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6TiSCH                                                   D. Dujovne, Ed.
Internet-Draft                                Universidad Diego Portales
Intended status: Informational                                LA. Grieco
Expires: January 5, 2015                             Politecnico di Bari
                                                          MR. Palattella
                                                University of Luxembourg
                                                            N. Accettura
                                       University of California Berkeley
                                                            July 4, 2014


                      6TiSCH On-the-Fly Scheduling
                   draft-dujovne-6tisch-on-the-fly-03

Abstract

   This document describes the environment, problem statement, and goals
   of On-The-Fly (OTF) scheduling, a Layer-3 mechanism for 6TiSCH
   networks.  The purpose of OTF is to dynamically adapt the aggregate
   bandwidth, i.e., the number of reserved soft cells between neighbor
   nodes, based on the specific application constraints to be satisfied.
   When using OTF, softcell and bundle reservation is distributed:
   through the 6top interface, neighbor nodes negotiate the cell(s) to
   be (re)allocated/deleted, with no intervention needed of a
   centralized entity.  This document aims at defining a module which
   uses the functionalities provided by the 6top sublayer to (i) extract
   statistics and (ii) determine when to reserve/delete soft cells in
   the schedule.  The exact reservation and deletion algorithm, and the
   number and type of statistics to be used in the algorithm are out of
   scope.  OTF deals only with the number of softcells to be reserved/
   deleted; it is up to 6top to select the specific soft cells within
   the TSCH schedule.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."




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   This Internet-Draft will expire on January 5, 2015.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Allocation policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  Allocation methods  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   4.  Cell and Bundle Reservation/Deletion  . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   5.  Getting statistics and other information about cells through
       6top  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   6.  Events triggering algorithms in OTF . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   7.  Bandwidth Estimation Algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   8.  OTF external CoAP interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   9.  Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   10. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     10.1.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     10.2.  External Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12

1.  Introduction

   The IEEE802.15.4e standard [IEEE802154e] was published in 2012 as an
   amendment to the Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol defined by the
   IEEE802.15.4-2011 [IEEE802154] standard.  The Timeslotted Channel
   Hopping (TSCH) mode of IEEE802.15.4e is the object of this document.

   On-The-Fly (OTF) scheduling is a 1-hop protocol with which a node
   negotiates the number of soft cells scheduled with its neighbors,
   without requiring any intervention of a centralized entity (e.g., a
   PCE).  This document describes the OTF allocation policies and
   methods used by two neighbors to allocate one or more softcells in a
   distribution fashion.  It also proposes an algorithms for estimating
   the required bandwidth (BW).  This document defines the interface



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   between OTF and the 6top sublayer ([I-D.wang-6tisch-6top]), to
   collect and retrieve statistics, or allocate/delete cells and
   bundles.  This document defines a framework; the algorithm and
   statistics used are out of scope.  This draft follows the terminology
   defined in [I-D.ietf-6tisch-terminology] and addresses the open issue
   related to the scheduling mechanisms raised in
   [I-D.ietf-6tisch-tsch].

2.  Allocation policy

   OTF is a distributed scheduling protocol which increases/decreases
   the bandwidth between two neighbor nodes (i.e., adding/deleting
   sofcells) by interacting with the 6top sublayer.  It retrieves
   statistics from 6top, and uses that information to trigger 6top to
   add/delete softcells to a particular neighbor.  The algorithm which
   decides when to add/delete softcells is out of scope.  For example,
   6top might decide to add a cell if some queue of outbound frames is
   overflowing.  Similarly, OTF can delete cells when the queue has been
   empty for some time.  OTF only triggers 6top to add/delete the soft
   cells, it is the responsibility of the 6top sublayer to determine the
   exact slotOffset/channelOffset of those cells.  In this document, the
   term "cell" and "soft cell" are used interchageably.

   All the softcells allocated are part of best effort track, i.e. with
   TrackID=00, as defined i [I-D.wang-6tisch-6top].  These cells can be
   used for forwarding any packet in the queue, regardless of the
   specific track it belongs to.  OTF manages the global bandwidth
   requirements between two neighbor nodes; per-track management is
   currently out of scope.

   OTF is prone to schedule collisions.  Nodes might not be aware of the
   cells allocated by other pairs of nodes.  A schedule collision occurs
   when the same cell is allocated by different pairs in the same
   interference space.  The probability of having allocation collision
   may be kept low by grouping cells into chunks (see
   [I-D.ietf-6tisch-terminology] and [I-D.ietf-6tisch-architecture] for
   more details).  The use of chunks is outside the scope of this
   current version of the OTF draft.

