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Versions: (draft--remi-despres--ipv6-rapid-deployment-) 00 01

Internet Engineering Task Force                               R. Despres
Internet-Draft                                                 RD-IPtech
Expires: August 12, 2008                                February 9, 2008


          IPv6 Rapid Deployment on IPv4 infrastructures (6rd)
            draft-despres-v6ops-6rd-ipv6-rapid-deployment-00

Status of this Memo

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on August 12, 2008.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2008).

Abstract

   IPv6 rapid deployment (6rd) builds upon mechanisms of 6to4 (RFC3056)
   to enable a service provider to rapidly deploy IPv6 unicast service
   to its existing IPv4 sites.  Like 6to4, it utilizes stateless IPv6 in
   IPv4 encapsulation in order to transit IPv4-only network
   infrastructure.  Unlike 6to4, 6rd requires a service provider to use
   one of its own IP prefixes rather than the fixed 6to4 prefix.  A
   service provider has used this mechanism for its own "rapid
   deployment" of IPv6 (five weeks from first exposure to "opt-in"
   deployment for 1,500,000 residential sites).



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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction and 6rd purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Abbreviations and terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   3.  6rd specification  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     3.1.  General principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     3.2.  6rd ISP prefix and 6rd addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     3.3.  Encapsulation and decapsulation in 6rd CPEs and 6rd
           relays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
       3.3.1.  Packet format  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
       3.3.2.  6rd prefix in non 6rd addresses - the 6rd pure
               IPv6 tag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
       3.3.3.  Relationship between IPv6 and IPv4 addresses in
               encapsulation packets  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     3.4.  ICMP consideration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     3.5.  IPv4 routing precaution  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     3.6.  Pseudo code  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   4.  The 6rd DHCPv4 option  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
   5.  6rd Applicability to ISPs that use IPv4 private addresses  . . 14
   6.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
   7.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
   8.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
   9.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
     9.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
     9.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
   Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
   Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 19
























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1.  Introduction and 6rd purpose

   After having had a succinct presentation of the 6rd idea, a major ISP
   in France, Free Telecom, did all of the following in only five weeks
   (November 7th to December 11th 2007): (1) obtain its first IPv6
   prefix from its RIR; (2) make the needed 6rd software modifications
   to all CPE that it provides to its customers; (3) provision a 6to4
   gateway, duly modified to support 6rd; (4) test IPv6 operation with a
   few applications; (6) finish deployment; (7) announce IPv6
   availability, at no extra charge, for all customers accepting to have
   it.  More than 1,500,000 residential customers thus became able to
   use IPv6 in their sites, with a look and feel as that of other native
   IPv6 solutions, at the only condition to consciously activate the
   function in their CPEs.

   This story is not reported to suggest that other ISPs should be able
   to do the same.  It illustrates however that, under some
   circumstances, the following vicious circle has been broken:

   o  ISPs that have large IPv4 installed bases tend to wait for more
      customer demand before bearing the cost of generalized IPv6
      support.

   o  Customers tend to wait for more IPv6 depending applications before
      requiring IPv6 support by ISPs.

   o  Application developers tend to wait for more IPv6 support by ISPs
      before investing substantially on IPv6 dependent applications.

   6rd has been designed to drastically simplify first IPv6 deployments
   on IPv4 installed infrastructures.

   Ideal conditions for 6rd deployment, which were satisfied at Free,
   are that:

   o  The ISP controls CPEs of all its sites.

   o  It can easily modify CPE software and have it downloaded.

   o  It can quickly install gateways of its own, with high bandwidth in
      both IPv4 and IPv6.

   o  It can adapt the software of these gateways to 6rd (preferably
      starting with an existing 6to4 relay software to minimize the
      effort).






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   A less ideal but workable situation is one where CPEs are provisioned
   by customers themselves (hosts , or site entrance routers).  For
   these sites to benefit from 6rd being deployed by their ISP, they
   need 6rd support also in their CPEs.  The necessary software upgrade
   then depends on their CPE vendor to implement 6rd, and to whoever
   manages theses CPEs to download the new releases.  The 6rd
   specification is proposed to become a standard for this to be
   possible.

