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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 RFC 4791

Network Working Group                                       L. Dusseault
Internet-Draft                                                    Xythos
Expires: May 1, 2004                                       November 2003


             Calendar Server Extensions for WebDAV (CalDAV)
                         draft-dusseault-caldav-00

Status of this Memo

   This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
   all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on May 1, 2004.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2003). All Rights Reserved.

Abstract

   In the five years since [WebDAV] was standardized, at least three
   groups have used WebDAV as a basis to provide Internet calendar
   access with a minimum of development effort.  This draft explores the
   reasons why this path might be chosen as well as the mechanisms that
   might enable interoperable calendar access over WebDAV.











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1. Introduction

1.1 Advantages of WebDAV for Calendar Access

   WebDAV offers a number of advantages as a framework or basis for
   calendar access.  Most of these advantages boil down to a significant
   reduction in design costs, implementation costs, interoperability
   test costs, deployment costs, and the costs of mistakes.  Every new
   standard author or implementor finds certain small errors and the
   IETF spends considerable time and effort remediating these.  Some of
   the advantages are contingent upon the way WebDAV is used, which is
   why this section exploring advantages is inseparable from the rest of
   this document for the moment.

   This draft was commissioned at the Fall 2003 Minneapolis working
   group meeting of the CalSched working group.  The concept of using
   HTTP/WebDAV as a basis for a calendaring server is by no means a new
   concept: it was discussed in the CalSched working group as early as
   1997 or 1998.  Several companies have implemented calendaring servers
   using HTTP PUT/GET to upload and download iCalendar events, and using
   WebDAV PROPFIND to get listings of resources.  However, those
   implementations do not interoperate because there are many small and
   big decisions to be made in how to model calendaring data as WebDAV
   resources and properties, as well as how to implement required
   features that aren't already part of WebDAV.  This draft is therefore
   intended as an exploration of the advantages of using WebDAV as well
   as a proposal for one way to model calendaring data, and some ideas
   for how to specify the features that go beyond WebDAV.

1.1.1 HTTP URLs for Calendar Objects

   WebDAV is an extension of [HTTP], therefore its URLs are HTTP URLs.
   If calendar access were an extension of WebDAV then it could also
   share HTTP URLs.  This can make a lot of sense because it allows very
   simple calendar browsing clients to be written for devices that
   already have a HTTP stack: the client merely needs to download those
   calendar objects and be able to parse their formats.  Since the
   [iCal] formats are well-defined and well-supported, there's a natural
   choice for what resource to download for a granular calendar object.
   If HTTP GET can be used to represent a calendar object, then
   appointment references can be easily downloaded, synchronized and
   shared.

   Specifying URLs is work.  Not only are HTTP URLs appropriate for
   Calendar objects, but they also eliminate the need to specify a new
   URL schema and format and implement it.





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1.1.2 Web Services and Web Interfaces

   Calendar functionality is found extremely frequently on the Web. Even
   calendaring systems designed primarily for access by smart clients
   (smart clients are those which have application logic, as opposed to
   thin clients or Web browsers) typically also have a Web interface
   accessible by thin clients.  Some calendaring applications are
   available only via Web interfaces, for example those found on systems
   such as Yahoo! Groups.

   Because of the frequent use of Web interfaces, and the possibility of
   supporting Web services, WebDAV is a particularly suitable framework
   for calendar data.  HTTP URLs to calendar objects can be used
   natively in these systems.  WebDAV provides property information in
   an XML format, easily consumed by Web services which usually import
   XML data anyway.  Web interfaces can use stylesheets to transform XML
   data into HTML presentation.  This approach is described in <http://
   www.microsoft.com/technet/prodtechnol/exchange/exchange2000/deploy/
   confeat/e2kowa.asp>.

1.1.3 Client Implementations from Simple to Rich

   The HTTP/WebDAV feature model encourages a wide range of clients,
   from extremely simple to very rich.  This is because servers must
   support a wide range of features, but clients can pick and choose
   which features to support.  For example, even though a WebDAV server
   must support the 'lockdiscovery' property, there's no requirement for
   a client to request or parse this property value if it has no need
   to.  Generally speaking, clients may pick and choose which methods
   and properties to support, as long as the client has a reasonable
   response to the error conditions which might be returned.  A simple
   client can merely download and upload iCal objects and use very
   little XML or advanced WebDAV functionality.

   At the other end of the scale, a rich calendaring client using
   WebDAV-based calendaring could choose to implement offline
   functionality, free-busy searches crossing multiple servers, advanced
   tasks and even some workflow, by using more of the features and
   possibly defining its own dead properties.  (Note: WebDAV's 'dead'
   properties are those which the server allows clients to set but the
   server has no special behavior regarding those properties.  Other
   clients may query and use these dead properties.)

1.1.4 Support for lock feature

   WebDAV includes locking support.  Locks are indispensible when
   multiple authors may modify or create the same resources.  Locks not
   only prevent authors from accidentally overwriting each others work



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   (as ETags do), they also help authors coordinate that work by seeing
   when to wait for another author to finish.  Calendar users benefit
   slightly from this functionality, more so when group calendars or
   shared calendars allow booking of large groups of people or
   broadly-used resources such as conference rooms or equipment.

1.1.5 Support for access control

   The WebDAV ACL specification [ACL] was recently approved by the IESG.
   However, several implementations have already shown interoperability
   using this proposal.  Any shared or group calendar application
   benefits from interoperable access control.  Access control can help
   define who can schedule a user for new appointments without having to
   make email requests, who can view free/busy time, and who can see the
   details of certain appointments.

