh, it increases more slowly -- one packet
   per round trip. When only one (or a small number) of packets are
   lost, the window size is reduced less drastically; it is cut in half,
   and ss-thresh is set to the new current window size.  It is this
   latter behavior that is the desired one in order to achieve a
   reasonable control over the sending rate of the TCP.

   When TCP is in this part of its operating range, its window size
   resembles a saw-tooth, swinging between two values differing by a
   factor of two.  The effect of this saw-tooth window size is to slowly
   fill up the buffer at the point of congestion until a packet is
   discarded, then cut the window size by two, which allows the buffer
   to drain, and may actually cause a period of underutilizing the link.
   Some thought will suggest that the actual average throughput achieved
   by the TCP is a function of the buffer size in the router, as well as
   other parameters. It is difficult to predict.

   To design a traffic meter that allows a TCP to achieve a given
   average rate, it is necessary for the meter to recognize the swings,
   and fit them into the profile. One approach would be to build a meter
   that looks at the very long-term average rate, and allows the TCP to
   send so long as that average is less than the target rate. However,
   this has the severe drawback that if the TCP undersends for some time
   because it has no data to send, it builds up a credit in the meter
   that allows it to exceed the average rate for an excessive time.
   This sort of overrun can interfere with other TCPs.

   The alternative is to build a meter that measures the rate of the
   sending TCP, and looks for a peak rate (the high point of the saw-
   tooth).  A simple approach is to build a meter that looks for short
   term sending rates above 1.33 times the target rate R. Once that rate
   is detected, the meter starts tagging a few packets as "out". When
   one of these is discarded, the TCP cuts its window size by a factor
   of two, which will cause some sort of rate reduction, perhaps also to
   a factor of two. The TCP will thus swing between 1.33 R and .66 R,
   which averages out to R.  One can build a meter that does this, but
   it is necessary to consider several factors.

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   The relationship between the window size of a TCP and its sending
   rate is complex. Once the buffer at the point of congestion starts to
   fill up, increasing the window size does not increase the sending
   rate.  Each packet added to the window adds one packet in
   circulation, but adds to the round trip delay by the transmission
   time of one packet because of the increased waiting time in the
   buffer.  The combination of these two effects is to leave the
   achieved throughput unchanged.  If, on the other hand, the buffer is
   largely empty, then if the window is cut by 2, the rate will be cut
   by two.

   It is important that the RIO dropper operate in this region, both so
   that it has enough empty buffer to handle transient congestion, and
   to improve its ability to control the TCP throughput. With RIO, the
   average buffer utilization by "out" packets is small, although the
   instantaneous buffer size can fluctuate due to traffic bursts.   As
   soon as the TCP exceeds its short-term target rate of 1.33 R, some
   number of "out" packets begin to appear, and if they generate a queue
   in the router, a packet is dropped probabilistically, which causes
   the TCP in question to cut its rate by 2.

   (Note that in a properly provisioned network, there is enough
   capacity to carry all the offered "in" packets, and thus "in" packets
   do not contribute to the RIO buffer load.  In a sufficiently
   underprovisioned network, "in" packet dropping will be triggered, and
   the TCP congestion control mechanism will limit the packet load as
   always. Loss of "in" packets indicates to the customer that his
   provider's provisioning is inadequate to support the customer's

   An important issue in the design of this meter is finding the time
   period over which to average in order to detect the 1.33 R peak.
   Average over too long a time, and the average takes into account too
   much of the saw-tooth, and underestimates the peak rate. Average over
   too short a period, and the meter begins to detect the short- term
   bursty nature of the traffic, and detects the 1.33 R peak too soon.
   Since the round trip of different TCPs can differ by at least one
   order of magnitude and perhaps two, designing a meter (unless it is
   integrated into the host implementation and knows the round trip) is
   difficult. However, reasonable parameters can be set which work over
   a range of round trip delays, say 10 to 100 ms.

   One objection to this approach, in which the meters looks for a short
   term peak at 1.33 R, is that a creative user could abuse the design
   by carefully adjusting the window manually so that it achieved a
   steady-state rate somewhat above R (the long term target average) but
   below 1.33R. To detect this, the meter has two rate measurements, one
   of which looks with a short averaging time for a peak of 1.33 R, and

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   a second one, with a substantially longer period (longer than a saw-
   tooth) for a flow that exceeds R. If the flow falls short of R, no
   action is taken, because this might simply be a lack of data to send.
   But if the TCP exceeds the rate R over a long time, the parameters of
   the short-term averaging meter are adjusted.

