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Versions: (draft-durand-dual-stack-lite) 00 01 draft-ietf-softwire-dual-stack-lite

Internet Engineering Task Force                                A. Durand
Internet-Draft                                                   Comcast
Intended status: Informational                                  R. Droms
Expires: May 7, 2009                                               Cisco
                                                             B. Haberman
                                                                 JHU APL
                                                             J. Woodyatt
                                                                   Apple
                                                        November 3, 2008


       Dual-stack lite broadband deployments post IPv4 exhaustion
                draft-durand-softwire-dual-stack-lite-01

Status of this Memo

   By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any
   applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware
   have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes
   aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section 6 of BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that
   other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-
   Drafts.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
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   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt.

   The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.

   This Internet-Draft will expire on May 7, 2009.

Abstract

   The common thinking for more than 10 years has been that the
   transition to IPv6 will be based on the dual stack model and that
   most things would be converted this way before we ran out of IPv4.

   It has not happened.  The IANA free pool of IPv4 addresses will be
   depleted soon, well before any significant IPv6 deployment will have
   occurred.



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   This document revisits the dual-stack model and introduces the dual-
   stack lite technology aimed at better aligning the costs and benefits
   of deploying IPv6.  Dual-stack lite will provide the necessary bridge
   between the two protocols, offering an evolution path of the Internet
   post IANA IPv4 depletion.


Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     1.1.  Requirements language  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     1.2.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     1.3.  IPv4 exhaustion coming sooner than expected  . . . . . . .  4
   2.  Handling the legacy  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     2.1.  Legacy edges of the Internet for broadband customers . . .  5
     2.2.  Content and Services available on the Internet . . . . . .  5
     2.3.  Additional impact on new broadband deployment  . . . . . .  5
     2.4.  Burden on service providers  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   3.  Expectations for dual-stack lite deployment  . . . . . . . . .  6
     3.1.  Expectations for home gateway based scenarios  . . . . . .  6
     3.2.  Expectations for devices directly connected to the
           broadband service provider network . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     3.3.  Application expectations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     3.4.  Service provider network expectations  . . . . . . . . . .  7
   4.  Dual-stack lite  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     4.1.  Domain of application  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     4.2.  Dual-stack lite interface  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     4.3.  Dual-stack lite device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     4.4.  Dual-stack lite home router  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     4.5.  Dual-stack lite router . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     4.6.  Discovery of the dual-stack lite carrier-grade NAT
           device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     4.7.  Dual-stack lite carrier-grade NAT  . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   5.  Example architectures  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     5.1.  Router-based architecture  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
       5.1.1.  Example message flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
       5.1.2.  Translation details  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     5.2.  Host based architecture  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
       5.2.1.  Example message flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
       5.2.2.  Translation details  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
   6.  Encapsulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
   7.  Carrier-grade NAT considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
     7.1.  Per customer port allocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
     7.2.  ALG  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
     7.3.  On-demand port reservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
     7.4.  Pre-allocating ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
   8.  Future work  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
     8.1.  Multicast considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25



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     8.2.  3rd party carrier-grade NAT  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
     8.3.  Interface initialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
   9.  Comparison with an architecture with multiple-layers of NAT  . 26
   10. Comparison with NAT-PT (or its potential replacements) . . . . 27
   11. Comparison with DSTM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
   12. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
   13. IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
   14. Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
   15. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
     15.1. Normative references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
     15.2. Informative references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
   Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 32






































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1.  Introduction

   This document presents views on IP deployments after the exhaustion
   of IPv4 addresses and some of the necessary technologies to achieve
   it.  The views expressed are the authors' personal opinions and in no
   way imply that Comcast plans to deploy or that Cisco will implement
   the technologies described here.

1.1.  Requirements language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

1.2.  Terminology

   This document makes a distinction between a dual-stack capable and a
   dual-stack provisioned device.  The former is a device that has code
   that implements both IPv4 and IPv6, from the network layer to the
   applications.  The later is a similar device that has been
   provisioned with both an IPv4 and an IPv6 address on its
   interface(s).  This document will also further refine this notion by
   distinguishing between interfaces provisioned directly by the service
   provider from those provisioned by the customer.

1.3.  IPv4 exhaustion coming sooner than expected

   Global public IPv4 addresses coming from the IANA free pool are
   running out faster than many predicted a few years ago.  The current
   model shows that exhaustion could happen as early as 2010 or 2011.
   See http://ipv4.potaroo.net for more details.  Those projection are
   based on the assumption that tomorrow is going to be very similar to
   today, i.e., looking at recent address consumption figures is a good
   indicator of future consumption patterns.  This of course, does not
   take into account any new large scale deployment of IP technology or
   any human reaction when facing an upcoming shortage.

   The prediction of the exact date of exhaustion of the IANA free pool
   is outside the scope of this document, however one conclusion must be
   drawn from that study: there will be in the near future a point where
   new global public IPv4 addresses will not be available in large
   enough quantity thus any new broadband deployment may have to
   consider the option of not provisioning any (global) IPv4 addresses
   to the WAN facing interface of edge devices.  However, the classic
   IPv6 deployment model known as "dual stack provisioning" can be a non
   starter in such environments.





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2.  Handling the legacy

   The dual-stack lite technology is intended for maintaining
   connectivity to legacy IPv4 devices and networks after the exhaustion
   of the IPv4 address space while service provider networks make a
   transition to IPv6-only deployments.  This section describes some of
   the specific legacy scenarios addressed by dual-stack lite.

2.1.  Legacy edges of the Internet for broadband customers

   Broadband home customers have a mix and match of IP enabled devices.
   The most recent operating systems (e.g., Windows Vista, Mac OS X and
   various versions of Linux) can operate in an IPv6-only environment;
   however most of the legacy devices can't.  Windows XP, for example,
   cannot process DNS requests over IPv6 transport.  Expecting broadband
   customers to massively upgrade their software (and in most cases the
   corresponding hardware) to deploy IPv6 is a very tall order.

2.2.  Content and Services available on the Internet

   IPv6 deployment has taken a very long time to take off, so the
   current situation is that almost none of the content and services
   available on the Internet are accessible over IPv6.  This situation
   will probably change in the future, but for now, one has to make the
   assumption that most of the traffic generated by (and to) broadband
   customers will be sent to (and originated by) IPv4 nodes.

