[Docs] [txt|pdf] [Tracker] [Email] [Diff1] [Diff2] [Nits]

Versions: 00 01 02 03 05 06 07 10 11 12 13 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 draft-ietf-hybi-thewebsocketprotocol

Network Working Group                                         I. Hickson
Internet-Draft                                              Google, Inc.
Intended status: Standards Track                        October 13, 2009
Expires: April 16, 2010


                        The Web Socket protocol
                  draft-hixie-thewebsocketprotocol-47

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that
   other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-
   Drafts.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt.

   The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.

   This Internet-Draft will expire on April 16, 2010.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2009 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents in effect on the date of
   publication of this document (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info).
   Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights
   and restrictions with respect to this document.









Hickson                  Expires April 16, 2010                 [Page 1]

Internet-Draft           The Web Socket protocol            October 2009


Abstract

   This protocol enables two-way communication between a user agent
   running untrusted code running in a controlled environment to a
   remote host that understands the protocol.  It is designed to be easy
   to implement on the server side.













































Hickson                  Expires April 16, 2010                 [Page 2]

Internet-Draft           The Web Socket protocol            October 2009


Author's note

   This document is automatically generated from the same source
   document as the HTML5 specification.  [HTML5]

   Please send feedback to either the hybi@ietf.org list or the
   whatwg@whatwg.org list.


Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     1.1.  Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     1.2.  Protocol overview  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     1.3.  Design philosophy  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     1.4.  Security model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     1.5.  Relationship to TCP/IP and HTTP  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     1.6.  Establishing a connection  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   2.  Conformance requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     2.1.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   3.  Web Socket URLs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     3.1.  Parsing Web Socket URLs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     3.2.  Constructing Web Socket URLs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   4.  Client-side requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     4.1.  Handshake  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     4.2.  Data framing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
     4.3.  Closing the connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
     4.4.  Handling errors in UTF-8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
   5.  Server-side requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
     5.1.  Minimal handshake  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
     5.2.  Handshake details  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
     5.3.  Data framing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
   6.  Closing the connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
   7.  Security considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
   8.  IANA considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
     8.1.  Registration of ws: scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
     8.2.  Registration of wss: scheme  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
     8.3.  Registration of the "WebSocket" HTTP Upgrade keyword . . . 29
     8.4.  WebSocket-Origin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
     8.5.  WebSocket-Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
     8.6.  WebSocket-Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
   9.  Using the Web Socket protocol from other specifications  . . . 32
   10. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
   Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35







Hickson                  Expires April 16, 2010                 [Page 3]

Internet-Draft           The Web Socket protocol            October 2009


1.  Introduction

1.1.  Background

   _This section is non-normative._

   Historically, creating an instant messenger chat client as a Web
   application has required an abuse of HTTP to poll the server for
   updates while sending upstream notifications as distinct HTTP calls.

   This results in a variety of problems:

   o  The server is forced to use a number of different underlying TCP
      connections for each client: one for sending information to the
      client, and a new one for each incoming message.

   o  The wire protocol has a high overhead, with each client-to-server
      message having an HTTP header.

   o  The client-side script is forced to maintain a mapping from the
      outgoing connections to the incoming connection to track replies.

   A simpler solution would be to use a single TCP connection for
   traffic in both directions.  This is what the Web Socket protocol
   provides.  Combined with the Web Socket API, it provides an
   alternative to HTTP polling for two-way communication from a Web page
   to a remote server.  [WSAPI]

   The same technique can be used for a variety of Web applications:
   games, stock tickers, multiuser applications with simultaneous
   editing, user interfaces exposing server-side services in real time,
   etc.

1.2.  Protocol overview

   _This section is non-normative._

   The protocol has two parts: a handshake, and then the data transfer.

   The handshake from the client looks as follows:

        GET /demo HTTP/1.1
        Upgrade: WebSocket
        Connection: Upgrade
        Host: example.com
        Origin: http://example.com
        WebSocket-Protocol: sample




Hickson                  Expires April 16, 2010                 [Page 4]

Internet-Draft           The Web Socket protocol            October 2009


   The handshake from the server looks as follows:

        HTTP/1.1 101 Web Socket Protocol Handshake
        Upgrade: WebSocket
        Connection: Upgrade
        WebSocket-Origin: http://example.com
        WebSocket-Location: ws://example.com/demo
        WebSocket-Protocol: sample

   Once the client and server have both sent their handshakes, and if
   the handshake was successful, then the data transfer part starts.
   This is a two-way communication channel where each side can,
   independently from the other, send data at will.

   Data is sent in the form of UTF-8 text.  Each frame of data starts
   with a 0x00 byte and ends with a 0xFF byte, with the UTF-8 text in
   between.

   The Web Socket protocol uses this framing so that specifications that
   use the Web Socket protocol can expose such connections using an
   event-based mechanism instead of requiring users of those
   specifications to implement buffering and piecing together of
   messages manually.


