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Network Working Group                                       F. Ellermann
Internet-Draft                                                     xyzzy
Intended status: Experimental                          November 12, 2011
Expires: May 15, 2012


      Sender Policy Framework: Email Address Internationalization
                       draft-ellermann-spf-eai-06

Abstract

   UTF8SMTP is an extension of SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
   allowing the use of UTF-8 in the SMTP envelope for EAI (Email Address
   Internationalization) and message headers.  This memo discusses the
   consequences for SPF (Sender Policy Framework).

Editorial note

   This note, the IANA considerations (Section 6), and the document
   history (Appendix A) should be removed before publication.  For some
   imported terms in Section 1.1 the sources have to be fixed.  The
   draft can be discussed on the <mailto:spf-discuss@listbox.com>
   mailing list.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
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   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on May 15, 2012.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2011 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents



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   than English.
































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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     1.1.  Imported terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   2.  Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     2.1.  SPF HELO identity  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     2.2.  EAI MAIL FROM identity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     2.3.  Local parts  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   3.  Details  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     3.1.  Considerations for SPF publishers  . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     3.2.  Received-SPF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     3.3.  Internationalization of explanations . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   4.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   5.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   6.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   7.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     7.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     7.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   Appendix A.  Document History  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14































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1.  Introduction

   Readers should be familiar with SMTP as specified in [RFC5321] and
   the SPF terminology in [I-D.kitterman-4408bis].

   The keywords "MUST NOT" and "SHOULD" in this memo are to be
   interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

   For an EAI (Email Address Internationalization) overview see
   [RFC4952].  UTF-8 is specified in [RFC3629].  An MTA is a Mail
   Transfer Agent, e.g., an SMTP relay.

1.1.  Imported terms

   Some [RFC5234] ABNF terms used in this memo are specified in other
   sources:

           <domain-spec>    = <see 4408bis section 8.1>
           <target-name>    = <see 4408bis section 4.8>
           <explanation>    = <see 4408bis section 6.2>
           <textstring>     = <see RFC5321 section 4.2>
           <Dot-string>     = <see RFC5321 section 4.1.2>
           <Quoted-string>  = <see RFC5321 section 4.1.2>
           <Atom>           = <see RFC5321 section 4.1.2>
           <atext>          = <see RFC5322 section 3.2.3>
           <UTF8-non-ascii> = <see RFC5336 section 2.3>
           <uMailbox>       = <see RFC5336 section 2.3>


2.  Background

   SMTP as specified in [RFC5321] supports only ASCII addresses and LDH
   (letter, digit, hyphen) domain labels.  The letters are ASCII
   letters; certain LDH-labels are also known as A-labels in the context
   of IDN (Internationalization of Domain Names) and [RFC5890].

2.1.  SPF HELO identity

   In SMTP sessions after an SMTP EHLO command from the client the
   server response can indicate supported SMTP extensions.  [RFC5336]
   specifies the UTF8SMTP extension.

   The SMTP client can accept an offered UTF8SMTP extension by using one
   of the specified features, notably by the use of UTF-8 in mailbox
   addresses of SMTP commands, by the use of alternative ASCII addresses
   in these commands, or by the use of UTF-8 in the message header for
   addresses and other purposes, i.e. by sending a "message/global"
   instead of a "message/rfc822" as specified in [RFC5335].



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   Because UTF8SMTP support is indicated in the response to an EHLO
   command it cannot be used after HELO, and the SPF HELO identity is
   not affected by EAI: The domain in a HELO or EHLO command consists of
   ordinary LDH-labels, or it is a domain literal.  For an empty reverse
   path, as it is used in non-delivery reports and other auto-replies,
   SPF fabricates a MAIL FROM identity based on the HELO identity with a
   case insensitive local part "postmaster"; this scenario is also not
   affected by EAI.

