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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 05 RFC 5456

                                                              M. Spencer
Internet-Draft                                              Digium, Inc.
Intended status: Informational                                B. Capouch
Expires: April 9, 2009                            Saint Joseph's College
                                                             E. Guy, Ed.
                                                                TruPhone
                                                               F. Miller
                                                   Cornfed Systems, Inc.
                                                              K. Shumard
                                                         October 6, 2008


                 IAX: Inter-Asterisk eXchange Version 2
                            draft-guy-iax-05

Status of this Memo

   By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on April 9, 2009.










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Abstract

   This document describes IAX, the Inter-Asterisk eXchange protocol, an
   application-layer control and media protocol for creating, modifying,
   and terminating multimedia sessions over Internet Protocol (IP)
   networks.  IAX was developed by the open source community for the
   Asterisk PBX and is targeted primarily at Voice over Internet
   Protocol (VoIP) call control, but it can be used with streaming video
   or any other type of multimedia.

   IAX is an "all in one" protocol for handling multimedia in IP
   networks.  It combines both control and media services in the same
   protocol.  In addition, IAX uses a single UDP data stream on a static
   port greatly simplifying Network Address Translation (NAT) gateway
   traversal, eliminating the need for other protocols to work around
   NAT, and simplifying network and firewall management.  IAX employs a
   compact encoding which decreases bandwidth usage and is well suited
   for Internet telephony service.  In addition, its open nature permits
   new payload types additions needed to support additional services.
































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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     1.1.  Basic Properties  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     1.2.  Drawbacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   2.  IAX Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   3.  Overview of IAX Protocol  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   4.  Naming Conventions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   5.  IAX Uniform Resource Identifiers  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     5.1.  IAX URI Scheme Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     5.2.  URI Comparison  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   6.  Peer Behavior and Related Messages  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
     6.1.  Registration (OPTIONAL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
     6.2.  Call Leg Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
     6.3.  Call Control  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
     6.4.  Mid-Call Link Operations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  30
     6.5.  Call Path Optimization  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  32
     6.6.  Call Tear Down  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  37
     6.7.  Network Monitoring  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  37
     6.8.  Digit Dialing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  38
     6.9.  Miscellaneous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  40
     6.10. Media Messages  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  42
   7.  Message Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  44
     7.1.  Trunking  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  44
     7.2.  Timers  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  45
     7.3.  NAT Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  45
     7.4.  Encryption  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  46
   8.  Message Encoding  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  47
     8.1.  Frame Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  47
     8.2.  Frame Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  57
     8.3.  Control Frames Subclasses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  60
     8.4.  IAX Frames  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  61
     8.5.  HTML Command Subclasses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  63
     8.6.  Information Elements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  63
     8.7.  Media Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  92
   9.  Example Message Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  95
     9.1.  Ping/Pong . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  95
     9.2.  Lagrq/Lagrp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  95
     9.3.  Registration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  96
     9.4.  Registration Release  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  96
     9.5.  Call Path Optimization  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  97
     9.6.  IAX Media Call  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  97
     9.7.  IAX Media Call via an IAX Device  . . . . . . . . . . . .  99
   10. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
   11. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
   12. Implementation Notes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
   13. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
   14. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106



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     14.1. Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
     14.2. Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
   Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements  . . . . . . . . . 111















































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1.  Introduction

   Numerous protocols have been specified by the Internet community to
   support control or signaling of multimedia sessions, for instance,
   SIP [RFC3261], MGCP [RFC3435], and MEGACO/H.248 [RFC3525].  In
   general, these protocols are designed to offer full support for many
   types of media transmission.  This flexible approach adds some
   overhead to the protocol headers, but allows for the protocol use
   well beyond the current application.  Typically, these protocols
   reference, but do not specify, the media transmission protocol used
   to carry the actual stream.  SIP commonly uses Session Description
   Protocol (SDP) [RFC4566] to specify Real-Time Transport Protocol
   (RTP) [RFC3550] streams.  This method allows for great flexibility,
   but again leads to more overhead.  Furthermore, multimedia solutions
   which use different, perhaps dynamic, network addresses for signaling
   and media transmission frequently suffer from Network Address
   Translation (NAT) traversal and security challenges.

   IAX is the Inter-Asterisk eXchange protocol which facilitates VoIP
   connections between servers, and between servers and clients that
   also use the IAX protocol.  IAX was created through an open source
   methodology rather than through a traditional standards based
   methodology.  It is an open protocol originally used by Asterisk, a
   dual licensed open source and commercial PBX server from Digium.
   Independent IAX implementations may be open, proprietary, or licensed
   in anyway the author seems fit without royalty to the protocol
   creators.

1.1.  Basic Properties

   IAX is a robust and full featured, yet, simple protocol.  It is
   general enough that it can handle most common types of media streams.
   However, the protocol is highly optimized for VoIP calls where low
   overhead and low bandwidth consumption are priorities.  This
   pragmatic aspect makes IAX more efficient for VoIP than protocols
   which consider possibilities far beyond current needs and specify
   many more details than are strictly necessary to describe or
   transport a point-to-point call.  Furthermore, because IAX is
   designed to be lightweight and VoIP-friendly, it consumes less
   bandwidth than more general approaches.  IAX is a binary protocol,
   designed to reduce overhead, especially in regards to voice streams.
   Bandwidth efficiency, in some places, is sacrificed in exchange for
   bandwidth efficiency for individual voice calls.  For example, when
   transmitting a voice stream compressed to 8kbs with a 20ms
   packetization, each data packet consists of 20 bytes.  IAX adds 20%
   overhead, 4 bytes, on the majority of voice packets while RTP adds
   60% overhead with 12 additional bytes per voice packet.




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   In addition to efficiency, IAX's single static UDP port approach
   makes IAX traffic easy for network managers to shape, prioritize, and
   pass through firewalls.  IAX's basic structure is that it multiplexes
   signaling and multiple media streams over a single UDP stream between
   two computers.  IAX also uses the same UDP port for both its
   signaling and media messages, and because all communications
   regarding a call are done over a the same point-to-point path, NAT
   traversal is much simpler for IAX than for other commonly deployed
   protocols.

1.2.  Drawbacks

   While IAX is very effective, addressing many of today's
   communications needs, it does have a few limitations.  For instance,
   IAX uses a point-to-point codec negotiation mechanism that limits
   extensibility because every IAX node in a call path must support
   every used codec to some degree.  In addition, the codec definition
   is controlled by an internally defined 32-bit mask, so the codecs
   must be defined in the protocol, and the maximum number of
   simultaneous codecs is, therefore, limited.

   One of IAX's design strengths also presents a potential problem.  The
   use of a single, well-known, port makes the protocol an easier target
   for denial of service attacks.  Real time systems like VoIP are
   particularly sensitive to these attacks.

   The protocol is typically deployed with all signaling and media going
   to a centralized server.  While this combined path approach provides
   a great deal of control, it limits the overall system scalability.
   IAX now provides the ability to split the media from the signaling
   stream which overcomes this limitation of earlier IAX versions.

   Most IAX drawbacks are due to implementation issues rather than
   protocol issues.  Threading presents a series of problems.  Many
   implementations have a limited number of threads available to process
   IAX traffic and can become overwhelmed by high use or denial of
   service attacks.  Newer implementations have additional controls to
   minimize the impact of these challenges.













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2.  IAX Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

   Additionally, this document uses the following terminology:

   Peer:  A host or device that implements the IAX protocol.

   Call:  A call is a relationship between two or more parties (i.e.,
      resources such as devices, user agents, or programs) that exists
      for some time for the purpose of exchanging real-time media.  In
      the context of this document, a call is an end to end relationship
      where at least the one leg of call path is implemented using the
      IAX protocol.

   Calling Party:  A device or program that initiates a call.

   Called Party:  A device or program to which a call is directed.

   Context:  A context is a named partition of a Dialplan.

   Dialplan:  A Dialplan is a set of rules for associating provided
      names and numbers with a particular called party.

   Frame:  The atomic communication unit between two IAX peers.  All IAX
      messages are carried within frames.

   Information Element (IE):  A discrete data unit appended to an IAX
      frame which specifies user or call-specific data.

   Registrant:  A registrant is a peer that makes REGISTER requests in
      order to advertise the address of a resource, i.e., a device or
      program to which a call may be directed.

   Registrar:  A registrar is a peer that processes REGISTER requests
      and places the information it receives in those requests into the
      location service.  [RFC3261].












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3.  Overview of IAX Protocol

   IAX is a peer-to-peer, VoIP-oriented, protocol.  IAX includes both
   control and media functions.  It can register locations, create,
   modify, terminate multimedia sessions, and carry the actual media
   streams specified by the sessions it manages.  The protocol is
   designed and optimized for describing and transporting multimedia
   calls using Internet Protocol.  This document describes version 2 of
   IAX; Version 1, although somewhat similar in design, utilized a
   different port and was not widely deployed.

   The basic design approach for IAX multiplexes signaling and multiple
   media streams over a single UDP association between two hosts.  This
   is accomplished by using the same "well-known" UDP port, 4569, for
   all types of IAX traffic.  IAX's unified signaling and media paths
   achieve NAT transparency, which is an advantage of IAX over
   alternative media transport protocols such as SIP [RFC3261].

   IAX is coded as a binary protocol.  One major benefit of using a
   binary protocol is bandwidth efficiency because the quality of voice
   calls is frequently related to the amount of bandwidth consumed.
   This is one way the protocol is specifically optimized to make
   efficient use of bandwidth for individual voice calls.  The bandwidth
   efficiency for other stream types is sacrificed for the sake of
   individual voice calls.  Other benefits of a binary protocol are
   robustness against buffer overrun attacks, and compact implementation
   capability, which reduces interoperability issues related to parsing.

   The atomic communication unit in IAX is the "Frame".  There are
   multiple classes of Frames, each of which is described below.  In
   general, "Full Frames" carry signaling/control data, while "Mini
   Frames" carry media stream data.  Full Frames enclose optional
   'Information Elements' (IEs).  IEs describe various types of user- or
   call-specific data.  "Meta Frames" are used for call trunking or
   video stream transmission.

   An IAX-based call may consist of many call legs, or segments.  Each
   call leg may be implemented using different protocols, e.g., SIP to
   IAX to ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network).  IAX is
   responsible for setting up one or more legs of a complete call path,
   not necessarily the end-to-end call.

   IAX is an optimized peer-to-peer protocol.  If two adjacent call legs
   utilize the IAX protocol and if the intermediate peer determines that
   it does not need to remain in the call path, it can supervise a
   calling path change such that it removes itself from the path.  This
   supervision is complete, a call path is not changed until all peers
   in the optimized call path confirm they can properly communicate.



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   IAX supports security features by allowing multiple methods of user
   authentication and authorization, as well as during peer
   registration.  IAX also specifies a generic framework for native
   encryption.















































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4.  Naming Conventions

   Call Identifier:  A call leg is marked with two unique integers, one
      assigned by each peer involved in creating the call leg.

   Number:  The Calling and Called Numbers are a set of digits and
      letters identifying a call originator and the desired terminating
      resource.  The term 'Number' is historic and has been expanded to
      include letters.  A peer is responsible for defining its own
      dialplan.  A peer MAY define its dialplan according to ITU-T
      Recommendation E.164.  [E164] However, this is not required.

   Username:  A username is a string used for identification purposes.






































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5.  IAX Uniform Resource Identifiers

5.1.  IAX URI Scheme Registration

   This section registers IAX according to the guidelines in [RFC4395].

   URI scheme name:

      iax.

   Status:

      Permanent.

   URI scheme syntax:

      The "iax:" scheme follows the guidelines in [RFC3986].



      The general form is as follows:

         iax:[username@]host[:port][/number[?context]]

         where these tokens have the following meanings:

         iax:  The literal 'iax:'.

         username:  A string used for identification purposes.

         host:  The domain of the resource.  The host part contains
            either a fully-qualified domain name or numeric IPv4 or IPv6
            address.  An IPv6 address must be enclosed within brackets
            (i.e., '[2001:db8::1]') as defined in [RFC3986].  Using the
            fully-qualified domain name form is RECOMMENDED whenever
            possible.

         port:  The numeric UDP port number.

         number:  The name or number identifying the resource on that
            host.

         context:  The name of the host partition in which the service
            is identified or processed.







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      Examples
         iax:example.com/alice
         iax:example.com:4569/alice
         iax:example.com:4570/alice?friends
         iax:192.0.2.4:4569/alice?friends
         iax:[2001:db8::1]:4569/alice?friends
         iax:example.com/12022561414
         iax:johnQ@example.com/12022561414

      ABNF  Certain values are included by reference from [RFC3986]:

         iax-uri = "iax:" [userinfo "@" ]host[":" port][ "/" number[ "?"
         context]]

         userinfo = <as specified in RFC 3986>

         host = <as specified in RFC 3986>

         port = <as specified in RFC 3986>

         number = *(unreserved | sub-delims | pct-encoded )

         context = *(unreserved | sub-delims | pct-encoded )

         unreserved = <as specified in RFC 3986>

         sub-delims = <as specified in RFC 3986>

         pct-encoded = <as specified in RFC 3986>

   URI Scheme Semantics:

      An IAX URI identifies a communications resource capable of
      communicating using the IAX Version 2 protocol defined in this
      document.  Within this document, we refer to IAX Version 2
      protocol URI as IAX.  An IAX URI contains enough information to
      initiate an IAX-based call with that resource.

      IAX URIs are associated with server resources to which calls may
      be routed.  For instance, an IAX URI may represent an appearance
      on a phone, a voice-mail box on a messaging service, an
      interactive program, a PSTN address or gateway, or any group of
      the above.

      The iax uri scheme translates into a location that may be used by
      the iax protocol to establish a new call using the uri scheme
      components described in the previous section.  This new call
      function is the only defined operation.



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   Encoding considerations:

      IAX URI scheme encoding conforms to the encoding rules established
      for URIs in [RFC3986].

   Applications/protocols that use this URI scheme name:

      The scheme is used by ENUM Dynamic Delegation Discovery System
      (DDDS) services to specify resources that support the IAX
      protocol.  The IAX protocol provides application-layer control and
      media protocol for creating, modifying, and terminating multimedia
      sessions over Internet Protocol (IP) networks.

   Interoperability considerations:

      None.

   Security considerations:

      The IAX URI Scheme does not introduce any new security concerns
      except that it provides a uniform syntax for describing IAX
      resources and that, when published, these addresses are subject to
      various denial of service attacks.

   Contact:

      Ed Guy, edguy@emcsw.com, +1.973.437.4519.

   Author/Change controller

      Not Applicable.

   References:

      Spencer, M., Shumard, K., Capouch, B., and E. Guy, 'IAX: Inter-
      Asterisk eXchange Version 2,' (This Document), March 2008.

5.2.  URI Comparison

   Some operations in this specification require determining whether two
   IAX URIs are equivalent.  IAX URIs are compared for equality
   according to the following rules:

   All components of the URI MUST be identical except:

      The port, if omitted, is considered to be the same as the default,
      4569.




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      All URI components, except the username field, are case
      insensitive, and MUST be normalized to lower case as per Section
      6.2.2.1 of [RFC3986] before comparison.

   The URIs within each of the following sets are equivalent:

   iax:atlanta.com/alice
   iax:AtLaNtA.com/ALicE
   iax:atlanta.com:4569/alice

   iax:alice@atlanta.com/alice
   iax:alice@AtLaNtA.com:4569/ALicE

   The URIs within the following set are not equivalent:

   iax:ALICE@atlanta.com/alice
   iax:alice@atlanta.com/alice

   NOTE: A host in domain form and in IP address form are NOT considered
   identical even if the host name resolves to an address record that
   matches the given IP address.






























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6.  Peer Behavior and Related Messages

   Messages are divided into two categories: reliable and non-
   guaranteed.  The reliable messages are referred to as "Full Frames."
   In addition to a message type indicator and facilities to ensure
   reliability, see Section 7, they include the full call identifier.
   It consists of each of peer's identifiers for the call.  Additional
   attributes, "Information Elements" or "IEs", may be associated with
   the Full Frame messages.

   The non-guaranteed messages are referred to as "Mini-Frames" and
   "Meta Frames" and these more compact messages only have the
   originating peer's call identifier and MUST NOT have any "Information
   Elements."

   Peer behavior is presented in several partitions divided by the
   following functional areas:

      Registration (OPTIONAL)

      Call Link Management

      Call Path Optimization (OPTIONAL)

      Mid-Call Behavior

      Call Tear Down

      Network Monitoring

      Digit Dialing (OPTIONAL)

      Miscellaneous

      Media Messages

   Each of these behavior topics and the messages involved are described
   in the sections which follow.

6.1.  Registration (OPTIONAL)

6.1.1.  Overview

   In order for one IAX peer to be reachable by another IAX peer, the
   calling peer needs the network address of the receiving peer.  This
   address may be manually provisioned, determined through a shared
   directory, e.g. an ENUM-like service, [RFC3761] or configured using
   the IAX protocol.  IAX provides a facility for one peer to register



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   its address and credentials with another so that callers can reach
   the registrant.  The IAX registration facility is optional.  If
   implemented, the IAX registration protocol MAY be done in parts,
   e.g., an analog telephone adapter MAY only implement the registrant
   portion of the protocol.

   IAX allows user authentication via multiple methods.  MD5 Message-
   Digest authentication [RFC1321] uses a md5 sum arrangement, but still
   requires that both ends have plaintext access to the secret.  (See
   section Section 8.6.15.)  Rivest, Shamir and Adleman's (RSA)
   algorithm [RFC3447] allows unidirectional secret knowledge through
   public/private key pairs.  IAX Private keys SHOULD always be Triple
   Data Encryption Standard (3DES) encrypted [RFC1851].  (See section
   Section 8.6.16.)





































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                         ________________
                        |                |
                        |  Unregistered  |<--------------------------\
                        |________________|                           |
                                |                                    |
                  /Init         |                                    |
                  ------------  |                                    |
                  snd REGREQ    |    +--------+                      |
                                |    |        | rec REGAUTH          |
                         _______V____V___     | -----------          |
                        |                |    | snd REGREQ           |
                        |   Reg Sent     +----+                      |
                        |________________+----------+                |
                                |    ^              | rec REGAUTH    |
                   rec REGACK   |    |              | /No Credentials|
                  ------------  |    | REG timeout  | -------------- |
                   snd ack      |    | -------      | snd ack        |
                                |    | REGREQ     __V___             |
                         _______V____|___        |      |            |
                        |                |       |  No  |            |
                        |   Registered   |       | Auth |            |
                        |________________|       |______|            |
                                |                   ^                |
                                |                   | rec REGAUTH    |
                                | release           | /No Credentials|
                                | -------           | -------------- |
                  +-------+     | snd REGREL        | snd ack        |
     rec REGAUTH  |       |     |                   |                |
     -----------  |      _V_____V________           |                |
     snd REGREL   |     |                |----------+                |
                  +-----+   Releasing    |---------------------------+
                        |________________|      rec ACK
                                                -------
                                                   x

                     __________
    rec  REGREJ     |          |
    ----------   *->| Rejected |
    snd   ack       |__________|




                    Figure 1: Registrant State Diagram

   Registration, illustrated in Figure 1, is performed by a registrant
   that sends a username and a registration 'refresh' period to the
   registrar.  This is accomplished with a REGREQ message.  If



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   authentication is required, the registrar responds with the REGAUTH
   message which indicates the types of authentication supported by the
   registrar.  In response, the registrant resends a REGREQ with one of
   the supported authentications.  If the registrant can not
   authenticate, no further action is necessary.  If accepted, the
   registrar sends a REGACK message which MUST indicate the 'apparent
   address' and SHOULD indicate the 'refresh'/expire time.  If no
   'refresh' is sent a default registration expiration of 60 seconds
   MUST be assumed by both peers.  At any time during this exchange, the
   registrar may send a REGREJ message to indicate a failure.