   The protocol is designed to support other frame types in future.
   Instead of the 0x00 byte, other bytes might in future be defined.
   Frames denoted by bytes that do not have the high bit set (0x00 to
   0x7F) are treated as described above (a stream of bytes terminated by
   0xFF).  Frames denoted by bytes that have the high bit set (0x80 to
   0xFF) have a leading length indicator, which is encoded as a series
   of 7-bit bytes stored in octets with the 8th bit being set for all
   but the last byte.  The remainder of the frame is then as much data
   as was specified.


   The following diagrams summarise the protocol:

        Handshake
           |
          \|/
        Frame type byte <-------------------------------------.
           |      |                                           |
           |      `-- (0x00 .. 0x7F) --> Data... --> 0xFF -->-+
           |                                                  |
           `-- (0x80 .. 0xFF) --> Length --> Data... ------->-'





Hickson                  Expires April 16, 2010                 [Page 5]

Internet-Draft           The Web Socket protocol            October 2009


1.3.  Design philosophy

   _This section is non-normative._

   The Web Socket protocol is designed on the principle that there
   should be minimal framing (the only framing that exists is to make
   the protocol frame-based instead of stream-based, and to support a
   distinction between Unicode text and binary frames).  It is expected
   that metadata would be layered on top of Web Socket by the
   application layer, in the same way that metadata is layered on top of
   TCP/IP by the application layer (HTTP).

   Conceptually, Web Socket is really just a layer on top of TCP/IP that
   adds a Web "origin"-based security model for browsers; adds an
   addressing and protocol naming mechanism to support multiple services
   on one port and multiple host names on one IP address; and layers a
   framing mechanism on top of TCP to get back to the IP packet
   mechanism that TCP is built on, but without length limits.  Other
   than that, it adds nothing.  Basically it is intended to be as close
   as possible to just exposing raw TCP/IP to script as possible given
   the constraints of the Web. It's also designed in such a way that its
   servers can share a port with HTTP servers, by having its handshake
   be a valid HTTP Upgrade handshake also.

1.4.  Security model

   _This section is non-normative._

   The Web Socket protocol uses the origin model used by Web browsers to
   restrict which Web pages can contact a Web Socket server when the Web
   Socket protocol is used from a Web page.  Naturally, when the Web
   Socket protocol is used directly (not from a Web page), the origin
   model is not useful, as the client can provide any arbitrary origin
   string.

   This protocol is intended to fail to establish a connection with
   servers of pre-existing protocols like SMTP or HTTP, while allowing
   HTTP servers to opt-in to supporting this protocol if desired.  This
   is achieved by having a strict and elaborate handshake, and by
   limiting the data that can be inserted into the connection before the
   handshake is finished (thus limiting how much the server can be
   influenced).

1.5.  Relationship to TCP/IP and HTTP

   _This section is non-normative._

   The Web Socket protocol is an independent TCP-based protocol.  Its



Hickson                  Expires April 16, 2010                 [Page 6]

Internet-Draft           The Web Socket protocol            October 2009


   only relationship to HTTP is that its handshake is interpreted by
   HTTP servers as an Upgrade request.

   Based on the expert recommendation of the IANA, the Web Socket
   protocol by default uses port 80 for regular Web Socket connections
   and port 443 for Web Socket connections tunneled over TLS.

1.6.  Establishing a connection

   _This section is non-normative._

   There are several options for establishing a Web Socket connection.

   The simplest method is to use port 80 to get a direct connection to a
   Web Socket server.  Port 80 traffic, however, will often be
   intercepted by HTTP proxies, which can lead to the connection failing
   to be established.

   The second simplest method is to use TLS encryption and port 443 to
   connect directly to a Web Socket server.  This has the advantage of
   being more secure; however, TLS encryption can be computationally
   expensive.

   When a connection is to be made to a port that is shared by an HTTP
   server (a situation that is quite likely to occur with traffic to
   ports 80 and 443), the connection will appear to the HTTP server to
   be a regular GET request with an Upgrade offer.  In relatively simple
   setups with just one IP address and a single server for all traffic
   to a single hostname, this might allow a practical way for systems
   based on the Web Socket protocol to be deployed.  In more elaborate
   setups (e.g. with load balancers and multiple servers), a dedicated
   set of hosts for Web Socket connections separate from the HTTP
   servers is probably easier to manage.


















Hickson                  Expires April 16, 2010                 [Page 7]

Internet-Draft           The Web Socket protocol            October 2009


2.  Conformance requirements

   All diagrams, examples, and notes in this specification are non-
   normative, as are all sections explicitly marked non-normative.
   Everything else in this specification is normative.

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT",
   "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in the normative parts of this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC2119.  For
   readability, these words do not appear in all uppercase letters in
   this specification.  [RFC2119]

   Requirements phrased in the imperative as part of algorithms (such as
   "strip any leading space characters" or "return false and abort these
   steps") are to be interpreted with the meaning of the key word
   ("must", "should", "may", etc) used in introducing the algorithm.

   Conformance requirements phrased as algorithms or specific steps may
   be implemented in any manner, so long as the end result is
   equivalent.  (In particular, the algorithms defined in this
   specification are intended to be easy to follow, and not intended to
   be performant.)