   The IETF Security Area directors are concerned about a flaw in WebDAV
   ACLs in that different servers can implement different sets of
   privileges which can be hard for clients to handle.  This can be
   mitigated by a well-written spec for calendaring access via WebDAV,
   by requiring servers advertising support for Calendaring features to
   also support a specific and more well-defined set of privileges.
   That approach is consistent with interoperating with existing WebDAV
   clients.

   As a general mechanism, WebDAV ACL may not always provide all the
   power and specificity required by a calendar application.  For
   example, a calendaring application may wish to choose which other
   users can view the start/end times of appointments, and separately
   choose which users can also see the location of appointments.
   However, as a standard and framework, WebDAV ACL provides a valuable
   base from which to work. Furthermore, this proposal recommends that
   advanced access control work for calendaring be relegated to another
   document, so that standard calendaring systems can be built using
   existing WebDAV ACL support.

1.1.6 Security, Implentations and Deployed Base

   Many WebDAV client appliations, servers and APIs already exist.
   WebDAV clients exist for modern Microsoft, Unix and Apple platforms.
   Open source solutions are common and powerful.  This can
   significantly improve early interoperability and reduce development
   and test time.

   Much security integration work has already been done for WebDAV.
   Today's Web and WebDAV servers all support TLS, providing at a
   minimum single-hop privacy and server authentication.  HTTP Digest
   and Basic authentication may provide adequate client authentication



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   (Basic essentially uses a clear-text password but this may be
   appropriate if the connection is secured with TLS).  If not, work is
   under way to support SASL with HTTP. As that work nears completion,
   HTTP/WebDAV implementations will add SASL support so that work will
   be done already for a calendaring system. It seems the HTTP/SASL work
   is nearing last call (currently draft-nystrom-http-sasl-09.txt).

1.1.7 Migration, Synchronization and Offline Functionality

   Synchronization and offline functionality are useful features in
   Calendaring systems.  Luckily, these are already well understood for
   HTTP/WebDAV technology.  HTTP ETags provide a reliable way to
   determine whether a document in an offline cache needs to be
   synchronized.  At least two WebDAV clients supporting synchronization
   have already been created: sitecopy (http://www.lyra.org/sitecopy/)
   and Xythos WebFile Client (http://www.xythos.com/home/xythos/
   wfc_features.html).

   Many WebDAV working group members are discussing more work to improve
   the performance of synchronization betweeen WebDAV clients and WebDAV
   repositories.  This ongoing work can benefit the calendaring
   community at the same time, provided that the calendaring data model
   fits easily in the WebDAV data model.  The model proposed in this
   document is one with which new WebDAV synchronization features are
   likley to be equally applicable to calendaring data.

   Data migration is almost the same problem as synchronization.  One
   use of a WebDAV tool like sitecopy is to move data to a new server.
   The move is peformed by doing a new synchronization.  Once the
   initial synchronization is complete and verified, the data on the old
   system can be removed or archived.  Data portability is a convenient
   feature to administrators, particularly when deploying a new system.

1.1.8 Search Support

   Calendaring systems need a mix of fixed, specific searches (such as a
   "search" for the events occuring today) and general search support.
   WebDAV DASL can provide the functionality for the general search
   support (although not always for specific frequently used searches).
   The only hitch is that DASL is not yet standardized.  The WebDAV WG
   is currently putting effort into completing DASL and several
   interoperable implementations already exist.  In the meantime, if
   DASL is delayed the specific fixed searches defined in this document
   (using the REPORT method, see section 7), together with the ability
   to browse calendars and request calendar objects with certain
   property values, ought to provide quite reasonable calendar browse/
   search support.




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   Note that the property promotion proposed in this document means that
   not only can iCalendar documents be searched with "contains" text
   searches, but also more sophisticated value matching can be done.
   For example, since 'dtstart' is promoted from a VEVENT document body
   to the resource's property list, a DASL search can be constructed to
   find events with 'dtstart' before a specified date.

1.1.9 Clear extensibility model

   WebDAV has a clear and proven extensibility model.  The major way
   functionality is extended is by defining new properties. Servers can
   extend functionality by creating new live properties in custom
   namespaces.

   Clients can also extend functionality by creating new dead properties
   in custom namespaces.  For example, a client might wish to add a
   "source-device" property in a custom namespace to record which device
   created the calendar item.  Dead properties are client-controlled
   properties, where the namespace, name and value are entirely
   controlled by the client. However, the server is required to store
   these properties and return them, if requested, in PROPFIND queries
   for individual resources or in listings of collection contents.  Some
   servers support text searching on all dead properties through the
   DASL extensions.  Dead properties can also be used in reports.

   Other proven HTTP/WebDAV extensibility mechanisms include the ability
   to define and advertise special WebDAV reports, new HTTP headers, and
   for ultimate flexibility, new HTTP methods.

1.2 Required Calendaring Features Missing in WebDAV

   Certain features that are required for modern enterprise-level
   calendar systems are not present in HTTP or WebDAV, unsurprisingly.
   This section makes clear what those missing features are.  The rest
   of this document is largely about how those missing features could be
   filled in.

   fanout One of the valuable functions a calendaring server can provide
      to a client is fanning out scheduling requests.  This allows
      clients to perform simple operations (send a single schedule
      request to the server) and have the server perform complex and
      possibly time consuming processing. The server can send individual
      scheduling requests to different invitees. It can choose the most
      appropriate scheduling request transport for each invitee, not
      necessarily using the same technology for each invitee to the same
      meeting.  The server can then remain online to collect and collate
      responses.  Fanout is unlike any existing WebDAV feature.  Thus,
      support for fanout dictates that a Calendaring server cannot