   A registration has a specified time period associated with it for
   which it is valid.  This time period begins when the registrar sends
   a REGACK message.  A registrant may extend that time period be
   repeating the registration process.  A registrant MAY also force an
   expiration in the registrar by sending the REGREL message.  This
   message may be challenged with REGAUTH or if sufficient credentials
   were included, it will be accepted with REGACK.  In response to a
   REGAUTH, a REGREL message SHOULD be resent using the specified
   credentials.

   See Section 9.3 and Section 9.4 for example call flows.

6.1.2.  REGREQ Registration Request Message

   The REGREQ occurs independently of any media-carrying call.  A REGREQ
   MUST include the 'username' IE and SHOULD include the 'refresh' IE.
   A REGREQ is used both for an initial registration request as well as
   for a reply to a REGAUTH.  As a reply to a REGAUTH message, it MUST
   include credentials such as a response to a REGAUTH's challenge.

   Upon receipt of a REGREQ message which has credentials, a registrar
   MUST determine their validity.  If valid, it MUST respond with a
   REGACK message indicating the time period for which this registration
   is valid.  If the provided credentials are not valid or the registrar
   cannot validate the credentials, the registrar MUST respond with a
   REGREJ message.  If credentials are not provided, the registrar MUST
   respond with a REGAUTH message that indicates the available
   authentication methods.

   Registrants MUST implement this message and registrars MUST be able
   to process it.









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            The following table specifies IEs for this message:

        +------------+----------------+-------------+-------------+
        | IE         | Section        | Status      | Comments    |
        +------------+----------------+-------------+-------------+
        | Username   | Section 8.6.6  | Required    |             |
        |            |                |             |             |
        | MD5 Result | Section 8.6.15 | Conditional | per REGAUTH |
        |            |                |             |             |
        | RSA Result | Section 8.6.16 | Conditional | per REGAUTH |
        |            |                |             |             |
        | Refresh    | Section 8.6.18 | Optional    |             |
        +------------+----------------+-------------+-------------+

6.1.3.  REGAUTH Registration Authentication Response Message

   A REGAUTH is a response to a REGREQ or REGREL.  It is sent when a
   registrar requires authentication to permit registration.  A REGAUTH
   message MUST include the 'authentication methods' and 'username' IEs,
   and the 'MD5 challenge' or 'RSA challenge' IE if the authentication
   methods include MD5 or RSA.

   Upon receipt of a REGAUTH message, the registrant MUST resend the
   REGREQ or REGREL message with one of the requested credentials, if it
   has the specified credentials.

   Registrars MUST implement this message and registrants MUST be able
   to process it.

            The following table specifies IEs for this message:

      +--------------+----------------+-------------+---------------+
      | IE           | Section        | Status      | Comments      |
      +--------------+----------------+-------------+---------------+
      | Username     | Section 8.6.6  | Required    |               |
      |              |                |             |               |
      | Auth Methods | Section 8.6.13 | Required    |               |
      |              |                |             |               |
      | Challenge    | Section 8.6.14 | Conditional | If RSA or MD5 |
      +--------------+----------------+-------------+---------------+

6.1.4.  REGACK Registration Acknowledgment Message

   A REGACK is sent in response to a REGREQ.  A REGACK typically
   includes the 'refresh' IE specifying the number of seconds before the
   registration will expire.  If the 'refresh' IE is not included with a
   REGACK, a default registration expiration of 60 seconds MUST be
   assumed.  A REGACK MAY also include the 'username' and 'apparent



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   address' IEs to indicate how the peer identifies the registrant.  IEs
   related to caller identification or the time the registration
   occurred MAY be sent as well.

   Receipt of a REGACK message requires an ACK in response.

   Registrars MUST be able to send this message and registrants MUST be
   able to process it.

            The following table specifies IEs for this message:

        +------------------+----------------+----------+----------+
        | IE               | Section        | Status   | Comments |
        +------------------+----------------+----------+----------+
        | Username         | Section 8.6.6  | Required |          |
        |                  |                |          |          |
        | Date Time        | Section 8.6.28 | Required |          |
        |                  |                |          |          |
        | Apparent Address | Section 8.6.17 | Required |          |
        |                  |                |          |          |
        | Message Count    | Section 8.6.23 | Optional |          |
        |                  |                |          |          |
        | Calling Number   | Section 8.6.2  | Optional |          |
        |                  |                |          |          |
        | Calling Name     | Section 8.6.4  | Optional |          |
        |                  |                |          |          |
        | Refresh          | Section 8.6.18 | Optional |          |
        +------------------+----------------+----------+----------+

6.1.5.  REGREJ Registration Rejection Message

   A REGREJ indicates that a registration request has been rejected.
   This rejection can occur for several reasons.  A REGREJ MUST include
   the 'causecode' and 'cause' IEs to specify why registration was
   rejected.

   Upon receipt of a REGREJ message, the registrant MUST consider
   registration process unsuccessful and no further interaction is
   required.  A peer MAY reinitiate the process at later time accounting
   for potential configuration changes on the registrar or registrant.

   Both registrants and registrars MUST be capable of sending and
   processing this message.








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            The following table specifies IEs for this message:

           +------------+----------------+----------+----------+
           | IE         | Section        | Status   | Comments |
           +------------+----------------+----------+----------+
           | Cause      | Section 8.6.21 | Required |          |
           |            |                |          |          |
           | Cause Code | Section 8.6.33 | Required |          |
           +------------+----------------+----------+----------+

6.1.6.  REGREL Registration Release Request Message

   A REGREL is used by a registrant for a forced release of a prior
   registration.  It MUST include the 'username' IE to identify the
   registrant to be released, and MAY include the 'causecode' and
   'cause' IEs to specify why registration is being released.

   Upon receipt of this message, a peer MUST authenticate the sender
   using the provided credentials or send a REGAUTH message requesting
   them.  If authenticated it MUST immediately purge its registration of
   the specified registrant or send a REGREJ message if the registration
   is not found.

   Registrants SHOULD be capable of sending this message and registrars
   MUST be able to process it.

            The following table specifies IEs for this message:

   +----------+----------------+-------------+-------------------------+
   | IE       | Section        | Status      | Comments                |
   +----------+----------------+-------------+-------------------------+
   | Username | Section 8.6.6  | Required    |                         |
   |          |                |             |                         |
   | MD5      | Section 8.6.15 | Conditional | MD5 or RSA Result is    |
   | Result   |                |             | required                |
   |          |                |             |                         |
   | RSA      | Section 8.6.16 | Conditional |                         |
   | Result   |                |             |                         |
   |          |                |             |                         |
   | Cause    | Section 8.6.21 | Optional    |                         |
   |          |                |             |                         |
   | Cause    | Section 8.6.33 | Optional    |                         |
   | Code     |                |             |                         |
   +----------+----------------+-------------+-------------------------+







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6.2.  Call Leg Management


                                          +--------+  HANGUP/ack
                                          |        |
                             _____________|__      |
                            |                |     |
                 +--------->|    Initial     |<----+
                 |          |________________|<---------------------+
                 |                  |                               ^
                 |       start call |                               |
                 |       ---------- |                               |
                 |       send NEW   |  +-------+                    |
                 |                  |  |       |  rec AUTHREQ       |
                 |             _____V__V__     |  -----------       |
                 |            |           |    |  snd AUTHREP       |
                 +------------|  Waiting  |----+                    |
         rec REJECT           |___________|------------------------>+
         ----------                  |                              |
           ack                       |              rec HANGUP      |
                                     |              ---------       |
                                     |              snd ack         |
                                     |                              |
                       rec ACCEPT    |                              |
                       ----------    |   +------+                   |
                       snd ack       |   |      | PROCEEDING / ack  |
                            _________V___V      | RINGING / ack     |
                           |              |     |                   |
                           |     Linked   |-----+                   |
                           |______________|------------------------>+
                                    |               rec HANGUP      |
                       rec ANSWER   |               ----------      |
                       -----------  |               snd ack         |
                       snd ack      |                               |
                                    |                               |
                                    |               rec HANGUP      |
                             _______V________       ---------       |
                            |                |      snd ack         |
                            |      UP        |--------------------->+
                            |________________|--------------------->+
                                                    finish
                                                    ------
                                                    snd HANGUP


                 Figure 2: Call Origination State Diagram





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                                 +--------+ rec HANGUP/ack
                                 |        |
                    _____________V__      | rec NEW(no Auth)/snd AUTHREQ
                   |                |     |
                   |    Initial     |-----+ rec NEW(not Auth)/snd REJECT
                   |                |
                   |________________|<--------------------+
                           |                              |
             rec NEW       |                              |
        (valid credentials)|                              |
             ----------    |   +------+                   |
             snd ACCEPT    |   |      | snd PROCEEDING    |
                  _________V___V      | snd RINGING       |
                 |              |     |                   |
                 |     Linked   |-----+                   |
                 |              |
                 |______________|------------------------>+
                          |               rec HANGUP      |
              /answered   |               ----------      |
             -----------  |               snd ack         |
             snd ANSWER   |                               |
                          |               rec HANGUP      |
                   _______V________       ---------       |
                  |                |       snd ack        |
                  |      UP        |--------------------->+
                  |________________|--------------------->+
                                          finish
                                          ------
                                          snd HANGUP


                 Figure 3: Call Termination State Diagram

6.2.1.  Overview

   The IAX protocol can be used to setup 'links' or 'call legs' between
   two peers for the purposes of placing a call.  The process,
   illustrated in Figure 2 and Figure 3, starts when a peer sends a NEW
   message indicating the destination 'number' (or name) of a Called
   Party on the remote peer.  The remote peer can respond with either a
   credentials challenge (AUTHREQ), a REJECT message, or an ACCEPT
   message.  The AUTHREQ message indicates the permitted authentication
   schemes and SHOULD result in the sending of an AUTHREP message with
   the requested credentials.  The REJECT message indicates the call
   cannot be established at this time.  And ACCEPT indicates that the
   call leg between these two peers is established and that Higher level
   call signaling (Section 6.3) MAY proceed.  After sending or receiving
   the ACCEPT message, the Call Leg is in the 'Linked' state and is used



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   to pass call control message until the call is completed.  Further
   detail on messages used for this process can be found in Section 6.3.

   Call Legs are labeled with a pair of identifiers.  Each end of the
   call leg assigns the source or destination identifier during the call
   leg creation process.

6.2.2.  NEW Request Message

   A NEW message is sent to initiate a call.  It is the first call-
   specific message sent to initiate an actual media exchange between
   two peers.  'NEW' messages are unique compared to other Call
   Supervision messages in that they do not require a destination call
   identifier in their header.  This absence is because the remote
   peer's source call identifier is not created until after receipt of
   this frame.  Before sending a NEW message, the local IAX peer MUST
   assign a source call identifier that is not currently being used for
   another call.  A time-stamp MUST also be assigned for the call,
   beginning at zero and incrementing by one each millisecond.  Sequence
   numbers for a NEW message, described in the transport section,
   (Section 7) are both set to 0.

   A NEW message MUST include the 'version' IE, and it MUST be the first
   IE; the order of other IEs is unspecified.  A NEW SHOULD generally
   include IEs to indicate routing on the remote peer, e.g., via the
   'called number' IE or to indicate a peer partition or ruleset, the
   'called context' IE.  Caller identification and CODEC negotiation IEs
   MAY also be included.

   Upon receipt of a NEW message, the receiving peer examines the
   destination and MUST perform one of the following actions:

      Send a REJECT response,

      Challenge the caller with an AUTHREQ response,

      Accept the call using an ACCEPT message, or

      Abort the connection using a HANGUP message, although the REJECT
      message is preferred at this point in call.

   If the call is accepted, the peer MUST progress the call and further
   respond with one of PROCEEDING, RINGING, BUSY or ANSWER depending on
   the status of the called party on the peer.  See Section 6.3 for
   further detail.

          The following table specifies IEs for the NEW message:




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   +--------------+----------------+-------------+---------------------+
   | IE           | Section        | Status      | Comments            |
   +--------------+----------------+-------------+---------------------+
   | Version      | Section 8.6.10 | Required    |                     |
   |              |                |             |                     |
   | Called       | Section 8.6.1  | Required    |                     |
   | Number       |                |             |                     |
   |              |                |             |                     |
   | Auto Answer  | Section 8.6.24 | Optional    |                     |
   |              |                |             |                     |
   | Codecs Prefs | Section 8.6.35 | Required    |                     |
   |              |                |             |                     |
   | Calling      | Section 8.6.29 | Required    |                     |
   | Presentation |                |             |                     |
   |              |                |             |                     |
   | Calling      | Section 8.6.2  | Optional    |                     |
   | Number       |                |             |                     |
   |              |                |             |                     |
   | Calling TON  | Section 8.6.30 | Required    |                     |
   |              |                |             |                     |
   | Calling TNS  | Section 8.6.31 | Required    |                     |
   |              |                |             |                     |
   | Calling Name | Section 8.6.4  | Optional    |                     |
   |              |                |             |                     |
   | ANI          | Section 8.6.3  | Optional    |                     |
   |              |                |             |                     |
   | Language     | Section 8.6.9  | Optional    |                     |
   |              |                |             |                     |
   | DNID         | Section 8.6.12 | Optional    |                     |
   |              |                |             |                     |
   | Called       | Section 8.6.5  | Conditional | 'Default' assumed   |
   | Context      |                |             | if IE excluded      |
   |              |                |             |                     |
   | Username     | Section 8.6.6  | Optional    |                     |
   |              |                |             |                     |
   | RSA Result   | Section 8.6.16 | Conditional | If challenged with  |
   |              |                |             | RSA.                |
   |              |                |             |                     |
   | MD5 Result   | Section 8.6.15 | Conditional | If challenged with  |
   |              |                |             | MD5                 |
   |              |                |             |                     |
   | Format       | Section 8.6.8  | Required    |                     |
   |              |                |             |                     |
   | Capability   | Section 8.6.7  | Conditional |                     |
   |              |                |             |                     |
   | ADSICPE      | Section 8.6.11 | Optional    |                     |
   |              |                |             |                     |
   | Date Time    | Section 8.6.28 | Optional    | Suggested           |



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   | Encryption   | Section 8.6.34 | Optional    |                     |
   |              |                |             |                     |
   | OSP Token    | Section 8.6.42 | Optional    |                     |
   +--------------+----------------+-------------+---------------------+

6.2.3.  ACCEPT Response Message

   An ACCEPT response is issued when a NEW message is received, and
   authentication has taken place (if required).  It acknowledges
   receipt of a NEW message and indicates that the call leg has been
   setup on the terminating side, including assigning a CODEC.  An
   ACCEPT message MUST include the 'format' IE to indicate its desired
   CODEC to the originating peer.  The CODEC format MUST be one of the
   formats sent in the associated NEW command.

   Upon receipt of an ACCEPT, an ACK MUST be sent and the CODEC for the
   call MAY be configured using the 'format' IE from the received
   ACCEPT.  The call then waits for an ANSWER, HANGUP or other call
   control signal.  (See Section 6.3.)  If a subsequent ACCEPT message
   is received for a call which has already started, or has not sent a
   NEW message, the message MUST be ignored.

            The following table specifies IEs for this message:

             +--------+---------------+----------+----------+
             | IE     | Section       | Status   | Comments |
             +--------+---------------+----------+----------+
             | Format | Section 8.6.8 | Required |          |
             +--------+---------------+----------+----------+

6.2.4.  REJECT Response Message

   A REJECT response is sent to indicate that a NEW, AUTHREP, DIAL, or
   ACCEPT request has been denied.  It MAY be due to an authentication
   failure, an invalid username, or if a peer cannot provide a valid
   password or response to an issued challenge.  It MAY also be used to
   notify a peer of a call setup failure, e.g., when IAX peers cannot
   negotiate a CODEC to use.  Upon receipt of a REJECT message, the call
   leg is destroyed and no further action is required.  (Note: REJECT
   messages require an explicit ACK.)

   REJECT messages MAY include the 'causecode' and 'cause' IEs to
   indicate the rejection reason.








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            The following table specifies IEs for this message:

           +------------+----------------+----------+----------+
           | IE         | Section        | Status   | Comments |
           +------------+----------------+----------+----------+
           | Cause      | Section 8.6.21 | Optional |          |
           |            |                |          |          |
           | Cause Code | Section 8.6.33 | Optional |          |
           +------------+----------------+----------+----------+

6.2.5.  HANGUP Request Message

   A HANGUP message is sent by either peer and indicates a call tear-
   down.  It MAY include the 'causecode' and 'cause' IEs to indicate the
   reason for terminating the call.  Upon receipt of a HANGUP message,
   an IAX peer MUST immediately respond with an ACK, and then destroy
   the call leg at its end.  After a HANGUP message has been received
   for a call leg, any messages received which reference that call leg
   (i.e., have the same source/destination call identifiers) MUST be
   answered with an INVAL message.  This indicates that the received
   message is invalid because the call no longer exists.

   After sending a HANGUP message, the sender MUST destroy the call and
   respond to subsequent messages regarding this call with an INVAL
   message.

            The following table specifies IEs for this message:

           +------------+----------------+----------+----------+
           | IE         | Section        | Status   | Comments |
           +------------+----------------+----------+----------+
           | Cause      | Section 8.6.21 | Optional |          |
           |            |                |          |          |
           | Cause Code | Section 8.6.33 | Optional |          |
           +------------+----------------+----------+----------+

6.2.6.  AUTHREP Authentication Reply Message

   An AUTHREP MUST include the appropriate challenge response or
   password IE, and is only sent in response to an AUTHREQ.  An AUTHREP
   requires a response of either an ACCEPT or a REJECT.

   Typical reasons for rejecting an AUTHREP include 'destination does
   not exist' and 'suitable bearer not found'.