   A domain consisting of LDH-labels including IDN A-labels beginning
   with "xn--" is an ordinary LDH-domain as far as DNS (Domain Name
   System), SPF, and UTF8SMTP are concerned.  Apart from HELO and EHLO
   the only relevant SMTP command for SPF is the MAIL FROM command with
   the reverse path containing the envelope sender address (if it is not
   empty, see above).  When the derived MAIL FROM identity is an
   ordinary address SPF can handle it as specified in
   [I-D.kitterman-4408bis].

2.2.  EAI MAIL FROM identity

   The interesting UTF8SMTP cases for SPF contain non-ASCII UTF-8
   characters in the local part (left hand side) or the domain part
   (right hand side) of the MAIL FROM identity.  Domain labels
   containing non-ASCII UTF-8 characters are also known as U-labels in
   IDN.

   SPF checks typically make only sense at the "border MTA", and this is
   normally an MX (Mail eXchanger) of the receiver talking with a
   sender.  An MTA wishing to check the SPF sender policy against the IP
   of the sender fetches the sender policy for the domain in the HELO or
   MAIL FROM identity as DNS client of a server for the alleged sender.
   The SPF terminology might be confusing: The border MTA is the SMTP
   server, but for the purpose of checking a sender policy it is the SPF
   (or rather DNS) client of a name server for the alleged sender with a
   given HELO or MAIL FROM identity.

   An MTA could "downgrade" EAI MAIL FROM addresses using an optional
   alternative address given as UTF8SMTP MAIL-parameter.  Where that
   happens the resulting new MAIL FROM address is an ordinary [RFC5321]
   reverse path and can be handled as usual.

   Skipping all ordinary cases as noted above the SPF client confronted
   with an EAI address in the MAIL FROM identity is generally an MTA
   supporting UTF8SMTP, and supposed to know how to transform U-labels
   into corresponding A-labels, e.g., because it might need to send a
   non-delivey report to the envelope sender address later; see
   [RFC5337].




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   For agents trying post-SMTP SPF-checks this might be not the case,
   and unsurprisingly attempts to fetch the sender policy of a domain
   with U-labels "as is" will fail with SPF result NONE.  Arguably this
   is a broken setup, the border MTA should not offer and accept
   UTF8SMTP mails if critical parts behind it - not limited to the
   mailbox of the receiver - don't support EAI.

2.3.  Local parts

   Top down at this point the remaining SPF clients are supposed to know
   how to transform U-labels into A-labels, and fetch the SPF policy of
   the alleged sender.  SPF implementors and publishers of SPF sender
   policies should note that only the domain part of the MAIL FROM
   identity is transformed from U-labels into A-labels.  The local part
   MUST NOT be transformed, it is used "as is" in the construction of a
   <target-name> by SPF macro expansion involving local part macros.

   SPF allows all octets in labels of a <target-name> excluding dots,
   which are supposed to separate labels.  Sender policies can directly
   talk about any <domain-spec> with labels separated by dots, where
   each label consists of 1 to 63 visible ASCII characters except "%"
   introducing macros.  The macros "%%" and "%_" in a <domain-spec>
   expand into "%" or space in the <target-name>, respectively.

   Normally sender policies do not use such slightly odd labels, and the
   most extravagant case is "_" (underscore) in a label that is
   intentionally no LDH-label.  Nevertheless implementations have to
   support such oddities, because they are needed in the case of a
   <target-name> derived from a <domain-spec> using the local part
   macro.

   SMTP local parts can have two forms, <Dot-string> or <Quoted-string>.
   A <Dot-string> consists of dot separated <Atom>s, each <Atom>
   consists of one or more <atext> characters.  Please note that an
   <Atom> is not the same as an LDH-label, it is also not the same as a
   domain label, e.g., <Atom>s can be longer than 63 octets.

   By definition there are no leading, trailing, or adjacent dots in a
   <Dot-string>.  [RFC5321] and its predecessor recommend to avoid the
   <Quoted-string> form of a local part.  Current SPF implementations
   are known to strip the quotes from a <Quoted-string> for the purpose
   of determining a <target-name> derived from a <domain-spec> using the
   local part macro.  This can result in an invalid <target-name> with
   leading, trailing, or adjacent dots, e.g., for a mail address
   "do..ts"@example.org.