   This meter is a sophisticated objective, because it represents a
   difficult control problem. First, it attempts to set a rate for a
   sending TCP, rather then just emulating a physical link. Second, it
   is operating at a low level of traffic aggregation (we have simulated
   situations with as few as two flows). Third, the meter operates
   without knowledge of the round-trips of the individual flows.
   Integrating the meter into the host, so that it can know the measured
   RTT (which TCP computes anyway) greatly simplifies the design.
   However, this non-integrated design is more appropriate for an
   incremental deployment strategy using unmodified hosts.

Avoiding slow-start

   As noted above, it is desirable to keep TCP operating in the region
   where, in response to a lost packet, it cuts its window size in half
   and sets ss-thresh equal to this new window size. However, if several
   packets are lost at once, the TCP will execute a different algorithm,
   called "slow-start", in which it goes idle for some period of time
   and then sets the window size to 1. It is preferable to avoid this

   One way to avoid this is to avoid dropping several packets in close
   proximity. There are two halves to achieving this goal.

   The first is that the dropper should avoid dropping a block of
   packets if it has not recently dropped any. That it, it should
   undergo a gradual transition between the states where it is not
   dropping any packets, and where it starts to drop.  RED, and by
   extension RIO, has this behavior. Up to some average queue length,
   RED drops no packets. As the average packet length starts to exceed
   this length, the probability of loss starts to build, but it is a
   linear function of how much longer the average is than this minimum.
   So at first, the rate of drops is very low.

   However, if the dropper is overloaded with "out" packets, it will be
   forced to drop every one that arrives. To deal with this situation,
   the meter, when it starts tagging packets as "out", also should at
   first tag the packets infrequently. It should not suddenly enter a
   mode where it tags a block of packets as "out".  However, if the TCP
   continues to speed up, as it will if the path is uncongested and it
   can sustain the speed, more and more of the packets will be marked as
   out, so a gradual transition to tagging in the meter is not

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   sufficient to avoid all cases of clumped dropping. Both halves of the
   scheme, the meter and the dropper, must enter the control phase

   In essence, this strategy introduces low-pass filters into both the
   traffic metering and congestion detection data. These filters are
   needed to address the two separate cases of the system dropping out
   packets because the TCP exceeding its profile in an otherwise loaded
   network, and the system dropping out packets because of new
   congestion in a network with TCP1s previously operating above profile

Brief simulation results

   We have performed some simulations of this traffic meter and the RIO
   dropper. In this note we show one test case from our simulations. The
   first column is the target rate, the second column is the actual
   rate, the third column is the round trip delay.

        Target rate    Actual rate    TCP RTT
        .1 mb/s        .158 mb/s  20 ms.
        1         1.032           20
        .1        .193       40
        1         1.02       40
        .1        .165       60
        1         1.01       60
        .1        .15        80
        1         .95        80
        .1        .15       100
        1         .93       100

   In this simulation, the actual link capacity was exactly the sum of
   the target rates, so there was no "headroom" for overshoot. As the
   numbers indicate, we can control the rates of the large flows to
   within 10% over a range of round trips from 20 to 100 ms, with the
   longer delay flows having the greater difficulty achieving full
   speed.  The smaller flows, for a number of reasons, are more
   opportunistic in using any unclaimed capacity, and exceed their
   target ranges.  By adjusting the RIO parameters and the parameters in
   the meter, different detailed behavior can be produced. We are using
   this research to fine tune our best understanding of the RIO
   parameters, as well as the design of advanced meters.