   Implementations may impose implementation-specific limits on
   otherwise unconstrained inputs, e.g. to prevent denial of service
   attacks, to guard against running out of memory, or to work around
   platform-specific limitations.

   The conformance classes defined by this specification are user agents
   and servers.

2.1.  Terminology

   *Converting a string to ASCII lowercase* means replacing all
   characters in the range U+0041 ..  U+005A (i.e.  LATIN CAPITAL LETTER
   A to LATIN CAPITAL LETTER Z) with the corresponding characters in the
   range U+0061 ..  U+007A (i.e.  LATIN SMALL LETTER A to LATIN SMALL
   LETTER Z).

   The term "URL" is used in this section in a manner consistent with
   the terminology used in HTML, namely, to denote a string that might
   or might not be a valid URI or IRI and to which certain error
   handling behaviors will be applied when the string is parsed.
   [HTML5]







Hickson                  Expires April 16, 2010                 [Page 8]

Internet-Draft           The Web Socket protocol            October 2009


3.  Web Socket URLs

3.1.  Parsing Web Socket URLs

   The steps to *parse a Web Socket URL's components* from a string
   /url/ are as follows.  These steps return either a /host/, a /port/,
   a /resource name/, and a /secure/ flag, or they fail.

   1.   If /protocol/ is specified but is either the empty string or
        contains characters that are not in the range U+0021 ..  U+007E,
        then fail this algorithm.

   2.   If the /url/ string is not an absolute URL, then fail this
        algorithm.  [WEBADDRESSES]

   3.   Resolve the /url/ string using the resolve a Web address
        algorithm defined by the Web addresses specification, with the
        URL character encoding set to UTF-8.  [WEBADDRESSES] [RFC3629]

        NOTE: It doesn't matter what it is resolved relative to, since
        we already know it is an absolute URL at this point.

   4.   If /url/ does not have a <scheme> component whose value is
        either "ws" or "wss", when compared in an ASCII case-insensitive
        manner, then fail this algorithm.

   5.   If the <scheme> component of /url/ is "ws", set /secure/ to
        false; otherwise, the <scheme> component is "wss", set /secure/
        to true.

   6.   Let /host/ be the value of the <host> component of /url/,
        converted to ASCII lowercase.

   7.   If /url/ has a <port> component, then let /port/ be that
        component's value; otherwise, there is no explicit /port/.

   8.   If there is no explicit /port/, then: if /secure/ is false, let
        /port/ be 80, otherwise let /port/ be 443.

   9.   Let /resource name/ be the value of the <path> component (which
        might be empty) of /url/.

   10.  If /resource name/ is the empty string, set it to a single
        character U+002F SOLIDUS (/).

   11.  If /url/ has a <query> component, then append a single U+003F
        QUESTION MARK character (?) to /resource name/, followed by the
        value of the <query> component.



Hickson                  Expires April 16, 2010                 [Page 9]

Internet-Draft           The Web Socket protocol            October 2009


   12.  Return /host/, /port/, /resource name/, and /secure/.

3.2.  Constructing Web Socket URLs

   The steps to *construct a Web Socket URL* from a /host/, a /port/, a
   /resource name/, and a /secure/ flag, are as follows:

   1.  Let /url/ be the empty string.

   2.  If the /secure/ flag is false, then append the string "ws://" to
       /url/.  Otherwise, append the string "wss://" to /url/.

   3.  Append /host/ to /url/.

   4.  If the /secure/ flag is false and port is not 80, or if the
       /secure/ flag is true and port is not 443, then append the string
       ":" followed by /port/ to /url/.

   5.  Append /resource name/ to /url/.

   6.  Return /url/.






























Hickson                  Expires April 16, 2010                [Page 10]

Internet-Draft           The Web Socket protocol            October 2009


4.  Client-side requirements

   _This section only applies to user agents, not to servers._

   NOTE: This specification doesn't currently define a limit to the
   number of simultaneous connections that a client can establish to a
   server.

4.1.  Handshake

   When the user agent is to *establish a Web Socket connection* to a
   host /host/, on a port /port/, from an origin whose ASCII
   serialization is /origin/, with a flag /secure/, with a string giving
   a /resource name/, and optionally with a string giving a /protocol/,
   it must run the following steps.  The /resource name/ string must
   start with a U+002F SOLIDUS character (/).  [ORIGIN]

   1.   If the user agent already has a Web Socket connection to the
        remote host (IP address) identified by /host/, even if known by
        another name, wait until that connection has been established or
        for that connection to have failed.

        NOTE: This makes it harder for a script to perform a denial of
        service attack by just opening a large number of Web Socket
        connections to a remote host.

        NOTE: There is no limit to the number of established Web Socket
        connections a user agent can have with a single remote host.
        Servers can refuse to connect users with an excessive number of
        connections, or disconnect resource-hogging users when suffering
        high load.