   The purpose of this draft is that, with it:

   o  The community of IETF experts can critically evaluate its
      soundness.

   o  ISPs that offer only IPv4 services can determine whether, based on
      their own constraints, they wish to use 6rd to accelerate their
      own IPv6 deployment.

   o  CPE manufacturers can determine whether they wish to support 6rd
      in their products.  If they do, their clients whose ISPs support
      6rd will have native IPv6 operational in their sites.

   o  Manufacturers of routers used in ISP infrastructures can determine
      whether they wish to include 6rd support in their products.  (Note
      that in which products to do it may depend on whether address
      parsing hardware is used, and on whether it is suitable for parse
      6rd prefix parsing.)  If they do, 6rd relays at the IPv4-IPv6
      border will no longer have to be devices external to these
      routers, and their number will be easily increased.  The added
      value will then move from external devices to these manufacturer's
      routers.

   Readers are supposed to be familiar with IPv6 address formats and
   notation.

   It is understood that the wording of this draft 00 can be much
   improved, in particular with respect to the English language.  But it
   is also felt that presenting the 6rd to the IETF shouldn't be delayed
   further, so that debates on it can start as soon as possible.












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2.  Abbreviations and terminology

   6rd:  a mechanism for IPv6 rapid deployment by independent ISPs on
         their existing IPv4 infrastructures

   6rd CPE:  CPE which supports 6rd (host or site entrance router)

   6rd ISP:  ISP which supports 6rd (operates 6rd relays)

   6rd site:  IPv4 customer site of a 6rd ISP

   6rd ISP anycast address:  IPv4 anycast address chosen by a 6rd ISP

   6rd ISP prefix:  IPv6 prefix chosen a 6rd ISP

   6rd ISP relay:  a stateless encpasulation-decapsulation function
         between IPv4 and IPv6 routing infrastructures of an ISP

   6to4: Connection of IPv6 Domains via IPv4 clouds [RFC3056][RFC3068]

   CPE:  Customer Premise Equipment (host or router at site entrance)

   DHCPv4:  IPv4 Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol [RFC2131]

   IANA: Internet Assigned Numbers Authority

   ICMPv4:  IPv4 Internet Control Message Protocol [RFC0792]

   ICMPv6:  IPv6 Internet Control Message Protocol [RFC0792]

   IPv4: Layer 3 Internet Protocol of 1981 [RFC0791]

   IPv6: Layer 3 Internet Protocol version 6 [RFC2460]

   ISP:  Internet Service Provider

   MTU:  Maximum Transfer Unit [RFC1191]

   NAT:  Network Address Translator [RFC2663]

   Pure IPv6:  IPv6 with addresses that contain no IPv4 address

   RIR:  Regional Internet Registry

   Site: Customer site (has a CPE at its entrance)






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3.  6rd specification

3.1.  General principles

   The 6rd specification is based on the following principles :

   a.  For RAPIDITY of IPv6 deployment by ISPs that are still IPv4-only,
       this deployment should be feasible on their UNMODIFIED IPv4
       INFRASTRUCTURES.

   b.  For COMPLETENESS of the IPv6 unicast service offered to their
       customers, ISPs should make NO ASSUMPTION on how hosts of other
       ISPs obtain their IPv6 service.

   c.  For SCALABILITY of IPv6 deployment on IPv4 infrastructures,
       encapsulation-decapsulation functions of IPv6 packets in IPv4
       ones should be STATELESS (load sharing between a number of
       distributed processors should be feasible).

   d.  For EFFICIENCY, IPv6 packet between two IPv4 sites of a same ISP
       should follow the SAME ROUTES as those of IPv4 packets between
       the same sites.

   The rapidity principle implies that 6rd functions should be
   introduced only at the periphery of IPv4 infrastructures.  Routing on
   these infrastructures should be that of IPv4, with no need for an
   independent address assignment and routing policy for IPv6.

   The completeness principle implies that IPv6 prefixes of 6rd sites
   MUST start with prefixes that belong to the IPv6 address spaces.  (In
   particular, the 6to4 prefix 2002::/16 would not satisfy this
   principle: packets destined to a 6to4 site reach their destination
   only if they come from sites where CPEs support 6to4, or from ISPs
   where the 6to4 Anycast Address is routable in IPv4 to at least one
   6to4 relay.  Neither of these two conditions can be guaranteed by the
   destination end ISP).