New TCP designs help greatly

   Improvements to the dynamic performance of TCP have been proposed for
   reasons unrelated to this scheme, but rather to more general goals
   for improved operation.  These include SACK TCP, which supports
   selective acknowledgment when specific packets are lost, and other

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   TCP tuning changes that deal better with multiple losses. We have
   simulated our taggers and droppers with these newer TCPs, and the
   effect is to make the approach work much better. The reason for this
   is that much of the care in the detailed design is required to avoid
   triggering slow-start rather than fast recovery, and thus reduce our
   ability to control the TCP's throughput.  The newer TCP designs,
   which achieve that same goal generally, make our design much more

   Another way to improve the operation of this scheme is to use an
   Explicit Congestion Notification scheme, as has been proposed by
   Sally Floyd. In this variation of RIO, RIO-ECN, the algorithm does
   not drop "out" packets at first, but just sends an ECN indication to
   the destination, where it is returned to the source.  The design of
   Floyd's ECN takes into account the round-trip time, and avoids
   inadvertent triggering of a slow-start. RIO-ECN, together with a
   suitable profile meter at the destination, allows us to control TCP
   sending rates almost without flaw in our simulations.

Appendix C: Economic issues

   This is a technical note. However, any discussion of providing
   different levels of service to different users of a commercial
   network cannot be complete without acknowledging the presence of
   economic issues.

   The scheme presented here has been conceived in the context of the
   public commercial Internet, where services are offered for money. It
   also works in the context of private, corporate or military networks,
   where other more administrative allocations of high-quality service
   may be used. But it must work in the context of commercial service.
   It is therefore crucial that it take into consideration the varying
   business models of Internet service customers and providers, and that
   it be consistent with some relevant economic principles.

   We discuss these matters briefly below. Note that we are not
   suggesting that any specific business model, pricing strategy, or
   service offering be universally adopted. In fact, we believe that a
   strength of this framework is that it cleanly separates technical
   mechanism from economic decisions at different points within the

Congestion pricing

   The first economic principle is that there is only a marginal cost to
   carrying a packet when the network is congested. When the network is
   congested, the cost of carrying a packet from user A is the increased
   delay seen by user B. The traffic of user B, of course, caused delay

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   for A. But if A somehow were given higher priority, so that B saw
   most of the delay, A would be receiving better service, and B paying
   a higher price, in terms of increased delay and (presumably)
   dissatisfaction. According to economic principles, A should receive
   better service only if he is willing to pay enough to exceed the
   "cost" to B of his increased delay. This can be achieved in the
   marketplace by suitable setting of prices.  In principle, on can
   determine the pricing for access dynamically by allowing A and B to
   bid for service, although this has many practical problems. For an
   example of such a proposal, see [MMV95].

   When the network is underloaded, however, the packets from A and from
   B do not interfere with each other. The marginal or incremental cost
   to the service provider of carrying the packets is zero.  In a
   circumstance where prices follow intrinsic costs, the usage-based
   component of the charge to the user should be zero. This approach is
   called "congestion pricing".

   The scheme described here is consistent with the framework of
   congestion pricing. What the user subscribes to, in this scheme, is
   an expectation of what service he will receive during times of
   congestion, when the congestion price is non-zero. When the net is
   underloaded, this scheme permits the user to go faster, since both
   "in" and "out" packets are forwarded without discrimination in that

   Pricing need not (and often does not) follow abstract economic
   principles. An ISP might choose to prevent users from going faster in
   times of light load, to assess some price for doing so, or whatever.
   But the scheme is capable of implementing a price/service structure
   that matches an economically rational model, and we would argue that
   any scheme should have that characteristic.

   This line of reasoning has some practical implications for the design
   of service profiles. If a provider sells a profile that meters usage
   over some very long period (so many "in" packets per month, for
   example) then there will be a powerful incentive for the user not to
   expend these packets unless congestion is actually encountered. This
   consequence imposes an extra burden on the user (it is not trivial to
   detect congestion) and will yield no benefit to either the user or
   the provider. If there is no cost to sending traffic when the network
   is underloaded, then there is no cost to having some of those packets
   carry "in" tags. In fact, there is a secondary benefit, in that it
   allows providers to track demand for such traffic during all periods,
   not just during overload. But profiles could be defined that would
   motivate the user to conserve "in" tags for times of congestion, and
   these seem misguided.

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Getting incentives right

   The second economic principle is that pricing can be used as an
   incentive to shape user behavior toward goals that benefit the
   overall system, as well as the user.  The "incentive compatibility"
   problem is to structure the service and pricing in such a way that
   beneficial aggregate behavior results.

   Service profiles represent an obvious example of these issues. If a
   profile can be shaped that closely matches the user's intrinsic need,
   then he will purchase that profile and use it for those needs. But if
   the only profile he can get provides him unused capacity, he will be
   tempted to consume that capacity in some constructive way, since he
   has been required to purchase it to get what he wants.  He may be
   tempted to resell this capacity, or use it to carry lower value
   traffic, and so on. These uses represent distortions of the system.