2.3.  Additional impact on new broadband deployment

   Even when considering new, green field, broadband deployments, such
   as always-on 4G, service providers have to face the same situation as
   described above, that is, content and services available on the
   Internet are, today, generally accessible only over IPv4 and not
   IPv6.  This makes adoption of IPv6 for green field deployment
   difficult.  Solutions like NAT-PT, now deprecated, do not provide, as
   of today, a satisfying and scalable answer.

2.4.  Burden on service providers

   As a conclusion, broadband service providers may be faced with the
   situation where they have IPv4 customers who need to communicate with
   IPv4 servers on the Internet but may not have any IPv4 addresses left
   to assign to those customers.  A service providers may also be in a
   situation where it wants to deploy IPv6 in its core network, avoiding
   the use of scarce IPv4 addresses.  However, without some form of
   backward compatibility with IPv4, the cost and the benefits of
   deploying IPv6 are not aligned, making incremental IPv6 deployment
   very difficult.



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3.  Expectations for dual-stack lite deployment

3.1.  Expectations for home gateway based scenarios

   This section mainly address home style networks characterized by the
   presence of a home gateway.

   Legacy, unmodified, IPv4-only devices inside the home network are
   expected to keep using RFC1918 address space, a-la 192.168.0.0/16 and
   should be able to access the IPv4 Internet in a similar way they do
   it today through a home gateway IPv4 NAT.

   Unmodified IPv6 capable devices are expected to be able to reach
   directly the IPv6 Internet, without going through any translation.
   It is expected that most IPv6 capable devices will also be IPv4
   capable and will simply be configured with an IPv4 RFC1918 style
   address within the home network and access the IPv4 Internet the same
   way as the legacy IPv4-only devices within the home.

   IPv6-only devices that do not include code for an IPv4 stack are
   outside of the scope of this document.

   It is expected that the home gateway is either software upgradable,
   replaceable or provided by the service provider as part of a new
   contract.  Outside of early IPv6 deployments done prior to IPv4
   exhaustion using some form of tunnel, this is pretty much a
   requirement to deploy any IPv6 service to the home.  It is expected
   that this home gateway will be a dual stack capable device that would
   only be provisioned with IPv6 on its WAN side.  IPv4 and IPv6 are
   expected to be locally provisioned on any LAN interfaces of such
   devices.  IPv4 addresses on such interfaces are expected to be
   RFC1918.  The key point here is that the service provider will not
   provision any IPv4 addresses for those home gateway devices.

3.2.  Expectations for devices directly connected to the broadband
      service provider network

   Under this deployment model, devices directly connected to the
   broadband service provider network without the presence of a home
   gateway will have to be dual stack capable devices.  The service
   provider facing interface(s) of such device will only be provisioned
   with IPv6.  IPv4 may or may not be provisioned locally on other
   interfaces of such devices.  Similarly to the above section, the key
   point here is that the service provider will not provision any IPv4
   addresses for those directly connected devices.

   It is expected that directly connected devices will implement code to
   support the dual-stack lite functionality.  The minimum support



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   required is an IPv4 over IPv6 tunnel.

   IPv4-only devices and IPv6-only devices are specifically left out of
   scope for this document.  It is expected that most modern device
   directly connected to the service provider network would not have
   memory constraints to implement both stack.

3.3.  Application expectations

   Most applications that today work transparently through an IPv4 home
   gateway NAT should keep working the same way.  However, it is not
   expected that applications that requires specific port assignment or
   port mapping from the NAT box will keep working.  Details and
   recommendations for application behavior are outside the scope of
   this document and should be discussed in the behave working group.

3.4.  Service provider network expectations

   The dual-stack lite deployment model is based on the notion that IPv4
   addresses will be shared by several customers.  This implies that the
   NAT functionality will move from the home gateway to a device hosted
   within the service provider network.  It is important to observe that
   this functionality does not have to be performed deep in the core of
   the network and that it might be better implemented close to the
   aggregation point of customer traffic.


4.  Dual-stack lite

   The core ideas behind dual-stack lite are:

   o  Move from a deployment model where a globally unique IPv4 address
      is provisioned per customer and shared among several devices
      within that customer premise to a deployment model where that
      globally unique IPv4 address is shared among many customers

   o  Provide transport of IPv4 traffic to customers over a core network
      that uses only IPv6

   Instead of relying on a cascade of NATs or NAT-PT, the dual-stack
   lite model is built on IPv4 over IPv6 tunnels to cross the network to
   reach a carrier-grade IPv4-IPv4 NAT.  As such, it simplifies the
   management of the service provider network by using only IPv6 and
   provides the customer the benefit of having only one layer of NAT.
   The additional benefit of this model is to gradually introduce IPv6
   in the Internet by making it virtually backward compatible with IPv4.





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4.1.  Domain of application

   The dual-stack lite deployment model has been designed with broadband
   networks in mind.  It is certainly applicable to other domains
   although the authors do not make any specific claim of suitability.

4.2.  Dual-stack lite interface

   A dual-stack lite interface on a dual-stack capable device is modeled
   as a point to point IPv4 over IPv6 tunnel.  Its configuration
   requires that the device is provisioned with IPv6 but does not
   require it to be provisioned with a global IPv4 by the service
   provider.

   Any locally unique IPv4 address can be configured on the subscriber
   network end of the dual-stack lite tunnel.  In the case of dual-stack
   lite in which the tunnel endpoint is in a host Section 5.2, it is
   recommended that dual-stack lite implementations use the well known
   value a.b.c.d (to be defined by IANA) as the IPv4 host side of the
   tunnel and a.b.c.d+1 (TBD by IANA) as the address of the IPv4 default
   gateway, with a netmask to cover a /30 network.

   Note: because of this static configuration using well known values,
   there is no need to run a DHCPv4 client on a Dual-stack lite
   interface.

   The service provider network end point of a dual-stack lite interface
   is the IPv6 address of a dual-stack lite carrier-grade NAT within the
   service provider network.

4.3.  Dual-stack lite device

   A dual-stack lite device is a dual-stack capable device implementing
   a dual-stack lite interface.  In the absence of better routing
   information, a dual-stack lite device will configure a static IPv4
   default route over the dual-stack lite interface.