   The scalability principle implies that encapsulation functions in 6rd
   relays can find IPv4 destination addresses without depending on some
   temporary states that would relate IPv4 destinations to IPv6 ones.
   For this, the most straightforward approach consists in having the
   IPv4 CPE address of a 6rd site explicitly contained in its IPv6
   prefix.  Since this approach happens to be compatible with
   satisfaction of other principles, it is adopted for 6rd.







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   Another implication of the scalability principle is that 6rd relays
   should be reachable, across the ISP IPv4 infrastructure, at an
   anycast address.  Each 6rd ISP choses for this its "6rd ISP anycast
   address".

   The efficiency principle implies that 6rd CPEs can recognize, in
   packets leaving their sites, which ones can be routed to their
   destination directly across the local ISP IPv4 infrastructure (i.e.
   without having to go through a 6rd relay).  For this, a simple
   approach consists in each 6rd ISP to chose one and only one of its
   IPv6 unicast prefixes as the "6rd ISP prefix" which appears at the
   start of 6rd site addresses addresses, and to have this prefix known
   by 6rd CPEs.

   The architecture which results from these principles is that of
   Figure 1.




                                   6rd ISP                    Native
                      ______________/\_______________        IPv6
               6rd   /                               \      routing
               CPEs          unchanged            Stateless     |
                |       IPv4 infrastructure     6rd ISP relays  |
                |                |                    |         |
                V                V                    V         V
                ___    _____________________          ___
        IPv6   |   |  |                      |       |   |
               |   |--|-.     .--------------|-------|   |--------
               |___|  |  \   /               |       |___|
             Customer |   \ /    6rd ISP  => |
               Sites  |    O  anycast address|            <= 6rd ISP
                ___   |   / \                |         ___    prefix
               |   |  |  /   \               |        |   |
        IPv6   |   |--|-'     '--------------|--------|   |--------
               |___|  |                      |        |___|
                      |______________________|


                                6rd ARCHITECTURE

                                 Figure 1








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3.2.  6rd ISP prefix and 6rd addresses

   A 6rd address is a particular case of IPv6 address, with the
   following format:



       <-- Link prefix -- 64 bits -->.
       |                             |
       |  16, 24              16, 8  |
       |    or                  or   |<----------- 64 bits --------->.
       |  32 bits   32 bits   0 bits |                               |
       |     |        |          |   |                               |
       |     V        V          V   |                               |
       +---//----+------------+--//--+-------------------------------+
       |"6rd ISP |    IPv4    |Subnet|        Interface ID           |
       | prefix" |Site address|  ID  |                               |
       +---//----+------------+--//--+-------------------------------+
       <---- Site prefix ---->

                              6rd ADDRESS FORMAT

                                 Figure 2

   According to the completeness principle above, the 6rd ISP prefix,
   being in the first bits of the address, MUST belong to the ISP public
   unicast address space.

   As far as the protocol is concerned, 6rd ISP prefixes could have any
   number of bits up to 32.  But implementations of 6rd, necessary in
   both 6rd relays and 6rd CPEs, is simpler, and more amenable hardware
   implementation where appropriate, if 6rd ISP prefixes must be
   multiple of 8 bits.  It is therefore proposed to be a MUST in 6rd.


















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   The choice between /16, /24 and /32 6rd ISP prefixes depends on
   whether IPv6 prefixes ISPs obtain from their RIRs are short enough:

   o  With /32 RIR provided prefixes, the minimum generally recommended
      today for initial ISP assignments, 6rd ISPs can only assign /64
      site prefixes to their 6rd customer sites.  These sites are then
      limited to only one IPv6 link.  This is expected to be
      satisfactory initially for the vast majority of residential sites,
      where the number of hosts is small.  But this is a real
      restriction which would advantageously be avoided with RIRs
      cooperation (see below).

   o  With /16 RIR provided prefixes, 6rd ISPs can assign /48 site
      prefixes to their 6rd customer sites, i.e. prefixes the length of
      which is that RIRs recommend today for all customer sites.  But
      RIRs may be expected to be reluctant to distribute /16s,
      especially since generalized /48 prefixes are more generous than
      really needed, at least initially.

   o  With /24 RIR provided prefixes, 6rd ISPs can assign /56 site
      prefixes to their 6rd customer sites.  These sites can then
      support up to 256 subnets.  This is expected to be more than
      sufficient for the most demanding residential sites, and largely
      sufficient for almost all professional sites pending deployment of
      native IPv6 infrastructures.