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            The following table specifies IEs for this message:

         +------------+----------------+-------------+----------+
         | IE         | Section        | Status      | Comments |
         +------------+----------------+-------------+----------+
         | RSA Result | Section 8.6.16 | Conditional | If RSA   |
         |            |                |             |          |
         | MD5 Result | Section 8.6.15 | Conditional | If MD5   |
         +------------+----------------+-------------+----------+

6.2.7.  AUTHREQ Authentication Request Message

   The AUTHREQ message is sent in response to a NEW message if
   authentication is required for the call to be accepted.  It MUST
   include the 'authentication methods' and 'username' IEs, and the
   'challenge' IE if MD5 or RSA authentication is specified.

   Upon receiving an AUTHREQ message, the receiver MUST respond with an
   AUTHREP or HANGUP message.

            The following table specifies IEs for this message:

          +--------------+----------------+----------+----------+
          | IE           | Section        | Status   | Comments |
          +--------------+----------------+----------+----------+
          | Username     | Section 8.6.6  | Required |          |
          |              |                |          |          |
          | Auth Methods | Section 8.6.13 | Required |          |
          |              |                |          |          |
          | Challenge    | Section 8.6.14 | Required |          |
          +--------------+----------------+----------+----------+

6.3.  Call Control

6.3.1.  Overview

   IAX's call control messages provide end-to-end signaling functions
   common to other telephony control protocols.  The messages include
   RINGING, ANSWER, BUSY, and PROCEEDING.  These messages MUST only be
   sent after an IAX call leg has been ACCEPTed.

   In response to an exchange starting with a NEW message, typically,
   the first call control message is RINGING, however, a PROCEEDING
   message MAY precede it or the call MAY proceed directly to the ANSWER
   message.  If the call is answered, an ANSWER message will be sent.
   Other possibilities include a "BUSY" indication, or if the called
   party's service cannot be reached, the call will be torn down using
   the link-level HANGUP and an appropriate cause code.



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   If the link was started with a DIAL message, the sequence is an
   optional PROCEEDING, then optional RINGING, then ANSWER or BUSY.  Of
   course, a link level HANGUP MAY occur at any time.

   Various private extensions to IAX Control messages have been deployed
   for passing application-specific data over IAX control link.  One
   such extension is an application that controls ham radio
   transceivers.  An IAX peer that receives a control message that is
   not understood MUST respond with the UNSUPPORT message.

   The mandatory IAX control messages are explained below.

6.3.2.  PROCEEDING Response Message

   The PROCEEDING message SHOULD be sent to a calling party when their
   call request is being processed by a further network element but has
   not yet reached the called party.

   Upon receipt of a PROCEEDING message, the peer SHOULD perform
   protocol-specific actions to indicate this fact to the calling party,
   e.g., tones, an ISUP Proceeding message, etc.  If the prior call leg
   is utilizing the IAX protocol, a PROCEEDING message MUST be sent to
   that peer.  The processing of this message at an originating or
   transcoding peer is not specified, however, if possible, the status
   may be displayed to the calling party.

   The PROCEEDING message does not require any IEs.

6.3.3.  RINGING Response Message

   This message is sent from a terminating party to indicate that that
   the called party's service has processed the call request and is
   being alerted to the call.  A IAX RINGING message MUST be sent to an
   IAX-based calling party when the peer determines that the called
   party is being alerted, e.g., when their phone is ringing.

   Upon receipt of an IAX RINGING message, the peer MUST pass this
   indication to the calling party, unless the calling party has already
   received such indication.  For an initiating peer, this is typically
   done by starting the ring-back tone, however, many implementations
   start ringback before ringing in order to meet user expectations.  If
   the calling party is using the IAX protocol, a RINGING message MUST
   be passed to this caller.

   The RINGING message does not require any IEs.






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6.3.4.  ANSWER Response Message

   This message is sent from the called party to indicate that the party
   has accepted the call request and is communicating with the calling
   party.  Upon receipt of this message, any ring-back or other progress
   tones MUST be terminated and the communications channel MUST be
   opened.

   The ANSWER message does not require any IEs.

6.4.  Mid-Call Link Operations

6.4.1.  FLASH Request Message

   The FLASH message is sent to indicate a mid call feature.  Its
   interpretation is system dependent and if it is not expected, it
   SHOULD be ignored.  Typically, this message is only sent from Analog
   Telephone adapters when a brief circuit interruption is made during
   an answered call.

   The FLASH message does not require any IEs.

6.4.2.  HOLD Request Message

   The HOLD message is sent to cause the remote system to stop
   transmitting audio on this channel, and optionally replace the audio
   with music or other sounds.  If the remote system cannot perform this
   request, it SHOULD be ignored.

   The HOLD message SHOULD only be sent in IAX calls which are started
   using the DIAL message.

   The HOLD message does not require any IEs.

6.4.3.  UNHOLD Request Message

   The UNHOLD message is sent to cause the remote system to resume
   transmitting audio on this channel.  If the remote system cannot
   perform this request, it SHOULD be ignored.

   The UNHOLD message SHOULD only be sent in IAX calls after the HOLD
   message.

   The UNHOLD message does not require any IEs.







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6.4.4.  QUELCH Request Message

   The QUELCH message is sent to cause the remote peer to squelch or
   stop transmitting audio on this channel.  It MAY replace the audio
   sent to the further party with music or other sounds.  If the remote
   system cannot perform this request, it SHOULD be ignored.

   The QUELCH message MUST only be sent in IAX calls after an ACCEPT is
   sent or received; it SHOULD only be used on calls which are started
   using the NEW message.

   The QUELCH message does not require any IEs.

6.4.5.  UNQUELCH Request Message

   The UNQUELCH message is sent to cause the remote system to resume
   transmitting audio on this channel.  If it previously replaced the
   audio with music or other sounds, it MUST discontinue it immediately.
   If the remote system cannot perform this request, it SHOULD be
   ignored.

   The UNQUELCH message SHOULD only be sent in IAX calls after the
   QUELCH message.

   The UNQUELCH message does not require any IEs.

6.4.6.  TRANSFER Request Message

   The TRANSFER message causes the receiving peer to restart the call
   using another specified number.  The receiving peer MUST be on the
   calling side of this call leg and the new call behavior is
   unspecified.  After processing this message, a HANGUP message SHOULD
   be sent and the call leg torn down.

   When sending a TRANSFER message, the new number to which the call is
   being transferred MUST be included in the CALLED_NUMBER IE and a
   CALLED_CONTEXT IE MAY be included.  The call leg MUST NOT be used for
   anything else and MAY be torn down.

            The following table specifies IEs for this message:

   +-----------+---------------+----------+----------------------------+
   | IE        | Section       | Status   | Comments                   |
   +-----------+---------------+----------+----------------------------+
   | Called    | Section 8.6.1 | Required |                            |
   | Number    |               |          |                            |
   |           |               |          |                            |




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   | Called    | Section 8.6.5 | Optional | Use this IE if context is  |
   | Context   |               |          | other than default.        |
   +-----------+---------------+----------+----------------------------+

6.5.  Call Path Optimization

   If a peer is handling a call between two other IAX peers and the peer
   no longer has any need to monitor the progress, content, or duration
   of the call, it MAY remove itself from the call by directing the
   other two peers to communicate directly.  This call path
   optimization, or "supervised transfer," is done in a manner that
   ensures the call will not be lost in the process; the initiating peer
   does not give up control of the process until it has confirmed the
   other two peers are communicating.  Note: the parties involved in the
   call are not aware of this operation; it is purely a network
   operation.



































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                                 ________________
        rec  TXREJ              |                |     rec TXREL
        ----------   *--------->|      None      |<-----------------+
        snd  TXREJ              |________________|        ack       ^
        to other                  |           |                     |
                                  |           V                     |
                                  |                                 |
                                  |           *   (From All)        |
                   /Init Transfer |           | rec TXREQ           |
                    ------------  |           | ---------           |
                      snd TXREQ   |           | snd TXCNT           |
                      to both     |           |                     |
                                 _v___________v__                   |
                                |                |                  |
                                |     Begin      |----------------->+
                                |________________|                  |
                                  |           |                     |
                        rec TXACC |           | rec TXREADY         |
                        --------- |           | ---------           |
                      snd TXREADY |           |     x               |
                                  |           |                     |
                                 _v___________v__                   |
                                |                |----------------->+
                      ----------|     Ready      |----------        |
                     |          |________________|          |       |
                     |                   |                  |       |
     /Both Legs Ready|   /Both Legs Ready|       rec TXMEDIA|       |
   and not media-only|    and media-only |                  |       |
       ------------  |    ------------   |       -----------|       |
       snd TXREL     |     snd TXMEDIA   |            x     |       |
                     |                   |                  |       |
                 ____V____          _____V___            ___V_____  |
                |         |        |         |          |         | |
                | Release |        |  Media  |          | Media   | |
                |_________|        |_________|          |  Pass   | |
                                         |              |_________| |
                                         |                  |       |
                                         V                  V       |
    rec  TXCNT                           +------------------------->+
    ----------  (In any state)
    snd  TXACC




              Figure 4: Call Path Optimization State Diagram

   When a peer initiates this procedure, both call legs MUST be in the



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   UP state, i.e., they MUST have sent or received the ACCEPT message
   for that call leg.  To start, it sends a TXREQ message with the
   addresses and information from the other remote peers to each its
   neighbors.  If capable of performing this procedure, they begin
   transmitting all channel information to both the initiating peer and
   the new remote peer.  They also send a TXCNT message indicating
   packet counts for the call leg to the new remote peer.  Each TXCNT
   message is acknowledged with a TXACC message.  The peers respond by
   sending a TXREADY message to the initiator indicating that they have
   confirmed the new communications path.  When all remote peers have
   sent the initiator a TXREADY message, the transfer is successful and
   the initiator responds with a TXREL and has finished its involvement
   with the call.  If during the transfer process, the two remote peers
   cannot communicate, they send a TXREJ message to the initiator.  An
   example is shown in Section 9.5.

   These messages are described in the sections which follow:

6.5.1.  TXREQ Transfer Request Message

   The TXREQ message is sent by a peer to initiate the transfer process.
   When sent, It MUST be sent to both adjacent peers involved in the
   call.

            It MUST include the following Information Elements:

        +------------------+----------------+----------+----------+
        | IE               | Section        | Status   | Comments |
        +------------------+----------------+----------+----------+
        | Apparent Address | Section 8.6.17 | Required |          |
        |                  |                |          |          |
        | Call Number      | Section 8.6.20 | Required |          |
        |                  |                |          |          |
        | Transfer ID      | Section 8.6.26 | Required |          |
        +------------------+----------------+----------+----------+

   The Apparent Address is the IP address data structure address for the
   other remote peer.  The Call Number IE is The callid used by the
   other remote peer and the Transfer ID is a unique number assigned by
   the initiator.

   Upon receipt of a TXREQ message for a valid call from the
   corresponding remote peer, a peer MUST respond by attempting to
   communicate with the newly specified remote peer.  This task is
   accomplished by sending a TXCNT message directly to the peer at the
   address specified in the Apparent Address parameter.





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6.5.2.  TXCNT Transfer Connectivity Response Message

   The TXCNT message is used to verify connectivity with a potential
   replacement peer for a call.  It MUST include the TRANSFERID IE.
   Upon receipt on a message of this type, and if the peer has
   previously received a TXREQ for this call leg, the peer MUST respond
   with a TXACC message.

   If the TXCNT Message is not successfully transmitted or if a TXACC
   message is not received in response to it, the transfer process MUST
   be aborted by sending a TXREJ message to the initiating host.

            It MUST include the following Information Element:

   +----------+----------------+----------+----------------------------+
   | IE       | Section        | Status   | Comments                   |
   +----------+----------------+----------+----------------------------+
   | Transfer | Section 8.6.26 | Required | A unique number assigned   |
   | ID       |                |          | by the initiator.          |
   +----------+----------------+----------+----------------------------+

6.5.3.  TXACC Response Message

   Like the TXCNT message, the TXACC message is used to verify
   connectivity with a potential replacement peer.  It MUST include the
   TRANSFERID IE.  Upon receipt on a message of this type if the peer is
   attempting to transfer this call leg, the peer stops sending call
   related media to the initiating peer and sends a TXREADY message to
   it.

            It MUST include the following Information Element:

   +----------+----------------+----------+----------------------------+
   | IE       | Section        | Status   | Comments                   |
   +----------+----------------+----------+----------------------------+
   | Transfer | Section 8.6.26 | Required | A unique number assigned   |
   | ID       |                |          | by the initiator.          |
   +----------+----------------+----------+----------------------------+

6.5.4.  TXREADY Transfer Ready Response Message

   The TXREADY message indicates that the sending peer has verified
   connectivity with the peer which it was instructed to transfer the
   call.  It MUST include the TRANSFERID IE.  When TXREADY messages are
   received from both remote peers, it MUST discontinue media transport
   and send a TXREL message to each peer.





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            It MUST include the following Information Element:

   +----------+----------------+----------+----------------------------+
   | IE       | Section        | Status   | Comments                   |
   +----------+----------------+----------+----------------------------+
   | Transfer | Section 8.6.26 | Required | A unique number assigned   |
   | ID       |                |          | by the initiator.          |
   +----------+----------------+----------+----------------------------+

6.5.5.  TXREL Transfer Release Response Message

   The TXREL message indicates that the transfer process has
   successfully completed.  After sending and upon receipt of this
   message, no further interaction (other than an ACK, of course) is
   needed between the peers on this call-leg.  The TXREL is also used to
   revert a split-media call (one where the media and signaling follow
   different paths) to a call where the media and signaling follow the
   same path.

            It MUST include the following Information Element:

          +-------------+----------------+----------+----------+
          | IE          | Section        | Status   | Comments |
          +-------------+----------------+----------+----------+
          | Call Number | Section 8.6.20 | Required |          |
          +-------------+----------------+----------+----------+

6.5.6.  TXMEDIA Transfer Media Message

   The TXREL message indicates that the MEDIA transfer process has
   successfully completed.  After sending and upon processing of this
   message, full frames MUST continue to follow the original signaling
   path and media frames MUST follow the newly negotiated path.  This
   split-path process continues until the call ends with a HANGUP or
   peer receives a TXREL message for the call leg.  A peer MAY force the
   paths to rejoin by sending a TXREL message.

            It MUST include the following Information Element:

          +-------------+----------------+----------+----------+
          | IE          | Section        | Status   | Comments |
          +-------------+----------------+----------+----------+
          | Call Number | Section 8.6.20 | Required |          |
          +-------------+----------------+----------+----------+







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6.5.7.  TXREJ Transfer Rejection Response Message

   The TXREJ MAY be sent at anytime during the transfer process to
   indicate that the transfer cannot proceed.  Upon receiving a TXREJ
   message, if the receiver is the initiating peer, it MUST form a TXREJ
   message and send it to the other remote peer.

   The TXREJ message does not require any IEs.

6.6.  Call Tear Down

   The messages used to finish a call vary depending on the particular
   process the call is in at the time.  The terminal messages for a call
   are:

      HANGUP.  See Section 6.2.5.

      REJECT.  See Section 6.2.4.

      TRANSFER.  See Section 6.4.6.

      TXREADY.  See Section 6.5.4.

   These messages are discussed in their respective sections.  Also, if
   the reliable transport procedures determines that messaging cannot be
   maintained, the call leg MUST be torn down without any other
   indications over the errant IAX call leg.

6.7.  Network Monitoring

   The IAX protocol has various tools to determine the network load.  It
   uses the POKE message to monitor reachability of remote peer and the
   LAGRQ message to measure the quality of a current call leg including
   the jitter buffer delay.

6.7.1.  POKE Request Message

   A POKE message is sent to test connectivity of a remote IAX peer.  It
   is similar to a PING message, except that it MUST be sent when there
   is no existing call to the remote endpoint.  It MAY also be used to
   "qualify" a user to a remote peer, so that the remote peer can
   maintain awareness of the state of the user.  A POKE MUST have 0 as
   its destination call number.

   Upon receiving a POKE message, the peer MUST respond with a PONG
   message.

   This message does not require any IEs.



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6.7.2.  PING Request Message

   A PING message is sent to test connectivity of the remote IAX
   endpoint on an existing call.  Transmission of a PING MAY occur when
   a peer-defined number of seconds have passed without receiving an
   incoming media frame on a call, or by default every 20 seconds.
   Receipt of a PING requires an acknowledging PONG be sent.

   This message does not require any IEs.

6.7.3.  PONG Response Message

   A PONG message is a response to a PING or a POKE.  It acknowledges
   the connection.  The receiver uses the time-stamp of the received
   PING or POKE and its times to determine the Round Trip Time of the
   connection.  Several receiver report IEs MAY be included with a PONG,
   including received jitter, received frames, delay, and dropped
   frames.  Receipt of a PONG requires an ACK.

   This message does not require any IEs.

6.7.4.  LAGRQ Lag Request Message

   A LAGRQ is a lag request.  It is sent to determine the lag between
   two IAX endpoints, including the amount of time used to process a
   frame through a jitter buffer (if any).  It requires a clock-based
   time-stamp, and MUST be answered with a LAGRP, which MUST echo the
   LAGRQ's time-stamp.  The lag between the two peers can be computed on
   the peer sending the LAGRQ by comparing the time-stamp of the LAGRQ
   and the time the LAGRP was received.

   This message does not require any IEs.

6.7.5.  LAGRP Lag Response Message

   A LAGRP is a lag reply, sent in response to a LAGRQ message.  It MUST
   send the same time-stamp it received in the LAGRQ after passing the
   received frame through any jitter buffer the peer has configured.

   This message does not require any IEs.

6.8.  Digit Dialing

   Digit Dialing support is an optional portion of the IAX protocol
   designed to support devices that do not maintain their own dial
   plans, for instance, analog telephone adapters, or ATAs.  The dialing
   portion of the IAX protocol MAY be implemented for the client/
   phone-side, server side or not all.  The exchanges work as a series



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   of Dialing Plan requests (DPREQ) each followed by a response (DPREP)
   indicating if additional digits SHOULD be collected before sending
   the call.  The sections that follow describe these messages and the
   rules associated with them.

6.8.1.  DPREQ Dial Plan Request Message

   A DPREQ is a request for the server to analyze the passed called
   number and determine if there is a valid dialing pattern on the
   remote peer.  It MUST include the 'called number' IE to specify what
   extension is being queried.  This command is used in the case where a
   local peer does not handle its own dialplan/extension switching.  The
   local peer can inquire (as a user dials) how the remote peer
   perceives the 'called number'.  If a DPREP is received indicating
   that the number is valid, a DIAL MAY be sent.

   This message MAY be sent by the client and MUST be implemented on
   servers which provide IAX dialing support.