4.4.  Dual-stack lite home router

   A dual-stack lite home router is a dual-stack capable home router
   implementing a dual-stack lite interface layered on top of its WAN
   interface.  In the absence of better routing information, a dual-
   stack lite home router will configure a static IPv4 default route
   over the dual-stack lite interface.  The dual-stack lite home router
   can use the IPv4 address a.b.c.d (TBD by IANA) to source its own IPv4
   packets, embedded into the IPv6 tunnel.  If the dual-stack lite home
   router need to configure a router pointing to an IPv4 default router,
   it can use the value a.b.c.d+1 (TBD by IANA) for that purpose with a



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   prefix It also configure a.b.c.d+1 (TBD by IANA), with a netmask to
   cover a /30 network.

   Note: a dual-stack lite home router SHOULD NOT perform any IPv4
   address translation.  It should simply act as a router and pass
   packets from the LAN to the dual-stack lite interface and back
   without changing any address.  The dual-stack lite router will have
   to take into account the lowered MTU of the tunnel and possibly
   perform IPv4 fragmentation.

4.5.  Dual-stack lite router

   The concept of a dual-stack lite home router can be extended to any
   IPv4 router serving as a gateway between a leaf IP domain and the
   rest of the Internet.

4.6.  Discovery of the dual-stack lite carrier-grade NAT device

   The IPv6 address of a dual-stack lite carrier-grade NAT device can be
   configured on a dual-stack lite interface using a variety of methods,
   ranging from an out-of-band mechanism, manual configuration, a to-be-
   defined DHCPv6 option [I-D.dhankins-softwire-tunnel-option] or a to-
   be-defined IPv6 router advertisement.  It is expected that over time
   some or all the above methods, as well as others, will be defined.
   The requirements and specifications of such methods are out of scope
   for this document.

4.7.  Dual-stack lite carrier-grade NAT

   A dual-stack lite carrier grade NAT is a special IPv4 to IPv4 NAT
   deployed within the service provider network.  It is reachable by
   customers via a series of point to point IPv4 over IPv6 tunnels.

   A dual-stack lite carrier-grade NAT uses a combination of the IPv6
   source address of the tunnel and the inner IPv4 source address to
   establish and maintain the IPv4 NAT mapping table.

   A dual-stack lite carrier-grade NAT does not have to perform any
   IPv6-IPv6, IPv6-IPv4 or IPv4-IPv6 NAT.

   A dual-stack lite carrier-grade NAT can use the IPv4 address
   a.b.c.d+1 (TBD by IANA) in the IPv4 ICMP packets it will originate
   toward a dual-stack lite client to enable meaningful ping and
   traceroute results.







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5.  Example architectures

   The underlying technology behind dual-stack lite is the combination
   of two well-known technologies: NAT and tunneling.  This combination
   can be best described using the terminology developed in the softwire
   working group as Softwire NAT, or SNAT.

   Two architectures can be deployed for dual-stack lite.  One is
   targeting the legacy installed base of IPv4 only hosts (and dual-
   stack capable hosts) sitting behind a gateway.  The second is
   targeting dual-stack capable hosts initiating the tunnel themselves.

5.1.  Router-based architecture

   This architecture is targeted at residential broadband deployments
   but can be adapted easily to other types of deployment where the
   installed base of IPv4-only device is important.

   As illustrated in Figure 1, this dual-stack lite deployment model
   consists of three components: the dual-stack lite home router, the
   dual-stack lite carrier-grade NAT and a softwire between the softwire
   initiator (SI) in the dual-stack lite home router and the softwire
   concentrator (SC) in the dual-stack lite carrier-grade NAT.  The
   dual-stack lite carrier-grade NAT performs IPv4-IPv4 NAT translations
   to multiplex multiple subscribers through a single global IPv4
   address.  Overlapping address spaces used by subscribers are
   disambiguated through the identification of tunnel endpoints.
























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                   +-----------+
                   |    Host   |
                   +-----+-----+
                         |10.0.0.1
                         |
                         |
                         |10.0.0.2
               +---------|---------+
               |         |         |
               |dual-stack lite home router
               |+--------+--------+|
               ||     SNAT SI     ||
               |+--------+--------+|
               +--------|||--------+
                        |||2001:0:0:1::1
                        |||
                        |||<-IPv4-in-IPv6 softwire
                        |||
                 -------|||-------
               /        |||        \
              |   ISP core network  |
               \        |||        /
                 -------|||-------
                        |||
                        |||2001:0:0:2::1
               +--------|||--------+
               |dual-stack lite carrier-grade NAT
               |+--------+--------+|
               ||     SNAT SC     ||
               |+--------+--------+|
               |       |NAT|       |
               |       +-+-+       |
               +---------|---------+
                         |129.0.0.1
                         |
                 --------|--------
               /         |         \
              |       Internet      |
               \         |         /
                 --------|--------
                         |
                         |128.0.0.1
                   +-----+-----+
                   | IPv4 Host |
                   +-----------+

                 Figure 1: SNAT gateway-based architecture




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   Notes:

   o  The dual-stack lite home router is not required to be on the same
      link as the host

   o  The dual-stack lite home router could be replaced by a dual-stack
      lite router in the service provider network

   The resulting solution accepts an IPv4 datagram that is translated
   into an IPv4-in-IPv6 softwire datagram for transmission across the
   softwire.  At the corresponding endpoint, the IPv4 datagram is
   decapsulated, and the translated IPv4 address is inserted based on a
   translation from the softwire.

5.1.1.  Example message flow

   In the example shown in Figure 2, the translation tables in the dual-
   stack lite carrier-grade NAT is configured to forward between IP/TCP
   (10.0.0.1/10000) and IP/TCP (129.0.0.1/5000).  That is, a datagram
   received by the dual-stack lite home router from the host at address
   10.0.0.1, using TCP DST port 10000 will be translated a datagram with
   IP SRC address 129.0.0.1 and TCP SRC port 5000 in the Internet.





