   2.   _Connect_: If the user agent is configured to use a proxy when
        using the Web Socket protocol to connect to host /host/ and/or
        port /port/, then connect to that proxy and ask it to open a
        TCP/IP connection to the host given by /host/ and the port given
        by /port/.

           EXAMPLE: For example, if the user agent uses an HTTP proxy
           for all traffic, then if it was to try to connect to port 80
           on server example.com, it might send the following lines to
           the proxy server:

              CONNECT example.com:80 HTTP/1.1
              Host: example.com

           If there was a password, the connection might look like:




Hickson                  Expires April 16, 2010                [Page 11]

Internet-Draft           The Web Socket protocol            October 2009


              CONNECT example.com:80 HTTP/1.1
              Host: example.com
              Proxy-authorization: Basic ZWRuYW1vZGU6bm9jYXBlcyE=

        Otherwise, if the user agent is not configured to use a proxy,
        then open a TCP/IP connection to the host given by /host/ and
        the port given by /port/.

        NOTE: Implementations that do not expose explicit UI for
        selecting a proxy for Web Socket connections separate from other
        proxies are encouraged to use a SOCKS proxy for Web Socket
        connections, if available, or failing that, to prefer the proxy
        configured for HTTPS connections over the proxy configured for
        HTTP connections.

        For the purpose of proxy autoconfiguration scripts, the URL to
        pass the function must be constructed from /host/, /port/,
        /resource name/, and the /secure/ flag using the steps to
        construct a Web Socket URL.

        NOTE: The WebSocket protocol can be identified in proxy
        autoconfiguration scripts from the scheme ("ws:" for unencrypted
        connections and "wss:" for encrypted connections).

   3.   If the connection could not be opened, then fail the Web Socket
        connection and abort these steps.

   4.   If /secure/ is true, perform a TLS handshake over the
        connection.  If this fails (e.g. the server's certificate could
        not be verified), then fail the Web Socket connection and abort
        these steps.  Otherwise, all further communication on this
        channel must run through the encrypted tunnel.  [RFC2246]

   5.   Send the following bytes to the remote side (the server):

           47 45 54 20

        Send the /resource name/ value, encoded as US-ASCII.

        Send the following bytes:

           20 48 54 54 50 2F 31 2E  31 0D 0A 55 70 67 72 61
           64 65 3A 20 57 65 62 53  6F 63 6B 65 74 0D 0A 43
           6F 6E 6E 65 63 74 69 6F  6E 3A 20 55 70 67 72 61
           64 65 0D 0A

        NOTE: The string "GET ", the path, " HTTP/1.1", CRLF, the string
        "Upgrade: WebSocket", CRLF, and the string "Connection:



Hickson                  Expires April 16, 2010                [Page 12]

Internet-Draft           The Web Socket protocol            October 2009


         Upgrade", CRLF.

   6.   Send the following bytes:

           48 6F 73 74 3A 20

        Send the /host/ value, converted to ASCII lowercase, and encoded
        as US-ASCII.

        If /secure/ is false, and /port/ is not 80, or if /secure/ is
        true, and /port/ is not 443, then send an 0x3A byte (ASCII :)
        followed by the value of /port/, expressed as a base-ten
        integer, encoded as US-ASCII.

        Send the following bytes:

           0D 0A

        NOTE: The string "Host: ", the host, and CRLF.

   7.   Send the following bytes:

           4F 72 69 67 69 6E 3A 20

        Send the /origin/ value, converted to ASCII lowercase, encoded
        as US-ASCII.  [ORIGIN]

        NOTE: The /origin/ value is a string that was passed to this
        algorithm.

        Send the following bytes:

           0D 0A

        NOTE: The string "Origin: ", the origin, and CRLF.

   8.   If there is no /protocol/, then skip this step.

        Otherwise, send the following bytes:

           57 65 62 53 6F 63 6B 65  74 2D 50 72 6F 74 6F 63
           6F 6C 3A 20

        Send the /protocol/ value, encoded as US-ASCII.

        Send the following bytes:

           0d 0a



Hickson                  Expires April 16, 2010                [Page 13]

Internet-Draft           The Web Socket protocol            October 2009


        NOTE: The string "WebSocket-Protocol: ", the protocol, and CRLF.

   9.   If the client has any authentication information or cookies that
        would be relevant to a resource accessed over HTTP, if /secure/
        is false, or HTTPS, if it is true, on host /host/, port /port/,
        with /resource name/ as the path (and possibly query
        parameters), then HTTP headers that would be appropriate for
        that information should be sent at this point.  [RFC2616]
        [RFC2109] [RFC2965]

        Each header must be on a line of its own (each ending with a CR
        LF sequence).  For the purposes of this step, each header must
        not be split into multiple lines (despite HTTP otherwise
        allowing this with continuation lines).

           EXAMPLE: For example, if the server had a username and
           password that applied to |http://example.com/socket|, and the
           Web Socket was being opened to |ws://example.com/socket|, it
           could send them:

              Authorization: Basic d2FsbGU6ZXZl

   10.  Send the following bytes:

           0d 0a

        NOTE: Just a CRLF (a blank line).