            It MUST include the following Information Element:

          +-------------+----------------+----------+----------+
          | IE          | Section        | Status   | Comments |
          +-------------+----------------+----------+----------+
          | Call Number | Section 8.6.20 | Required |          |
          +-------------+----------------+----------+----------+

6.8.2.  DPREP Dial Plan Response Message

   A DPREP is a reply to a DPREQ, containing the status of the dialplan
   entry requested in the 'called number' IE of the DPREQ.  It MUST
   include the 'called number', 'dpstatus', and 'refresh' IEs.  The
   called number is the same one received in the 'called number' IE of
   the DPREQ.  The 'dpstatus' IE contains the status of the dialplan
   entry referenced by the received called number.  The status indicates
   whether the called number exists, can exist, needs more digits, or is
   invalid.  More information can be found in Section 8.6 under the
   DPSTATUS information element.  The 'refresh' IE specifies the number
   of minutes the 'dpstatus' is valid.  If the 'refresh' IE is not
   present, a default 10 minutes period is assumed.

   The sending of this message MUST be implemented by servers which
   support IAX dialing.  Clients which support IAX dialing MUST be
   capable of receiving such messages.







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            It MUST include the following Information Elements:

   +----------+----------------+----------+----------------------------+
   | IE       | Section        | Status   | Comments                   |
   +----------+----------------+----------+----------------------------+
   | Call     | Section 8.6.20 | Required |                            |
   | Number   |                |          |                            |
   |          |                |          |                            |
   | Dial     | Section 8.6.20 | Required | Indicates if number        |
   | Plan     |                |          | exists, is a partial       |
   | Status   |                |          | match, etc.                |
   |          |                |          |                            |
   | Dial     | Section 8.6.20 | Optional | Inclusion is strongly      |
   | Plan     |                |          | suggested. The default is  |
   | Refresh  |                |          | 10 minutes.                |
   +----------+----------------+----------+----------------------------+

6.8.3.  DIAL Request Message

   The DIAL message is used with IAX peers that do not maintain their
   own dialplan/extension routing.  Once an extension is validated by
   one or more DPREQ/DPREP exchanges, the number MAY be dialed in a DIAL
   message, using the 'called number' IE to specify the extension it is
   attempting to reach.  The remote peer then handles the remaining
   aspects of call setup, including ringing the extension and notifying
   the local peer when it has been answered following the same
   requirements as the NEW command (Section 6.2.2).

        The following table specifies the IEs used by this message:

   +-----------+---------------+----------+----------------------------+
   | IE        | Section       | Status   | Comments                   |
   +-----------+---------------+----------+----------------------------+
   | Called    | Section 8.6.1 | Required |                            |
   | Number    |               |          |                            |
   |           |               |          |                            |
   | Called    | Section 8.6.5 | Optional | Use this IE if context is  |
   | Context   |               |          | other than default.        |
   +-----------+---------------+----------+----------------------------+

6.9.  Miscellaneous

6.9.1.  ACK acknowledgement Message

   An ACK acknowledges the receipt of an IAX message.  An ACK is sent
   upon receipt of a full frame which does not have any other protocol-
   defined response.  An ACK MUST have both a source call number and
   destination call number.  It MUST also not change the sequence number



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   counters, and MUST return the same time-stamp it received.  This
   time-stamp allows the originating peer to determine to which message
   the ACK is responding.  Receipt of an ACK requires no action.

   An ACK MAY also be sent as an initial acknowledgment of an IAX
   message which requires some other protocol-defined message
   acknowledgment, as long as the required message is also sent within
   some peer-defined amount of time.  This allows the acknowledging peer
   to delay transmission of the proper IAX message, which may add
   security against brute-force password attacks during authentication
   exchanges.

   When the following messages are received, an ACK MUST be sent in
   return: NEW, HANGUP, REJECT, ACCEPT, PONG, AUTHREP, REGREL, REGACK,
   REGREJ, TXREL.  ACKs SHOULD not be expected by any peer and their
   purpose is purely to force the transport layer to be up to date.

   The ACK message does not requires any IEs.

6.9.2.  INVAL Invalid Response Message

   An INVAL is sent as a response to a received message that is not
   valid.  This occurs when an IAX peer sends a message on a call after
   the remote peer has hungup its end.  Upon receipt of an INVAL, a peer
   MUST destroy its side of a call.

   The INVAL message does not requires any IEs.

6.9.3.  VNAK Voice Negative Acknowledgement Message

   A VNAK is sent when a message is received out of order, particularly
   when a mini frame is received before the first full voice frame on a
   call.  It is a request for retransmission of dropped messages.  A
   message is considered out of sequence if the received iseqno is
   different than the expected iseqno.  On receipt of a VNAK, a peer
   MUST retransmit all frames with a higher sequence number than the
   VNAK message's iseqno.

   The VNAK message does not requires any IEs.

6.9.4.  MWI Message Waiting Indicator Request Message

   An MWI message is used to indicate to a remote peer that it has one
   or more messages waiting.  It MAY include the 'msgcount' IE to
   specify how many messages are waiting.






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          The following table specifies IEs used by this message

           +----------+----------------+----------+------------+
           | IE       | Section        | Status   | Comments   |
           +----------+----------------+----------+------------+
           | MSGCOUNT | Section 8.6.23 | Optional | Suggested. |
           +----------+----------------+----------+------------+

6.9.5.  UNSUPPORT Unsupported Response Message

   An UNSUPPORT message is sent in response to a message that is not
   supported by an IAX peer.  This occurs when an IAX command with an
   unrecognized or unsupported subclass is received.  No action is
   required upon receipt of this message, though the peer SHOULD be
   aware that the message referred to in the optionally included 'IAX
   unknown' IE is not supported by the remote peer.

          The following table specifies IEs used by this message

           +---------+----------------+----------+------------+
           | IE      | Section        | Status   | Comments   |
           +---------+----------------+----------+------------+
           | UNKNOWN | Section 8.6.22 | Optional | Suggested. |
           +---------+----------------+----------+------------+

6.10.  Media Messages

   The IAX protocol supports many types of media and these are
   transported through the same UDP port as other IAX messages.  Voice
   and video are unique in that they utilize two different encodings
   each with a different support procedures.  Abbreviated 'Mini frames'
   are normally used for audio and video, however, each time the time-
   stamp is a multiple of 32,768 (0x8000 hex), a standard or 'Full
   Frame' MUST be sent.  This approach facilitates efficiency and
   reliability by sending compressed packets, without guaranteed
   delivery, most of the time while periodically forcing reliable
   exchanges with the peer.  If communication fails, call tear-down
   procedures are invoked.

   Upon receiving any media message, except the abbreviated audio and
   video mini frames, an ACK message MUST be sent.  The content SHOULD
   be passed to an associated application, device, or call leg.  The
   data MAY be buffered before it is presented to the user.

6.10.1.  DTMF Media Message

   The message carries a single digit of DTMF (Dual Tone Multiple
   Frequency).  Useful background information about DTMF can be found in



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   [RFC4733] and [RFC4734], but, note that IAX does not use the RTP
   protocol.

6.10.2.  Voice Media Message

   The message carries voice data and indicates the CODEC used.

6.10.3.  Video Media Message

   The frame carries video data and indicates the video format of the
   data.

6.10.4.  Text Media Message

   The frame carries a text message in UTF-8 [RFC3629] format.

6.10.5.  Image Media Message

   This message carries a single image.  The image MUST fit in one
   message in this version of the protocol.

6.10.6.  HTML Media Message

   The HTML message class carries HTML and related data as well as
   status about the display of that HTML page.  The subclass parameter
   indicates the HTML content type.  It MAY be a URL, the start, middle
   or end of a data block.  HTML data MUST be in the format described in
   [html401].

   If a peer receives an HTML message for a channel that does not
   support HTML, it MUST respond with an HTML message that has the HTML
   NOT SUPPORTED indication.

   When a devices that supports HTML completes loading the page, it
   SHOULD send a LOAD COMPLETE message

6.10.7.  Comfort Noise  Media Message

   This message indicates that comfort noise SHOULD be played.  It has a
   parameter that indicates the level.  The noise is to be locally
   generated.










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7.  Message Transport

   IAX is sent over UDP and uses an application level protocol to
   provide reliable transport where needed.

   With respect to transport, there are two message formats: reliable or
   'Full Frames' and unacknowledged 'Mini' or 'Meta' frames.  All
   messages except certain voice and video messages are reliable.
   Reliable messages are transported by a scheme which maintains message
   counts and time stamps for both peers involved in the call.  The
   counts are per call.  Each peer maintains a timer for all reliable
   messages and MUST periodically retransmit those messages until they
   acknowledge or the retry limit is exceeded.

   When starting a call, the outgoing and incoming message sequence
   numbers MUST both be set to zero.  Each reliable message that is sent
   increments the message count by one except the ACK, INVAL, TXCNT,
   TXACC, and VNAK messages which do not change the message count.  The
   message includes the outgoing message count and the highest numbered
   incoming message which has been received.  In addition, it contains a
   time-stamp which represents the number of milliseconds since the call
   started.  Or, in the case of certain network timing messages, it
   contains a copy of the time-stamp sent to it.  Time-stamps MAY be
   approximate, but, MUST be in order.

   When any message is received, the time-stamps MUST be checked to make
   sure that they are in order.  If a message is received out of order,
   it MUST be ignored and a VNAK message sent to resynchronize the
   peers.  And if the message is a reliable message, the incoming
   message counter MUST be used to acknowledge all the messages up to
   that sequence number which have been sent.

   If no acknowledgment is received after a locally configured number of
   retries (default 4) the call leg SHOULD be considered unusable and
   the call MUST be torn down without any further interaction on this
   call leg.

7.1.  Trunking

   IAX allows multiple media exchanges between the same two peers to be
   multiplexed into a single trunk call coalescing media payload into a
   combined packet.  This decreases bandwidth usage as there are fewer
   total packets being transmitted.  Trunking MAY occur in one or both
   directions of an IAX exchange.  A trunk consists of a trunk header
   and one or more trunked IAX calls.  The trunk message contains a
   time-stamp specifying the time of transmission of the trunk frame.
   The audio data from the trunked calls are encapsulated in the trunk
   frame following the header.  Each trunked call consists of two octets



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   specifying the call's source number, two octets specifying the length
   in octets of the media data, and the media data itself.  IAX permits
   transmitting the time-stamps of each encapsulated mini frame as well,
   so that accurate timing information can be used for jitter buffers,
   etc.  A flag in the meta command header specifies whether the
   encapsulated mini frames retain their original time-stamps.  If they
   do not retain them, they MUST assume the time-stamp in the trunk
   header upon being received by the trunk peer.

7.2.  Timers

   There are various timers in the IAX protocol.  There are other
   application level timers, such as the call timer and ring timer,
   which are beyond the scope of this document.  This section describes
   the IAX timers and specifies their default values and behavior.

7.2.1.  Retransmission Timer

   The message retransmission procedures are described in Section 7.  On
   each call, there is a timer for how long to wait for an
   acknowledgment of a message.  This timer starts at twice the measured
   round trip time from the last PING/PONG command.  If a retransmission
   is needed, it is exponentially increased until it meets a boundary
   value.  The maximum retry time period boundary is 10 seconds.

7.2.2.  Registration Period Timer

   Registrations are valid for a specified time period.  It is the
   client's responsibility to renew this registration before the time
   period expires.  The registrations SHOULD be renewed at random
   intervals to prevent network congestion.  A registrar MUST monitor
   this time period and invalidate the registration if the client/
   registrant has not renewed their registration before the timer
   elapses.

7.3.  NAT Considerations

   IAX is very well suited to operating behind NAT due to its single
   port approach.  This approach eliminates any start of call media
   stream delays while the NAT gateway establishes a bidirectional port
   association.  Deploying a single IAX server behind a NAT gateway
   requires little effort.  If the server acts as a registrar, the IAX
   UDP port on the NAT gateway must be forwarded to the server.  If the
   server acts as a registrant, the default, 60 second, REGREQ refresh
   timer should be sufficient to maintain a port association in the NAT
   gateway, however, a static port mapping is preferred.

   If multiple servers are to be deployed behind a single NAT gateway,



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   most NAT gateways require each IAX server to use different UDP ports.
   Of course, there may be NAT implementations which recognize when
   multiple devices utilize the same private port and and manage it
   appropriately.

7.4.  Encryption

   IAX supports call encryption using the symmetric key, Rijndael [AES]
   block cipher (also called AES---Advanced Encryption Standard).
   Rijndael is a 128-bit block cipher utilizing a shared secret.  IAX
   encrypts on a call-by-call basis starting with a plain-text NEW
   message indicating, in addition to the other message parameters, that
   the call should be encrypted.  This indication is given by sending
   the ENCRYPTION IE (Section 8.6.34) in the NEW request message.  If
   the called host supports encryption, it will respond with a plain-
   text AUTHREQ message which also includes the ENCRYPTION IE.  All
   subsequent messages in the call MUST be encrypted.  If the called
   host does not support encryption, the AUTHREQ sent in response to the
   NEW must not include the ENCRYPTION IE and the calling host MUST
   either HANGUP the request or continue with the unencrypted call.

   The key to use in encrypting the messages is computed by taking the
   CHALLENGE IE Section 8.6.14 from the AUTHREQ and concatenating any
   one of the shared passwords then computing the 128-bit MD5 digest of
   this combination.  To decrypt, if there is more than one password for
   the peer, each must be tried until the message is successfully
   decoded.  The key remains constant for the duration of the call.
   Only the data portion of the messages are encoded.























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8.  Message Encoding

8.1.  Frame Structure

   This section contains the specification for each type of frame that
   IAX defines.

8.1.1.  Full Frames

   Full frames can send signaling or media data.  Generally full frames
   are used to control initiation, setup, and termination of an IAX
   call, but they can also be used to carry stream data (though this is
   generally not optimal).

   Full frames are sent reliably, so all full frames require an
   immediate acknowledgment upon receipt.  This acknowledgment can be
   explicit via an 'ACK' message (see Section 8.4) or implicit based
   upon receipt of an appropriate response to the full frame issued.

   The standard full frame header length is 12 octets.

   Field descriptions:

   'F' bit

      This bit specifies whether the frame is a full frame or not.  If
      the 'F' bit is set to 1 the frame is a full frame.  If it is set
      to 0 it is not a full frame.

   Source call number

      This 15-bit value specifies the call number the transmitting
      client uses to identify this call.  The source call number for an
      active call MUST NOT be in use by another call on the same client.
      Call numbers MAY be reused once a call is no longer active, i.e.
      when either there is positive acknowledgment that the call has
      been destroyed or when all possible timeouts for the call have
      expired.

   'R' bit

      This bit specifies whether the frame is being retransmitted or
      not.  If the 'R' bit is set to 0 the frame is being transmitted
      for the first time.  If it is set to 1 the frame is being
      retransmitted.  IAX does not specify a retransmit timeout; this is
      left to the implementor.

   Destination call number



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      This 15-bit value specifies the call number the transmitting
      client uses to reference the call at the remote peer.  This number
      is the same as the remote peer's source call number.  The
      destination call number uniquely identifies a call on the remote
      peer.  The source call number uniquely identifies the call on the
      local peer.

   Time-stamp

      The time-stamp field contains a 32-bit time-stamp maintained by an
      IAX peer for a given call.  The time-stamp is an incrementally
      increasing representation of the number of milliseconds since the
      first transmission of the call.

   OSeqno

      The 8-bit OSeqno field is the outbound stream sequence number.
      Upon initialization of a call, its value is 0.  It increases
      incrementally as full frames are sent.  When the counter
      overflows, it silently resets to 0.

   ISeqno

      The 8-bit ISeqno field is the inbound stream sequence number.
      Upon initialization of a call its value is 0.  It increases
      incrementally as full frames are received.  At any time the ISeqno
      of a call represents the next expected inbound stream sequence
      number.  When the counter overflows, it silently resets to 0.

   Frametype

      The Frametype field identifies the type of message carried by the
      frame.  See Section 8.2 for more information.

   'C' bit

      This bit determines how the remaining 7 bits of the Subclass field
      are coded.  If the 'C' bit is set to 1, the Subclass value is
      interpreted as a power of 2.  If it is not set, the Subclass value
      is interpreted as a simple seven-bit unsigned integer.











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                        1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |F|     Source Call Number      |R|   Destination Call Number   |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                            time-stamp                         |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |    OSeqno     |    ISeqno     |   Frame Type  |C|  Subclass   |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   :                             Data                              :
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                    Figure 5: Full Frame Binary Format

8.1.2.  Mini frames

   Mini Frames are so named because their header is a minimal 4 octets.
   Mini frames carry no control or signaling data; their sole purpose is
   to carry a media stream on an already-established IAX call.  They are
   sent unreliably.  This decision was made because VoIP calls typically
   can miss several frames without significant degradation in call
   quality while the incurred overhead in ensuring reliability increases
   bandwidth requirements and decreases throughput.  Further, because
   voice calls are typically sent in real time, lost frames are too old
   to be reintegrated into the audio stream by the time they can be
   retransmitted.

   Field descriptions:

   'F' bit

      Mini frames MUST have the 'F' bit set to 0 to specify that they
      are not full frames.

   Source call number

      The source call number is the number that is used by the
      transmitting peer to identify the current call.

   time-stamp

      Mini frames carry a 16-bit time-stamp, which is the lower 16 bits
      of the transmitting peer's full 32-bit time-stamp for the call.
      The time-stamp allows synchronization of incoming frames so that
      they MAY be processed in chronological order instead of the
      (possibly different) order in which they are received.  The 16-bit



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      time-stamp wraps after 65.536 seconds, at which point a full frame
      SHOULD be sent to notify the remote peer that its time-stamp has
      been reset.  A call MUST continue to send mini frames starting
      with time-stamp 0 even if acknowledgment of the resynchronization
      is not received.

   The F bit, source call number, and 16-bit time-stamp comprise the
   entire four octet header for a full frame.  Following this header is
   the actual stream data, of arbitrary length, up to the maximum
   supported by the network.

   Mini frames are implicitly defined to be of type 'voice frame'
   (frametype 2; see Section 8.2).  The subclass is implicitly defined
   by the most recent full voice frame of a call (i.e. the subclass for
   a voice frame specifies the CODEC used with the stream).  The first
   voice frame of a call SHOULD be sent using the CODEC agreed upon in
   the initial CODEC negotiation.  On-the-fly CODEC negotiation is
   permitted by sending a full voice frame specifying the new CODEC to
   use in the subclass field.


                        1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |F|     Source call number      |            time-stamp         |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   :                             Data                              :
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                    Figure 6: Mini Frame Binary Format

8.1.3.  Meta frames

   Meta frames serve one of two purposes.  Meta video frames allow the
   transmission of video streams with an optimized header.  They are
   similar in purpose to mini voice frames.  Meta trunk frames are used
   for trunking multiple IAX media streams between two peers into one
   header, to further minimize bandwidth consumption.