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      simply be an out-of-the-box WebDAV server with no modifications.
      A CalDav server must have fanout logic in addition to its basic
      WebDAV feature support. This document defines how fanout works.

   recurrance Recurring appointments are common in calendaring
      applications, and these are the hardest events to fit into a
      finite resource listing model such as WebDAV.  However, WebDAV
      does have the functionality to perform reports.  Recurrance
      expansion is much like the expand-property report defined in
      [DeltaV].  It seems pretty straightforward to define a CalDav
      specific report to do recurrance expansion in the cases where it's
      most useful.

   notifications HTTP has no way for the server to contact the client.
      HTTP interactions all begin with a client request and end with a
      server response.  The server has no obligation to maintain an open
      connection to the client, rather the server MAY sever the TCP
      connection after any response.  Thus, there is no way for the
      server to send the client alarms.  Since HTTP is not designed for
      this, it is recommended that a different technology be used to
      solve this problem.

      There are other IETF technologies much more suitable than HTTP to
      provide notifications.  Currently, SIP and XMPP are appropriate
      technologies for servers to send notifications to subscribed
      clients. The SIP SUBSCRIBE method defined in [REF - Roach RFC]
      allows custom event types to be declared and subscribed to, and
      CalDAV (or a separate draft) could define a list of types that
      CalDAV servers could optionally (or be required to) support.
      Similarly, XMPP allows clients to

      Using a separate technology for notifications has advantages.  It
      can be seen as an advantage to have notification support optional,
      at least for client implementations - a simple CalDav client need
      not support notifications at all if it doesn't use alarms, or
      generates its own alarms, or stays  offline most of the time.
      Another advantage is that it allows CalDAV servers to be
      stateless, handling HTTP requests by generating responses, plus
      events that can be fired off to a separate notification engine
      (perhaps a separate server) and then forgotten. Finally, a
      separate notification system can then deal with scaling to handle
      the combinatorial problems of multiple subscribed clients (e.g. my
      PDA, my laptop and my desktop) combined with multiple event
      sources (e.g. my work calendar server plus my sports team calendar
      server plus non-calendaring event sources).






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      It is likely that CalDAV servers will be required to support
      notification once we have more input on which technology to use.
      At the least, the server would support notification of new
      resources added to collections, so that clients can subscribe to
      know when new iTIP requests have been delivered or when other
      clients have added new events or other calendaring objects.  A
      CalDAV server might also initiate notification when a reminder is
      needed.  This could allow simple non-calendaring clients (e.g. a
      cell phone) to subscribe only to reminder event notifications
      without having to do any other part of calendaring.









































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2. Required CalDAV features

   This section lists what functionality is required of a CalDAV server.
   To advertise support for CalDAV or claim compliance, a server:

   o  MUST support WebDAV Level 1 and 2 (all of RFC2518 including
      locking).

   o  MUST support WebDAV ACL.  See section (TODO) for more specifics on
      how

   o  MAY support WebDAV DeltaV [DeltaV].

   o  MUST support DASL.

   o  MUST support HTTP/SASL.

   o  MUST support property promotion as described in this document.

   o  MUST support scheduling fanout as described in this document.

   o  MUST support calendaring REPORTs as described in this document.





























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3. Calendaring Data Model

   One of the features which has made WebDAV a successful protocol is
   its firm data model.  This makes it a useful framework for other
   applications such as calendaring.  In this proposal, we attempt to
   follow the same pattern by developing all new features based on a
   well-described data model.

   In this data model, every iCalendar VEVENT, VALARM, VJOURNAL, VTODO
   and VFREEBUSY is stored as a regular HTTP/WebDAV resource.  That
   means each calendar resource may be individually locked and have
   individual properties. These resources are sorted into WebDAV
   collections with a mostly-fixed structure.

   All resource types defined in this section, and all resources of MIME
   type text/calendar appearing within these collections, have certain
   required properties.  These properties may be defined in this
   document or in a separate document [TODO.  Note: OSAF uses a
   calendaring property model based on RDF calendaring and iCal that
   could fit here].  Another TODO: This section needs more information
   on what properties are REQUIRED on each type of collection.  The iTIP
   document has useful tables listing properties for each method, which
   might apply to these collections.

3.1 Calendar Repository or Server

   A CalDav repository, or server, is a calendaring-aware engine
   combined with a WebDAV repository.  A WebDAV repository is a set of
   WebDAV collections, containing other WebDAV resources, within a
   unified URL namespace.  For example, the repository "http://
   example.org/webdav/" may contain WebDAV collections and resources,
   all of which have URLs beginning with "http://example.org/webdav/".
   Note that the root URL "http://example.org/" may not itself be a
   WebDAV repository (for example, if the WebDAV support is implemented
   through a servlet or other Web server extension).

   A WebDAV repository may include calendar data in some areas, and
   non-calendaring data in other areas.  Calendar data will be indicated
   through specific container relationships and resource types discussed
   in the next sections.

   A WebDAV repository may advertise itself as a CalDAV server if it
   supports the functionality defined in this specification at any point
   within the root of the repository.  That might mean that calendaring
   data is spread throughout the repository (e.g. in /ldusseault/
   calendar as well as in /nborenstein/calendar) or only in certain
   sections of the repository (e.g. /caldav/usercals/*).  Calendaring
   features are only required in the repository sections that are or



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   contain calendaring objects.  So a repository confining calendar data
   to the /caldav/ collection would only need to support calendaring
   REPORTs defined here within that collection.

   The CalDAV server or repository is the canonical location for
   calendar data, state information and semantics.  The CalDAV server
   has significant responsibility to ensure that the data is consistent
   and compliant.  Clients may submit requests to change data or
   download data.  Clients may store the calendar offline and attempt to
   synchronize when reconnected, but changes to the repository occurring
   in between are not considered to be automatically disposable and
   clients should consider the repository to be the first authority on
   state.  HTTP Etags and other tools help this work.

