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Internet Engineering Task Force                         Francis Dupont
INTERNET DRAFT                                       GET/ENST Bretagne
Expires in December 2004                                  Pekka Savola
                                                             CSC/FUNET
                                                             June 2004


                     RFC 3041 Considered Harmful

              <draft-dupont-ipv6-rfc3041harmful-05.txt>


Status of this Memo

   This document is an Internet Draft and is in full conformance with
   all provisions of Section 10 of RFC 2026.

   This document is an Internet-Draft.  Internet-Drafts are working
   documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its
   areas, and its working groups.  Note that other groups may also
   distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six
   months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other
   documents at any time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-
   Drafts as reference material or to cite them other than as
   "work in progress."

   The list of current Internet Drafts can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt

   The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.

   Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

Abstract

   The purpose of the privacy extensions for stateless address
   autoconfiguration [1] is to change the interface identifier (and
   the global-scope addresses generated from it) over time in order
   to make it more difficult for eavesdroppers and other information
   collectors to identify when different addresses used in different
   transactions actually correspond to the same node.

   Current Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) [2] attacks employ
   forged source addresses which can also be in the same prefixes
   than the real addresses of the compromised nodes used for attacks.
   Indeed, network ingress filtering defeats DDoS using "random"
   forged source addresses.


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   The issue developed in this document is that the behavior of a
   compromised node used as source in a DDoS attack with "in-prefix"
   spoofed source address and the behavior of nodes using temporary
   addresses at high rate can not be distinguished. This could make
   future defenses against DDoS attacks very hard.

1. Introduction

   Last IPv6 addressing architecture document [3] defines the modified
   EUI-64 format for interface identifiers. This format is mandatory
   for all unicast addresses, except those that start with binary
   value 000 and is 64 bit long with two special bits:
    - the universal/local "u" bit which indicates whether the scope of
      the identifier is global or local.
    - the individual/group "g" bit inherited from IEEE specification.

   In practice interface identifiers enter in one of these categories:
    - global scoped identifiers derived from a built-in interface
      hardware identifier like an IEEE MAC-48 address.
    - manually assigned small identifiers (::1, ::2, ...) which have,
      of course, a local scope.
    - randomly generated identifiers (with a local scope, used when
      the first category of identifiers raises a privacy concern)
    - identifiers derived from a key like Statically Unique and
      Cryptographically Verifiable identifiers [5] (also with a local
      scope but bound to a key with a provable ownership).

   The RFC 3041 (privacy extensions) [1] defines the management of
   randomly generated identifiers and, in the real world, all of them.

   Interface identifiers are used in the stateless address
   autoconfiguration [4] to create link-local addresses (in all cases)
   and to create global and site-local addresses (for hosts from
   prefix information options in router advertisements).

2. Privacy Extensions

   The privacy extensions document addresses claimed privacy concerns
   with globally unique and/or persistent interface identifiers.

   The basic issue is when a constant identifier is reused over an
   extended period of time and in multiple independent activities,
   it becomes possible for that identifier to be used to correlate
   seemingly unrelated activity.

   Note that the interface identifier is usually only the half of the
   whole address, and to change the interface identifier when the
   prefix remains the same will not improve the privacy.


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   There are only two cases where privacy extensions can be justified:
   where the link has a very high number of nodes or where the link
   (and the prefix(es)) changes from time to time. In the second case
   a fresh interface identifier gives a whole new address
   which can not be tracked, but an interface identifier change
   between two movements should give only complexity with little
   benefit.

   How little benefit the is to be had depends mainly on how frequently
   the prefix changes.  For example, if ISPs assign a static prefix to
   a customer, changing the interface identifier never really helps.
   However, if ISPs assign a dynamic prefix to a customer, how often
   the prefix changes (compared to the rate at which new interface
   identifiers are generated) restricts the applicability of the
   privacy extensions.  For example, if the prefix changes about once
   a month, practically the users will be trackable; on the other
   hand, if the prefix changes once a day it could be argued the
   privacy extensions could provide some extra privacy in that
   timeframe. In the latter case, the goal is to have a dynamic prefix
   out of a large dynamic prefix address block, so it is unnoticeable
   to the observers when a different user from the bigger address
   block is using the prefix under observation and when the same user
   has generated a new interface identifier.

   Our argument is that in the second case the prefix(es) and the
   interface identifier should be changed at the same time, or at least
   that the prefix(es) should be changed often enough when compared to
   the interface identifier change frequency.

3. "In-Prefix" Source Addresses Spoofing

   Distributed Denial of Services (DDoS) attacks are a variant of
   Denial of Service attacks where the attackers use a large number of
   compromised hosts in poorly managed domains to flood aimed targets
   with forged packets. In some cases, the amount of traffic is enough
   to overload network infrastructures near the targets.

   In order to hide the real addresses of compromised hosts, to defeat
   easy defenses like rate limitation on detected flows, to avoid
   returned traffic, etc, DDoS attacks employ forged, rapidly changing
   source addresses. When spoofed source addresses are randomly chosen,
   ingress filtering [2] can check if they are topologically plausible
   and drop forged packets. Ingress filtering, especially based on
   unicast Reverse Path Forwarding Forwarding (uRPF) checking, has been
   enough deployed in some networks in the today Internet to encourage
   the attackers to also find different ways to spoof addresses to
   perform effective DDoS attacks.