8.1.3.1.  Meta Video Frames

   Field descriptions:

   'F' bit





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      Meta video frames MUST have the 'F' bit set to 0 to indicate that
      they are not full frames.

   Meta Indicator

      The meta indicator is a 15-bit field of all zeroes, used to
      indicate that the frame is a meta frame.  Meta frames are
      identifiable because the first 16 bits will always be zero in any
      meta frame, whereas full or mini frames will have either the 'F'
      bit set or some (nonzero) value for the source call number (or
      both).

   'V' bit

      The 'V' bit in a meta video frame is set to 1 to specify that the
      frame is a meta video frame.

   Source call number

      The call number that is used by the transmitting peer to identify
      this video call.

   time-stamp

      Meta video frames carry a 16-bit time-stamp, which is the lower 16
      bits of the transmitting peer's full 32-bit time-stamp for the
      call.  When this time-stamp wraps, a full frame SHOULD be sent to
      notify the remote peer that the time-stamp has been reset to 0.

   Following the time-stamp is the actual video stream data.  Meta video
   frames are implicitly defined to be of type 'video frame' (frametype
   3; see Section 8.2).  The video CODEC used is implicitly defined by
   the subclass of the most recent full video frame of a call.


                        1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |F|         Meta Indicator      |V|      Source Call Number     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |?|          time-stamp         |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                               |
   |                                         Data                  |
   :                                                               :
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+





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                 Figure 7: Meta Video Frame Binary Format

8.1.3.2.  Meta Trunk Frames

   IAX natively supports two methods of trunking multiple media streams
   between two peers into a single association.  The first method sends
   a standard meta header, along with a single 32-bit time-stamp
   describing the transmission time of the trunk frame.  Following the
   time-stamp are one or more media frames consisting of the call number
   and the length in octets of the stream data included in the frame.

   The second method of trunking is very similar to the first.  It sends
   a standard meta header, including the 32-bit time-stamp describing
   the time of transmission of the trunk frame.  But the media frames
   included in the trunk are actually complete mini frames, including
   the 16-bit time-stamp for each call.  The first method uses slightly
   less bandwidth (2 fewer octets per call in the trunk), while the
   second method maintains the individual time-stamps for each call so
   that jitter buffering can use the actual time-stamps associated with
   a call instead of the (less accurate) time-stamp representing the
   entire trunk.  Either method is permissible for trunking.

   Field descriptions:

   'F' bit

      Meta trunk frames MUST have the 'F' bit set to 0 to indicate that
      they are not full frames.

   Meta Indicator

      The meta indicator is a 15-bit field of all zeroes, used to
      indicate that the frame is a meta frame.  Meta frames are
      identifiable because the first 16 bits will always be zero in any
      meta frame, whereas full or mini frames will have either the 'F'
      bit set or some (nonzero) value for the source call number (or
      both).

   'V' bit

      The 'V' bit in a meta trunk frame is set to 0 to specify that the
      frame is not a meta video frame.

   Meta Command

      This seven bit field identifies whether the meta frame is a trunk
      or not.  A value of '1' indicates that the frame is a meta trunk
      frame.  All other values are reserved for future use.  See the



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      IANA Registry for additional IAX Meta Command Assignments.

   Command Data

      This 8-bit field specifies flags for options which apply to a
      trunked call.  The least significant bit of the field is the
      'trunk time-stamps' flag.  A value of 0 indicates that the calls
      in the trunk do not include their individual time-stamps.  A value
      of 1 indicates that the calls do each include their own time-
      stamp.  All other bits are reserved for future use.

   Time-stamp

      Meta trunk frames carry a 32-bit time-stamp, which represents the
      actual time of transmission of the trunk frame.  This is distinct
      from the time-stamps of the calls included in the trunk.

   Following the 32-bit time-stamp is one or more trunked calls.  If the
   'trunk time-stamps' flag is set to 0, each entry consists of 2 octets
   specifying the source call number of the call, 2 octets specifying
   the length in octets of the media data, and then the media data.  If
   the 'trunk time-stamps' flag is set to 1, each entry consists of 2
   octets specifying the length in octets of the media data, and then a
   mini frame (2 octets specifying source call number, 2 octets
   specifying 16-bit time-stamp, and the media data).  The following two
   diagrams help illustrate pictorially this structure.

























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                        1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |F|         Meta Indicator      |V|Meta Command | Cmd Data (0)  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                            time-stamp                         |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |R|      Source Call Number     |     Data Length (in octets)   |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   :                             Data                              :
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                                   .
                                   .
                                   .
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |R|      Source Call Number     |     Data Length (in octets)   |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   :                             Data                              :
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      Figure 8: Meta Trunk Frame Binary Format (trunk time-stamps 0)


























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                        1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |F|         Meta Indicator      |V|Meta Command | Cmd Data (1)  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                            time-stamp                         |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Data Length (in octets)   |R|     Source Call Number      |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |           time-stamp          |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                               |
   |                                       Data                    |
   :                                                               :
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                                   .
                                   .
                                   .
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Data Length (in octets)   |R|     Source Call Number      |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |           time-stamp          |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                               |
   |                                       Data                    |
   :                                                               :
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      Figure 9: Meta Trunk Frame Binary Format (trunk time-stamps 1)

8.1.4.  Encrypted Frames

   All of the above frames may be encrypted.  The header call numbers
   are passed through in the clear, first 4 bytes for a full frame or 2
   bytes for a mini frame.  The remainder of the frame is padded with
   between 16 and 32 bytes of random data, then encrypted with AES each
   block being xor'd with the previous block.  The padding is added at
   the front of the data.

   Figure 10 shows a padded full frame before encryption. and Figure 11
   shows the frame after encryption.  Other frame types follows the same
   procedure, except the clear text portion is shorter, as described
   above.








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                        1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |F|     Source Call Number      |R|   Destination Call Number   |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                         12 Random bytes                       |
   |                                                               |
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |               28  Random bits                         |padding|
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   : between 0 and 15 (as indicated by the padding field above)    :
   :                         Random bytes                          :
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   :                    Remainder of Actual Frame                  :
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


                  Figure 10: Full Frame before encryption

   Since AES requires a 16 byte block size, some padding is essential.
   This padding has been placed at the beginning of the payload because
   it makes it more difficult to take advantage of the predictability of
   the IAX frame header.  For example, the first encrypted Frame an IAX
   client sends within an incoming IAX call is entirely predictable: It
   is always an ACK - where even the time-stamp is guessable as it is
   the time the AUTHREP packet was sent.


                        1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |F|     Source Call Number      |R|   Destination Call Number   |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                         Encrypted data                        |
   |                Multiple of 16 bytes                           |
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


                     Figure 11: Frame after encryption

   The same encryption rules apply to the miniframes, except that the
   initial unencrypted portion is only 2 bytes.



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8.2.  Frame Types

   The IAX protocol specifies 10 types of possible frames for the
   "frametype" field of a full frame.  They are:

8.2.1.  DTMF Frame

   The frame carries a single digit of DTMF (Dual Tone Multiple
   Frequency).  More information about DTMF can be found in RFC
   4733[RFC4733] and [RFC4734].

   For DTMF frames, the subclass is the actual DTMF digit carried by the
   frame.

8.2.2.  Voice Frame

   The frame carries voice data.

   The subclass specifies the audio format of the data.  Predefined
   voice formats can be found in Section 8.7 below.

8.2.3.  Video Frame

   The frame carries video data.

   The subclass specifies the video format of the data.  Predefined
   video formats can be found in Section 8.7 below.

8.2.4.  Control Frame

   The frame carries session control data, i.e. it refers to control of
   a device connected to an IAX endpoint.

   The subclass is a value from Section 8.3 describing the device
   control signal.

8.2.5.  Null Frame

   Frames with the Null value MUST NOT be transmitted.

8.2.6.  IAX Frame

   The frame carries control data that provides IAX protocol specific
   endpoint management.  This frametype is used to manage IAX protocol
   interactions that are generally independent of the type of endpoints.

   The subclass is a value from Section 8.4 describing an IAX event.




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8.2.7.  Text Frame

   The frame carries a non-control text message in UTF-8 [RFC3629]
   format.

   All text frames have a subclass of 0.

8.2.8.  Image Frame

   The frame carries a single image.

   The subclass describes the format of the image from Section 8.7
   below.

8.2.9.  HTML Frame

   The frame carries HTML data.

   The subclass is a value from the HTML Subclasses table in
   Section 8.5.

8.2.10.  Comfort Noise Frame

   The frame carries comfort noise.

   The subclass is the level of comfort noise in -dBov.

























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          The following table specifies valid Frame Type Values:

   +------+-------------+--------------------------+-------------------+
   | TYPE | Description | Subclass Description     | Data Description  |
   +------+-------------+--------------------------+-------------------+
   | 0x01 | DTMF        | 0-9, A-D, *, #           | Undefined         |
   |      |             |                          |                   |
   | 0x02 | Voice       | Audio Compression Format | Data              |
   |      |             |                          |                   |
   | 0x03 | Video       | Video Compression Format | Data              |
   |      |             |                          |                   |
   | 0x04 | Control     | See Control Frame Types  | Varies with       |
   |      |             |                          | subclass          |
   |      |             |                          |                   |
   | 0x05 | Null        | Undefined                | Undefined         |
   |      |             |                          |                   |
   | 0x06 | IAX Control | See IAX Protocol         | Information       |
   |      |             | Messages                 | Elements          |
   |      |             |                          |                   |
   | 0x07 | Text        | Always 0                 | Raw Text          |
   |      |             |                          |                   |
   | 0x08 | Image       | Image Compression Format | Raw image         |
   |      |             |                          |                   |
   | 0x09 | HTML        | See HTML Frame Types     | Message Specific  |
   |      |             |                          |                   |
   | 0x0A | Comfort     | Level in -dBov of        | None              |
   |      | Noise       | comfort noise            |                   |
   +------+-------------+--------------------------+-------------------+

   Refer to the IANA Registry for additional IAX Frame Type values.





















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8.3.  Control Frames Subclasses

       The following table specifies valid Control Frame Subclasses:

   +-------------+---------------+-------------------------------------+
   | VALUE       | Name          | Description                         |
   +-------------+---------------+-------------------------------------+
   | 0x01        | Hangup        | The call has been hungup at the     |
   |             |               | remote end.                         |
   |             |               |                                     |
   | 0x02        | Reserved      | Reserved for future use             |
   |             |               |                                     |
   | 0x03        | Ringing       | Remote end is ringing (ringback)    |
   |             |               |                                     |
   | 0x04        | Answer        | Remote end has answered             |
   |             |               |                                     |
   | 0x05        | Busy          | Remote end is busy                  |
   |             |               |                                     |
   | 0x06        | Reserved      | Reserved for future use             |
   |             |               |                                     |
   | 0x07        | Reserved      | Reserved for future use             |
   |             |               |                                     |
   | 0x08        | Congestion    | The call is congested.              |
   |             |               |                                     |
   | 0x09        | Flash Hook    | Flash hook                          |
   |             |               |                                     |
   | 0x0a        | Reserved      | Reserved for future use             |
   |             |               |                                     |
   | 0x0b        | Option        | Device-specific options are being   |
   |             |               | transmitted                         |
   |             |               |                                     |
   | 0x0c        | Key Radio     | Key Radio                           |
   |             |               |                                     |
   | 0x0d        | Unkey Radio   | Unkey Radio                         |
   |             |               |                                     |
   | 0x0e        | Call Progress | Call is in progress                 |
   |             |               |                                     |
   | 0x0f        | Call          | Call is proceeding                  |
   |             | Proceeding    |                                     |
   |             |               |                                     |
   | 0x10        | Hold          | Call is placed on hold              |
   |             |               |                                     |
   | 0x11        | Unhold        | Call is taken off hold              |
   +-------------+---------------+-------------------------------------+

   Refer to the IANA Registry for additional IAX Control Frame Subclass
   values.




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8.4.  IAX Frames

   Frames of type 'IAX' are used to provide management of IAX endpoints.
   They handle IAX signaling (e.g. call setup, maintenance, and tear-
   down).  They MAY also handle direct transmission of media data, but
   this is not optimal for VoIP calls.  They do not carry session-
   specific control (e.g., device state), as this is the purpose of
   Control Frames.  The IAX commands are listed and described below.

         The following table specifies all valid IAX Frame values:

      +------+-----------+-----------------------------------------+
      | Hex  | Name      | Description                             |
      +------+-----------+-----------------------------------------+
      | 0x01 | NEW       | Initiate a new call                     |
      |      |           |                                         |
      | 0x02 | PING      | Ping request                            |
      |      |           |                                         |
      | 0x03 | PONG      | Ping or poke reply                      |
      |      |           |                                         |
      | 0x04 | ACK       | Explicit acknowledgment                 |
      |      |           |                                         |
      | 0x05 | HANGUP    | Initiate call tear-down                 |
      |      |           |                                         |
      | 0x06 | REJECT    | Reject a call                           |
      |      |           |                                         |
      | 0x07 | ACCEPT    | Accept a call                           |
      |      |           |                                         |
      | 0x08 | AUTHREQ   | Authentication request                  |
      |      |           |                                         |
      | 0x09 | AUTHREP   | Authentication reply                    |
      |      |           |                                         |
      | 0x0a | INVAL     | Invalid message                         |
      |      |           |                                         |
      | 0x0b | LAGRQ     | Lag request                             |
      |      |           |                                         |
      | 0x0c | LAGRP     | Lag reply                               |
      |      |           |                                         |
      | 0x0d | REGREQ    | Registration request                    |
      |      |           |                                         |
      | 0x0e | REGAUTH   | Registration authentication             |
      |      |           |                                         |
      | 0x0f | REGACK    | Registration acknowledgement            |
      |      |           |                                         |
      | 0x10 | REGREJ    | Registration reject                     |
      |      |           |                                         |
      | 0x11 | REGREL    | Registration release                    |
      |      |           |                                         |



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      | 0x12 | VNAK      | Video/Voice retransmit request          |
      |      |           |                                         |
      | 0x13 | DPREQ     | Dialplan request                        |
      |      |           |                                         |
      | 0x14 | DPREP     | Dialplan reply                          |
      |      |           |                                         |
      | 0x15 | DIAL      | Dial                                    |
      |      |           |                                         |
      | 0x16 | TXREQ     | Transfer request                        |
      |      |           |                                         |
      | 0x17 | TXCNT     | Transfer connect                        |
      |      |           |                                         |
      | 0x18 | TXACC     | Transfer accept                         |
      |      |           |                                         |
      | 0x19 | TXREADY   | Transfer ready                          |
      |      |           |                                         |
      | 0x1a | TXREL     | Transfer release                        |
      |      |           |                                         |
      | 0x1b | TXREJ     | Transfer reject                         |
      |      |           |                                         |
      | 0x1c | QUELCH    | Halt audio/video [media] transmission   |
      |      |           |                                         |
      | 0x1d | UNQUELCH  | Resume audio/video [media] transmission |
      |      |           |                                         |
      | 0x1e | POKE      | Poke request                            |
      |      |           |                                         |
      | 0x1f | Reserved  | Reserved for future use                 |
      |      |           |                                         |
      | 0x20 | MWI       | Message waiting indication              |
      |      |           |                                         |
      | 0x21 | UNSUPPORT | Unsupported message                     |
      |      |           |                                         |
      | 0x22 | TRANSFER  | Remote transfer request                 |
      |      |           |                                         |
      | 0x23 | Reserved  | Reserved for future use                 |
      |      |           |                                         |
      | 0x24 | Reserved  | Reserved for future use                 |
      |      |           |                                         |
      | 0x25 | Reserved  | Reserved for future use                 |
      +------+-----------+-----------------------------------------+

   Refer to the IANA Registry for additional IAX Frame values.









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8.5.  HTML Command Subclasses

                       IAX HTML Command Subclasses:

                  +--------+----------------------------+
                  | NUMBER | DESCRIPTION                |
                  +--------+----------------------------+
                  | 0x01   | Sending a URL              |
                  |        |                            |
                  | 0x02   | Data frame                 |
                  |        |                            |
                  | 0x04   | Beginning frame            |
                  |        |                            |
                  | 0x08   | End frame                  |
                  |        |                            |
                  | 0x10   | Load is complete           |
                  |        |                            |
                  | 0x11   | Peer does not support HTML |
                  |        |                            |
                  | 0x12   | Link URL                   |
                  |        |                            |
                  | 0x13   | Unlink URL                 |
                  |        |                            |
                  | 0x14   | Reject Link URL            |
                  +--------+----------------------------+

   Refer to the IANA Registry for additional IAX HTML Command Subclass
   values.

8.6.  Information Elements

   IAX messages sent as full frames MAY carry information elements to
   specify user- or call-specific data.  Information elements are
   appended to a frame header in its data field.  Zero, one, or multiple
   information elements MAY be included with any IAX message.

   Information elements are coded as follows:

      The first octet of any information element consists of the "IE"
      field.  The IE field is an identification number which defines the
      particular information element.  Table 1 lists the defined
      information elements and each information element is defined below
      the table.

      The second octet of any information element is the "data length"
      field.  It specifies the length in octets of the information
      element's data field.




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      The remaining octet(s) of an information element contain the
      actual data being transmitted.  The representation of the data is
      dependent on the particular information element as identified by
      its "IE" field.  Some information elements carry binary data, some
      carry UTF-8 [RFC3629] data, and some have no data field at all.
      Elements which carry UTF-8 MUST prepare strings as per [RFC3454]
      and [RFC3491], so that illegal characters, case folding and other
      characters properties are handled and compared properly.  The data
      representation for each information element is described below.

   The following table specifies the Information Element Binary Format:


                        1
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      IE       |  Data Length  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                               |
   :             DATA              :
   |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+



   The following is a table of the information elements IAX defines, and
   a brief description of each information element's purpose.  More
   information about each IE may be found below the table.