   The "allocation policy" is the algorithm used by OTF to decide when
   to increase/decrease the bandwidth allocated between two neighbor
   nodes in order to satisfy the traffic requirements.  These
   requirements can be expressed in terms of throughput, latency or
   other constraints.

   An OTF allocation policy MAY be defined according to a combination of
   two different approaches: reactive and proactive.




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   In a reactive approach, the allocation policy follows the increased/
   decreased need for bandwidth.  Upon reception of a bandwidth request,
   OTF sends softcell allocation requests to the 6top sublayer.  OTF
   estimates the number of cells to be allocated per neighbor.  If the
   traffic exchanged between two neighbors reduces, OTF asks 6top to de-
   allocate one or more cells.  Once the cells are deleted, 6top
   notifies OTF, which updates its internal state.

   In a proactive approach, the allocation policy over-provisions the
   number of cells reserved in a bundle between two neighbors, i.e.,
   cells are scheduled in advance.  When OTF issues a bundle allocation
   request to 6top, it indicates the desired size of the bundle and the
   TrackID=00. 6top selects the cells belonging to the bundle on the
   best effort track.  Based on the network traffic conditions (e.g.,
   queue utilization), some portion of those cells are used for
   communication.  In any case, allocated cells within a bundle are
   consecutive, starting from the first cell in the block.  The cells
   which are not currently used, are still reserved for that pair of
   nodes, for possible future use.

   It is up to the implementor to select the approach most appropriate
   for the application.  The reactive approach is, in general, be more
   energy-efficient (it allocates only the cells needed), at the expense
   of increased cell allocation latency (negotiating to add/delete cells
   takes some time).

   The proactive approach compared to the reactive one reduces the cell
   allocation latency.  Cells within a bundle are over-provisioned, and
   a priori scheduled.  When needed, the 6top sublayer of the node can
   allocate them, without going through any negotiation phase with the
   6top layer of the neighbor node.  Thus, the proactive approach
   provides a low-delay response after a surge in bandwidth usage.  In
   fact, soft cells within a bundle are already scheduled and become
   immediately available, upon bandwidth request, without the need of a
   negotiation phase.  The use of bundles does force the receiver module
   of the node to be active during the whole length of the bundle,
   resulting in increased power consumption.

   This document introduces the following parameters to accomplish both
   approaches previously described:

   SCHEDULEBW:  The amount of cells scheduled in a bundle on the best
      effort track between two neighbors.

   REQUIREDBW:  Bandwidth requested by OTF to 6top, a non-negative
      number.  How this is computed is out of the scope.  It MAY be the
      an instantaneous bandwidth request, or a value averaged on several
      measurement, or an over-provisioned value.



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   PROACTIVETHRESH:  Threshold parameter to introduce pro-activity in
      the allocation policy, described below.  It is a non-negative
      bandwidth value.  What value to use is application specific and
      out of scope.  The maximum acceptable value for this parameter is
      equal to the current SCHEDULEBW.

   The OTF allocation policy compares the required bandwidth against the
   scheduled one, using the pro-activity threshold for bounding the
   signaling overhead due to negotiations of new cells.  In details:

   1.  If REQUIREDBW is greater than SCHEDULEBW, OTF asks 6top to add
       REQUIREDBW-SCHEDULEBW cells to the bundle on the best effort
       track.

   2.  If REQUIREDBW is greater or equal than SCHEDULEBW-
       PROACTIVETHRESH, and it is lower than or equal to SCHEDULEBW, OTF
       does not perform any bundle resizing, since the scheduled
       bandwidth is sufficient for managing the current traffic
       conditions.

   3.  If REQUIREDBW is lower than SCHEDULEBW-PROACTIVETHRESH, OTF asks
       6top to delete SCHEDULEBW-PROACTIVETHRESH-REQUIREDBW from the
       bundle on the best effor track.

   A purely reactive approach uses PROACTIVETHRESH=0.  In this case, OTF
   does not perform any allocating/deallocating operation when the
   required bandwidth is equal to the scheduled one.

   A purely proactive approach uses PROACTIVETHRESH=SCHEDULEBW.  In this
   case, OTF resizes the bundle only when the required bandwidth is
   greater than the scheduled one.

3.  Allocation methods

   Beyond the allocation policies that describe the approach used by OTF
   for fulfilling the node bandwidth requests, the OTF framework also
   includes Allocation Methods that specify how OTF issues commands to
   the 6top sublayer.  In other words, the allocation methods represent
   the mechanisms that are used by the allocation policies.