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                   +-----------+
                   |    Host   |
                   +-----+-----+
                      |  |10.0.0.1
      IPv4 datagram 1 |  |
                      |  |
                      v  |10.0.0.2
               +---------|---------+
               |         |         |
               |dual-stack lite home router
               |+--------+--------+|
               ||     SNAT SI     ||
               |+--------+--------+|
               +--------|||--------+
                      | |||2001:0:0:1::1
       IPv6 datagram 2| |||
                      | |||<-IPv4-in-IPv6 softwire
                      | |||
                 -----|-|||-------
               /      | |||        \
              |   ISP core network  |
               \      | |||        /
                 -----|-|||-------
                      | |||
                      | |||2001:0:0:2::1
               +------|-|||--------+
               |dual-stack lite carrier-grade NAT
               |      v |||        |
               |+--------+--------+|
               ||     SNAT SC     ||
               |+--------+--------+|
               |       |NAT|       |
               |       +-+-+       |
               +---------|---------+
                      |  |129.0.0.1
      IPv4 datagram 3 |  |
                 -----|--|--------
               /      |  |         \
              |       Internet      |
               \      |  |         /
                 -----|--|--------
                      |  |
                      v  |128.0.0.1
                   +-----+-----+
                   | IPv4 Host |
                   +-----------+

                        Figure 2: Outbound Datagram



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            +-----------------+--------------+---------------+
            |        Datagram | Header field | Contents      |
            +-----------------+--------------+---------------+
            | IPv4 datagram 1 |     IPv4 Dst | 128.0.0.1     |
            |                 |     IPv4 Src | 10.0.0.1      |
            |                 |      TCP Dst | 80            |
            |                 |      TCP Src | 10000         |
            | --------------- | ------------ | ------------- |
            | IPv6 Datagram 2 |     IPv6 Dst | 2001:0:0:2::1 |
            |                 |     IPv6 Src | 2001:0:0:1::1 |
            |                 |     IPv4 Dst | 128.0.0.1     |
            |                 |     IPv4 Src | 10.0.0.1      |
            |                 |      TCP Dst | 80            |
            |                 |      TCP Src | 10000         |
            | --------------- | ------------ | ------------- |
            | IPv4 datagram 3 |     IPv4 Dst | 128.0.0.1     |
            |                 |     IPv4 Src | 129.0.0.1     |
            |                 |      TCP Dst | 80            |
            |                 |      TCP Src | 5000          |
            +-----------------+--------------+---------------+

                         Datagram header contents

   When datagram 1 is received by the dual-stack lite home router, the
   SI function encapsulates the datagram in datagram 2 and forwards it
   to the dual-stack lite carrier-grade NAT over the softwire.

   When it receives datagram 2, the SC in the dual-stack lite carrier-
   grade NAT hands the IPv4 datagram to the NAT, which determines from
   its translation table that the datagram received on Softwire_1 with
   TCP SRC port 10000 should be translated to datagram 3 with IP SRC
   address 129.0.0.1 and TCP SRC port 5000.

   Figure 3 shows an inbound message received at the dual-stack lite
   carrier-grade NAT.  When the NAT function in the dual-stack lite
   carrier-grade NAT receives datagram 1, it looks up the IP/TCP DST in
   its translation table.  In the example in Figure 3, the NAT
   translates the TCP DST port to 10000, sets the IP DST address to
   10.0.0.1 and hands the datagram to the SC for transmission over
   Softwire_1.  The SI in the dual-stack lite home router decapsulates
   IPv4 datagram from the inbound softwire datagram, and forwards it to
   the host.









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                   +-----------+
                   |    Host   |
                   +-----+-----+
                      ^  |10.0.0.1
      IPv4 datagram 3 |  |
                      |  |
                      |  |10.0.0.2
               +---------|---------+
               |       +-+-+       |
               |dual-stack lite home router
               |+--------+--------+|
               ||     SNAT SI     ||
               |+--------+--------+|
               +--------|||--------+
                      ^ |||2001:0:0:1::1
      IPv6 datagram 2 | |||
                      | |||<-IPv4-in-IPv6 softwire
                      | |||
                 -----|-|||-------
               /      | |||        \
              |   ISP core network  |
               \      | |||        /
                 -----|-|||-------
                      | |||
                      | |||2001:0:0:2::1
               +------|-|||--------+
               |dual-stack lite carrier-grade NAT
               |+--------+--------+|
               ||     SNAT SC     ||
               |+--------+--------+|
               |       |NAT|       |
               |       +-+-+       |
               +---------|---------+
                      ^  |129.0.0.1
      IPv4 datagram 1 |  |
                 -----|--|--------
               /      |  |         \
              |       Internet      |
               \      |  |         /
                 -----|--|--------
                      |  |
                      |  |128.0.0.1
                   +-----+-----+
                   | IPv4 Host |
                   +-----------+

                        Figure 3: Inbound Datagram




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            +-----------------+--------------+---------------+
            |        Datagram | Header field | Contents      |
            +-----------------+--------------+---------------+
            | IPv4 datagram 1 |     IPv4 Dst | 129.0.0.1     |
            |                 |     IPv4 Src | 128.0.0.1     |
            |                 |      TCP Dst | 5000          |
            |                 |      TCP Src | 80            |
            | --------------- | ------------ | ------------- |
            | IPv6 Datagram 2 |     IPv6 Dst | 2001:0:0:1::1 |
            |                 |     IPv6 Src | 2001:0:0:2::1 |
            |                 |     IPv4 Dst | 10.0.0.1      |
            |                 |       IP Src | 128.0.0.1     |
            |                 |      TCP Dst | 10000         |
            |                 |      TCP Src | 80            |
            | --------------- | ------------ | ------------- |
            | IPv4 datagram 3 |     IPv4 Dst | 10.0.0.1      |
            |                 |     IPv4 Src | 128.0.0.1     |
            |                 |      TCP Dst | 10000         |
            |                 |      TCP Src | 80            |
            +-----------------+--------------+---------------+

                         Datagram header contents

5.1.2.  Translation details

   The dual-stack lite carrier-grade NAT has a NAT that translates
   between softwire/port pairs and IPv4-address/port pairs.  The same
   translation is applied to IPv4 datagrams received on the device's
   external interface and from the softwire endpoint in the device.