   In general, resale of capacity, or arbitrage, results when pricing is
   distorted, and does not follow cost.  It is difficult to design a
   technical mechanism that can prevent arbitrage, because the mechanism
   does not control pricing, but the mechanism should not of necessity
   create situations where arbitrage is a consequence.  Generally
   speaking, this means that price should follow cost, and that profiles
   should be flexible enough to match the intrinsic needs of a range of
   users. This scheme attempts to capture this objective by allowing the
   traffic meters to implement a range of service profiles, rather than
   standardizing on a fixed set.

Inter-provider payments

   One of the places where a traffic meter can be installed is at the
   boundary between two ISPs. In this circumstance, the purpose is to
   meter how much traffic of value, i.e. "in" packets, are flowing in
   each direction.  This sort of information can provide the basis for
   differential compensation between the two providers.

   In a pure sender-based scheme, where the revenues are being collected
   from the sender, the sender of a packet marked as "in" should
   presumably pay the first ISP, who should in turn pay the second ISP,
   and so on until the packet reaches its final destination.  In the
   middle of the network, the ISPs would presumably negotiate some long
   term contract to carry the "in" packets of each other, but if
   asymmetric flows result, or there is a higher cost to carry the
   packets onward in one or the other direction, this could constitute a
   valid basis for differential payment.

   As is discussed in [Clark97], the most general model requires both
   sender and receiver based payments, so that payments can be extracted

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   from all participants in a transfer in proportion to the value that
   each brings to the transfer. In this case, the direction of packet
   flow does not determine the direction of value, and thus the
   direction of compensating payment.   See the referenced paper for a
   full development of the details of a mixed sender-receiver scheme. It
   is interesting to note that the sender and receiver-based schemes are
   to some extent associated with different business models.

   The basic sender-based scheme considered in much of this note makes
   sense in many business contexts. For example, a user with multiple
   sites, who wants to connect those sites with known service, can
   equally well express all of these requirements in terms of behavior
   at the sender, since the senders are all known in advance.

   In contrast to this "closed" system, consider the "open" system of a
   node attached to the public Internet, who wants to purchase some
   known service profile for interaction with other sites on the
   Internet.  If the primary traffic to that site is incoming (for
   example, browsing the Web), then it is the receiver of the traffic,
   not the sender, who associates the value with the transfer. In this
   case the receiver-based scheme, or a zone scheme, may best meet the
   needs of the concerned parties.


   [Clark97] D. Clark, "Combining Sender anbd Receiver Payment Schemes
   in the Internet"; Proceedings of the Telecommunications Policy
   Research Conference, Solomon, MD, 1996

   [CF97] D. Clark and W. Fang, "Explicit Allocation of Best Effort
   Packet Delivery Service", (soon) to be available as

   [Floyd93] S. Floyd and V. Jacobson, "Random Early Detection Gateways
   for Congestion Avoidance", IEEE/ACM Trans. on Networking, August 1993

   [Floyd95] S. Floyd, "TCP and Explicit Congestion Notification",
   Computer Communication Review, v 24:5, October, 1995

   [FF97] S. Floyd and K. Fall, "Router Mechanisms to Support End-to-End
   Congestion Control", available at http://www-nrg.ee.lbl.gov/nrg-

   [Kalevi97] K. Kilkki, "Simple Integrated Media Access" Internet
   Draft, June 1997, <draft-kalevi-simple-media-acccess-01.txt>

   [Kelly97] F. Kelly, "Charging and Accounting for Bursty Connections"
   in "Internet Economics", L. McKnight and J. Bailey, eds., MIT Press,

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   [MMV95] "Pricing the Internet" in "Public Access to the Internet", B.
   Kahin and J. Keller, eds., Prentice Hall, 1995. Available as

Authors' Addresses:

   David D. Clark
   MIT Laboratory for Computer Science
   545 Technology Sq.
   Cambridge, MA  02139
   617-253-2673 (FAX)

   John Wroclawski
   MIT Laboratory for Computer Science
   545 Technology Sq.
   Cambridge, MA  02139
   617-253-2673 (FAX)

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