   In view of the potential of 6rd to facilitate IPv6 availability, RIRs
   could be advised to consider assigning /24 prefixes to ISPs that
   deploy 6rd, and to endorse that these ISPs make their first IPv6
   deployments with /56s distributed to their customers.

3.3.  Encapsulation and decapsulation in 6rd CPEs and 6rd relays

3.3.1.  Packet format

   To traverse ISP IPv4 infrastructures, IPv6 packets are encapsulated
   in IPv4 ones in conformance with [RFC2893].  The IPv4 protocol field
   is set to 41, as specified by IANA for this encapsulation [Protocol
   Numbers].

   In order to avoid that encapsulated packets would ever be subject to
   IPv4 fragmentation, 6rd ISPs MUST support path MTUs of at least 1300
   octets on their complete IPv4 infrastructures. (1300 = 1280, the
   minimum IPv6 MTU, plus 20, the header length of the IPv4
   encapsulating packet.)  Fragmentation has to be avoided because of
   its incompatibility with stateless functions that operate on complete
   packets and that may be implemented in several distributed instances.




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3.3.2.  6rd prefix in non 6rd addresses - the 6rd pure IPv6 tag

   If an ISP has only one IPv6 prefix assigned by its RIR, as typical
   for a first assignment, and first uses it to deploy IPv6 in 6rd, it
   should, to avoid wasting its address space, be able to also use this
   same prefix to build "pure IPv6" site prefixes.  (IPv6 prefixes are
   "pure" if they don't contain IPv4 addresses).

   If a 6rd ISP prefix has such a mixed use, CPEs must distinguish
   between destinations that are 6rd addresses of the same ISP, and
   other destinations.  Packets having the former have to be routed
   directly to their destinations across local ISP IPv4 infrastructures;
   packets having the latter have to be routed toward their destinations
   via 6rd ISP relays of the local ISP).  To facilitate this
   determination, the 6rd specification requires that all pure IPv6
   addresses that start with the 6rd ISP prefix contain a special value
   in lieu of the beginning of an IPv4 field, the "6rd pure IPv6 tag".

   The value of this tag has to be chosen so that it never appears at
   the beginning of IPv4 unicast addresses assigned by the ISP.  Its
   proposed binary value is 1110 (OxE in hexadecimal, 240.0.0.0/4 in
   IPv4 notation), which has the desired property: IANA has reserved the
   set of all 224/8 to 239/8 consecutive prefixes, i.e. the 224/4
   prefix, for IPv4 multicast addresses [IPv4 addresses].



       <-- Link prefix -- 64 bits -->.
       |                             |
       |           "6rd pure         |
       |  16, 24    IPv6 tag"        |
       | or 32 bits  4 bits          .<----------- 64 bits --------->.
       |     |       |               |                               |
       |     V       V               |                               |
       +----//-----+----+-----//-----+-------------------------------+
       |  6rd ISP  |1110|            |         Interface ID          |
       |   prefix  |    |            |                               |
       +----//-----+----+-----//-----+-------------------------------+

                        6rd PURE IPv6 ADDRESS FORMAT

                                 Figure 3

   NOTE: If an ISP wants to use hardware which works only, or better, on
   octet boundaries, it MAY decide to assign pure IPv6 addresses that,
   after the 6rd ISP prefix all start with OxE0 (binary 11100000).  With
   this restriction on assigned addresses, presence tests of the 6rd
   prefix can be performed indifferently on 4 or 8 bits.