   Publishers of sender policies using the local part macro SHOULD make
   sure that the used pieces of valid local parts in their domain can be



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   parsed into non-empty domain labels; one way to achieve this is to
   avoid <Quoted-string>.  The effect of a <Quoted-string> local part is
   not clearly specified in [I-D.kitterman-4408bis].  In theory DNS
   supports any octet, even "embedded" dots within a label.  In practice
   current SPF implementations cannot handle embedded dots, and it is
   far from clear that quoted pairs introduced by a "\" (backslash) in a
   <Quoted-string> are interpreted as specified in [RFC5321] section
   4.1.2.

   Publishers of sender policies using the local part macro SHOULD make
   sure that the used pieces of valid local parts in their domain result
   in 1 to 63 octets per dot separated domain label as mentioned in
   [I-D.kitterman-4408bis] section 8.1.  Please note that the truncation
   of longer labels after macro expansion is not clearly specified: SPF
   implementations could truncate longer labels left to right or right
   to left, they could also ignore affected directives, or treat this
   case as error.

   Publishers of sender policies using the local part macro need to be
   aware that ASCII letters in the used pieces of valid local parts in
   their domain are in essence treated as case-insensitive by DNS as
   explained in [RFC4343].

   UTF8SMTP extends <atext> by <UTF8-non-ascii>, and it also permits
   <UTF8-non-ascii> in quoted strings.  As far as SPF is concerned
   <UTF8-non-ascii> can result in non-ASCII octets in a <target-name>,
   working "as is" in DNS labels with similar caveats as noted above
   with respect to the length of labels, case sensitivity, and
   normalization.

   [RFC5335] suggests to restrict the use of UTF-8 in EAI addresses to
   Normalization Form C (NFC) as recommended in [RFC5198].  Publishers
   of sender policies using the local part macro need to be aware that
   SPF implementations treat local parts "as is".  Mapping different
   forms of an EAI local part to one mailbox at their border MTAs has no
   effect on different forms of EAI local parts in DNS queries.  A
   straight forward strategy to avoid potential issues with respect to
   SPF is to use local part macros only in non-critical explanations and
   maybe for logging, if at all.


3.  Details

   For historical reasons technical SPF [Errata] have been "outsourced".
   SPF implementors are hopefully also interested in the SPF test suite
   on the same site.





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3.1.  Considerations for SPF publishers

   Policy publishers should know that this memo does not update
   [I-D.kitterman-4408bis], in theory EAI is compatible with SPF.  It is
   not possible to use U-labels in sender policies directly, they have
   to be transformed into the corresponding A-labels.  Likewise U-labels
   in UTF8SMTP MAIL FROM addresses are transformed into A-labels for the
   purposes of SPF by implementations supporting EAI.

   SPF implementations not supporting U-labels in MAIL FROM identities
   will return NONE instead of the intended result, e.g., PASS or FAIL.
   UTF8SMTP senders wishing to avoid this problem could transform MAIL
   FROM U-labels into A-labels on their side.  They could also hope that
   spammers forging MAIL FROM identities will not abuse IDN U-labels in
   the near future, and that most SPF implementations will be updated
   before this changes.  Unfortunately experience has shown that
   spammers learn faster than lazy users.

   MAIL FROM identities using only A-labels, with or without UTF-8 in
   the local part, work "as is" for the purposes of SPF.  HELO
   identities consist either of A-labels, are domain literals and
   irrelevant for SPF, or are syntactically malformed as far as UTF8SMTP
   and SPF are concerned.  SPF does not specify how receivers should
   handle SMTP syntax errors.