3.2 Calendar Containers

   A WebDAV collection which contains one or more calendars is
   considered a Calendar Container.  It has a new resource type:

       <resourcetype xmlns="DAV">
         <collection/>
         <C:calendar-container xmlns:C="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:calsch">
       </resourcetype>

   A calendar container may contain more than only Calendar resources.
   However, non-Calendar resources within a Calendar-Container are not
   typically intended for user display.  These resources may contain
   configuration or application data created by clients or offered by
   the server for use by clients.

3.3 Calendars

   A WebDAV collection which corresponds to a single calendar or VAGENDA
   is a Calendar.  It has a new resource type:

       <resourcetype xmlns="DAV">
         <collection/>
         <C:calendar xmlns:C="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:calsch">
       </resourcetype>

   The calendar collection contains sub-collections with specific kinds
   of calendar objects.  It also has certain properties which are
   required to be present on calendards (see XML section).

   Calendars MUST NOT contain other calendars.  Calendars MAY exist
   inside calendar-containers or inside normal WebDAV collections.
   Thus, a repository may have calendars without having
   calendar-containers.  Calendar-containers are typically useful so



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   that a client can automatically detect when a user has multiple
   calendars, e.g. "/ldusseault/calendars/work" and "/ldusseault/
   calendars/karate".

   A Calendar has a specified substructure.  It MUST contain one event
   collection and one alarm collection.  It MAY contain one todo
   collection and one journal.  It MUST NOT contain more than one of any
   of these specific collections, although it MAY contain additional
   collections and non-collection resources of types not defined here.

3.4 Event Collection

   Each Calendar MUST have a collection containing events.  All
   resources within this event collection (even within its
   sub-collections) are considered part of the calendar, so substructure
   can be used to organize events into smaller collections without
   affecting the overall content of the calendar.  The event collection
   has its own resource type.

       <resourcetype xmlns="DAV">
         <collection/>
         <C:events xmlns:C="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:calsch">
       </resourcetype>

   Every non-collection resource in a calendar-events collection is
   considered to be an event.  Thus, listing the resources inside a
   calendar-events collection is a good way to find out all the events
   on a calendar.  Each resource inside an events collection MUST have
   the default MIME type text/calendar, and each one contains exactly
   one VEVENT or VFREEBUSY object.

3.5 Alarm Collection

   Each Calendar MUST have a collection containing alarms.  All
   resources within this alarm collection (even within its
   sub-collections) are considered part of the calendar.  The alarm
   collection has its own resource type.

       <resourcetype xmlns="DAV">
         <collection/>
         <C:alarms xmlns:C="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:calsch">
       </resourcetype>

   Every non-collection resource in a alarms collection is considered to
   be an alarm.  Every resource MUST have the default MIME type text/
   calendar, and contains exactly one VALARM.





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3.6 Todo Collection

   Each Calendar MAY have a collection containing tasks or todos.  All
   resources within this todo collection (even within its
   sub-collections) are considered part of the calendar.  The todo
   collection has its own resource type.

       <resourcetype xmlns="DAV">
         <collection/>
         <C:todos xmlns:C="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:calsch">
       </resourcetype>

   Every non-collection resource in a todo collection is considered to
   be a todo.  Every resource MUST have the default MIME type text/
   calendar, and contains exactly one VTODO.

3.7 Journal

   Each Calendar MAY have a collection containing journal items.  All
   resources within this journal collection (even within its
   sub-collections) are considered part of the journal.  The journal
   collection has its own resource type.

       <resourcetype xmlns="DAV">
         <collection/>
         <C:journal xmlns:C="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:calsch">
       </resourcetype>

   Every non-collection resource in a journal is considered to be a
   journal item.  Every resource MUST have the default MIME type text/
   calendar, and contains exactly one VJOURNAL.

3.8 Invites Collection

   Every Calendar-Container MUST have a child collection to contain
   invites received through iTIP.  If a Calendar is not inside a
   Calendar-Container, then that Calendar MUST have its own invites
   collection.  This collection is to store received, accepted and
   archived invitations so that clients can accept and review scheduling
   invitations.

       <resourcetype xmlns="DAV">
         <collection/>
         <C:invites xmlns:C="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:calsch">
       </resourcetype>

   Every non-collection resource in the invites collection is considered
   to be a REQUEST.  Every resource MUST have the default MIME type



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   text/calendar, and contains exactly one REQUEST.

3.9 Scheduling Collection

   Every Calendar MUST have a child collection to contain fanout
   requests and responses for appointments scheduled by the calendar
   owner (or other users of this calendar).  This collection is to store
   REQUESTs initiated by this calendar server for this calendar, as well
   as REPLY items received in reply.  This collection is only for review
   because the CalDAV server is responsible for parsing incoming REPLY
   messages and adding attendee information to events.

       <resourcetype xmlns="DAV">
         <collection/>
         <C:scheduling xmlns:C="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:calsch">
       </resourcetype>

   Every non-collection resource in the invites collection is considered
   to be a REQUEST or REPLY.  Every resource MUST have the default MIME
   type text/calendar, and contains exactly one REQUEST or exactly one
   REPLY.

3.10 Recurrance and the Data Model

   Recurrance is an important part of the data model because it governs
   how many resources are expected to exist.

   Consider the outcome if recurrance were handled through the creation
   of many nearly-identical WebDAV resources.  With this model, it
   becomes hard to keep their data consistent.  Even worse, some
   features like LOCK become difficult -- it's hard to lock the right
   set of resources so that the user can change the title of all
   recurrances of an appointment.  With these considerations, this
   proposal does not treat recurrances as separate resources.