   11.  Read bytes from the server until either the connection closes,
        or a 0x0A byte is read.  Let /header/ be these bytes, including
        the 0x0A byte.

        If /header/ is not at least two bytes long, or if the last two
        bytes aren't 0x0D and 0x0A respectively, then fail the Web
        Socket connection and abort these steps.

        User agents may apply a timeout to this step, failing the Web
        Socket connection if the server does not send back data in a
        suitable time period.

   12.  If /header/ consists of 44 bytes that exactly match the
        following, then let /mode/ be _normal_.

           48 54 54 50 2F 31 2E 31  20 31 30 31 20 57 65 62
           20 53 6F 63 6B 65 74 20  50 72 6F 74 6F 63 6F 6C
           20 48 61 6E 64 73 68 61  6B 65 0D 0A

        NOTE: The string "HTTP/1.1 101 Web Socket Protocol Handshake"



Hickson                  Expires April 16, 2010                [Page 14]

Internet-Draft           The Web Socket protocol            October 2009


        followed by a CRLF pair.

        Otherwise, let /code/ be the substring of /header/ that starts
        from the byte after the first 0x20 byte, and ends with the byte
        before the second 0x20 byte.  If there are not at least two 0x20
        bytes in /header/, then fail the Web Socket connection and abort
        these steps.

        If /code/, interpreted as ASCII, is "401", then let /mode/ be
        _authenticate_.

        Otherwise, fail the Web Socket connection and abort these steps.

   13.  If /mode/ is _normal_, then read 41 bytes from the server.

        If the connection closes before 41 bytes are received, or if the
        41 bytes aren't exactly equal to the following bytes, then fail
        the Web Socket connection and abort these steps.

           55 70 67 72 61 64 65 3A  20 57 65 62 53 6F 63 6B
           65 74 0D 0A 43 6F 6E 6E  65 63 74 69 6F 6E 3A 20
           55 70 67 72 61 64 65 0D  0A

        NOTE: The string "Upgrade: WebSocket", CRLF, the string
        "Connection: Upgrade", CRLF.

        User agents may apply a timeout to this step, failing the Web
        Socket connection if the server does not respond with the above
        bytes within a suitable time period.

        NOTE: This step is skipped if /mode/ is _authenticate_.

   14.  Let /headers/ be a list of name-value pairs, initially empty.

   15.  _Header_: Let /name/ and /value/ be empty byte arrays.

   16.  Read a byte from the server.

        If the connection closes before this byte is received, then fail
        the Web Socket connection and abort these steps.

        Otherwise, handle the byte as described in the appropriate entry
        below:

        -> If the byte is 0x0D (ASCII CR)
           If the /name/ byte array is empty, then jump to the headers
           processing step.  Otherwise, fail the Web Socket connection
           and abort these steps.



Hickson                  Expires April 16, 2010                [Page 15]

Internet-Draft           The Web Socket protocol            October 2009


        -> If the byte is 0x0A (ASCII LF)
           Fail the Web Socket connection and abort these steps.

        -> If the byte is 0x3A (ASCII :)
           Move on to the next step.

        -> If the byte is in the range 0x41 .. 0x5A (ASCII A .. Z)
           Append a byte whose value is the byte's value plus 0x20 to
           the /name/ byte array and redo this step for the next byte.

        -> Otherwise
           Append the byte to the /name/ byte array and redo this step
           for the next byte.

        NOTE: This reads a header name, terminated by a colon,
        converting upper-case ASCII letters to lowercase, and aborting
        if a stray CR or LF is found.

   17.  Read a byte from the server.

        If the connection closes before this byte is received, then fail
        the Web Socket connection and abort these steps.

        Otherwise, handle the byte as described in the appropriate entry
        below:

        -> If the byte is 0x20 (ASCII space)
           Ignore the byte and move on to the next step.

        -> Otherwise
           Treat the byte as described by the list in the next step,
           then move on to that next step for real.

        NOTE: This skips past a space character after the colon, if
        necessary.

   18.  Read a byte from the server.

        If the connection closes before this byte is received, then fail
        the Web Socket connection and abort these steps.

        Otherwise, handle the byte as described in the appropriate entry
        below:

        -> If the byte is 0x0D (ASCII CR)
           Move on to the next step.





Hickson                  Expires April 16, 2010                [Page 16]

Internet-Draft           The Web Socket protocol            October 2009


        -> If the byte is 0x0A (ASCII LF)
           Fail the Web Socket connection and abort these steps.

        -> Otherwise
           Append the byte to the /value/ byte array and redo this step
           for the next byte.

        NOTE: This reads a header value, terminated by a CRLF.

   19.  Read a byte from the server.

        If the connection closes before this byte is received, or if the
        byte is not a 0x0A byte (ASCII LF), then fail the Web Socket
        connection and abort these steps.

        NOTE: This skips past the LF byte of the CRLF after the header.