   In detail, OTF includes two distinct allocation methods: soft cell
   and bundle allocation methods.  Each Allocation Policy can use either
   one or both allocation methods.  As specified in
   [I-D.wang-6tisch-6top], 6top provides a set of commands that allows
   OTF to allocate/delete soft cells.  The same set of commands can be
   used for reserving bundles.





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   With the soft cell allocation method, OTF has 6top reserve a single
   soft cell on the best effort track, for allowing a given node to
   exchange traffic with a specific neighbor.  The 6top layer allocates
   and maintains this cell.  If a bundle is already reserved between the
   same pair of neighbors, on the same track, this request translates
   into a bundle resize request.  The newly allocated cell increase the
   size of the already existing bundle.  Similarly, when OTF realizes
   there is a reduction of traffic exchanged between the two neighbors,
   it may asks 6top to delete a softcell from the best effort track,
   i.e. to decrease the size of the bundle on the best effort track.  If
   no bundle with TrackID=00 exist, the 6top softcell create command
   generates a new bundle of size 1.

   With the bundle allocation method, OTF sends bundle allocation
   requests to 6top sublayer, specifying the bundle size (the number of
   soft cells) and the TrackID=00.  Scheduling N softcells is equivalent
   to asking for a bundle of size N.  The cells within the bundle are
   allocated by 6top (and thus, used for traffic exchange) only
   afterwards, according to the nodes bandwidth need.

4.  Cell and Bundle Reservation/Deletion

   In order to reserve/delete softcells, OTF interacts with 6top
   sublayer.  To this aim OTF uses the following set of commands offered
   by 6top: CREATE.softcell, and DELETE.softcell.  When creating
   (deleting) a softcell, OTF specified the track the cell belongs to
   (i.e., best effort track, TrackID=00), but not its slotOffset and
   channelOffset.  If at least one cell on the best effort track already
   exists, the CREATE.softcell and DELETE.softcell, translate into
   INCREASE and DECREASE the bundle size, respectively. 6top is
   responsible for picking the specific cell to be added/deleted within
   the bundle.  Before being able to do so, source and destination nodes
   go through a cell negotiation process.  This process is out of scope
   of 6top and OTF.  In order to reserve a best effort bundle, OTF uses
   the CREATE.softcell command, set TrackID=00, but asks 6top for
   multiple softcells.  Following OTF request, 6top either (i) creates a
   new bundle, if no cells were reserved already on the best effort
   track, or (ii) increases the bundle size of the already existing
   best-effort bundle.  By using the DELETE.softcell command, and asking
   for deleting multiple softcells, OTF has 6top delete the entire best
   effort bundle.

   OTF provides a policy for 6top to generate CREATE/DELETE.softcells
   commands, policy that is out of 6top scope [I-D.wang-6tisch-6top].
   Such policy is not the only one that can be used by 6top.  Others may
   be defined in the future.





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5.  Getting statistics and other information about cells through 6top

   Statistics are kept in 4 data structure of 6top MIB: CellList,
   MonitoringStatusList, NeighborList, and QueueList.

   CellList provides per-cell statistics.  From this list, an upper
   layer can get per-bundle statistics.  OTF may have access to the
   CellList, by using the CoAP-YANG Model, but actually cell-specific
   statistics are not significant to OTF, since softcells can be re-
   allocated in time by 6top itself, based on network conditions.

   MonitoringStatusList provides per-neighbor and slotframe statistics.
   From it an upper layer (e.g., OTF) can get per bundle overview of
   scheduling and its performance.  Such list contains information about
   the number of hard and soft cells reserved to a given node with a
   specific neighbor, and the QoS (that can be expressed in form of
   different metrics: PDR, ETX, RSSI, LQI) on the actual bandwidth, and
   the over-provisioned bandwidth (which includes the over-provisioned
   cells). 6top can use such list to operate 6top Monitoring Functions,
   such as re-allocating cells (by changing their slotOffset and/or
   channelOffset) when it finds out that the link quality of some
   softcell is much lower than average.  Unlike 6top, OTF does not
   operate any re-allocation of cells.  In fact, OTF can ask for more/
   less bandwidth, but cannot move any cell within the schedule.  Thus,
   the 6top Monitoring function is useful to OTF, because it can provide
   better cells for a given bandwidth requirement, specified by OTF.
   For instance, OTF may require some additional bandwidth (e.g. 2 cells
   in a specific slotframe) with PDR = 75%; then, 6top will reserve 3
   slots in the slotframe to meet the bandwidth requirement.  In
   addition, when the link quality drop to 50%, 6top will reserve 4
   slots to keep meeting the bandwidth requirement.  Given that OTF
   operates on the global bandwidth between two neighbor nodes, it does
   not need to be informed from 6top about cells' re-allocation.