   Instead, this proposal models recurrance patterns as properties of
   event resources.  This makes for much less data to synchronize, and
   makes it easier to make changes to all recurrances or to a recurrance
   pattern.  It makes it easier to create a recurring event, and easier
   to delete all recurrances.

   The drawback of the recurrance-is-a-property approach is that it
   becomes harder to see what events occur in a given time period.  It's
   a very common function for calendar views to display all events
   happening between midnight yesterday and midnight tonight, or all
   events happening within one week. In these views, each recurrance
   appears as if it were an individual appointment.  To make these views
   possible, this proposal defines a REPORT specifically to view events



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   in a time period [TODO - ref section].

   Because of this choice, clients MUST NOT create separate resources to
   represent a recurring event when the recurrance pattern is known.
   Otherwise, it makes it more difficult for other clients to
   interoperate and modify the recurring event.  Most importantly,
   clients MUST NOT duplicate events represented through recurrance
   patterns with manually created events, which would appear as
   duplicates to the server and to other clients.

3.11 Calendar, event and custom timezones

   This is a big issue because CalDAV servers need to know the timezone
   of the calendar in order to calculate recurrances in a deterministic
   manner.  In addition to having a calendar default timezone,
   individual events (e.g. those received in a scheduling request from
   another place) can have different timezones.  Finally, iCalendar has
   a way to specify custom timezones.

   The default calendar timezone is probably simply a property value on
   the calendar collection, which the calendaring client can change. The
   event timezone is a piece of VEVENT metadata that would therefore
   appear both inside the event in iCalendar format, and as a promoted
   property on the event resource.  Storing custom timezone definitions
   can be through a new collection if necessary.  More discussion here
   is welcome.

3.12 Creating Resources

   Calendars, calendar-containers, collections of calendar objects, and
   individual calendar objects may all be created by either the CalDAV
   client or by the CalDAV server.  For example, a server might come
   preconfigured with a user's calendar collection, or the CalDAV client
   might create a new calendar collection.  Servers might create event
   requests as calendar objects inside a VEVENT collection, or clients
   might create event requests. Either way, both client and server MUST
   comply with the requirements in this document, and MUST understand
   objects appearing in calendars or calendar-containers according to
   the data model defined here.

   When servers create HTTP resources, it's not hard for the server to
   choose a unique URL.  It's slightly tougher for clients, because a
   client might not want to examine all resources in the collection, and
   might not want to lock the entire collection to ensure that a new one
   isn't created with a name collision.  However, there are tools to
   mitigate this. If the client intends to create a new non-collection
   resource, such as a new VEVENT, the client SHOULD use the HTTP header
   "If-None-Match: *" on the PUT request.  The Request-URI on the PUT



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   request MUST include the target collection, where the resource is to
   be created, plus the name of the resource in the last path segment.
   The last path segment could be a random number, or it could be a
   sequence number, or a string related to the object's 'summary'
   property.  No matter how the name is chosen, the "If-None-Match"
   header ensures that the client cannot overwrite an existing resource
   even if it has accidentally chosen a duplicate resource name.

               PUT /lisa/calendar/events/mtg10028.ics HTTP/1.1
               If-None-Match: *
               Host: cal.example.com
               Content-Type: text/icalendar
               Content-Length: XXX

               BEGIN:VEVENT
               DTSTART:20010714T170000Z
               DTEND:20010715T035959Z
               SUMMARY:Bastille Day Party
               END:VEVENT

   The request to change an existing event is the same, but with a
   specific ETag in the "If-Match" header, rather than the
   "If-None-Match" header.

   For optimum interoperability with existing HTTP clients, CalDAV
   clients and servers MUST use the file extension ".ics" as well as the
   "text/ icalendar" MIME type, whenever creating Calendar objects of
   that MIME type.

   Note because of these requirements that there is no semantic value in
   any other part of a resource name other the file extension.  Thus, a
   Calendar collection may be called "calendar", "cal", "Calendario" or
   "日历" (Chinese).  It's the properties of the resource that define
   what it is, not the name.

3.13 Users and Groups

   The WebDAV ACL specification requires that any principal to whom
   permissions can be represented via a WebDAV resource (complete with
   WebDAV properties and a HTTP URL).  Thus, both users may be
   represented (for example, as /principals/users/ldusseault) and groups
   (for example, as /principals/groups/calsch).  This feature offers an
   excellent framework for linking users to calendars in a fashion not
   otherwise easily implemented.

   Note that the WebDAV principal resources may not be modifiable
   through WebDAV.  This is an important consideration because it allows
   the principal directory to be merely a WebDAV representation of data



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   which is canonically stored in an outside system.  For example, an
   enterprise might use an LDAP server to store and administer all user
   and group properties.  This LDAP server could be linked into the
   WebDAV repository through configuration information.  WebDAV server
   implementations exist which offer principal resources, but when the
   principal resources are queried the server actually makes a LDAP
   request to get the principal information from its official source.
   This saves WebDAV clients from having to implement LDAP and provides
   a single URL format for principals regardless of whether the user
   directory is stored in LDAP or some other system.

   A server supporting CalDAV MUST support additional properties on
   principal resources if these principals are associated with
   calendars.  In addition, certain properties are required on calendars
   to link to principal resources.  These properties are defined in the
   properties section.



