   +------+----------------+-------------------------------------------+
   | HEX  | NAME           | DESCRIPTION                               |
   +------+----------------+-------------------------------------------+
   | HEX  | NAME           | DESCRIPTION                               |
   |      |                |                                           |
   | 0x01 | CALLED NUMBER  | Number/extension being called             |
   |      |                |                                           |
   | 0x02 | CALLING NUMBER | Calling number                            |
   |      |                |                                           |
   | 0x03 | CALLING ANI    | Calling number ANI for billing            |
   |      |                |                                           |
   | 0x04 | CALLING NAME   | Name of caller                            |
   |      |                |                                           |
   | 0x05 | CALLED CONTEXT | Context for number                        |
   |      |                |                                           |
   | 0x06 | USERNAME       | Username (peer or user) for               |
   |      |                | authentication                            |
   |      |                |                                           |
   | 0x07 | PASSWORD       | Password for authentication               |



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   | 0x08 | CAPABILITY     | Actual CODEC capability                   |
   |      |                |                                           |
   | 0x09 | FORMAT         | Desired CODEC format                      |
   |      |                |                                           |
   | 0x0a | LANGUAGE       | Desired language                          |
   |      |                |                                           |
   | 0x0b | VERSION        | Protocol version                          |
   |      |                |                                           |
   | 0x0c | ADSICPE        | CPE ADSI capability                       |
   |      |                |                                           |
   | 0x0d | DNID           | Originally dialed DNID                    |
   |      |                |                                           |
   | 0x0e | AUTHMETHODS    | Authentication method(s)                  |
   |      |                |                                           |
   | 0x0f | CHALLENGE      | Challenge data for MD5/RSA                |
   |      |                |                                           |
   | 0x10 | MD5 RESULT     | MD5 challenge result                      |
   |      |                |                                           |
   | 0x11 | RSA RESULT     | RSA challenge result                      |
   |      |                |                                           |
   | 0x12 | APPARENT ADDR  | Apparent address of peer                  |
   |      |                |                                           |
   | 0x13 | REFRESH        | When to refresh registration              |
   |      |                |                                           |
   | 0x14 | DPSTATUS       | Dialplan status                           |
   |      |                |                                           |
   | 0x15 | CALLNO         | Call number of peer                       |
   |      |                |                                           |
   | 0x16 | CAUSE          | Cause                                     |
   |      |                |                                           |
   | 0x17 | IAX UNKNOWN    | Unknown IAX command                       |
   |      |                |                                           |
   | 0x18 | MSGCOUNT       | How many messages waiting                 |
   |      |                |                                           |
   | 0x19 | AUTOANSWER     | Request auto-answering                    |
   |      |                |                                           |
   | 0x1a | MUSICONHOLD    | Request musiconhold with QUELCH           |
   |      |                |                                           |
   | 0x1b | TRANSFERID     | Transfer Request Identifier               |
   |      |                |                                           |
   | 0x1c | RDNIS          | Referring DNIS                            |
   |      |                |                                           |
   | 0x1d | Reserved       | Reserved for future use                   |
   |      |                |                                           |
   | 0x1e | Reserved       | Reserved for future use                   |
   |      |                |                                           |
   | 0x1f | DATETIME       | Date/Time                                 |
   |      |                |                                           |



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   | 0x20 | Reserved       | Reserved for future use                   |
   |      |                |                                           |
   | 0x21 | Reserved       | Reserved for future use                   |
   |      |                |                                           |
   | 0x22 | Reserved       | Reserved for future use                   |
   |      |                |                                           |
   | 0x23 | Reserved       | Reserved for future use                   |
   |      |                |                                           |
   | 0x24 | Reserved       | Reserved for future use                   |
   |      |                |                                           |
   | 0x25 | Reserved       | Reserved for future use                   |
   |      |                |                                           |
   | 0x26 | CALLINGPRES    | Calling presentation                      |
   |      |                |                                           |
   | 0x27 | CALLINGTON     | Calling type of number                    |
   |      |                |                                           |
   | 0x28 | CALLINGTNS     | Calling transit network select            |
   |      |                |                                           |
   | 0x29 | SAMPLINGRATE   | Supported sampling rates                  |
   |      |                |                                           |
   | 0x2a | CAUSECODE      | Hangup cause                              |
   |      |                |                                           |
   | 0x2b | ENCRYPTION     | Encryption format                         |
   |      |                |                                           |
   | 0x2c | ENCKEY         | Reserved for future Use                   |
   |      |                |                                           |
   | 0x2d | CODEC PREFS    | CODEC Negotiation                         |
   |      |                |                                           |
   | 0x2e | RR JITTER      | Received jitter, as in rfc3550            |
   |      |                |                                           |
   | 0x2f | RR LOSS        | Received loss, as in rfc3550              |
   |      |                |                                           |
   | 0x30 | RR PKTS        | Received frames                           |
   |      |                |                                           |
   | 0x31 | RR DELAY       | Max playout delay for received frames in  |
   |      |                | ms                                        |
   |      |                |                                           |
   | 0x32 | RR DROPPED     | Dropped frames (presumably by jitter      |
   |      |                | buffer)                                   |
   |      |                |                                           |
   | 0x33 | RR OOO         | Frames received Out of Order              |
   |      |                |                                           |
   | 0x34 | OSPTOKEN       | OSP Token Block                           |
   +------+----------------+-------------------------------------------+

                 Table 1: Information Element Definitions

   Refer to the IANA Registry for additional IAX Information Element



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   values.

8.6.1.  CALLED NUMBER

   The purpose of the CALLED NUMBER information element is to indicate
   the number or extension being called.  It carries UTF-8-encoded data.
   The CALLED NUMBER information element MUST use UTF-8 encoding and not
   numeric data because destinations are not limited to E.164 numbers
   ([E164]), national numbers, or even digits.  It is possible for a
   number or extension to include non-numeric characters.  The CALLED
   NUMBER IE MAY contain a SIP URI, [RFC3261] or a URI in any other
   format.  The ability to serve a CALLED NUMBER is server dependent.

   The CALLED NUMBER information element is generally sent with IAX NEW,
   DPREQ, DPREP, DIAL, and TRANSFER messages.


                        1
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      0x01     |  Data Length  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                               |
   :  UTF-8-encoded CALLED NUMBER  :
   |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

8.6.2.  CALLING NUMBER

   The purpose of the CALLING NUMBER information element is to indicate
   the number or extension of the calling entity to the remote peer.  It
   carries UTF-8-encoded data.

   The CALLING NUMBER information element is usually sent with IAX NEW
   messages.


                        1
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      0x02     |  Data Length  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                               |
   : UTF-8-encoded CALLING NUMBER  :
   |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+





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8.6.3.  CALLING ANI

   The purpose of the CALLING ANI information element is to indicate the
   calling number ANI (Automatic number identification) for billing.  It
   carries UTF-8-encoded data.

   The CALLING ANI information element MAY be sent with an IAX NEW
   message, but it is not required.


                        1
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      0x03     |  Data Length  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                               |
   :   UTF-8-encoded CALLING ANI   :
   |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

8.6.4.  CALLING NAME

   The purpose of the CALLING NAME information element is to indicate
   the calling name of the transmitting peer.  It carries UTF-8-encoded
   data.

   The CALLING NAME information element is usually sent with IAX NEW
   messages.


                        1
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      0x04     |  Data Length  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                               |
   :   UTF-8-encoded CALLING NAME  :
   |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

8.6.5.  CALLED CONTEXT

   The purpose of the CALLED CONTEXT information element is to indicate
   the context (or partition) of the remote peer's dialplan that the
   CALLED NUMBER is interpreted.  It carries UTF-8-encoded data.

   The CALLED CONTEXT information element MAY be sent with IAX NEW or
   TRANSFER messages, though it is not required.



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                        1
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      0x05     |  Data Length  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                               |
   : UTF-8-encoded CALLED CONTEXT  :
   |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

8.6.6.  USERNAME

   The purpose of the USERNAME information element is to specify the
   identity of the user participating in an IAX message exchange.  It
   carries UTF-8-encoded data.

   The USERNAME information element MAY be sent with IAX NEW, AUTHREQ,
   REGREQ, REGAUTH, or REGACK messages, or any time a peer needs to
   identify a user.


                        1
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      0x06     |  Data Length  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                               |
   :     UTF-8-encoded USERNAME    :
   |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

8.6.7.  CAPABILITY

   The purpose of the CAPABILITY information element is to indicate the
   media CODEC capabilities of an IAX peer.  Its data is represented in
   a four octet bitmask according to Section 8.7.  Multiple CODECs MAY
   be specified by logically OR'ing them into the CAPABILITY information
   element.

   The CAPABILITY information element is sent with IAX NEW messages if
   appropriate for the CODEC negotiation method the peer is using.










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                        1
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      0x08     |      0x04     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   | CAPABILITY according to Media |
   | Format Subclass Values Table  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

8.6.8.  FORMAT

   The purpose of the FORMAT information element is to indicate a single
   preferred media CODEC.  When sent with a NEW message, the indicated
   CODEC is the desired CODEC an IAX peer wishes to use for a call.
   When sent with an ACCEPT message, it indicates the actual CODEC that
   has been selected for the call.  Its data is represented in a four
   octet bitmask according to Section 8.7.  Only one CODEC MUST be
   specified in the FORMAT information element.


                        1
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      0x09     |      0x04     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |   FORMAT according to Media   |
   | Format Subclass Values Table  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

8.6.9.  LANGUAGE

   The purpose of the LANGUAGE information element is to indicate the
   language in which the transmitting peer would like the remote peer to
   send signaling information.  It carries UTF-8-encoded data and tags
   should be selected per [RFC4646] and [RFC4647].

   The LANGUAGE information element MAY be sent with an IAX NEW message.


                        1
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      0x0a     |  Data Length  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                               |
   :     UTF-8-encoded LANGUAGE    :
   |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+



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8.6.10.  VERSION

   The purpose of the VERSION information element is to indicate the
   protocol version the peer is using.  Peers at each end of a call MUST
   use the same protocol version.  Currently the only supported version
   is 2.  The data field of the VERSION information element is 2 octets
   long.

   The VERSION information element MUST be sent with an IAX NEW message.

   When sent, the VERSION information element MUST be the first IE in
   the message.


                        1
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      0x0b     |      0x02     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |            0x0002             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

8.6.11.  ADSICPE

   The purpose of the ADSICPE information element is to indicate the CPE
   ADSI capability.  The data field of the ADSICPE information element
   is 2 octets long.

   The ADSICPE information element MAY be sent with an IAX NEW message.


                        1
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      0x0c     |      0x02     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |       ADSICPE Capability      |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

8.6.12.  DNID

   The purpose of the DNID information element is to indicate the Dialed
   Number ID, which may differ from the 'called number'.  It carries
   UTF-8-encoded data.

   The DNID information element MAY be sent with an IAX NEW message.





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                        1
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      0x0d     |  Data Length  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                               |
   :    UTF-8-encoded DNID Data    :
   |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

8.6.13.  AUTHMETHODS

   The purpose of the AUTHMETHODS information element is to indicate the
   authentication methods a peer accepts.  It is sent as a bitmask two
   octets long.  The table below lists the valid authentication methods.

   The AUTHMETHODS information element MUST be sent with IAX AUTHREQ and
   REGAUTH messages.


                        1
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      0x0e     |      0x02     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Valid Authentication Methods |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

        The following table lists valid values for authentication:

                   +--------+--------------------------+
                   | METHOD | DESCRIPTION              |
                   +--------+--------------------------+
                   | 0x0001 | Reserved (was Plaintext) |
                   |        |                          |
                   | 0x0002 | MD5                      |
                   |        |                          |
                   | 0x0004 | RSA                      |
                   +--------+--------------------------+

   Refer to the IANA Registry for additional IAX Authentication Method
   values.

8.6.14.  CHALLENGE

   The purpose of the CHALLENGE information element is to offer the MD5
   or RSA challenge to be used for authentication.  It carries the
   actual UTF-8-encoded challenge data.



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   The CHALLENGE information element MUST be sent with IAX AUTHREQ and
   REGAUTH messages.


                        1
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      0x0f     |  Data Length  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                               |
   :  UTF-8-encoded Challenge Data :
   |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

8.6.15.  MD5 RESULT

   The purpose of the MD5 RESULT information element is to offer an MD5
   response to an authentication CHALLENGE.  It carries the UTF-8-
   encoded challenge result.  The MD5 Result value is computed by taking
   the MD5 [RFC1321] digest of the challenge string and the password
   string.

   The MD5 RESULT information element MAY be sent with IAX AUTHREP and
   REGREQ messages if an AUTHREQ or REGAUTH and appropriate CHALLENGE
   has been received.  This information element MUST NOT be sent except
   in response to a CHALLENGE.


                        1
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     0x10      |  Data Length  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                               |
   :    UTF-8-encoded MD5 Result   :
   |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

8.6.16.  RSA RESULT

   The purpose of the RSA RESULT information element is to offer an RSA
   response to an authentication CHALLENGE.  It carries the UTF-8-
   encoded challenge result.  The result is computed as follows: first,
   compute the SHA1 digest [RFC3174] of the challenge string and second,
   RSA sign the SHA1 digest using the private RSA key as specified in
   PKCS #1 v2.0 [PKCS].  The RSA keys are stored locally.

   Upon receiving an RSA RESULT information element, its value must be



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   verified with the sender's public key to match the SHA1 digest
   [RFC3174] of the challenge string.

   The RSA RESULT information element MAY be sent with IAX AUTHREP and
   REGREQ messages if an AUTHREQ or REGAUTH and appropriate CHALLENGE
   have been received.  This information element MUST NOT be sent except
   in response to a CHALLENGE.


                        1
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      0x11     |  Data Length  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                               |
   :    UTF-8-encoded RSA Result   :
   |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

8.6.17.  APPARENT ADDR

   The purpose of the APPARENT ADDR information element is to indicate
   the perceived network connection information used to reach a peer,
   which may differ from the actual address when the peer is behind NAT.
   The APPARENT ADDR IE is populated using the source address values of
   the UDP and IP headers in the IAX message to which this response is
   generated.  The data field of the APPARENT ADDR information element
   is the same as the POSIX sockaddr struct for the address family in
   use (i.e., sockaddr_in for IPv4, sockaddr_in6 for IPv6).  The data
   length depends on the type of address being represented.

   The APPARENT ADDR information element MUST be sent with IAX TXREQ and
   REGACK messages.  When used with a TXREQ message, the APPARENT ADDR
   MUST specify the address of the peer the local peer is trying to
   transfer its end of the connection to.  When used with a REGACK
   message, the APPARENT ADDR MUST specify the address it uses to reach
   the peer (which may be different than the address the peer perceives
   itself as in the case of NAT or multi-homed peer machines).

   The data field of the APPARENT ADDR information element is the same
   as the linux struct sockaddr_in: two octets for the address family,
   two octets for the port number, four octets for the IPv4 address, and
   8 octets of padding consisting of all bits set to 0.  Thus the total
   length of the APPARENT ADDR information element is 18 octets.







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   The following diagram demonstrates the generic APPARENT ADDR format:


                        1
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      0x12     |  Data Length  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |        sockaddr struct        |
   :   for address family in use   :
   |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   The following diagram demonstrates the APPARENT ADDR format for an
   IPv4 address:


                        1
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      0x12     |      0x10     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |            0x0200             | <- Address family (INET)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |            0x11d9             | <- Portno (default 4569)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      32-bit IP address        |
   |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                               |
   |      8 octets of all 0s       |
   |   (padding in sockaddr_in)    |
   |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

















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   The following diagram demonstrates the APPARENT ADDR format for an
   IPv6 address:


                        1
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      0x12     |      0x1C     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |            0x0A00             | <- Address family (INET6)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |            0x11d9             | <- Portno (default 4569)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |           32 bits             | <- Flow information
   |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      128-bit IP address       | <- Ip6 Address
   |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |           32 bits             | <- Scope ID
   |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+



8.6.18.  REFRESH

   The purpose of the REFRESH information element is to indicate the
   number of seconds before an event expires.  Its data field is 2
   octets long.

   The REFRESH information element is used with IAX REGREQ, REGACK, and
   DPREP messages.  When sent with a REGREQ it is a request that the
   peer maintaining the registration set the timeout to REFRESH seconds.
   When sent with a DPREP or REGACK, it is informational and tells a
   remote peer when the local peer will no longer consider the event
   valid.  The REFRESH sent with a DPREP tells a peer how long it SHOULD
   store the received dialplan response.

   If the REFRESH information element is not received with a DPREP, the
   expiration of the cache data is assumed to be 10 minutes.  If the
   REFRESH information element is not received with a REGACK,
   registration expiration is assumed to occur after 60 seconds.








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                        1
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      0x13     |      0x02     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  2 octets specifying refresh  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

8.6.19.  DPSTATUS

   The purpose of the DPSTATUS information element is to indicate the
   status of a CALLED NUMBER in a remote dialplan.  Its data field is a
   two octet bitmask specifying flags from the table below.  Exactly one
   of the low 3 bits MUST be set, and zero, one, or two of the high two
   bits MAY be set.

   The DPSTATUS information element MUST be sent with IAX DPREP
   messages, as it is the payload of the dialplan response.


                        1
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      0x14     |      0x02     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |M|R|                     |N|C|E|
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

           The following table lists the dialplan status flags:

                 +--------+------------------------------+
                 | FLAG   | DESCRIPTION                  |
                 +--------+------------------------------+
                 | 0x0001 | Exists                       |
                 |        |                              |
                 | 0x0002 | Can exist                    |
                 |        |                              |
                 | 0x0004 | Non-existent                 |
                 |        |                              |
                 | 0x4000 | Retain dialtone (ignorepat)  |
                 |        |                              |
                 | 0x8000 | More digits may match number |
                 +--------+------------------------------+

   Refer to the IANA Registry for additional IAX dialplan status values.






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8.6.20.  CALLNO

   The purpose of the CALLNO information element is to indicate the call
   number a remote peer needs to use as a destination call number to
   identify a call being transferred.  The peer managing a transfer
   sends the CALLNO for one transfer endpoint to the other transfer
   endpoint so that it knows what call number to specify for the
   transfer.  The data field is 2 octets long and specifies a call
   number in the same manner as a source call number or destination call
   number is specified in a frame header.

   The CALLNO information element MUST be sent with IAX TXREQ, TXREADY,
   and TXREL messages.  Transferring cannot succeed if the CALLNO IE is
   not included with the appropriate transfer messages.


                        1
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     0x15      |      0x02     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Callno of transfer recipient |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

8.6.21.  CAUSE

   The purpose of the CAUSE information element is to indicate the
   reason an event occurred.  It carries a description of the CAUSE of
   the event as UTF-8-encoded data.  Notification of the event itself is
   handled at the message level.

   The CAUSE information element SHOULD be sent with IAX HANGUP, REJECT,
   REGREJ, and TXREJ messages.


                        1
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      0x16     |  Data Length  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                               |
   :  UTF-8-encoded CAUSE of event :
   |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+







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8.6.22.  IAX UNKNOWN

   The purpose of the IAX UNKNOWN information element is to indicate
   that a received IAX command was unknown or unrecognized.  The one
   octet data field contains the subclass of the received frame that was
   unrecognized.

   The IAX UNKNOWN information element MUST be sent with IAX UNSUPPORT
   messages.


                        1
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      0x17     |      0x01     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   | Rec'd Subclass|
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

8.6.23.  MSGCOUNT

   The purpose of the MSGCOUNT information element is to indicate how
   many voicemail messages are waiting in a registered user's mailbox.
   The data field is 2 octets long.  If it is set to all 1s, there is at
   least one message present.  Any other value specifies the number of
   old messages in the high 8 bits and the number of new messages in the
   low 8 bits.

   The IAX MSGCOUNT information element MAY be sent with IAX REGACK
   messages.