   In Figure 2, the translator network interface in the dual-stack lite
   carrier-grade NAT is on the Internet, and the softwire interface
   connects to the dual-stack lite home router.  The dual-stack lite
   carrier-grade NAT translator is configured as follows:

   Network interface:  Translate IPv4 destination address and TCP
      destination port to the softwire identifier and TCP destination
      port

   Softwire interface:  Translate softwire identifier and TCP source
      port to IPv4 source address and TCP source port

   Here is how the translation in Figure 3 works:

   o  Datagram 1 is received on the dual-stack lite carrier-grade NAT
      translator network interface.  The translator looks up the IPv4-
      address/port pair in its translator table, rewrites the IPv4
      destination address to 10.0.0.1 and the TCP source port to 10000,



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      and hands the datagram to the SE to be forwarded over the
      softwire.

   o  The IPv4 datagram is received on the dual-stack lite home router
      SI.  The SI function extracts the IPv4 datagram and the dual-stack
      lite home router forwards datagram 3 to the host.

          +-------------------------------+--------------------+
          |            Softwire/IPv4/Port | IPv4/Port          |
          +-------------------------------+--------------------+
          | Softwire_1/10.0.0.1/TCP 10000 | 129.0.0.1/TCP 5000 |
          +-------------------------------+--------------------+

            dual-stack lite carrier-grade NAT translation table

5.2.  Host based architecture

   This architecture is targeted at new, large scale deployments of
   dual-stack capable devices implementing a dual-stack lite interface.

   As illustrated in Figure 4, this dual-stack lite deployment model
   consists of three components: the dual-stack lite host, the dual-
   stack lite carrier-grade NAT and a softwire between the softwire
   initiator (SI) in the host and the softwire concentrator (SC) in the
   dual-stack lite carrier-grade NAT.  The dual-stack lite host is
   assumed to have IPv6 service and can exchange IPv6 traffic with the
   dual-stack lite carrier-grade NAT.

   The dual-stack lite carrier-grade NAT performs IPv4-IPv4 NAT
   translations to multiplex multiple subscribers through a single
   global IPv4 address.  Overlapping IPv4 address spaces used by the
   dual-stack lite hosts are disambiguated through the identification of
   tunnel endpoints.

   In this situation, the dual-stack lite host configures the well known
   IPv4 address a.b.c.d (TBD by IANA) on it dual-stack lite interface
   acting as the SI.  It also configure a.b.c.d+1 (TBD by IANA) as the
   address of its default gateway, with a netmask to cover a /30
   network.












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               +-------------------+
               |                   |
               |Host  a.b.c.d      |
               |+--------+--------+|
               ||     SNAT SI     ||
               |+--------+--------+|
               +--------|||--------+
                        |||2001:0:0:1::1
                        |||
                        |||<-IPv4-in-IPv6 softwire
                        |||
                 -------|||-------
               /        |||        \
              |   ISP core network  |
               \        |||        /
                 -------|||-------
                        |||
                        |||2001:0:0:2::1
               +--------|||--------+
               |dual-stack lite carrier-grade NAT
               |+--------+--------+|
               ||     SNAT SC     ||
               |+--------+--------+|
               |       |NAT|       |
               |       +-+-+       |
               +---------|---------+
                         |129.0.0.1
                         |
                 --------|--------
               /         |         \
              |       Internet      |
               \         |         /
                 --------|--------
                         |
                         |128.0.0.1
                   +-----+-----+
                   | IPv4 Host |
                   +-----------+

                  Figure 4: SNAT host-based architecture

   The resulting solution accepts an IPv4 datagram that is translated
   into an IPv4-in-IPv6 softwire datagram for transmission across the
   softwire.  At the corresponding endpoint, the IPv4 datagram is
   decapsulated, and the translated IPv4 address is inserted based on a
   translation from the softwire.





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5.2.1.  Example message flow

   In the example shown in Figure 5, the translation tables in the dual-
   stack lite carrier-grade NAT is configured to forward between IP/TCP
   (a.b.c.d/10000) and IP/TCP (129.0.0.1/5000).  That is, a datagram
   received from the host at address a.b.c.d, using TCP DST port 10000
   will be translated a datagram with IP SRC address 129.0.0.1 and TCP
   SRC port 5000 in the Internet.











































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               +-------------------+
               |                   |
               |Host a.b.c.d       |
               |+--------+--------+|
               ||     SNAT SI     ||
               |+--------+--------+|
               +--------|||--------+
                      | |||2001:0:0:1::1
       IPv6 datagram 1| |||
                      | |||<-IPv4-in-IPv6 softwire
                      | |||
                 -----|-|||-------
               /      | |||        \
              |   ISP core network  |
               \      | |||        /
                 -----|-|||-------
                      | |||
                      | |||2001:0:0:2::1
               +------|-|||--------+
               |dual-stack lite carrier-grade NAT
               |      v |||        |
               |+--------+--------+|
               ||     SNAT SC     ||
               |+--------+--------+|
               |       |NAT|       |
               |       +-+-+       |
               +---------|---------+
                      |  |129.0.0.1
      IPv4 datagram 2 |  |
                 -----|--|--------
               /      |  |         \
              |       Internet      |
               \      |  |         /
                 -----|--|--------
                      |  |
                      v  |128.0.0.1
                   +-----+-----+
                   | IPv4 Host |
                   +-----------+

                        Figure 5: Outbound Datagram










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            +-----------------+--------------+---------------+
            |        Datagram | Header field | Contents      |
            +-----------------+--------------+---------------+
            | IPv6 Datagram 1 |     IPv6 Dst | 2001:0:0:2::1 |
            |                 |     IPv6 Src | 2001:0:0:1::1 |
            |                 |     IPv4 Dst | 128.0.0.1     |
            |                 |     IPv4 Src | a.b.c.d       |
            |                 |      TCP Dst | 80            |
            |                 |      TCP Src | 10000         |
            | --------------- | ------------ | ------------- |
            | IPv4 datagram 2 |     IPv4 Dst | 128.0.0.1     |
            |                 |     IPv4 Src | 129.0.0.1     |
            |                 |      TCP Dst | 80            |
            |                 |      TCP Src | 5000          |
            +-----------------+--------------+---------------+

                         Datagram header contents

   When sending an IPv4 packet, the dual-stack lite host encapsulates it
   in datagram 1 and forwards it to the dual-stack lite carrier-grade
   NAT over the softwire.

