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Versions: (RFC 2606) 00

INTERNET-DRAFT                                    Donald E. Eastlake 3rd
Obsoletes RFC 2606                                 Motorola Laboratories
Expires: April 2006                                         October 2005



                      Reserved Top Level DNS Names
                      -------- --- ----- --- -----
                    <draft-eastlake-2606bis-00.txt>



Status of This Document

   By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any
   applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware
   have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes
   aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section 6 of BCP 79.

   Distribution of this draft is unlimited.  It is intended to become
   the new BCP 32 obsoleting RFC 2606.  Comments should be sent to the
   author or the DNS Working Group mailing list
   <namedroppers@ops.ietf.org>.

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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2005). All Rights Reserved.


Abstract

   To reduce the likelihood of conflict and confusion, a few top level
   and a number of other domain names are reserved for use in private
   testing, as examples in documentation, and the like.  In addition, a
   number of other domain names labels reserved to avoid confusing names
   or other purposes.


D. Eastlake 3rd                                                 [Page 1]

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Table of Contents

      Status of This Document....................................1
      Copyright Notice...........................................1
      Abstract...................................................1

      Table of Contents..........................................2

      1. Introduction............................................3
      2. TLDs for Testing, & Documentation Examples..............3
      3. Reserved Second Level Domain Names......................4
      3.1 Labels Reserved at All Levels..........................4
      3.2 Additional Second-Level Reservations...................5
      3.3 Tagged Domain Names....................................5
      3.4 Second-Level Reservations for Registry Operators.......5
      4. IANA Considerations.....................................6
      5. Security Considerations.................................6
      Appendix: Changes from RFC 2606............................6

      Copyright and Disclaimer...................................7
      Normative References.......................................7
      Informative Reference......................................7

      Authors Addresses..........................................8
      Expiration and File Name...................................8



























D. Eastlake 3rd                                                 [Page 2]

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1. Introduction

   The global Internet Domain Name System is documented in [RFC 1034,
   1035, 1591] and numerous additional Requests for Comment.  It defines
   a tree of names starting with root, ".", immediately below which are
   top level domain names such as ".com" and ".us". Below top level
   domain names there are normally additional levels of names.



2. TLDs for Testing, & Documentation Examples

   There is a need for top level domain (TLD) names that can be used for
   creating names which, without fear of conflicts with current or
   future actual TLD names in the global DNS, can be used for private
   testing of existing DNS related code, examples in documentation, DNS
   related experimentation, invalid DNS names, or other similar uses.

   For example, without guidance, a site might set up some local
   additional unused top level domains for testing of its local DNS code
   and configuration. Later, these TLDs might come into actual use on
   the global Internet.  As a result, local attempts to reference the
   real data in these zones could be thwarted by the local test
   versions.  Or test or example code might be written that accesses a
   TLD that is in use with the thought that the test code would only be
   run in a restricted testbed net or the example never actually run.
   Later, the test code could escape from the testbed or the example be
   actually coded and run on the Internet. Depending on the nature of
   the test or example, it might be best for it to be referencing a TLD
   permanently reserved for such purposes.

   To safely satisfy these needs, four domain names are reserved as
   listed and described below.

                     .test
                  .example
                  .invalid
                .localhost

            ".test" is recommended for use in testing of current or new
         DNS related code.

            ".example" is recommended for use in documentation or as
         examples.

            ".invalid" is intended for use in online construction of
         domain names that are sure to be invalid and which it is
         obvious at a glance are invalid.

            The ".localhost" TLD has traditionally been statically


D. Eastlake 3rd                                                 [Page 3]

INTERNET-DRAFT        Reserved Top Level DNS Names          October 2005


         defined in host DNS implementations as having an A record
         pointing to the loop back IP address and is reserved for such
         use.  Any other use would conflict with widely deployed code
         which assumes this use.



3. Reserved Second Level Domain Names

   At the time of the issuance of [RFC 2606], the Internet Assigned
   Numbers Authority (IANA, http://www.iana.org) had reserved the
   following second level domain names reserved which can be used as
   examples.

        example.com
        example.net
        example.org

   At this time, similar restrictions are by way of contract between the
   Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN,
   http://www.icann.org) and the Registry Operators of many top level
   domains. See <http://www.icann.org/registries/agreements.htm>.