   20.  Append an entry to the /headers/ list that has the name given by
        the string obtained by interpreting the /name/ byte array as a
        UTF-8 byte stream and the value given by the string obtained by
        interpreting the /value/ byte array as a UTF-8 byte stream.

   21.  Return to the "Header" step above.

   22.  _Headers processing_: Read a byte from the server.

        If the connection closes before this byte is received, or if the
        byte is not a 0x0A byte (ASCII LF), then fail the Web Socket
        connection and abort these steps.

        NOTE: This skips past the LF byte of the CRLF after the blank
        line after the headers.

   23.  If /mode/ is _normal_, then: If there is not exactly one entry
        in the /headers/ list whose name is "websocket-origin", or if
        there is not exactly one entry in the /headers/ list whose name
        is "websocket-location", or if the /protocol/ was specified but
        there is not exactly one entry in the /headers/ list whose name
        is "websocket-protocol", or if there are any entries in the
        /headers/ list whose names are the empty string, then fail the
        Web Socket connection and abort these steps.  Otherwise, handle
        each entry in the /headers/ list as follows:

        -> If the entry's name is "websocket-origin"
           If the value is not exactly equal to /origin/, converted to
           ASCII lowercase, then fail the Web Socket connection and
           abort these steps.  [ORIGIN]




Hickson                  Expires April 16, 2010                [Page 17]

Internet-Draft           The Web Socket protocol            October 2009


        -> If the entry's name is "websocket-location"
           If the value is not exactly equal to a string obtained from
           the steps to construct a Web Socket URL from /host/, /port/,
           /resource name/, and the /secure/ flag, then fail the Web
           Socket connection and abort these steps.

        -> If the entry's name is "websocket-protocol"
           If there was a /protocol/ specified, and the value is not
           exactly equal to /protocol/, then fail the Web Socket
           connection and abort these steps.  (If no /protocol/ was
           specified, the header is ignored.)

        -> If the entry's name is "set-cookie" or "set-cookie2" or
        another cookie-related header name
           Handle the cookie as defined by the appropriate
           specification, with the resource being the one with the host
           /host/, the port /port/, the path (and possibly query
           parameters) /resource name/, and the scheme |http| if
           /secure/ is false and |https| if /secure/ is true.  [RFC2109]
           [RFC2965]

        -> Any other name
           Ignore it.


        If /mode/ is _authenticate_, then: If there is not exactly one
        entry in the /headers/ list whose name is "www-authenticate",
        then fail the Web Socket connection and abort these steps.
        Otherwise, handle each entry in the /headers/ list as follows:

        -> If the entry's name is "www-authenticate"
           Obtain credentials in a manner consistent with the
           requirements for handling the |WWW-Authenticate| header in
           HTTP, and then close the connection (if the server has not
           already done so) and jump back to the step labeled _connect_,
           including the relevant authentication headers in the new
           request.  [RFC2616]

        -> Any other name
           Ignore it.

   24.  The *Web Socket connection is established*.  Now the user agent
        must send and receive to and from the connection as described in
        the next section.







Hickson                  Expires April 16, 2010                [Page 18]

Internet-Draft           The Web Socket protocol            October 2009


4.2.  Data framing

   Once a Web Socket connection is established, the user agent must run
   through the following state machine for the bytes sent by the server.

   1.  Try to read a byte from the server.  Let /frame type/ be that
       byte.

       If no byte could be read because the Web Socket connection is
       closed, then abort.

   2.  Handle the /frame type/ byte as follows:

       If the high-order bit of the /frame type/ byte is set (i.e. if
       /frame type/ _and_ed with 0x80 returns 0x80)
          Run these steps.  If at any point during these steps a read is
          attempted but fails because the Web Socket connection is
          closed, then abort.

          1.  Let /length/ be zero.

          2.  _Length_: Read a byte, let /b/ be that byte.

          3.  Let /b_v/ be integer corresponding to the low 7 bits of
              /b/ (the value you would get by _and_ing /b/ with 0x7F).

          4.  Multiply /length/ by 128, add /b_v/ to that result, and
              store the final result in /length/.

          5.  If the high-order bit of /b/ is set (i.e. if /b/ _and_ed
              with 0x80 returns 0x80), then return to the step above
              labeled _length_.

          6.  Read /length/ bytes.

          7.  Discard the read bytes.

       If the high-order bit of the /frame type/ byte is _not_ set (i.e.
       if /frame type/ _and_ed with 0x80 returns 0x00)
          Run these steps.  If at any point during these steps a read is
          attempted but fails because the Web Socket connection is
          closed, then abort.

          1.  Let /raw data/ be an empty byte array.

          2.  _Data_: Read a byte, let /b/ be that byte.  If the client
              runs out of resources for buffering the incoming data, or
              hits an artificial resource limit intended to avoid



Hickson                  Expires April 16, 2010                [Page 19]

Internet-Draft           The Web Socket protocol            October 2009


              resource starvation, then it must fail the Web Socket
              connection and abort these steps.