   When it receives datagram 1, the SC in the dual-stack lite carrier-
   grade NAT hands the IPv4 datagram to the NAT, which determines from
   its translation table that the datagram received on Softwire_1 with
   TCP SRC port 10000 should be translated to datagram 3 with IP SRC
   address 129.0.0.1 and TCP SRC port 5000.

   Figure 6 shows an inbound message received at the dual-stack lite
   carrier-grade NAT.  When the NAT function in the dual-stack lite
   carrier-grade NAT receives datagram 1, it looks up the IP/TCP DST in
   its translation table.  In the example in Figure 3, the NAT
   translates the TCP DST port to 10000, sets the IP DST address to
   a.b.c.d and hands the datagram to the SC for transmission over
   Softwire_1.  The SI in the dual-stack lite home router decapsulates
   IPv4 datagram from the inbound softwire datagram, and forwards it to
   the host.














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               +-------------------+
               |                   |
               |Host a.b.c.d       |
               |+--------+--------+|
               ||     SNAT SI     ||
               |+--------+--------+|
               +--------|||--------+
                      ^ |||2001:0:0:1::1
      IPv6 datagram 2 | |||
                      | |||<-IPv4-in-IPv6 softwire
                      | |||
                 -----|-|||-------
               /      | |||        \
              |   ISP core network  |
               \      | |||        /
                 -----|-|||-------
                      | |||
                      | |||2001:0:0:2::1
               +------|-|||--------+
               |dual-stack lite carrier-grade NAT
               |      | |||        |
               |+--------+--------+|
               ||     SNAT SC     ||
               |+--------+--------+|
               |       |NAT|       |
               |       +-+-+       |
               +---------|---------+
                      ^  |129.0.0.1
      IPv4 datagram 1 |  |
                 -----|--|--------
               /      |  |         \
              |       Internet      |
               \      |  |         /
                 -----|--|--------
                      |  |
                      |  |128.0.0.1
                   +-----+-----+
                   | IPv4 Host |
                   +-----------+

                        Figure 6: Inbound Datagram










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            +-----------------+--------------+---------------+
            |        Datagram | Header field | Contents      |
            +-----------------+--------------+---------------+
            | IPv4 datagram 1 |     IPv4 Dst | 129.0.0.1     |
            |                 |     IPv4 Src | 128.0.0.1     |
            |                 |      TCP Dst | 5000          |
            |                 |      TCP Src | 80            |
            | --------------- | ------------ | ------------- |
            | IPv6 Datagram 2 |     IPv6 Dst | 2001:0:0:1::1 |
            |                 |     IPv6 Src | 2001:0:0:2::1 |
            |                 |     IPv4 Dst | a.b.c.d       |
            |                 |       IP Src | 128.0.0.1     |
            |                 |      TCP Dst | 10000         |
            |                 |      TCP Src | 80            |
            +-----------------+--------------+---------------+

                         Datagram header contents

5.2.2.  Translation details

   The translations happening in the dual-stack lite carrier-grade NAT
   are the same as in the previous examples.  The well known IPv4
   address a.b.c.d used by all the hosts are disambiguated by the IPv6
   source address of the softwire.


6.  Encapsulations

   In its simplest deployment model, dual-stack lite only requires IPv4
   in IPv6 encapsulation.  In more complex scenario where a site gateway
   would play the role of the softwire initiator, more complex
   encapsulation might be desired.  Thus dual-stack lite hosts, dual-
   stack lite home gateway and dual-stack lite NAT devices must at
   minimum implement IPv4 in IPv6 encapsulation.  On top of that, dual-
   stack lite NAT devices should be able to support other encapsulation,
   like L2TPv2/v3, GRE, MPLS,...


7.  Carrier-grade NAT considerations

   A dual-stack lite carrier-grade NAT SHOULD implement behavior
   conforming to the best current practice, currently documented in
   [RFC4787], [I-D.ietf-behave-tcp] and [I-D.ietf-behave-nat-icmp].
   Other requirements for carrier-grade NATs can be found in
   [I-D.nishitani-cgn].  DISCUSSION: those requirements need to be
   harmonized.





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7.1.  Per customer port allocation

   Because IPv4 addresses will be share among customers and potentially
   a large address space reduction factor may be applied, in average,
   only a limited number N of TCP or UDP port numbers will be available
   per customer.  This means that applications opening a very large
   number of TCP ports may have a harder time to work.  For example, it
   has been reported that a very well know web site was using AJAX
   techniques and was opening up to 69 TCP ports per web page.  If we
   make the hypothesis of an address space reduction of a factor 100
   (one IPv4 address per 100 customers), and 65k ports per IPv4
   addresses available, that makes a total of N=650 ports available
   simultaneously to be shared among the various devices behind the
   dual-stack lite tunnel end-point.

   There is an important operational difference if those N ports are
   pre-allocated in a cookie-cutter fashion versus allocated on demand
   by incoming connections.  This is a difference between an average of
   N ports and a maximum of N ports.  Note that an hybrid system can be
   design where a limited number of ports are pre-allocated to customers
   for special applications and the others are reserved for dynamic
   allocations.

7.2.  ALG

   Concerns have been expressed that any type of carrier-grade NAT could
   stifle innovation by making it harder to deploy ALGs, and, as such,
   it would be better to architect the NAT at the edges of the network
   rather than in the core.  Such an edge based architecture (SAM
   [I-D.despres-sam], A+P [I-D.ymbk-aplusp]) would require significantly
   more complexity to be placed either in the end host or in the home
   gateway than simply having an interface that encapsulate IPv4 in
   IPv6.  This complexity may be an heavy price to pay considering that
   most recent applications have been developped to work without any ALG
   support at all, as illustrated by the trend to now use HTTP as
   transport...  More over, as was stated during the Montreal IETF
   interim meeting, what really matters is not so much the placement of
   the NAT itself, but the control over the ALG.  For that reason, the
   carrier-grade NAT SHOULD avoid performing any ALG on unknown
   protocols and provide a method for edge devices to learn about the
   external binding (IPv4 address+port) that will be used by the
   carrier-grade NAT to translate the packets and then perform any
   necessary ALG.

   DISCUSSION: A carrier-grade NAT MAY implement ALGs supporting all the
   classic applications, e.g.  FTP, RTSP/RTP, IPsec and PPTP VPN pass-
   through, etc.




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   Manual port forwarding or UPnP IGD may or may not be supported.