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3.3.3.  Relationship between IPv6 and IPv4 addresses in encapsulation
        packets



     IPv6 address (source or destination)         IP4 address
          in an encapsulated packet        in the encapsulating packet


                             6rd site addresses

                 4 bits              \
      +----//-----+-|--+-----         |       +---------------+
      |  6rd ISP  |not :               \       |     IPv4      |
      |   prefix  |1110:               /       | site address  |
      +----//-----+----+-----         |        +---------------+
                   <-- IPv4 ---      /
                    site address


                            Non 6rd site addresses

      +----//-----+----------          \
      |  not 6rd  |                     |
      |ISP prefix |                     |
      +----//-----+----------           |        +---------------+
                   6rd                   \       |   6rd ISP     |
              pure IPv6 tag              /       |anycast address|
      +----//-----+-|--+-----           |        +---------------+
      |  6rd ISP  |1110|                |
      |   prefix  |    |                |
      +----//-----+----+-----          /
                  4 bits

            RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN IPv6 AND IPv4 ADDRESSES
                IN ENCAPSULATION PACKETS OF AN ISP

                                 Figure 4

   In an encapsulating packet, IPv4 addresses, source or destination,
   have the following relationship with IPv6 addresses of the
   encapsulated packets, respectively source or destination:









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   o  If the IPv6 address starts with the 6rd ISP prefix, and if this
      prefix is not followed by the 6rd pure IPv6 tag, this site prefix
      is that of a 6rd site of the local ISP.  The IPv4 address MUST
      then be equal to the 32 bits which follow the 6rd ISP prefix in
      the IPv6 site prefix.

   o  Contrarily, if the ISP prefix is followed by the 6rd pure IPv6
      tag, or if the IPv6 address does not start with the ISP prefix,
      then this address does not belong to a 6rd site of the local ISP.

   These relationships MUST be implemented in encapsulation functions of
   6rd relays and 6rd CPEs.

   In addition, to protect against source address spoofing, 6rd CPEs and
   6rd ISP relays SHOULD silently discard packets they receive that have
   unrealistic source and destination addresses or unrealistic IPv4-IPv6
   address relationships.  The pseudo-code of Section 3.6 presents
   details of these verifications.

3.4.  ICMP consideration

   In 6rd decapsulation functions of 6rd CPEs and 6rd relays, ICMPv4
   packets that are received to signal unreachable destinations (ICMPv4
   type field = 3) SHOULD be converted into ICMPv6 packets (ICMPv6 type
   field = 1 and code field = 0).

   For this to be possible, ISPs that support 6rd SHOULD ensure that all
   routers of their IPv4 infrastructures return ICMPv4 packets long
   enough to contain IPv6 source addresses of encapsulated packets.
   (This is automatically the case if these routers conform to [RFC1812]
   Section 4.3.2.3.)

   ICMPv6 packets received by encapsulation functions of 6rd ISP relays
   and 6rd CPEs are encapsulated like any other IPv6 packets.

3.5.  IPv4 routing precaution

   For an ISP to guarantee proper routing of IPv6 packets going from its
   IPv4 sites to other ISPs, its IPv4 infrastructure SHOULD NOT accept
   from other ISPs IPv4 routes that include the 6rd ISP anycast address.











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3.6.  Pseudo code

   Figure 5 details, in pseudo code and with intuitive notations,
   encapsulation and decapsulation functions, in both 6rd ISP relays and
   6rd CPEs.