   NeighborList provides per-neighbor statistics.  From it, an upper
   layer can understand the connectivity of a pair of nodes.  Based on
   the quality of the link, e.g., LQI under threshold, OTF may ask 6top
   to delete some cells, in order to reserve them for better-connected
   links.

   QueueList provides per-Queue statistics.  From it, an upper layer can
   know the traffic load.  OTF, based on such queue statistics (e.g.,
   average length of the queue, average age of the packet in queue,
   etc.) may trigger a 6top CREATE.softcell (DELETEsoftcell) command for
   increasing (decreasing) the bandwidth and be able to better serve the
   packets in the queue.





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6.  Events triggering algorithms in OTF

   The Algorithms running within OTF MUST be event-oriented.  As a
   consequence, OTF requires to connect the algorithms with external
   events to trigger their execution.  The algorithm also generates one
   or more events when it is executed, such as a new softcell
   allocation.  Both type of events, the one which trigger the algorithm
   and the ones which are generated by the execution of the algorithm
   are called OTF events.

   The following notation is used on the definition of OTF events:

   BW <- BWA(B,T,S(T)) where:

   BWA: Bandwidth allocation algorithm

   BW: Bandwidth

   T: Best Effort Track

   B: Bundle

   S(B,T) Statistics for bundle B on track T

   M(B,T): Actual bundle size for bundle B on track T

   The OTF events are defined as:

   Event A: A new bundle B on track T is created.  The OTF events
   generated by the algorithm are:

   1.  Add a new entry in the storage M for bundle B on track T.

   2.  Ask 6top for S(B,T).

   3.  BW <- BWA(B,T,S(T)).

   4.  Ask 6top to allocate a bundle of size BW.

   5.  M(B,T)<-BW.

   Event B: A packet is waiting to be transmitted on any track, but no
   cell is available (i.e., saturation).  The OTF events generated by
   the algorithm are:

   1.  Collect stats S from 6top.

   2.  BW <- BWA(B,T,S(T))).



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   3.  Ask 6top to increase the bundle size up to BW.

   4.  If (allocation successful) then M(B,T)<-BW.

   Event C: The usage of a bundle B on track T is too low, below a pre-
   established threshold.  The OTF events generated by the algorithm
   are:

   1.  Collect stats S from 6top.

   2.  BW <- BWA(B,T,S(T)).

   3.  Ask 6top to decrease the bundle size to BW.

   4.  If (allocation successful) then M(B,T)<-BW.

   Event D: The usage of a bundle B on track T is too high, above a pre-
   established threshold.  The OTF events generated by the algorithm
   are:

   1.  Collect stats S from 6top.

   2.  BW <- BWA(B,T,S(T)).

   3.  Ask 6top to increase the bundle size to BW.

   4.  If (allocation successful) then M(B,T)<-BW.

   Event E: Bundle B on track T is deleted.  The OTF events generated by
   the algorithm are:

   1.  purge M(B,T).

7.  Bandwidth Estimation Algorithms

   OTF supports different bandwidth estimation algorithms that can be
   used by a node in a 6TiSCH network for checking the current traffic
   condition and thus the actual bandwidth usage.  By doing so, one can
   adapt (increase or increase) the number of scheduled cells/bundles
   for a given pair of neighbors (e.g., parent node and its child),
   according to their needs.  OTF supports several bandwidth estimation
   algorithms numbered 0 to 255 in the OTF implementation.  The first
   algorithm (0) is reserved to the default algorithm that is described
   below.  By using SET and GET commands, one can set the specific
   algorithm to be used, and get information about which algorithm is
   implemented.





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   Steps of the default bandwidth estimation algorithm, running over a
   parent node:

   Step 1:  Collect the bandwidth requests from child nodes (incoming
         traffic).

   Step 2:  Collect the node bandwidth requirement from the application
         (self/local traffic).

   Step 3:  Collect the current outgoing scheduled bandwidth (outgoing
         traffic).

   Step 4:  If (outgoing < incoming + self) then SCHEDULE soft cells/
         bundles to satisfy bandwidth requirements.

   Step 5:  If (outgoing > incoming + self) then DELETE the soft cells
         that are not used.

   Step 6:  Return to step 1.

   The default bandwidth estimation algorithm introduced in this
   document adopts a reactive allocation policy; it is possible to
   configure proactivity by using a given PROACTIVETHRESH value.  In
   this case, at Step 4, new soft cells will be scheduled, using the
   cell allocation method, only if there are no free cells in the bundle
   that can satisfied the current bandwidth request.  The node asks 6top
   for increasing the bundle size by using the bundle allocation method.