   UTF8SMTP allows to specify an optional alternative address in the
   traditional syntax.  Receivers are free to check SPF also or only
   based on the alternative address.  Obviously a sender policy for the
   alternative address should permit the same sending IPs as the sender
   policy for the EAI address, and one simple way to achieve this is to
   use corresponding A-labels in an alternative address yielding one SPF
   sender policy for both addresses.  Please note that this is not
   required by UTF8SMTP, it permits to use unrelated domains with
   different policies.  Clearly if some IPs permitted for one address
   fail for the other address, or vice versa, the sender will have
   problems, if the affected IPs are actually used to send mails.

3.2.  Received-SPF

   The Received-SPF header field specified in [I-D.kitterman-4408bis]
   section 7 is a "message/rfc822" trace header field.

   UTF8SMTP transports a "message/global" as specified in [RFC5335]
   permitting the use of UTF-8 in header fields.  For Received-SPF this
   is necessary to record an UTF8SMTP "envelope-from" <uMailbox>
   address.

   UTF-8 might be also needed in comments and other parts of this header



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   field in conjunction with UTF8SMTP.  See [RFC5335] for the
   corresponding syntax modifications.

   SPF implementations could check the EAI MAIL FROM *and* an
   alternative address (if given).  In this case SPF implementations
   SHOULD record both results.  An exception could be to omit a "less
   interesting" (e.g., equivalent, NONE, or NEUTRAL) result.  Receivers
   could also adopt the strategy to check the second of two addresses
   only if the result of their first check is "not helpful" (e.g., NONE
   or NEUTRAL).

3.3.  Internationalization of explanations

   SMTP replies consist of a reply code and optionally a <textstring> as
   explanation.  This is the vehicle used by SMTP servers if they reject
   a mail after an SPF FAIL, optionally adding an explanation given in
   the SPF policy as <explanation>.

   The <textstring> is limited to ASCII and hopefully integrated in some
   way in any resulting non-delivery report (bounce) created by the SMTP
   client.  UTF8SMTP does *not* modify this restriction to ASCII
   <textstring>s in contexts relevant for SPF.

   The optional SPF <explanation> is in essence a pointer to a domain
   with a TXT record.  The macro-expanded content of this TXT record can
   be used in the SMTP reply.

   The resulting explanation can contain a URL of a Web page with
   internationalized explanations including data based on the sending
   IP, sender address, and other details given as SPF macros in the TXT
   record.

   The upper-case forms of SPF macros trigger URL-encoding for this
   purpose.  SPF macro expansion does not involve to parse textual
   explanations for potential URLs, it percent-encodes any "reserved"
   input character.  For EAI these characters can be UTF-8 and have to
   be percent-encoded as specified in [RFC3987].  This boils down to
   "take octets as is, if not unreserved percent-encode".

   The procedure outlined above clearly cannot guarantee to produce
   valid URLs in an explanation.  In fact any use of lower-case macros
   could result in non-ASCII explanations, and in that case the SMTP
   server cannot use the result in the <textstring>s of its reply after
   an SPF FAIL.







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4.  Acknowledgements

   Various folks on the SPF discuss and devel mailing lists worked on
   the SPF [Errata] and test suite.  All obscure issues with local parts
   discussed in this memo are based on their prior work and indirectly
   related discussions on the EAI and SMTP mailing lists.

   Thanks to Abel Yang, Alessandro Vesely, Boyd Lynn Gerber, Doug Otis,
   Harald T. Alvestrand, John C. Klensin, Julian Mehnle, Kari Hurtta,
   Kazunori Fujiwara, Scott Kitterman, Stuart D. Gathman, and
   Wayne Schlitt for their encouragement, feedback, or critique.


5.  Security Considerations

   When UTF8SMTP senders use a different domain in the optional
   alternative MAIL FROM address, and the corresponding sender policy is
   also different, it is hard to predict which policy will be checked,
   if any, depending on the route to the receiver and other factors.
   Different results can be hard to diagnose, e.g., if a mail from the
   same sender to the same receiver sometimes results in PASS and at
   other times in FAIL.  One proposal to mitigate this problem is
   discussed in Section 3.1.