7.3.  On-demand port reservation

   A port mapping protocol might be developed to run between a dual-
   stack lite host (or a dual-stack lite router) and the dual-stack lite
   carrier-grade NAT to reserve at connection time a binding with an
   external IPv4 address and a port number, and for use by privately
   addressed hosts to determine the which public address the NAT will
   pair with it.  In a dual-stack lite router, such a protocol could
   serve as a proxy for UPnP IGD [UPnP-IGD] or NAT-PMP
   [I-D.cheshire-nat-pmp].

7.4.  Pre-allocating ports

   An alternate mechanism would be to use a DHCPv4 option to request the
   allocation of a (small) block of port number on a shared IPv4
   address.  Such a mechanism is described in
   [I-D.bajko-v6ops-port-restricted-ipaddr-assign]

   An even simpler mechanism would be to enable a user to pre-register a
   limited number of external mappings on the service provider web site.


8.  Future work

   The items described bellow could be included in a future version of
   this document or be the object of a separate document.

8.1.  Multicast considerations

   This document only describes unicast IPv4 as IPv4 Multicast is not
   widely deployed in broadband networks.  Some multicast IPv4
   considerations might to be discussed as well in a future revision of
   this document.

8.2.  3rd party carrier-grade NAT

   The dual-stack lite architecture can be easily extended to support
   3rd party carrier-grade NATs.  The dual-stack lite interface just
   need to be pointed to the IPv6 address of that 3rd party carrier-
   grade NAT instead of the IPv6 address of the service provider
   carrier-grade NAT.  Implementation of dual-stack lite should enable
   users to override the mechanism used for automatic discovery of the
   carrier grade NAT and, for example, manually enter the DNS name of
   the selected carrier-grade NAT.





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8.3.  Interface initialization

   The initialization sequence of each interface of a dual-stack lite
   node need to be analyzed and heuristics need to be defined to
   determined if each interface operates in IPv4 mode, IPv6 mode, dual-
   stack mode or dual-stack lite mode.  The absence/presence of the
   DHCPv6 option discussed above in requests/responses could be a
   trigger to decide in which mode to operate.


9.  Comparison with an architecture with multiple-layers of NAT

   An alternative architecture could consist on layering multiple levels
   of IPv4-IPv4 NAT toward the edges of the service provider network.
   Such architecture has a key advantage: it would work with any
   existing IPv4 home gateway.  However, it would have a number of
   drawbacks:

   o  Each NAT device in the path will have its own application level
      gateways, increasing the odds of failure or miss-configuration.

   o  The larger private IPv4 address space available today is Net
      10.0.0.0/8.  It can in theory accommodate for about 16 million
      addresses, in practice, with an 80% allocation efficiency, it can
      address about 13 million devices.  This may not be enough for
      existing and future large scale deployments, thus multiple
      overlapping copies of Net 10 might have to be used simultaneously.
      This in itself create more complexity:

      *  If multiple copies of Net 10 are in use, network
         troubleshooting gets more difficult.  One first need to figure
         out in which Net 10 realm the customer is before sending a ping
         to a home gateway to test it.  This means that provisioning
         systems need to be modified to include this information.

      *  Multiple overlapping copies of Net 10 often intersect in some
         places with routers and firewalls.  The configuration of such
         devices need to carefully take into accounts the overlapping
         address space.  Debugging problems created by miss-
         configuration can be time consuming.

   o  Both legacy customers with global IPv4 addresses and new customers
      with private IPv4 addresses may be connected to the same
      aggregation router.  That router will have to make the decision to
      send packets directly to the Internet or via a translator based on
      the source address of those packets, which is known as source-
      based routing.  Although not impossible to implement, this adds
      complexity to the management of the network.



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   None of the issues described above are show stoppers, but put
   together, they seriously increase the complexity of the management of
   the network.


10.  Comparison with NAT-PT (or its potential replacements)

   NAT-PT [RFC2766] deals with the translation from IPv6 to IPv4 and
   vice versa.  As such, it would not help solving the problem of
   offering IPv4 service to legacy IPv4 hosts.  NAT-PT is targeted at
   green field IPv6 deployments, allowing them to access services and
   content on the IPv4 Internet.  In that sense, NAT-PT could be in
   competition with dual-stack lite for green field deployment of new
   devices directly connected to the broadband service provider network.

   In this situation, NAT-PT has the advantage of enabling to remove
   entirely the IPv4 stack on edge devices.  This may be critical on
   sensor type devices with a very small memory footprint.  However, it
   is unclear if such devices really need to have access to the whole
   global IPv4 Internet in the first place or if they only need to
   communicate with servers that can be made IPv6 enable.

   In the more general case, dual-stack lite has several advantages over
   NAT-PT:

   o  Dual-stack lite does not require any hack to the DNS.  In other
      words, there is no need to synthesize fake AAAA records to
      represent IPv4 addresses.  This make DNSsec works more reliably.

   o  Because of the DNS ALG hack, NAT-PT places restriction on the
      topology, in most cases requiring that all exiting traffic go
      through a single point of contention.  Because there is no DNS ALG
      with dual-stack lite and because each dual-stack lite device can
      be directed independently to a different dual-stack lite NAT, the
      dual-stack lite architecture can scale better.

   o  ALG sometimes need to manipulate literal IP address in the payload
      of packets.  In the case of an IPv4-IPv4 NAT, this is a simple 32
      bit field replacement.  In the case of IPv6-IPv4 (or IPv4-IPv6)
      NAT, a 128 bit field need to be substituted by a 32 bit field (or
      vice versa).  This makes NAT-PT ALG more complex than dual-stack
      lite NAT ALG.

   For more detail on NAT-PT related issues, see [RFC4966].







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11.  Comparison with DSTM

   DSTM [I-D.bound-dstm-exp] was addressing IPv6 backward compatibility
   with IPv4 by providing a temporary IPv4 address to dual-stack nodes.
   Connectivity was also provided by the way of IPv4 over IPv6 tunnels.
   However, DSTM was relying on nodes acquiring and releasing IPv4
   addresses on a need to have basis.  It is the authors' opinion that
   such mechanism may not provide the necessary savings in address space
   for large scale broadband deployments.