          3.  If /b/ is not 0xFF, then append /b/ to /raw data/ and
              return to the previous step (labeled _data_).

          4.  Interpret /raw data/ as a UTF-8 string, and store that
              string in /data/.

          5.  If /frame type/ is 0x00, then *a message has been
              received* with text /data/.  Otherwise, discard the data.

   3.  Return to the first step to read the next byte.

   If the user agent is faced with content that is too large to be
   handled appropriately, then it must fail the Web Socket connection.


   Once a Web Socket connection is established, the user agent must use
   the following steps to *send /data/ using the Web Socket*:

   1.  Send a 0x00 byte to the server.

   2.  Encode /data/ using UTF-8 and send the resulting byte stream to
       the server.

   3.  Send a 0xFF byte to the server.

   If at any point there is a fatal problem with sending data to the
   server, the user agent must fail the Web Socket connection.

4.3.  Closing the connection

   To *fail the Web Socket connection*, the user agent must close the
   Web Socket connection, and may report the problem to the user (which
   would be especially useful for developers).  However, user agents
   must not convey the failure information to the script that attempted
   the connection in a way distinguishable from the Web Socket being
   closed normally.

   Except as indicated above or as specified by the application layer
   (e.g. a script using the Web Socket API), user agents should not
   close the connection.

4.4.  Handling errors in UTF-8

   When a client is to interpret a byte stream as UTF-8 but finds that
   the byte stream is not in fact a valid UTF-8 stream, then any bytes



Hickson                  Expires April 16, 2010                [Page 20]

Internet-Draft           The Web Socket protocol            October 2009


   or sequences of bytes that are not valid UTF-8 sequences must be
   interpreted as a U+FFFD REPLACEMENT CHARACTER.

















































Hickson                  Expires April 16, 2010                [Page 21]

Internet-Draft           The Web Socket protocol            October 2009


5.  Server-side requirements

   _This section only applies to servers._

5.1.  Minimal handshake

   NOTE: This section describes the minimal requirements for a server-
   side implementation of Web Sockets.

   Listen on a port for TCP/IP.  Upon receiving a connection request,
   open a connection and send the following bytes back to the client:

        48 54 54 50 2F 31 2E 31  20 31 30 31 20 57 65 62
        20 53 6F 63 6B 65 74 20  50 72 6F 74 6F 63 6F 6C
        20 48 61 6E 64 73 68 61  6B 65 0D 0A 55 70 67 72
        61 64 65 3A 20 57 65 62  53 6F 63 6B 65 74 0D 0A
        43 6F 6E 6E 65 63 74 69  6F 6E 3A 20 55 70 67 72
        61 64 65 0D 0A

   Send the string "WebSocket-Origin" followed by a U+003A COLON (:) and
   a U+0020 SPACE, followed by the ASCII serialization of the origin
   from which the server is willing to accept connections, followed by a
   CRLF pair (0x0D 0x0A).  [ORIGIN]

      For instance:

           WebSocket-Origin: http://example.com

   Send the string "WebSocket-Location" followed by a U+003A COLON (:)
   and a U+0020 SPACE, followed by the URL of the Web Socket script,
   followed by a CRLF pair (0x0D 0x0A).

      For instance:

           WebSocket-Location: ws://example.com/demo

   NOTE: Do not include the port if it is the default port for Web
   Socket protocol connections of the type in question (80 for
   unencrypted connections and 443 for encrypted connections).

   Send another CRLF pair (0x0D 0x0A).

   Read data from the client until four bytes 0x0D 0x0A 0x0D 0x0A are
   read.  This data must either be discarded or handled as described in
   the following section describing the handshake details.

   If the connection isn't dropped at this point, go to the data framing
   section.



Hickson                  Expires April 16, 2010                [Page 22]

Internet-Draft           The Web Socket protocol            October 2009


5.2.  Handshake details

   The previous section ignores the data that is transmitted by the
   client during the handshake.

   The data sent by the client consists of a number of fields separated
   by CR LF pairs (bytes 0x0D 0x0A).

   The first field consists of three tokens separated by space
   characters (byte 0x20).  The middle token is the path being opened.
   If the server supports multiple paths, then the server should echo
   the value of this field in the initial handshake, as part of the URL
   given on the |WebSocket-Location| line (after the appropriate scheme
   and host).

   If the first field does not have three tokens, the server should
   abort the connection as it probably represents an errorneous client.


   The remaining fields consist of name-value pairs, with the name part
   separated from the value part by a colon and a space (bytes 0x3A
   0x20).  Of these, several are interesting:

   Host (bytes 48 6F 73 74)
      The value gives the hostname that the client intended to use when
      opening the Web Socket.  It would be of interest in particular to
      virtual hosting environments, where one server might serve
      multiple hosts, and might therefore want to return different data.

      The right host has to be output as part of the URL given on the
      |WebSocket-Location| line of the handshake described above, to
      verify that the server knows that it is really representing that
      host.

   Origin (bytes 4F 72 69 67 69 6E)
      The value gives the scheme, hostname, and port (if it's not the
      default port for the given scheme) of the page that asked the
      client to open the Web Socket.  It would be interesting if the
      server's operator had deals with operators of other sites, since
      the server could then decide how to respond (or indeed, _whether_
      to respond) based on which site was requesting a connection.