8.  OTF external CoAP interface

   In order to select the current OTF algorithm and provide functional
   parameters from outside OTF, this module uses CoAP with YANG as the
   data model.  The algorithm number and the parameters MUST be invoked
   in different CoAP calls.

   The path to select the algorithm is '6t/e/otf/alg' with A as the
   algorithm number.

            +------------------------------------------+
    Header  | POST                                     |
            +------------------------------------------+
    Uri-Path| /6t/e/otf/alg                            |
            +------------------------------------------+
    Options | CBOR( {AlgNo: 123} )                     |
            +------------------------------------------+

                  Figure 1: Algorithm number POST message




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   To obtain the current algorithm number:

            +------------------------------------------+
    Header  | GET                                      |
            +------------------------------------------+
    Uri-Path| /6t/e/otf/alg                            |
            +------------------------------------------+
    Options | Accept: application/cbor                 |
            +------------------------------------------+

                  Figure 2: Algorithm number GET message

   An example is: 'coap://[aaaa::1]/6t/e/otf/alg'

   The current algorithm parameter path is '6t/e/otf/alg/par'.

            +------------------------------------------+
    Header  | POST                                     |
            +------------------------------------------+
    Uri-Path| /6t/e/otf/alg/par                        |
            +------------------------------------------+
    Options | CBOR( {Par: 0x1234} )                    |
            +------------------------------------------+

                  Figure 3: Algorithm number POST message

   An example follows: 'coap://[aaaa::1]/6t/e/otf/alg/par'

9.  Acknowledgments

   Special thanks to Prof. Kris Pister for his valuable contribution in
   designing the default Bandwidth Estimation Algorithm, and to Prof.
   Qin Wang for her support in defining the interaction between OTF and
   6top sublayer.

   Thanks to the Fondecyt 1121475 Project, to INRIA Chile "Network
   Design" group and to the IoT6 European Project (STREP) of the 7th
   Framework Program (Grant 288445).

10.  References

10.1.  Informative References

   [I-D.ietf-6tisch-terminology]
              Palattella, M., Thubert, P., Watteyne, T., and Q. Wang,
              "Terminology in IPv6 over the TSCH mode of IEEE
              802.15.4e", draft-ietf-6tisch-terminology-01 (work in
              progress), February 2014.



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   [I-D.ietf-6tisch-architecture]
              Thubert, P., Watteyne, T., and R. Assimiti, "An
              Architecture for IPv6 over the TSCH mode of IEEE
              802.15.4e", draft-ietf-6tisch-architecture-02 (work in
              progress), June 2014.

   [I-D.ietf-6tisch-tsch]
              Watteyne, T., Palattella, M., and L. Grieco, "Using
              IEEE802.15.4e TSCH in an LLN context: Overview, Problem
              Statement and Goals", draft-ietf-6tisch-tsch-00 (work in
              progress), November 2013.

   [I-D.wang-6tisch-6top]
              Wang, Q., Vilajosana, X., and T. Watteyne, "6TiSCH
              Operation Sublayer (6top)", draft-wang-6tisch-6top-00
              (work in progress), October 2013.

10.2.  External Informative References

   [IEEE802154e]
              IEEE standard for Information Technology, "IEEE std.
              802.15.4e, Part. 15.4: Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area
              Networks (LR-WPANs) Amendament 1: MAC sublayer", April
              2012.

   [IEEE802154]
              IEEE standard for Information Technology, "IEEE std.
              802.15.4, Part. 15.4: Wireless Medium Access Control (MAC)
              and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications for Low-Rate
              Wireless Personal Area Networks", June 2011.

Authors' Addresses

   Diego Dujovne (editor)
   Universidad Diego Portales
   Escuela de Informatica y Telecomunicaciones
   Av. Ejercito 441
   Santiago, Region Metropolitana
   Chile

   Phone: +56 (2) 676-8121
   Email: diego.dujovne@mail.udp.cl









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   Luigi Alfredo Grieco
   Politecnico di Bari
   Department of Electrical and Information Engineering
   Via Orabona 4
   Bari  70125
   Italy

   Phone: 00390805963911
   Email: a.grieco@poliba.it


   Maria Rita Palattella
   University of Luxembourg
   Interdisciplinary Centre for Security, Reliability and Trust
   4, rue Alphonse Weicker
   Luxembourg  L-2721
   LUXEMBOURG

   Phone: (+352) 46 66 44 5841
   Email: maria-rita.palattella@uni.lu


   Nicola Accettura
   University of California Berkeley
   Berkeley Sensor & Actuator Center
   490 Cory Hall
   Berkeley, California  94720
   USA

   Email: nicola.accettura@eecs.berkeley.edu





















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