   The ICANN "Schedule of Reserved Names" most recent version, as of the
   date of this document, is at
   <http://www.icann.org/tlds/agreements/net/net-registry-
   agreement-01jul05.pdf>.  It reserves the labels listed in the
   following subsections, except when released by ICANN.



3.1 Labels Reserved at All Levels

   These are reserved from initial registration, unless ICANN grants an
   exemption, at the second level and at all deeper levels where the top
   level registry operator performs registration. If they have been
   previously registered, they may be renewed and there is no
   restriction on their existence in delegated zones.

      ICANN-related names:
         aso
         gnso
         icann
         internic
         ccnso
      IANA-related names:
         afrinic
         apnic
         arin
         example


D. Eastlake 3rd                                                 [Page 4]

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         gtld-servers
         iab
         iana
         iana-servers
         iesg
         ietf
         irtf
         istf
         lacnic
         latnic
         rfc-editor
         ripe
         root-servers



3.2 Additional Second-Level Reservations

   The follows labels are prohibited as second level domain names:

      All single character labels.

      All two character labels unless a release is obtained from the
         government and country-code manager if that two letter
         combination is an assigned country-code or a release from the
         ISO 3166 maintenance agency if it has not been so assigned.



3.3 Tagged Domain Names

   All labels with hyphens in the third and fourth character positions
   such as "bq--1k2n4h4b" or "xn--ndk061n".



3.4 Second-Level Reservations for Registry Operators

   The following are reserved for the use of the top level domain
   Registry Operator and will be transferred whenever the Operator
   changes:

         nic
         whois
         www







D. Eastlake 3rd                                                 [Page 5]

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4. IANA Considerations

   IANA has agreed to the four top level domain name reservations
   specified in this document and will reserve them for the uses
   indicated.



5. Security Considerations

   Confusion and conflict can be caused by the use of a current or
   future top level domain name in experimentation or testing, as an
   example in documentation, to indicate invalid names, or as a synonym
   for the loop back address.  Test and experimental software can escape
   and end up being run against the global operational DNS.  Even
   examples used "only" in documentation can end up being coded and
   released or cause conflicts due to later real use and the possible
   acquisition of intellectual property rights in such "example" names.

   Similar considerations apply to second level and other domain name
   labels, particularly confusion when such names are the well known
   names of Internet infrastructure or standards organizations but are
   held by arbitrary registrants in other top level domain names.

   The reservation of several top level and other domain names for these
   purposes by IANA and ICANN minimizes such confusion and conflict.



Appendix: Changes from RFC 2606

   Addition of information about the reservation of 2nd and deeper level
   domain names in ICANN contracts with top level domain Registry
   Operators.


















D. Eastlake 3rd                                                 [Page 6]

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Copyright and Disclaimer

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2005).  This document is subject to
   the rights, licenses and restrictions contained in BCP 78, and except
   as set forth therein, the authors retain all their rights.


   This document and the information contained herein are provided on an
   "AS IS" basis and THE CONTRIBUTOR, THE ORGANIZATION HE/SHE REPRESENTS
   OR IS SPONSORED BY (IF ANY), THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET
   ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED,
   INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE
   INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED
   WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.



Normative References

   [RFC 1034] Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - concepts and facilities",
   STD 13, RFC 1034, November 1987.

   [RFC 1035] Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - implementation and
   specification", STD 13, RFC 1035, November 1987.

   [RFC 1591] Postel, J., "Domain Name System Structure and Delegation",
   RFC 1591, March 1994.



Informative Reference

   [RFC 2606] Eastlake 3rd, D. and A. Panitz, "Reserved Top Level DNS
   Names", BCP 32, RFC 2606, June 1999.


















D. Eastlake 3rd                                                 [Page 7]

INTERNET-DRAFT        Reserved Top Level DNS Names          October 2005


Authors Addresses

   Donald E. Eastlake 3rd
   Motorola Laboratories
   155 Beaver Street
   Milford, MA 01757 USA

   Telephone:   +1-508-786-7554 (w)
   email:       Donald.Eastlake@motorola.com



Expiration and File Name

   This draft expires April 2006.

   Its file name is draft-eastlake-2606bis-00.txt.



































D. Eastlake 3rd                                                 [Page 8]


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