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4. Property Promotion and Demotion

   Property promotion and demotion (hereafter called simply "property
   promotion" is the name for the functionality by which a server
   ensures that a resource's internal data and its externally-visible
   metadata remain consistent. In WebDAV, a collection listing
   (PROPFIND) selects a set of property names to retrieve.  For a
   collection listing to be useful to browse calendars, certain
   calendaring information must be exposed as WebDAV properties (this
   also makes WebDAV SEARCH useful, and makes the definition of REPORTs
   easier).  Since a calendar resource of type text/calendar has
   properties which duplicate some of its internal state, it's the
   server's responsibility to keep those consistent somehow.

   The server has some leeway in how it makes properties and bodies
   consistent, as long as the response to a GET shows information
   consistent with the response to a PROPFIND in the interval in which a
   calendar object has not been altered.  Thus, the server MAY change
   property values when a PUT is performed that alters data exposed as
   properties, and also change the body when a PROPPATCH is performed
   that alters calendar properties.  Alternatively, a server could
   implement "lazy promotion" and apply consistency changes only when a
   GET, PROPFIND, SEARCH or REPORT is issued.  Finally, a server might
   decompose property data and non-property data into separate locations
   and recompose the information only when a GET requests the entire
   resource.  Any of these approaches MUST be transparent to the client,
   in that operations behave consistently, with complete round-trip
   fidelity of all the data originally provided.  Thus, a server MAY
   canonicalize its resource bodies (e.g. eliminate meaningless spaces)
   but MUST preserve all data.

   This section needs further definition and details.  Clients can
   upload iCalendar files with syntactic or semantic errors, so helpful
   error codes must be chosen.  Also, this draft needs to define what to
   do with 'x-' custom elements inside these uploaded files.
















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5. Scheduling and Fanout

   Scheduling and fanout is a valuable function provided by advanced
   calendaring servers.  Simple clients clearly benefit from having the
   logic handled by the server.  Rich clients also benefit from having
   to upload less data to various servers (including messaging servers
   to send invitations via messages) to accomplish the same things.
   Servers can sometimes provide more advanced scheduling functionality
   than clients - for example, a server providing fanout could create
   "unconfirmed" VEVENT resources within invitees' calendars.

   However, rich calendaring clients may prefer to do fanout.  Clients
   can perform special functionality during scheduling (for example, a
   client may be configured to be able to directly put events on others'
   calendars if the user has sufficient permissions).  Thus, it is
   proposed that CalDAV allow the client to either perform fanout and
   merely create the event (complete with attendee information) OR
   request that the server perform fanout.  In other words, the server
   MUST handle fanout if requested, and clients MAY perform fanout if
   the client chooses.

   CalDAV servers MUST support iTIP to do fanout when requested, and
   MUST fall back to iMIP when iTIP is impossible.  Each REQUEST
   generated on behalf of a Calendar MUST be stored in the calendar's
   'scheduling' collection. Each REPLY received to those REQUESTs MUST
   be stored in the same collection. These REQUEST and REPLY items are
   available until the client deletes them so that clients can view
   extra information (if present).  CalDAV servers MUST parse incoming
   REPLY messages and update the appropriate event with attendee
   information.  Thus, it's not necessary for clients to review REQUEST
   or REPLY items, although they may.

   As well, CalDAV servers MUST support iTIP to receive scheduling
   requests.  When a CalDAV server receives an iTIP request, it MUST
   store the REQUEST object in an "invites" collection for the client to
   handle. Each invite resource will have properties indicating whether
   it is new, has been accepted, has been rejected, and whether it is an
   obsolete REQUEST (the event has passed).  Note that when a calendar
   server receives iTIP requests it MAY auto-accept based on user
   configured preferences.  How these preferences are configured is out
   of the scope of this specification, but one could imagine that a
   CalDAV server could host auto-accept configuration Web pages.  A
   CalDAV server is NOT REQUIRED to do any auto-accepting, it MAY simply
   store the requests for the next time the client is online.

   Exact mechanisms for triggering fanout requests must be determined
   and input is welcome. There are several ways fanout could be
   accomplished: (a)  A PUT of the resource triggers fanout, so the body



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   must contain the fanout information (text and flags), (b) a PROPPATCH
   triggers fanout if certain properties are set, (c) a new method
   requests fanout of a resource that has already been uploaded.  These
   three approaches are the most obvious to this author and there is
   surprisingly little to choose between.  More input is needed, for
   example input on whether the fanout should be synchronous  or
   asynchronous.  An asynchronous fanout mechanism using PUT or
   PROPPATCH would mean that the client would synchronously handle the
   PUT or PROPPATCH itself, but send invitations at some later time.  A
   synchronous fanout mechanism would probably use a new method with a
   name like INVITE, because adding new synchronous behavior to existing
   methods might require more complicated server implementation work.

   When the server does fanout, it may send requests and receive
   replies. Probably these requests and responses should be stored as
   WebDAV resources so that the client can examine the details if
   desired.  This could be a separate collection within the calendar
   collection.

































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6. CalDAV Resource Properties

   The namespace "urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:calsch" is reserved for
   specifications written by the CalSched working group or its eventual
   successors.  It MUST NOT be used for custom extensions.  It is the
   namespace for every new defined in this section (and every XML
   element defined in this document).

   The W3C RDF Calendar group has already defined a namespace and XML
   element names for many calendaring properties, and these are
   completely consistent with iCal [RDF-ICAL].  This standard reuses
   those namespaces, names and definitions. Additional properties are
   needed to describe calendars and calendar-containers, because the W3C
   RDF Calendar group defines properties for the iCalendar-defined
   objects only.  The properties that are defined by the RDF Calendar
   group are not redefined in this section.