                        1
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      0x18     |      0x02     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Old messages |  New messages |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

8.6.24.  AUTOANSWER

   The purpose of the AUTOANSWER information element is to request that
   a call be auto-answered upon receipt of a NEW message which includes
   the AUTOANSWER information element.  Note that this is a request and
   may or may not be granted by the remote peer.  There is no data field
   with this information element, as its presence alone indicates all
   necessary information.



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   The AUTOANSWER information element MAY be sent with IAX NEW messages.


                        1
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      0x19     |      0x00     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

8.6.25.  MUSICONHOLD

   The purpose of the MUSICONHOLD information element is to request that
   music-on-hold be played while a call is in the QUELCH state.  The
   optional data field specifies a music-on-hold class to be used, as
   UTF-8-encoded data.  In the absence of a data field, no music-on-hold
   class is specified and the IE SHOULD be treated as a generic request
   for music-on-hold.

   The MUSICONHOLD information element MAY be sent with IAX QUELCH
   messages.

   If no MUSICONHOLD information element is received, music-on-hold is
   not requested.


                        1
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      0x1a     |  Data Length  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                               |
   :  Optional Music On Hold Class :
   |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

8.6.26.  TRANSFERID

   The purpose of the TRANSFERID information element is to identify a
   transfer across all three peers participating in a transfer event.
   It carries a number, four octets long, that SHOULD be unique for the
   duration of the transfer process.

   The TRANSFERID information element SHOULD be sent with IAX TXREQ and
   TXCNT messages to aid the peers involved in a transfer in identifying
   the proper calls.  It is not required as long as the transferring
   peers can positively identify the calls participating in the transfer
   without the TRANSFERID.




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                        1
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      0x1b     |      0x04     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |       4 octet transfer        |
   |           identifier          |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

8.6.27.  RDNIS

   The purpose of the RDNIS information element is to indicate the
   referring DNIS.  It carries UTF-8-encoded data.


                        1
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      0x1c     |  Data Length  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                               |
   :      UTF-8-encoded RDNIS      :
   |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

8.6.28.  DATETIME

   The DATETIME information element indicates the time a message is
   sent.  This differs from the header time-stamp because that time-
   stamp begins at 0 for each call, while the DATETIME is a call-
   independent value representing the actual real-world time.  The data
   field of a DATETIME information element is four octets long and
   stores the time as follows: The five least significant bits are
   seconds, the next six least significant bits are minutes, the next
   least significant five bits are hours, the next least significant
   five bits are the day of the month, the next least significant four
   bits are the month, and the most significant seven bits are the year.
   The year is offset from 2000, and the month is a 1-based index (i.e.,
   January == 1, February == 2, etc).  The timezone of the clock MUST be
   UTC to avoid confusion between the peers.

   The DATETIME information element SHOULD be sent with IAX NEW and
   REGACK messages.  However, it is strictly informational.








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                        1
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      0x1f     |      0x04     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     year    | month |   day   |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  hours  |  minutes  | seconds |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

8.6.29.  CALLINGPRES

   The purpose of the CALLINGPRES information element is to indicate the
   calling presentation of a caller.  The data field is 1 octet long and
   contains a value from the table below.

   The CALLINGPRES information element MUST be sent with IAX NEW
   messages.


                        1
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      0x26     |      0x01     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   | Calling Pres. |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
























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       The following table lists valid calling presentation values:

              +------+--------------------------------------+
              | FLAG | PRESENTATION                         |
              +------+--------------------------------------+
              | 0x00 | Allowed user/number not screened     |
              |      |                                      |
              | 0x01 | Allowed user/number passed screen    |
              |      |                                      |
              | 0x02 | Allowed user/number failed screen    |
              |      |                                      |
              | 0x03 | Allowed network number               |
              |      |                                      |
              | 0x20 | Prohibited user/number not screened  |
              |      |                                      |
              | 0x21 | Prohibited user/number passed screen |
              |      |                                      |
              | 0x22 | Prohibited user/number failed screen |
              |      |                                      |
              | 0x23 | Prohibited network number            |
              |      |                                      |
              | 0x43 | Number not available                 |
              +------+--------------------------------------+

   Refer to the IANA Registry for additional IAX Calling Presentation
   values.

8.6.30.  CALLINGTON

   The purpose of the CALLINGTON information element is to indicate the
   calling type of number of a caller, according to ITU-T Recommendation
   Q.931 specifications.  The data field is 1 octet long and contains
   data from the table below.

   The CALLINGTON information element MUST be sent with IAX NEW
   messages.


                        1
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      0x27     |      0x01     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Calling TON  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+






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    The following table lists valid calling type of number values from
                        ITU-T Recommendation Q.931:

                    +-------+-------------------------+
                    | VALUE | DESCRIPTION             |
                    +-------+-------------------------+
                    | 0x00  | Unknown                 |
                    |       |                         |
                    | 0x10  | International Number    |
                    |       |                         |
                    | 0x20  | National Number         |
                    |       |                         |
                    | 0x30  | Network Specific Number |
                    |       |                         |
                    | 0x40  | Subscriber Number       |
                    |       |                         |
                    | 0x60  | Abbreviated Number      |
                    |       |                         |
                    | 0x70  | Reserved for extension  |
                    +-------+-------------------------+

   Refer to the IANA Registry for any additional IAX Calling Type of
   Number values.

8.6.31.  CALLINGTNS

   The CALLINGTNS information element indicates the calling transit
   network selected for a call.  Values are chosen according to ITU-T
   Recommendation Q.931 specifications.  The data field is two octets
   long.  The first octet stores the network identification plan in the
   least significant four bits according to the first table below, and
   the type of network in the next three least significant bits
   according to the second table below.  The second octet stores the
   actual network identification in UTF-8-encoded data.

   The CALLINGTNS information element MUST be sent with IAX NEW
   messages.


                        1
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      0x28     |      0x02     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   | | TON | Plan  | UTF-8 Net ID  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   The following tables list the valid values for the data field of the



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   'calling tns' IE.

                 Q.931 Network Identification Plan Values:

                +------+----------------------------------+
                | BITS | DESCRIPTION                      |
                +------+----------------------------------+
                | 0000 | Unknown                          |
                |      |                                  |
                | 0001 | Caller Identification Code       |
                |      |                                  |
                | 0011 | Data Network Identification Code |
                +------+----------------------------------+

   Refer to the IAX Transit Network Identification IANA Registry for any
   additional values.

                       Q.931 Type of Network Values:

              +------+--------------------------------------+
              | BITS | DESCRIPTION                          |
              +------+--------------------------------------+
              | 000  | User Specified                       |
              |      |                                      |
              | 010  | National Network Identification      |
              |      |                                      |
              | 011  | International Network Identification |
              +------+--------------------------------------+

   Refer to the IAX Type of Network IANA Registry for any additional
   values.

8.6.32.  SAMPLINGRATE

   The purpose of the SAMPLINGRATE information element is to specify to
   a remote IAX peer the sampling rate in hertz of the audio data being
   the peer will use when sending data.  Its data field is 2 octets
   long.

   If the SAMPLINGRATE information element is not specified, a default
   sampling rate of 8 kHz may be assumed.


                        1
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      0x29     |      0x02     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+



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   |     Sampling Rate in Hertz    |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

8.6.33.  CAUSECODE

   The purpose of the CAUSECODE information element is to indicate the
   reason a call was REJECTed or HANGUPed.  It derives from ITU-T
   Recommendation Q.931.  The data field is one octet long and contains
   an entry from the table below.

   The CAUSECODE information element SHOULD be sent with IAX HANGUP,
   REJECT, REGREJ, and TXREJ messages.


                        1
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      0x2a     |      0x01     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |   Cause Code  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   +--------+----------------------------------------------------------+
   | NUMBER | CAUSE                                                    |
   +--------+----------------------------------------------------------+
   | 1      | Unassigned/unallocated number                            |
   |        |                                                          |
   | 2      | No route to specified transit network                    |
   |        |                                                          |
   | 3      | No route to destination                                  |
   |        |                                                          |
   | 6      | Channel unacceptable                                     |
   |        |                                                          |
   | 7      | Call awarded and delivered                               |
   |        |                                                          |
   | 16     | Normal call clearing                                     |
   |        |                                                          |
   | 17     | User busy                                                |
   |        |                                                          |
   | 18     | No user response                                         |
   |        |                                                          |
   | 19     | No answer                                                |
   |        |                                                          |
   | 21     | Call rejected                                            |
   |        |                                                          |
   | 22     | Number changed                                           |
   |        |                                                          |
   | 27     | Destination out of order                                 |



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   | 28     | Invalid number format/incomplete number                  |
   |        |                                                          |
   | 29     | Facility rejected                                        |
   |        |                                                          |
   | 30     | Response to status enquiry                               |
   |        |                                                          |
   | 31     | Normal, unspecified                                      |
   |        |                                                          |
   | 34     | No circuit/channel available                             |
   |        |                                                          |
   | 38     | Network out of order                                     |
   |        |                                                          |
   | 41     | Temporary failure                                        |
   |        |                                                          |
   | 42     | Switch congestion                                        |
   |        |                                                          |
   | 43     | Access information discarded                             |
   |        |                                                          |
   | 44     | Requested channel not available                          |
   |        |                                                          |
   | 45     | Pre-empted (causes.h only)                               |
   |        |                                                          |
   | 47     | Resource unavailable, unspecified (Q.931 only)           |
   |        |                                                          |
   | 50     | Facility not subscribed (causes.h only)                  |
   |        |                                                          |
   | 52     | Outgoing call barred (causes.h only)                     |
   |        |                                                          |
   | 54     | Incoming call barred (causes.h only)                     |
   |        |                                                          |
   | 57     | Bearer capability not authorized                         |
   |        |                                                          |
   | 58     | Bearer capability not available                          |
   |        |                                                          |
   | 63     | Service or option not available (Q.931 only)             |
   |        |                                                          |
   | 65     | Bearer capability not implemented                        |
   |        |                                                          |
   | 66     | Channel type not implemented                             |
   |        |                                                          |
   | 69     | Facility not implemented                                 |
   |        |                                                          |
   | 70     | Only restricted digital information bearer capability is |
   |        | available (Q.931 only)                                   |
   |        |                                                          |
   | 79     | Service or option not available (Q.931 only)             |
   |        |                                                          |
   | 81     | Invalid call reference                                   |



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   | 82     | Identified channel does not exist (Q.931 only)           |
   |        |                                                          |
   | 83     | A suspended call exists, but this call identity does not |
   |        | (Q.931 only)                                             |
   |        |                                                          |
   | 84     | Call identity in use (Q.931 only)                        |
   |        |                                                          |
   | 85     | No call suspended (Q.931 only)                           |
   |        |                                                          |
   | 86     | Call has been cleared (Q.931 only)                       |
   |        |                                                          |
   | 88     | Incompatible destination                                 |
   |        |                                                          |
   | 91     | Invalid transit network selection (Q.931 only)           |
   |        |                                                          |
   | 95     | Invalid message, unspecified                             |
   |        |                                                          |
   | 96     | Mandatory information element missing (Q.931 only)       |
   |        |                                                          |
   | 97     | Message type nonexistent/not implemented                 |
   |        |                                                          |
   | 98     | Message not compatible with call state                   |
   |        |                                                          |
   | 99     | Information element nonexistent                          |
   |        |                                                          |
   | 100    | Invalid information element contents                     |
   |        |                                                          |
   | 101    | Message not compatible with call state                   |
   |        |                                                          |
   | 102    | Recovery on timer expiration                             |
   |        |                                                          |
   | 103    | Mandatory information element length error (causes.h     |
   |        | only)                                                    |
   |        |                                                          |
   | 111    | Protocol error, unspecified                              |
   |        |                                                          |
   | 127    | Internetworking, unspecified                             |
   +--------+----------------------------------------------------------+

   Refer to the IAX Cause Codes IANA Registry for any additional values.

8.6.34.  ENCRYPTION

   The purpose of the ENCRYPTION information element is to indicate what
   encryption methods are accepted for an IAX peer.  The data field is a
   2 octet bit mask specifying which encryption methods from the table
   below are accepted.




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   The ENCRYPTION information element MAY be sent with IAX NEW and
   AUTHREQ messages.


                        1
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      0x2b     |      0x01     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      Encryption Methods       |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

        The following table lists valid native encryption methods:

                         +--------+-------------+
                         | METHOD | DESCRIPTION |
                         +--------+-------------+
                         | 0x0001 | AES-128     |
                         +--------+-------------+

   Refer to the IAX Encryption Methods IANA Registry for any additional
   values.

8.6.35.  CODEC PREFS

   The purpose of the CODEC PREFS information element is to indicate the
   CODEC preferences of the calling peer.  The data field consists of a
   list of CODECs in the peer's order of preference as UTF-8-encoded
   data.

   The CODEC PREFS information element MAY be sent with IAX NEW
   messages.

   If the CODEC PREFS information element is absent, CODEC negotiation
   takes place via the CAPABILITY and FORMAT information elements.


                        1
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      0x2d     |  Data Length  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                               |
   :       CODEC Prefs Data        :
   |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+





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8.6.36.  RR JITTER

   The purpose of the Receiver Report (RR) JITTER information element is
   to indicate the received jitter on a call, per [RFC3550].  The data
   field is 4 octets long and carries the current measured jitter.

   The RR JITTER information element MAY be sent with IAX PONG messages.


                        1
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      0x2e     |      0x04     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |         Received Jitter       |
   |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

8.6.37.  RR LOSS

   The purpose of the RR LOSS information element is to indicate the
   number of lost frames on a call, per [RFC3550].  The data field is 4
   octets long and carries the percentage of frames lost in the first
   octet, and the count of lost frames in the next 3 octets.

   The RR LOSS information element MAY be sent with IAX PONG messages.


                        1
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      0x2f     |      0x04     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Loss Percent |               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  Loss Count   |
   |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

8.6.38.  RR PKTS

   The purpose of the RR PKTS information element is to indicate the
   total number of frames received on a call, per [RFC3550].  The data
   field is 4 octets long and carries the count of frames received.

   The RR PKTS information element MAY be sent with IAX PONG messages.






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                        1
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      0x30     |      0x04     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |    Frames Received Count      |
   |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

8.6.39.  RR DELAY

   The purpose of the RR DELAY information element is to indicate the
   maximum playout delay for a call, per [RFC3550].  The data field is 2
   octets long and specifies the number of milliseconds a frame may be
   delayed before it MUST be discarded.

   The RR DELAY information element MAY be sent with IAX PONG messages.


                        1
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      0x31     |      0x02     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |    Maximum Playout Delay      |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

8.6.40.  RR DROPPED

   The purpose of the RR DROPPED information element is to indicate the
   total number of dropped frames for a call, per [RFC3550].  The data
   field is 4 octets long and carries the number of frames dropped.

   The RR DROPPED information element MAY be sent with IAX PONG
   messages.


                        1
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      0x32     |      0x04     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      Total Frames Dropped     |
   |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+






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8.6.41.  RR OOO

   The purpose of the RR OOO information element is to indicate the
   number of frames received out of order for a call, per [RFC3550].
   The data field is 4 octets long and carries the number of frames
   received out of order.

   The RR OOO information element MAY be sent with IAX PONG messages.


                        1
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      0x33     |      0x04     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |         Frames Received       |
   |          Out of Order         |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


8.6.42.  OSPTOKEN

   The purpose of the OSPTOKEN information element is to carry European
   Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) Technical Specification
   101 321 [OSP] (also referred to as the Open Settlement Protocol or
   OSP) tokens.  The OSP tokens will be used to provide authorization,
   authentication and account support for IAX by using the OSP protocol.
   The first octet of the data field is the OSP token block index
   starting from 0.

   The OSPTOKEN information element MAY only be sent with IAX NEW
   messages.  If the token is not supported by the receiver, it is
   ignored.


                                   1
               0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
              +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
              |      0x34     |  Data Length  |
              +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
              |  Block Index  |               |
              +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+               +
              |        OSP Token Block        |
              +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


8.7.  Media Formats




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                            Media Format Values

   +------------+-----------------+------------------------------------+
   | SUBCLASS   | DESCRIPTION     | LENGTH CALCULATION                 |
   +------------+-----------------+------------------------------------+
   | 0x00000001 | G.723.1         | 4, 20, and 24 byte frames of 240   |
   |            |                 | samples                            |
   |            |                 |                                    |
   | 0x00000002 | GSM Full Rate   | 33 byte chunks of 160 samples or   |
   |            |                 | 65 byte chunks of 320 samples      |
   |            |                 |                                    |
   | 0x00000004 | G.711 mu-law    | 1 byte per sample                  |
   |            |                 |                                    |
   | 0x00000008 | G.711 a-law     | 1 byte per sample                  |
   |            |                 |                                    |
   | 0x00000010 | G.726           |                                    |
   |            |                 |                                    |
   | 0x00000020 | IMA ADPCM       | 1 byte per 2 samples               |
   |            |                 |                                    |
   | 0x00000040 | 16-bit linear   | 2 bytes per sample                 |
   |            | little-endian   |                                    |
   |            |                 |                                    |
   | 0x00000080 | LPC10           | Variable size frame of 172 samples |
   |            |                 |                                    |
   | 0x00000100 | G.729           | 20 bytes chunks of 172 samples     |
   |            |                 |                                    |
   | 0x00000200 | Speex           | Variable                           |
   |            |                 |                                    |
   | 0x00000400 | ILBC            | 50 bytes per 240 samples           |
   |            |                 |                                    |
   | 0x00000800 | G.726 AAL2      |                                    |
   |            |                 |                                    |
   | 0x00001000 | G.722           | 16kHz ADPCM                        |
   |            |                 |                                    |
   | 0x00002000 | AMR             | Variable                           |
   |            |                 |                                    |
   | 0x00010000 | JPEG            |                                    |
   |            |                 |                                    |
   | 0x00020000 | PNG             |                                    |
   |            |                 |                                    |
   | 0x00040000 | H.261           |                                    |
   |            |                 |                                    |
   | 0x00080000 | H.263           |                                    |
   |            |                 |                                    |
   | 0x00100000 | H.263p          |                                    |
   |            |                 |                                    |
   | 0x00200000 | H.264           |                                    |
   +------------+-----------------+------------------------------------+



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   Refer to the IANA Registry for any additional IAX Media Format
   values.

















































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9.  Example Message Flows

   This section includes call flow diagrams for some of the various
   types of IAX calls that can be made.  In each diagram, the '='
   character represents a full frame and the '-' character represents a
   mini frame.  Notes applicable to a generic call may be presented
   alongside each diagram.