12.  Acknowledgements

   The authors would like to acknowledge the role of Mark Townsley for
   his input on the overall architecture of this technology by pointing
   this work in the direction of [I-D.droms-softwires-snat].  Note that
   this document results from a merging of [I-D.durand-dual-stack-lite]
   and [I-D.droms-softwires-snat].Also to be acknowledged are the many
   discussions with a number of people including Shin Miyakawa,
   Katsuyasu Toyama, Akihide Hiura, Takashi Uematsu, Tetsutaro Hara,
   Yasunori Matsubayashi, Ichiro Mizukoshi.  The author would also like
   to thank David Ward, Jari Arkko, Thomas Narten and Geoff Huston for
   their constructive feedback.  A special thank you goes to Dave Thaler
   for his review and comments.


13.  IANA Considerations

   This draft request IANA to allocate a well know IPv4 a.b.c.d/30
   network prefix.  The IPv4 address a.b.c.d is reserved for sourcing
   IPv4 packets inside on IPv6 tunnel.  The IPv4 address a.b.c.d+1 is
   reserved as the IPv4 address of the default router for such dual-
   stack lite hosts.


14.  Security Considerations

   Security issues associated with NAT have long been documented.  See
   [RFC2663] and [RFC2993].

   However, moving the NAT functionality from the home gateway to the
   core of the service provider network and sharing IPv4 addresses among
   customers create additional requirements when logging data for abuse
   treatment.  With any architecture where an IPv4 address does not
   uniquely represent an end host, IPv4 addresses and a timestamps are
   no longer sufficient to identify a particular broadband customer.
   Additional information like TCP port numbers will be be required for
   that purpose.



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   Similarly, some attack mitigation techniques put an IPv4 address in a
   "penalty box" for a period of time ifan abnormal behavior is
   observed.  Such techniques may need to be revisited as they would
   impact more than just one user (presumably the offender) at a time.


15.  References

15.1.  Normative references

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

15.2.  Informative references

   [I-D.bajko-v6ops-port-restricted-ipaddr-assign]
              Bajko, G. and T. Savolainen, "Port Restricted IP Address
              Assignment",
              draft-bajko-v6ops-port-restricted-ipaddr-assign-01 (work
              in progress), October 2008.

   [I-D.bound-dstm-exp]
              Bound, J., "Dual Stack IPv6 Dominant Transition Mechanism
              (DSTM)", draft-bound-dstm-exp-04 (work in progress),
              October 2005.

   [I-D.cheshire-nat-pmp]
              Cheshire, S., "NAT Port Mapping Protocol (NAT-PMP)",
              draft-cheshire-nat-pmp-03 (work in progress), April 2008.

   [I-D.despres-sam]
              Despres, R., "Stateless Address Mapping with A+P Extended
              IPv4 addressing (SAM)", draft-despres-sam-00 (work in
              progress), September 2008.

   [I-D.dhankins-softwire-tunnel-option]
              Hankins, D., "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Option
              for Softwires", draft-dhankins-softwire-tunnel-option-01
              (work in progress), August 2008.

   [I-D.droms-softwires-snat]
              Droms, R. and B. Haberman, "Softwires Network Address
              Translation (SNAT)", draft-droms-softwires-snat-01 (work
              in progress), July 2008.

   [I-D.durand-dual-stack-lite]
              Durand, A., "Dual-stack lite broadband deployments post
              IPv4 exhaustion", draft-durand-dual-stack-lite-00 (work in



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              progress), July 2008.

   [I-D.ietf-behave-nat-icmp]
              Srisuresh, P., Ford, B., Sivakumar, S., and S. Guha, "NAT
              Behavioral Requirements for ICMP protocol",
              draft-ietf-behave-nat-icmp-10 (work in progress),
              October 2008.

   [I-D.ietf-behave-tcp]
              Guha, S., Biswas, K., Ford, B., Sivakumar, S., and P.
              Srisuresh, "NAT Behavioral Requirements for TCP",
              draft-ietf-behave-tcp-08 (work in progress),
              September 2008.

   [I-D.nishitani-cgn]
              Nishitani, T. and S. Miyakawa, "Carrier Grade Network
              Address Translator (NAT) Behavioral Requirements for
              Unicast UDP, TCP and ICMP", draft-nishitani-cgn-00 (work
              in progress), July 2008.

   [I-D.ymbk-aplusp]
              Maennel, O., Bush, R., Cittadini, L., and S. Bellovin,
              "The A+P Approach to the Broadband Provider IPv4 Address
              Shortage", draft-ymbk-aplusp-00 (work in progress),
              October 2008.

   [RFC2663]  Srisuresh, P. and M. Holdrege, "IP Network Address
              Translator (NAT) Terminology and Considerations",
              RFC 2663, August 1999.

   [RFC2766]  Tsirtsis, G. and P. Srisuresh, "Network Address
              Translation - Protocol Translation (NAT-PT)", RFC 2766,
              February 2000.

   [RFC2993]  Hain, T., "Architectural Implications of NAT", RFC 2993,
              November 2000.

   [RFC4787]  Audet, F. and C. Jennings, "Network Address Translation
              (NAT) Behavioral Requirements for Unicast UDP", BCP 127,
              RFC 4787, January 2007.

   [RFC4966]  Aoun, C. and E. Davies, "Reasons to Move the Network
              Address Translator - Protocol Translator (NAT-PT) to
              Historic Status", RFC 4966, July 2007.

   [UPnP-IGD]
              UPnP Forum, "Universal Plug and Play Internet Gateway
              Device Standardized Gateway Device Protocol",



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              September 2006,
              <http://www.upnp.org/standardizeddcps/igd.asp>.


Authors' Addresses

   Alain Durand
   Comcast
   1500 Market st
   Philadelphia, PA  19102
   USA

   Email: alain_durand@cable.comcast.com


   Ralph Droms
   Cisco
   1414 Massachusetts Avenue
   Boxborough, MA  01714
   US

   Phone: +1 978.936.1674
   Email: rdroms@cisco.com


   Brian Haberman
   Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Lab
   11100 Johns Hopkins Road
   Laurel, MD  20723-6099
   US

   Phone: +1 443 778 1319
   Email: brian@innovationslab.net


   James Woodyatt
   Apple Inc.
   1 Infinite Loop
   Cupertino, CA  95014
   US

   Email: jhw@apple.com









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