   Note that the XML Schema declarations used in this document are
   incomplete, in that they do not include namespace information.  Thus,
   the reader MUST NOT use these declarations as the only way to create
   valid CalDAV properties or to validate CalDAV-related XML.  Some of
   the declarations refer to XML elements defined by WebDAV which use
   the "DAV:" namespace.  Those WebDAV elements are not redefined in
   this document.

6.1 Required Properties: VEVENT

   TODO: Has the RDF Calendar group, or iCal, already done the work of
   defining which properties MUST exist on a VEVENT object?  This should
   just be reused.

   Required properties probably include:

       In the 'http://www.w3.org/2002/12/cal/ical' namespace:
         dtstart    dtend or duration...
         TODO - perhaps a separate document on


6.2 Calendar-owner Property

   Name: calendar-owner

   Location: MUST appear on a calendar or calendar-container if there is
      a principal resources (user or group) with which it is associated.

   Purpose: This property is used to discover the calendar owner, or the
      person or group for which the calendar events are scheduled. It
      MAY have the same value as the DAV (ACL) 'owner' property, but not



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      necessarily.  For example, the president may be the
      calendar-owner, but her secretary is the owner for all ACL/
      administrative purposes. This property contains one 'href' element
      in the "DAV:" namespace.

   Declaration: <!ELEMENT calendar-owner (href) >

   Extensibility: MAY contain additional elements, which MUST be ignored
      if not understood.


6.3 Calendars Property

   Name: calendars

   Location: MUST appear on ACL Principal resources with which a
      calendar is associated.

   Purpose: This property is used to browse principals and find out what
      calendars they have, for the purpose of then browsing their
      calendar or their free/busy published information.  It contains
      one or more 'href' elements in the "DAV:" namespace (this is a
      normal WebDAV approach to putting one or more URL value in a
      property value).

   Declaration: <!ELEMENT calendars (href+) >

   Extensibility: MAY contain additional elements, which MUST be ignored
      if not understood.






















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7. Calendaring Reports

   This section defines the reports which a CalDAV server MUST support.
   These all provide special query functionality not normally handled by
   the generic PROPFIND or SEARCH mechanisms.  This can be required when
   a PROPFIND or SEARCH cannot be written to request the data required
   for a common use case without an reasonable amount of complex
   calculation or unnecessary data transmitted.  See DeltaV or ACL
   standards for some examples of reports required in other situations.

   As defined in DeltaV, all REPORT requests include an XML body naming
   the type of report requested (only one) and some variables for how
   that report is to be compiled.  Note that support for the REPORT
   method does not imply support for all reports defined in all WebDAV
   extensions.  A CalDAV server is required to support all the reports
   defined here and in the ACL standard, but is not expected to support
   DeltaV reports unless it advertises them. Reports are advertised with
   the 'supported-report-set' property defined in DeltaV (again, even if
   versioning-specific features are not at all supported).

   Each report defined here comes with specialized errors.  In addition,
   some WebDAV status codes are applicable to any request or to any
   REPORT request. This includes redirect status codes, syntax errors
   (400 Bad Request), permission errors or policy errors (401
   Unauthorized and 403 Forbidden), 404 Not Found, or a request-body
   that isn't XML or is invalid XML (422 Unprocessable Entity). When an
   error is defined in this document, it is used in an error response
   body inside an XML document (this practice was established with
   DeltaV and ACL in order to avoid status code collisions).  For
   example:

   Sample error response

       HTTP/1.1 409 Conflict
       Date: Sun, 16 November 2003 18:40:01 GMT
       Content-Type: text/xml; charset="utf-8"
       Content-Length: XXX

       <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?>
       <D:error xmlns:D="DAV:">
         <range-invalid xnlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:calsch"/>
       </D:error>



7.1 The 'calendar-time-range' report

   The 'calendar-time-range' report returns all objects of a specific



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   type within a time range, with or without recurrance expanded. The
   first use case for this report is to have the server expand recurring
   events to make a calendar view of a day's or week's events easy. The
   WebDAV PROPFIND and SEARCH syntaxes do not as easily support this use
   case. Even when the client doesn't need recurrance expanded, it can
   use this report to save itself from the need to write a SEARCH query
   which catches all events overlapping any part of the period
   requested, or from having to do a PROPFIND and filter itself.

   The second use case for this report is for users other than the
   calendar owner to find out when the calendar owner is free.  This is
   only a minor variation, because it's effectively the same objects
   (VEVENT and VFREEBUSY), only with permissions restricting the kind of
   data the server will return.  Servers MUST allow users with
   permission to view the free-busy times for a calendar to use this
   report.  Servers MUST return event properties for visible events
   including dtstart, dtend and free-busy type.  Other properties MAY be
   refused.

   The third use case for this report is to list all alarms in a time
   range. The selection of VALARM objects, instead of VEVENT or
   VFREEBUSY objects, allows this use case to be handled with the same
   report framework.

7.1.1 Request for 'calendar-time-range'

   The REPORT request-body MUST have the root element
   'calendar-time-range'.

   o  The root element MAY contain the 'expand-recurrances' element as a
      flag.

   o  The root element MAY contain the 'object-types' element to list
      what object types to return.

   o  The root element MUST contain the 'prop' element in the "DAV:"
      namespace as defined in WebDAV, to list what property values to
      return.

   o  The root element MUST contain one 'dtstart' element

   o  The root element MUST contain one 'dtend' element.

   The Request-URI for this report MUST be a Calendar-container, a
   calendar collection, or an events collection.  The server MUST
   collation all the event data contained within the requested
   collection.