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   But ingress filtering is not effective against "in-prefix" source
   address spoofing where forged addresses are derived from real ones
   by only changing the last bits so they are likely to be topologically
   correct.  Administrators of systems under attacks have the choice
   between accepting some traffic from fake sources and filtering out
   too much traffic including legitimate traffic from close to the
   apparent attack source, i.e. meaning a denial of service for those
   legitimate sources.  Of course, IPv6 gives the attackers even more
   bits to play with (64 bits for a link, 80 for a site); practically
   e.g. rate limiting by address must be changed to rate limiting
   by prefix.

   To summarize, filtering works only when it is possible and/or easy
   to recognize legitimate packets from forged packets. In some
   cases attacks can be detected at some places (it should always be
   the case near the targets) but again defensive actions need a good
   selection criterion or they become themselves denial of service
   attacks.

4. Temporary vs. Forged Source Addresses

   Privacy extensions create new temporary addresses with an additive
   rate, i.e. with 1000 nodes and a rate by node of one new temporary
   address per day (the default rate [1]) the resulting rate is one
   new address every 90 seconds. So, where changing the temporary
   addresses makes sense, the uses of temporary or forged addresses
   are very hard to distinguish.

   Of course, solutions like per address network access control and
   outbound traffic filtering are both unlikely in poorly managed
   sites where the attackers find hosts to compromise, and are not
   very compatible with user privacy concerns.

   So we recommend:
    - the use of temporary addresses should be disabled by default
      (as in the revision of RFC 3041 [6]).
    - implementations should be updated as soon as possible when
      their default is to use temporary addresses.
    - next revisions of RFC 3041 should address the tradeoff
      between temporary and forged addresses.
    - schemes for cryptographically generated addresses (CGAs)
      should take the issue described in this document into account.
    - A new revision of RFC 3041 should be finished as soon as
      possible and released to update RFC 3041 to avoid further
      damage.


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4. Security Considerations

   This document proposed to fill the Security Considerations
   section of revisions [6] of RFC 3041 which is currently empty.

   Cryptographically generated addresses (CGAs) are by definition
   verifiable but verifying a CGA can be
   an expensive operation and if different levels of verification
   are possible, levels which provide good trust are likely to
   be more expensive. So if a network access control should check
   CGAs, the design must avoid to transform it into an easy target
   for Denial of Service attacks.

   It should also be noted that there are a lot more ways to collect
   privacy information than watching the addresses (e.g. User Agent
   logging in HTTP [7]); these may not enough to make conclusions
   about the node in itself, but could be used, in part, when trying
   to tell whether two addresses might belong to the same node.

   One can argue the usage of privacy features should be
   unobservable [8].

5. Acknowledgments

   The nature of current DDoS attacks was described by Stanislav
   Shaluno during an ingress filtering and home address option
   thread in mobile-ip and ipv6 IETF WG mailing-lists.

   Thomas Narten and Richard Draves tried to explain exactly
   what kind of privacy temporary addresses can (not) provide.
   Unfortunately this answer to complaints about IEEE derived
   interface identifiers and privacy is not IMHO technically
   far more well-founded than the complaints themselves; but
   there was not the time for a real anonymity device (the
   future work section of the RFC 3041 revision [6] finishes
   by the same kind of considerations).

   Alberto Escudero-Pascual suggested to have a look on the
   observability of privacy extensions [8].

6. Normative References

   [1] T. Narten, R. Draves, "Privacy Extensions for Stateless Address
   Autoconfiguration in IPv6", RFC 3041, January 2001.

   [2] P. Ferguson, D. Senie, "Network Ingress Filtering: Defeating
   Denial of Service Attacks which employ IP Source Address Spoofing",
   RFC 2827 / BCP 38, May 2000.


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   [3] R. Hinden, S. Deering, "Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6)
   Addressing Architecture", RFC 3513, April 2003.

   [4] S. Thomson, T. Narten, "IPv6 Stateless Address
   Autoconfiguration", RFC 2462, December 1998.

7. Informative References

   [5] G. Montenegro, C. Castelluccia, "SUCV Identifiers and
   Addresses", draft-montenegro-sucv-03.txt (expired), July 2002.

   [6] T. Narten, R. Draves, "Privacy Extensions for Stateless Address
   Autoconfiguration in IPv6", revision of RFC 3041,
   draft-ietf-ipngwg-temp-addresses-v2-00.txt (expired), July 2001.

   [7] R. Fielding, et al., "Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1",
   RFC 2068, January 1997.

   [8] A. Escudero, "Requirements for unobservability of privacy
   extension in IPv6", RVK02, Stockholm, June 2002.

8. Author's Addresses

   Francis Dupont
   ENST Bretagne
   Campus de Rennes
   2, rue de la Chataigneraie
   CS 17607
   35576 Cesson-Sevigne Cedex
   FRANCE
   Fax: +33 2 99 12 70 30
   EMail: Francis.Dupont@enst-bretagne.fr

   Pekka Savola
   CSC/FUNET
   Espoo, Finland
   EMail: psavola@funet.fi

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