   Not all SPF implementations will already support U-labels as
   explained in this memo.  Senders could transform U-labels in MAIL
   FROM commands to A-labels on their side where this is a problem.

   Using the SPF local part macro in conjunction with EAI is not
   intuitive, local parts are not transformed to A-labels.  This is not
   new, but in conjunction with EAI very likely.  Various details with
   respect to label lengths, quoted strings, adjacent dots, and quoted
   pairs are explained in Section 2.3.  Not using <Quoted-string>s as
   local parts and not using case-sensitive local parts is recommended
   in [RFC5321] section 4.1.2; this also covers quoted pairs and
   adjacent dots.

   A new UTF8SMTP problem is the use of local part macros for the
   construction of "per user" policies, when different variations of an
   UTF-8 local part correspond to one user mailbox.  While the use of
   normalized UTF-8 strings is recommended in [RFC5335] section 4.1 this
   does not help with case-sensitive <UTF8-non-ascii> variations.  One
   way to address this problem is to avoid critical uses of the local
   part macro as discussed in Section 2.3.

   UTF8SMTP servers can be forced to send non-delivery reports to forged
   envelope sender addresses, if some receiver mailboxes can handle EAI
   mails, while others can't, and the server has no way to "downgrade"



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   mails to traditional receivers.  Hopefully a future SMTP extension
   will allow a kind of "selective reject" mechanism.  Publishing SPF
   PASS or FAIL policies, and rejecting FAIL at the border MTA, would
   eliminate this problem.  Similarly non-delivery reports after a PASS
   cannot hit innocent bystanders.

   Evaluating PRA (Purported Responsible Address) policies as specified
   in [RFC4406] with SPF or vice versa can cause havoc, as the
   algorithms are semantically different even when the policies are
   otherwise syntactically identical.  This known problem is discussed
   in [I-D.kitterman-4408bis].

   SPF local part macros in a <domain-spec> could be abused in an attack
   scenario to avoid DNS caching.  Compare the SPF processing limits in
   [I-D.kitterman-4408bis] section 10.1.


6.  IANA Considerations

   Keep up the good work, nothing to do here.


7.  References

7.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC3629]  Yergeau, F., "UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO
              10646", STD 63, RFC 3629, November 2003.

   [RFC3987]  Duerst, M. and M. Suignard, "Internationalized Resource
              Identifiers (IRIs)", RFC 3987, January 2005.

   [I-D.kitterman-4408bis]
              Kitterman, D. and W. Schlitt, "Sender Policy Framework
              (SPF) for Authorizing Use of Domains in E-Mail, Version
              1", draft-kitterman-4408bis-00 (work in progress),
              October 2011.

   [RFC5321]  Klensin, J., "Simple Mail Transfer Protocol", RFC 5321,
              October 2008.

   [RFC5322]  Resnick, P., Ed., "Internet Message Format", RFC 5322,
              October 2008.

   [RFC5335]  Abel, Y., "Internationalized Email Headers", RFC 5335,



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              September 2008.

   [RFC5336]  Yao, J. and W. Mao, "SMTP Extension for Internationalized
              Email Addresses", RFC 5336, September 2008.

   [RFC5890]  Klensin, J., "Internationalized Domain Names for
              Applications (IDNA): Definitions and Document Framework",
              RFC 5890, August 2010.

7.2.  Informative References

   [RFC4343]  Eastlake, D., "Domain Name System (DNS) Case Insensitivity
              Clarification", RFC 4343, January 2006.

   [RFC4406]  Lyon, J. and M. Wong, "Sender ID: Authenticating E-Mail",
              RFC 4406, April 2006.

   [RFC4952]  Klensin, J. and Y. Ko, "Overview and Framework for
              Internationalized Email", RFC 4952, July 2007.