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   Sample request for 'time-range-events' report

        REPORT /lisa/Calendar HTTP/1.1
        Host: cal.example.com
        Content-Type: text/xml
        Content-Length: XXX

        <?xml version="1.0>
        <report xmlns="DAV:" xmlns:i="http://www.w3.org/2002/12/cal/ical">
          <c:time-range-events xmlns:c="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:calsch">
            <i:dtstart>20031101</i:dtstart>
            <i:dtend>20031131</i:dtend>
            <c:object-types><i:Vevent/></c:object-types>
            <prop>
              <i:dtstart/> <i:dtend/> <i:summary/> <i:valarm/>
            </prop>
          </c:expand-event-report>
        </report>


7.1.2 Response to 'time-range-events'

   The response to this report is a WebDAV Multi-Status response,
   containing one <response> element for each event AND for each
   recurrance.  This differs from the PROPFIND response to an event
   collection only in that the relevant recurrances each have their own
   <response> element, not just the master event.

   The server MUST expand all recurring events within the entire
   collection (including sub-collections) if requested, and return all
   those events or recurrances which overlap the period defined by the
   start to end.  If an event ends at precisely the requested start
   time, or begins at precisely the requested end time, it does not
   overlap the period requested.

   If the user requests properties which may not be seen (e.g. a user
   with permission only to see free-busy time requests to see the
   location of events), the response uses the regular WebDAV approach
   for properties which are private (either 401 Unauthorized if the
   client is not authenticated, or 403 Forbidden if the client is
   authenticated and still the property value is private).  These errors
   appear within the standard Multi-Status response.

   TODO: I guess an example is probably needed here.

7.1.3 Errors for 'time-range-events'





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   invalid-range The server returns this error when the range requested
      in the 'dtstart' and 'dtend' values is an invalid range (e.g.
      dtend is earlier than or equal to dtstart value).


7.1.4 Timezones report

   CAP offers a way to get timezones.  I'm unclear whether this is a
   server-wide list, or whether the contents vary by calendar/user.
   That would help to decide whether to use a special OPTIONS request, a
   new REPORT, or a new collection.








































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8. Using existing WebDAV features in Calendaring

8.1 SEARCH and calendar data

   The DASL framework for search requests provides a powerful way to
   find calendars in a repository, and to find calendar objects within a
   calendar.  It is virtually unlimited in variations.  It can be used
   to request and search on calendar properties as well as WebDAV
   properties.  One drawback of DASL, however, is that implementations
   are given great leeway in which properties support search.  That's
   less acceptable in calendaring applications, so this specification
   adds requirements of CalDAV servers to support searches on specific
   properties.

   CalDAV servers MUST support 'eq' DASL searches on the following
   properties: uid, valarm.

   CalDAV servers MUST support 'eq', 'gt' and 'lt' DASL searches on the
   following properties: dtstart, dtend, dtstamp.

   CalDAV servers MUST support 'eq' and 'contains' DASL searches on the
   following properties: location, comment, description, summary,
   organizer, attendee, categories.

8.2 Disconnected Operations

   WebDAV already provides functionality required to synchronize a
   collection or set of collections, make changes offline, and a simple
   way to resolve conflicts when reconnected.  Strong ETags are the key
   to making this work, but these are not required of all WebDAV
   servers. Since offline functionality is more important to Calendar
   applications than to other WebDAV applications, CalDAV servers MUST
   support strong ETags.

   Much more work could be done to make disconnected operations work
   better. WebDAV implementors have discussed ETag-like tags for
   collections (CTags?) which would change whenever the membership (or
   members?) of a collection changed.  Tombstones might also be useful
   to synchronize with DELETE operations.  However, all these mechanisms
   are of general use and not limited to Calendaring.  Therefore, it is
   suggested that work on advanced synchronization take place in a
   separate document independent of the calendaring-specific features
   discussed here.  Many people are interested in doing this kind of
   work and it has wide applicability and usefulness. Requirements or
   design contributions from calendaring implementors are welcome.

   TODO: this section should be expanded to give more guidance to
   clients on how to synchronize WebDAV objects most effectively.  In



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   particular, we need to understand how UID/SEQ metadata works with
   synchronization.

   Note that recurrance isn't a synchronization problem in this model.
   Recurring items appear only once in normal PROPFIND responses, so
   there's no danger that in synchronizing a client will accidentally
   create extra recurrances. Instead, recurrances appear only in a
   special REPORT which MUST not be used for synchronization.  We
   believe this separation between data (recurring appointments) and
   presentation (the display of a period containing several recurrances)
   is crucial to simplifying synchronization.








































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References

   [1]  Goland, Y., Whitehead, E., Faizi, A., Carter, S. and D. Jensen,
        "HTTP Extensions for Distributed Authoring - WebDAV", RFC 2518.

   [2]  Fielding, R., Gettys, J., Mogul, J., Frystyk, H., Masinter, L.,
        Leach, P. and T. Berners-Lee, "Hypertext Transfer Protocol --
        HTTP/1.1", June 1999.

   [3]  Dawson, F. and D. Stenerson, "Internet Calendaring and
        Scheduling Core Object Specification (iCalendar)", RFC 2445.

   [4]  "iCal Schema in RDF/XML", site http://www.w3.org/2002/12/cal/.

   [5]  Mogul, J., Krishnamurthy, B., Douglis, F., Feldmann, A., Goland,
        Y., van Hoff, A. and D. Hellerstein, "Delta encoding in HTTP",
        RFC 3229, January 2002.


Author's Address

   Lisa Dusseault
   Xythos Software, Inc.
   2064 Edgewood Dr.
   Palo Alto, CA  94303
   US

   EMail: lisa@xythos.com























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Appendix A. Acknowledgements

   Cyrus Daboo and Michael Arick have provided substantial feedback for
   this draft.















































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Appendix B. Changes


















































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Intellectual Property Statement

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   HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
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Acknowledgment

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