        CPE DECAPSULATION                ISP RELAY ENCAPSULATION
   IF v6Pkt = ICMPv4(Unreachable)     IF Packet > 1280 Octets
   THEN Forward ICMPv6(Pkt too big)   THEN Return ICMPv6(Pkt too big)
   ELSEIF                             ELSEIF (S6 <> 6rdPrf...
    (IF S4 = 6rdAnycast                      OR S6 = 6rdPrf.Pv6Tag...)
     THEN [S6 <> 6rdPrf...            THEN
           OR S6 = 6rdPrf.Pv6Tag...]     D4 <- bits pl to pl+32 of D6
     ELSE [S6 = 6rdPrf...                S4 <- 6rd Anycast
        AND S6 <> 6rdPrf.Pv6Tag...])     Encapsulate IPv6 packet
     AND D6 = 6rdPrf.v4SiteAdd...      ELSE Discard packet
   THEN Decapsulate IPv6 packet             |
   ELSE Discard packet                      |
           |      __________________        |        ______
   IPv6    V     |       IPv4       |       V       | IPv6
          ___    |MTU at least 1300 |      ___      |
         |   |   |                  |     |   |     |
    --<--|---|---|--<---      ---<--|-----|---|-----|--<---
         |   |   |<= CPE addresses  |     |   |     |
         |   |   |                  |     |   |     |       6rd
   0::/0 |   |   |   6rd ISP anycast|     |   |     | <= ISP prefix
      => |   |   |       address => |     |   |     |
    -->--|---|---|-->---      --->--|-----|---|-----|-->---
         |___|   |                  |     |___|     |
           A     |__________________|       A       |______
           |                                |
           |                                |
        CPE ENCAPSULATION                 ISP RELAY DECAPSULATION
   IF packet > 180 octets               IF v6Pkt = ICMPv4(unreachable)
   THEN Return ICMPv6(Pkt too big)      THEN Forward ICMPv6(Pkt too big)
   ELSEIF S6 = 6rdPrf.Pv6Tag...)        ELSEIF
      IF ( D6 = 6rdPrf...                  S4 <> 6rdAnycast
           AND D6 <> 6rdPrf.Pv6Tag...)     AND S6 = 6rdPrf...
      THEN D4 <- bits pl to pl+32 of D6    AND S6 <> 6rdPrf.Pv6tag...
      ELSE D4 <- 6rdAnycast                AND ( D6 = 6rdPrf.Pv6tag...
      S4 <- v4SiteAdd                            OR D6 <> 6rdPrf...
   ELSE Discard packet                  THEN Decapsulate IPv6 packet
                                        ELSE Discard packet

              PSEUDO CODE DESCRIPTION OF 6rd FUNCTIONS
            (lp being the bit length of the ISP 6rd prefix)

                                 Figure 5



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4.  The 6rd DHCPv4 option

   For full support of 6rd, ISPs that have sites with customer-supplied
   CPEs, and suppliers of these CPEs, SHOULD support the "6rd DHCPv4
   option.

   With the 6rd DHCPv4 option, 6rd CPEs obtains 6rd ISP prefixes and 6rd
   ISP anycast addresses, in a DHCPv4 message [RFC2131].

   The proposed format for the 6rd DHCPv4 option is as follows, where nn
   is a code to be assigned by IANA:


                                 6rd prefix length
                                   (16, 24 or 32)
     Code  Length                          |
    +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+--V--+-----+-----+-----+-----+
    |= nn | = 9 | 6rd ISP Prefix        | pl  |6rd ISP anycast address|
    +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+

                    FORMAT OF THE 6rd DHCPv4 OPTION

                                 Figure 6


5.  6rd Applicability to ISPs that use IPv4 private addresses

   Some ISP support NAT functions [RFC2663] within their IPv4
   infrastructures, so that they can assign IPv4 private addresses
   [RFC1918] to some of their sites.  These ISPs can build IPv6 6rd site
   prefixes with such IPv4 addresses.

   If an ISP supports several independent NAT functions (typically
   because of an insufficient scalability of NAT-supporting devices), it
   has to ensure, for 6rd, that address spaces behind these NATS are
   disjoint .

   Figure 7 presents an example where IPv4 private addresses start with
   10.0.0.0/8 [RFC1918], a typical choice since other private address
   prefixes leave room for less addresses.











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                     ______________________________
                    | 10.x.x.x/8 addresses         |
                    |  <==                         |
              <-----|                              |----->
                    |       6rd ISP anycast address|
           6rd CPEs |                          ==> |  6rd relays
                    |                              |
              <-----|          0.0.0.0/0           |----->
                    |              :               |
                    |              V               |
                    |______________________________|
                                   |
                                 __|__
                         ISP    |     |
                       IPv4 NAT |_____|
                                   |
                                   |
                                   V
                       IPv4 public address infrastructure

           EXAMPLE OF 6rd WITH ISP ASSIGNED IPV4 PRIVATE ADDRESSES

                                 Figure 7

   NOTE: This capability is another difference of scope with 6to4.  It
   may increase the interest of 6rd, for rapid IPv6 deployment, where
   scarcity of IPv4 addresses has led ISPs to support NATs in their
   infrastructures.