   [RFC5198]  Klensin, J. and M. Padlipsky, "Unicode Format for Network
              Interchange", RFC 5198, March 2008.

   [RFC5234]  Crocker, D. and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax
              Specifications: ABNF", STD 68, RFC 5234, January 2008.

   [RFC5337]  Newman, C. and A. Melnikov, "Internationalized Delivery
              Status and Disposition Notifications", RFC 5337,
              September 2008.

   [RFC5451]  Kucherawy, M., "Message Header Field for Indicating
              Message Authentication Status", RFC 5451, April 2009.

   [Errata]   OpenSPF, "RFC 4408 errata", 2008,
              <http://www.openspf.net/RFC_4408/Errata>.


Appendix A.  Document History

   Changes in version 06:

   *  Fixed broken inline references by using the xml2rfc release
      version instead of the experimental version.

   *  Replaced the openspf.org link for the SPF test suite and [Errata]
      by openspf.net temporarily.





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   Changes in version 05 (2011):

   *  Update for UTF8SMTP while UTF8SMTPBIS is not yet approved.  Only
      the references and boilerplate texts were updated; otherwise the
      content is as it was in 2008.

   *  The IESG put the "outsourced" [Errata] on hold for an SPF document
      update; the errata are covered by [I-D.kitterman-4408bis].

   *  Meanwhile [RFC5321], [RFC5322], [RFC5451], [RFC5890], and
      [I-D.kitterman-4408bis] exist.

   Changes in version 04 (2008):

   *  Fixed two typos and the references for the published EAI RFCs.

   Changes in version 03:

   *  Added a terminology Section 1.1.  Apart from the added [RFC5322]
      defining <atext> all referenced drafts are now approved RFCs.

   *  Clarified that case-insensitive uses of <UTF8-non-ascii> can cause
      havoc in conjunction with local part macros.  This is not
      mitigated by the recommended normalization.

   *  Added a pointer to the [I-D.kitterman-4408bis] security
      considerations in Section 5.  Mentioned the role of local part
      macros in an attack scenario with credits to Doug Otis.

   *  Added the missing credits for the SPF discussions on the EAI list
      back in 2006 and 2007.

   *  Added a link to the "outsourced" [Errata] mentioning the SPF test
      suite.  Errata and test suite cover some <target-name> issues
      discussed in this memo, notably "adjacent dots".

   *  Added a long Section 3.3 about the wonders of SPF explanations
      with the rather trivial conclusion that [RFC3987] percent-encoding
      works as expected.

   Changes in version 02:

   *  This memo is about EAI, not wildcard issues elsewhere; replaced
      4592 by [RFC4952].

   *  Noted that only certain LDH-labels are or might be A-labels.  The
      details are specified in [RFC5890].




Ellermann                 Expires May 15, 2012                 [Page 13]

Internet-Draft   SPF Email Address Internationalization    November 2011


   *  [RFC5451] not yet added, extending the Authentication-Results
      header field to allow UTF-8 values for EAI should be straight
      forward.

   Changes in version 01:

   *  Extended the local part discussion in Section 2.3 significantly to
      cover known gaps in the SPF specification.  Added potential issues
      with non-normalized local parts.

   *  Added a Received-SPF section using the now "Last Called"
      [RFC5335].  Added references to [RFC4343], [RFC4952], [RFC5198],
      and the approved [RFC5337].

   *  Removed the discussion of two vs. five SPF "subtypes", this
      belongs into another draft.  Kept the caveat about using an
      algorithm designed for subtype x on a policy with subtype y (or
      v.v.), as this could cause hard to debug mail losses.

   Initial version:

   *  In a short discussion on the EAI list Harald Alvestrand and John
      Klensin encouraged to collect SPF EAI considerations in a separate
      memo.


Author's Address

   Frank Ellermann
   xyzzy
   Hamburg, Germany

   Email: hmdmhdfmhdjmzdtjmzdtzktdkztdjz@gmail.com
   URI:   http://purl.net/xyzzy/

















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