9.1.  Ping/Pong

   PING->PONG


           Peer A                                Peer B
            ________________________________________
           |                                        |
      T    |                                        |
      i    |  ===PING============================>  |
      m    |                                        |
      e    |  <============================PONG===  |Has same time-stamp
           |                                        | as received PING.
      |    |  ===ACK=============================>  |Has same time-stamp
      |    |                                        | as received PONG
     \ /   |________________________________________| and original PING


9.2.  Lagrq/Lagrp

   LAGRQ->LAGRP


           Peer A                                Peer B
            ________________________________________
           |                                        |
      T    |                                        |
      i    |  ===LAGRQ===========================>  |
      m    |                                        |
      e    |  <===========================LAGRP===  |Same time-stamp as
           |                                        | received LAGRQ.
      |    |  ===ACK=============================>  |Same time-stamp as
      |    |                                        | received LAGRP and
     \ /   |________________________________________| original LAGRQ.









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9.3.  Registration

   Registration of an IAX Peer


         Registrant  A                     Registrar B
            ________________________________________
           |                                        |
      T    |  ===REGREQ==========================>  |
      i    |                                        |
      m    |  <=========================REGAUTH===  |
      e    |                                        |
           |  ===REGREQ==========================>  |
      |    |                                        |
      |    |  <==========================REGACK===  |
    \ | /  |                                        |
     \|/   |  ===ACK=============================>  |
           |                                        |
           |________________________________________|


9.4.  Registration Release

   Registration Release


         Registrant A                        Registrar B
            ________________________________________
           |                                        |
      T    |  ===REGREL==========================>  |
      i    |                                        |
      m    |  <=========================REGAUTH===  |
      e    |                                        |
           |  ===REGREL==========================>  |
      |    |                                        |
      |    |  <==========================REGACK===  |
    \ | /  |                                        |
     \|/   |  ===ACK=============================>  |
           |                                        |
           |________________________________________|











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9.5.  Call Path Optimization

   IAX Transfer


           Peer L         Peer C                Peer R
            ________________________________________
           |                 |                      |
      T    |                 |                      |
           | <== TXREQ =====[*]== TXREQ =========>  |C requests transfer
      i    |                 |                      |
           | ========================== TXCNT  ==>  |L sends to R
      m    |                 |                      |
           | <========================= TXACC  ==== |R replies
      e    |                 |                      |R sends Media
           |                 |                      | to L
      |    |                 |                      |
      |    | = TXREADY ====> |                      |L tells C 'ready'
      |    |                 |                      | C stops media to L
      |    |                 |                      |
      |    | <== TXCNT ===========================  |L sends to R
      |    |                 |                      |
      |    | === TXACC ===========================> |R replies
     \ /   |                 |                      |
           |                 | <== TXREADY ======   |R tells C 'ready'
           |                 |                      | C stops media to R
           |                 |                      |
           | <== TXREL =====[*]== TXREL =========>  |C Releases
           |                                        |
           |________________________________________|


9.6.  IAX Media Call

   Complete end-to-end IAX media exchange


           Peer A                            Peer B
            ________________________________________
           |                                        |
           |  ====NEW============================>  |
      T    |  <=========================AUTHREQ===  |If authentication
           |                                        |   specified.
      i    |  ====AUTHREP========================>  |
      m    |  <==========================ACCEPT===  |
      e    |  ====ACK============================>  |
           |                                        |
      |    |  <=============Voice (full frame)===   |



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      |    |  ====ACK===========================>   |
      |    |                                        |
      |    |  <---------Voice miniframe (ring)---   |
      |    |  <---------Voice miniframe (ring)---   |
      |    |                                        |
    \ | /  |  <=========================RINGING===  |
     \|/   |  ====ACK============================>  |
           |                                        |
           |  <---------Voice miniframe (ring)---   |
           |  <---------Voice miniframe (ring)---   |
           |                                        |
           |  <==========================ANSWER===  |
           |  ====ACK============================>  |
           |                                        |
           |  ====Voice (full frame)=============>  |
           |  <=============================ACK===  |
           |                                        |
           |                                        |
           |  <-----------Voice miniframes------->  |  exchange occurs
           |  <---               .            --->  |
           |  <---               .            --->  |
           |  <---               .            --->  |
           |  <-----------Voice miniframes------->  |
           |                                        |
           |                                        |
           |  ====Voice (full frame)=============>  |  (note 1)
           |  <===ACK=============================  |  (note 2)
           |                                        |  (every 65536 ms).
           |  <=============Voice (full frame)====  |  (note 3)
           |  ====ACK============================>  |
           |                                        |
           |                                        |
           |  <-----------Voice miniframes------->  |
           |  <---               .            --->  |
           |  <---               .            --->  |
           |  <---               .            --->  |
           |  <-----------Voice miniframes------->  |
           |                                        |
           |                                        |
           |  ====HANGUP=========================>  |  Either can hangup
           |  <=============================ACK===  |
           |________________________________________|


   Note 1: Mini Frames carry the low 16 bits of the peer's
           32-bit time-stamp.
   Note 2: Full frames re-sync the 32 bit time-stamp when the 16 bit
           time-stamp overflows.



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   Note 3:Each side has its own 32 bit time-stamp so each side needs
           to sync at 16 bit overflow.


9.7.  IAX Media Call via an IAX Device

   An IAX peer is not required to maintain a complete dialplan.  In the
   event that a user wishes to dial from an IAX peer which does not
   switch its own calls, the following call flow diagram may represent
   the transaction:


           Peer A (IAX Device)                 Peer B (Dialplan Server)
            ________________________________________
           |                                        |
           |  ====NEW============================>  |
      T    |  <=========================AUTHREQ===  |  If auth specified
      i    |  ====AUTHREP========================>  |
      m    |  <==========================ACCEPT===  |
      e    |  ====ACK============================>  |
           |                                        |
           |  ====DPREQ==========================>  |  (Note 1)
      |    |  <===========================DPREP===  |
      |    |                                        |
      |    |  ====DIAL===========================>  |
      |    |  <========================PROGRESS===  |
      |    |  ====ACK============================>  |
    \ | /  |  <==========================ANSWER===  |
     \|/   |  ====ACK============================>  |
           |                                        |
           |  ====Voice (full frame)=============>  |
           |  <=============================ACK===  |
           |  <=============Voice (full frame)====  |
           |  ====ACK============================>  |
           |                                        |
           |                                        |
           |  <-----------Voice miniframes------->  |  Media exchange
           |  <---               .            --->  |
           |  <---               .            --->  |
           |  <---               .            --->  |
           |  <-----------Voice miniframes------->  |
           |                                        |
           |                                        |
           |  ====Voice (full frame)=============>  |  (note 2)
           |  <===ACK=============================  |  (note 3)
           |                                        |  (every 65536 ms).
           |  <=============Voice (full frame)====  |  (Note 4)
           |  ====ACK============================>  |



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           |                                        |
           |                                        |
           |  <-----------Voice miniframes------->  |
           |  <---               .            --->  |
           |  <---               .            --->  |
           |  <---               .            --->  |
           |  <-----------Voice miniframes------->  |
           |                                        |
           |                                        |
           |  ====HANGUP=========================>  |  Either can hangup
           |  <=============================ACK===  |
           |________________________________________|

   Note 1: There will be multiple DPREQ/DPREPs per call unless
           dialed number is 1 digit long
   Note 2: Mini Frames carry the low 16 bits of the peer's
           32 bit time-stamp.
   Note 3: Full frames re-sync the 32 bit time-stamp when the 16 bit
           time-stamp overflows
   Note 4: Each side has its own 32 bit time-stamp so each side needs
           to sync at 16 bit overflow.






























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10.  Security Considerations

   IAX is a binary protocol for setting up point-to-point call legs
   which includes both media and signaling.  As such, it is simpler to
   secure than other more general purpose VoIP protocols, however,
   security remains a difficult task and various aspects of the protocol
   must be examined to identify risks.

   IAX registration is an area that requires careful attention.
   Previous protocol versions supported clear text passwords, this
   feature has been eliminated.  The MD5 and RSA alternatives offer much
   higher security.  Although not specified by the IAX protocol, some
   implementations limit the number of registrants per account to one.
   And a subsequent registrant with the same credentials would overwrite
   the prior and receive the calls destined for that user.  Theft of
   service is trivial once a malicious caller has the ability to
   authenticate.  In addition, since distinct cause codes are returned
   to erroneous registration attempts, an attacker can distinguish
   between existent and nonexistent users in a registration system, thus
   resulting in a possible directory harvest attack.

   The IAX protocol protects against message replay by using a challenge
   response method.  The IAX registrar or server challenges each call or
   registration with an arbitrary MD5 or RSA challenge.  The response
   and subsequent authorization relies upon knowledge of a shared
   secret.  Since the server typically chooses a challenges using a
   random number-based technique, the challenge set is large, making
   replay highly unlikely.

   Although operation in the following manner is not recommended, the
   IAX protocol does permit servers to forego the challenge process
   described above.  This open approach is inherently insecure and does
   nothing to prevent unauthorized or usage.

   Call Encryption in IAX starts by utilizing static keys.  Once
   negotiated, the key may be changed for the remainder of the call.
   Once the initial key is compromised, all subsequent calls are subject
   to interception.  A more secure implementation would update the key
   frequently and as early as practical during each call.

   The IAX protocol is also susceptible to eavesdropping.  Call Detail,
   i.e., who is calling whom, is sent in unencrypted binary whether the
   call is to be encrypted or not.  Without encryption, call content,
   i.e., audio and video, may be easily intercepted.  However, this
   content is protected if the call is encrypted.

   Man in the middle attacks are a threat to IAX if encryption is not
   used.  This form of attack permits message insertion, deletion, and



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   modification such that a call may be redirected or the audio or video
   replaced in either or both directions for the complete or any portion
   of a call.  If encryption is used, the call is protected end to end.
   Note: an initial NEW message in an encrypted call is unencrypted and
   could be changed; however, this is limited to a denial of service
   attack because subsequent messages containing the same address
   information are redelivered in an encrypted form.

   Denial of service attacks can take at least two forms in IAX.  One is
   simply overloading the peers with bogus requests.  A carefully
   implemented IAX peer would identify this situation and raise an alarm
   or take other protective action.

   Another form of denial of service (DoS) against an existing call is
   an engineered attack against an existing call.  Injecting media,
   causing excess processing by inserting out of order packets, and
   sending commands such as hangup or transfer.  These attacks require
   close monitoring of the binary channel to be successful as the
   message sequence numbers would need to be synchronized with the
   protocol exchange.

   Of course, providing lower layer security with DTLS [RFC4347], or
   IPSEC, [RFC4301], would address many of these potential issues.

   Unicode, [RFC3629] , and [RFC3454] security considerations also
   apply.

























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11.  IANA Considerations

   In order to facilitate the orderly extension of the the IAX protocol,
   several IANA Registries have been created.  These registries requests
   are found in [IAX-IANA].  In addition, this document requests
   registration of the "iax" URI Scheme.  See Section 5.  IAX also
   requires a well-known UDP port to be assigned.  The current port in
   use is 4569.











































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12.  Implementation Notes

   The original IAX implementation was in Asterisk, the open-source pbx,
   but [wikipedia] lists thirteen other publicly available
   implementations at the time of this writing.  Some of these
   implementations used draft versions of this specification.  Many
   others were developed using the Asterisk source code as the only
   specification.  While this approach is definitive, it is very
   difficult to determine the protocols higher level logic and optimize
   it for the particular programming language or application
   environment.  Interoperability of these implementations can not be
   guaranteed.

   Aside from the trials and tribulations of reverse engineering the
   source code to create a new implementation, the key lessons learned
   involve the use of threads, support of international character sets,
   security, and improved controls to limit interference during denial
   of service attacks.

   The current Asterisk implementation has a limited number of IAX
   worker threads and, as a result, its scalability is limited, but it
   can run on low end machines where threads may not be freely
   available.  Improving the threading model will undoubtedly improve
   performance.

   Internationalization and localization are issues that were not
   originally addressed by most implementations.  It was always on the
   IAX developers' road map, but never a priority.  While creating this
   document, we formalized support for UTF-8 encoding to better support
   Internationalization and localization.

   With regards to security, many IAX implementations permit clear text
   authentication.  This method is not secure and should not be used.

   Recently, some issues have been raised regarding server robustness
   when under a denial of service attack.  IAX servers which support
   unauthenticated requests can receive the equivalent of a SYN attack.
   To mitigate the impact of these attacks, various controls to limit
   the number of unauthenticated calls and the number of calls per user
   may be added to the implementation.  Other approaches, such as
   transferring the call to another, more protected port or using IP
   rate limiting when excessive failures are detected, are also
   suggested.

   Lastly, given the open nature of the protocol and implementations, it
   is very easy to extend.  This situation makes Postel's Robustness
   Principle, "Be conservative in what you do, be liberal in what you
   accept from others," essential to any successful IAX implementation.



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13.  Acknowledgments

   This work was supported by Internet Foundation Austria.  The authors
   would like to thank Birgit Arkesteijn, Marc Blanchet, Mohamed
   Boucadair, Steve Kann, Olle Johansson, Alexander Mayrhofer, Tim
   Panton, and Peter Saint-Andre for their extensive review and
   technical input.  We would also like to thank Jim Dalton, Christopher
   DeMarco, Frank Ellermann, Daniel Medeiros, Dimitri E. Prado, Leif
   Madson, and Tilghman Lesher for their support and suggestions.










































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14.  References

14.1.  Normative References

   [AES]      U.S. Department of Commerce/N.I.S.T., "FIPS-197,
              Announcing the Advanced Encryption Standard",
              November 2001.

   [E164]     ITU-T, "The International Public Telecommunication Number
              Plan",  Recommendation E.164, May 1997.

   [OSP]      European Telecommunications Standards Institute,
              "Telecommunications and Internet Protocol  Harmonization
              Over Networks (TIPHON) Release 4;  Open Settlement
              Protocol (OSP) for  Inter-Domain pricing, authorization
              and usage exchange", November 2003.

   [RFC1321]  Rivest, R., "The MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm", RFC 1321,
              April 1992.

   [RFC1851]  Karn, P., Metzger, P., and W. Simpson, "The ESP Triple DES
              Transform", RFC 1851, September 1995.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC3261]  Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Camarillo, G., Johnston,
              A., Peterson, J., Sparks, R., Handley, M., and E.
              Schooler, "SIP: Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 3261,
              June 2002.

   [RFC3447]  Jonsson, J. and B. Kaliski, "Public-Key Cryptography
              Standards (PKCS) #1: RSA Cryptography Specifications
              Version 2.1", RFC 3447, February 2003.

   [RFC3454]  Hoffman, P. and M. Blanchet, "Preparation of
              Internationalized Strings ("stringprep")", RFC 3454,
              December 2002.

   [RFC3491]  Hoffman, P. and M. Blanchet, "Nameprep: A Stringprep
              Profile for Internationalized Domain Names (IDN)",
              RFC 3491, March 2003.

   [RFC3550]  Schulzrinne, H., Casner, S., Frederick, R., and V.
              Jacobson, "RTP: A Transport Protocol for Real-Time
              Applications", STD 64, RFC 3550, July 2003.

   [RFC3629]  Yergeau, F., "UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO



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              10646", STD 63, RFC 3629, November 2003.

   [RFC3986]  Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform
              Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66,
              RFC 3986, January 2005.

   [RFC4347]  Rescorla, E. and N. Modadugu, "Datagram Transport Layer
              Security", RFC 4347, April 2006.

   [RFC4646]  Phillips, A. and M. Davis, "Tags for Identifying
              Languages", BCP 47, RFC 4646, September 2006.

   [RFC4647]  Phillips, A. and M. Davis, "Matching of Language Tags",
              BCP 47, RFC 4647, September 2006.

   [html401]  Jacobs, I., Hors, A., and D. Raggett, "HTML 4.01
              Specification", World Wide Web Consortium
              Recommendation REC-html401-19991224, December 1999,
              <http://www.w3.org/TR/1999/REC-html401-19991224>.

14.2.  Informative References

   [IAX-IANA]
              Guy, E., "IANA Considerations for IAX: Inter-Asterisk
              eXchange Version 2", draft-guy-iaxiana-00 Work In
              Progress, October 2008.

   [PKCS]     RSA Laboratories, "PKCS #1 v2.0: RSA Cryptography
              Standard", October 1998.

   [RFC3174]  Eastlake, D. and P. Jones, "US Secure Hash Algorithm 1
              (SHA1)", RFC 3174, September 2001.

   [RFC3435]  Andreasen, F. and B. Foster, "Media Gateway Control
              Protocol (MGCP) Version 1.0", RFC 3435, January 2003.

   [RFC3525]  Groves, C., Pantaleo, M., Anderson, T., and T. Taylor,
              "Gateway Control Protocol Version 1", RFC 3525, June 2003.

   [RFC3761]  Faltstrom, P. and M. Mealling, "The E.164 to Uniform
              Resource Identifiers (URI) Dynamic Delegation Discovery
              System (DDDS) Application (ENUM)", RFC 3761, April 2004.

   [RFC4301]  Kent, S. and K. Seo, "Security Architecture for the
              Internet Protocol", RFC 4301, December 2005.

   [RFC4395]  Hansen, T., Hardie, T., and L. Masinter, "Guidelines and
              Registration Procedures for New URI Schemes", BCP 115,



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              RFC 4395, February 2006.

   [RFC4566]  Handley, M., Jacobson, V., and C. Perkins, "SDP: Session
              Description Protocol", RFC 4566, July 2006.

   [RFC4733]  Schulzrinne, H. and T. Taylor, "RTP Payload for DTMF
              Digits, Telephony Tones, and Telephony Signals", RFC 4733,
              December 2006.

   [RFC4734]  Schulzrinne, H. and T. Taylor, "Definition of Events for
              Modem, Fax, and Text Telephony Signals", RFC 4734,
              December 2006.

   [wikipedia]
              http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IAX, "Inter-Asterisk
              eXchange".



































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Authors' Addresses

   Mark A. Spencer
   Digium, Inc.
   150 West Park Loop Suite 100
   Huntsville, AL  35806
   US

   Phone: +1 256 428 6000
   Email: markster@digium.com
   URI:   http://www.digium.com/


   Brian Capouch
   Saint Joseph's College
   PO Box 909
   Rensselaer, IN  47978
   US

   Phone: +1 219 866 6114
   Email: brianc@saintjoe.edu


   Ed Guy (editor)
   TruPhone
   235 Main Street, STE 253
   Madison, NJ  07940
   US

   Phone: +1 973 437 4519
   Email: edguy@emcsw.com
   URI:   http://www.TruPhone.com/


   Frank Miller
   Cornfed Systems, Inc.
   103 Overhill Road
   Baltimore, MD  21210
   US

   Phone: +1 410 404-8790
   Email: fwmiller@cornfed.com
   URI:   http://www.digium.com/








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   Kenneth C. Shumard
   3818 N Lakegrove Way
   Boise, ID  83713
   US

   Phone: +1 208 724 7801
   Email: kshumard@gmail.com












































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Full Copyright Statement

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