6.  Acknowledgements

   The author would like to warmly acknowledge the major contribution of
   Rani Assaf to 6rd's credibility.  He immediately appreciated 6rd's
   potential, and made the daring decision to implement it, and to
   rapidly deploy it on Free's operational network.  He has also been
   first to point out that 6rd ISP prefixes can also be used for IPv6
   addresses other than 6rd.  Patrick Grossetete made useful suggestions
   on multi-subnet sites, and on 6rd anycast addresses.  Mark Townsley
   advised on how to proceed in IETF.

   Besides these direct contributions, acknowledgments are due to a few
   IPv6 confirmed experts who, when the author was still an IPv6
   newcomer, taught him subtleties of IPv6.  Without his past debates
   with Laurent Toutain, Francis Dupont and Alain Durand, this proposal
   would probably not have been possible.





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7.  Security Considerations

   With the specification as is, and provided all recommended behaviors
   are supported, the author has identified one security risk beyond
   those that are common to all of IPv6 implementations.  It results
   from possibilities of IPv4 address spoofing: If a 6rd site may
   receive packets with IPv4 spoofed source addresses, it may also
   receive, in IPv6 encapsulated packets, IPv6 spoofed source addresses.

   Since this risk is generally lived with in IPv4, letting higher
   layers to ensure enough security when necessary, it is expected that
   it is acceptable in practice.


8.  IANA Considerations

   This memo implies a request to IANA for the code of the DHCPv4 6rd
   option presented of Section 4.

































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9.  References

9.1.  Normative References

   [RFC0791]  Postel, J., "Internet Protocol", STD 5, RFC 791,
              September 1981.

   [RFC0792]  Postel, J., "Internet Control Message Protocol", STD 5,
              RFC 792, September 1981.

   [RFC1191]  Mogul, J. and S. Deering, "Path MTU discovery", RFC 1191,
              November 1990.

   [RFC1812]  Baker, F., "Requirements for IP Version 4 Routers",
              RFC 1812, June 1995.

   [RFC1918]  Rekhter, Y., Moskowitz, R., Karrenberg, D., Groot, G., and
              E. Lear, "Address Allocation for Private Internets",
              BCP 5, RFC 1918, February 1996.

   [RFC2131]  Droms, R., "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol",
              RFC 2131, March 1997.

   [RFC2132]  Alexander, S. and R. Droms, "DHCP Options and BOOTP Vendor
              Extensions", RFC 2132, March 1997.

   [RFC2460]  Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6
              (IPv6) Specification", RFC 2460, December 1998.

   [RFC2463]  Conta, A. and S. Deering, "Internet Control Message
              Protocol (ICMPv6) for the Internet Protocol Version 6
              (IPv6) Specification", RFC 2463, December 1998.

   [RFC2893]  Gilligan, R. and E. Nordmark, "Transition Mechanisms for
              IPv6 Hosts and Routers", RFC 2893, August 2000.

   [RFC3513]  Hinden, R. and S. Deering, "Internet Protocol Version 6
              (IPv6) Addressing Architecture", RFC 3513, April 2003.

9.2.  Informative References

   [IPv4 addresses]
              Internet Assigned Numbers Authority, "Internet Protocol v4
              Address Space -
              http://www.nro.net/documents/pdf/nro46.pdf",
              February 2008.

   [Protocol Numbers]



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              Internet Assigned Numbers Authority, "PROTOCOL NUMBERS -
              http://www.iana.org/assignments/protocol-numbers",
              January 2008.

   [RFC2663]  Srisuresh, P. and M. Holdrege, "IP Network Address
              Translator (NAT) Terminology and Considerations",
              RFC 2663, August 1999.

   [RFC3056]  Carpenter, B. and K. Moore, "Connection of IPv6 Domains
              via IPv4 Clouds", RFC 3056, February 2001.

   [RFC3068]  Huitema, C., "An Anycast Prefix for 6to4 Relay Routers",
              RFC 3068, June 2001.

   [RIR Policy]
              Number resource Organization, "RIR Comparative Policy
              Overview -
              http://www.iana.org/assignments/ipv4-address-space",
              November 2007.


Author's Address

   Remi Despres
   RD-IPtech
   3 rue du President Wilson
   Levallois,
   France

   Phone: +33 6 72 74 94 88
   Email: remi.despres@free.fr




















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Full Copyright Statement

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