      If the server supports connections from more than one origin, then
      the server should echo the value of this field in the initial
      handshake, on the |WebSocket-Origin| line.






Hickson                  Expires April 16, 2010                [Page 23]

Internet-Draft           The Web Socket protocol            October 2009


   Other fields
      Other fields can be used, such as "Cookie" or "Authorization", for
      authentication purposes.

   Any fields that lack the colon-space separator should be discarded
   and may cause the server to disconnect.

5.3.  Data framing

   NOTE: This section only describes how to handle content that this
   specification allows user agents to send (text).  It doesn't handle
   any arbitrary content in the same way that the requirements on user
   agents defined earlier handle any content including possible future
   extensions to the protocols.

   The server must run through the following steps to process the bytes
   sent by the client:

   1.  Read a byte from the client.  Assuming everything is going
       according to plan, it will be a 0x00 byte.  If the byte is not a
       0x00 byte, then the server may disconnect.

   2.  Let /raw data/ be an empty byte array.

   3.  _Data_: Read a byte, let /b/ be that byte.

   4.  If /b/ is not 0xFF, then append /b/ to /raw data/ and return to
       the previous step (labeled _data_).

   5.  Interpret /raw data/ as a UTF-8 string, and apply whatever
       server-specific processing is to occur for the resulting string.

   6.  Return to the first step to read the next byte.


   The server must run through the following steps to send strings to
   the client:

   1.  Send a 0x00 byte to the client to indicate the start of a string.

   2.  Encode /data/ using UTF-8 and send the resulting byte stream to
       the client.

   3.  Send a 0xFF byte to the client to indicate the end of the
       message.






Hickson                  Expires April 16, 2010                [Page 24]

Internet-Draft           The Web Socket protocol            October 2009


6.  Closing the connection

   To *close the Web Socket connection*, either the user agent or the
   server closes the TCP/IP connection.  There is no closing handshake.
   Whether the user agent or the server closes the connection, it is
   said that the *Web Socket connection is closed*.

   When a user agent is to close the Web Socket connection, it must drop
   all subsequent data from the server and must act as if the server had
   immediately closed its side of the connection.

   When a user agent notices that the Web Socket connection is closed,
   it must immediately close its side of the connection.

   Servers may close the Web Socket connection whenever desired.

   User agents should not close the Web Socket connection arbitrarily.


































Hickson                  Expires April 16, 2010                [Page 25]

Internet-Draft           The Web Socket protocol            October 2009


7.  Security considerations

   While this protocol is intended to be used by scripts in Web pages,
   it can also be used directly by hosts.  Such hosts are acting on
   their own behalf, and can therefore send fake "Origin" headers,
   misleading the server.  Servers should therefore be careful about
   assuming that they are talking directly to scripts from known
   origins, and must consider that they might be accessed in unexpected
   ways.  In particular, a server should not trust that any input is
   valid.

   EXAMPLE: For example, if the server uses input as part of SQL
   queries, all input text should be escaped before being passed to the
   SQL server, lest the server be susceptible to SQL injection.


   Servers that are not intended to process input from any Web page but
   only for certain sites should verify the "Origin" header is an origin
   they expect, and should only respond with the corresponding
   "WebSocket-Origin" if it is an accepted origin.  Servers that only
   accept input from one origin can just send back that value in the
   "WebSocket-Origin" header, without bothering to check the client's
   value.


   If at any time a server is faced with data that it does not
   understand, or that violates some criteria by which the server
   determines safety of input, or when the server sees a handshake that
   does not correspond to the values the server is expecting (e.g.
   incorrect path or origin), the server should just disconnect.  It is
   always safe to disconnect.




















Hickson                  Expires April 16, 2010                [Page 26]

Internet-Draft           The Web Socket protocol            October 2009


8.  IANA considerations

8.1.  Registration of ws: scheme

   A |ws:| URL identifies a Web Socket server and resource name.

   URI scheme name.
      ws

   Status.
      Permanent.

   URI scheme syntax.
      In ABNF terms using the terminals from the URI specifications:
      [RFC5234] [RFC3986]

           "ws" ":" hier-part [ "?" query ]

      The path and query components form the resource name sent to the
      server to identify the kind of service desired.  Other components
      have the meanings described in RFC3986.

   URI scheme semantics.
      The only operation for this scheme is to open a connection using
      the Web Socket protocol.

   Encoding considerations.
      Characters in the host component that are excluded by the syntax
      defined above must be converted from Unicode to ASCII by applying
      the IDNA ToASCII algorithm to the Unicode host name, with both the
      AllowUnassigned and UseSTD3ASCIIRules flags set, and using the
      result of this algorithm as the host in the URI.  [RFC3490]

      Characters in other components that are excluded by the syntax
      defined above must be converted from Unicode to ASCII by first
      encoding the characters as UTF-8 and then replacing the
      corresponding bytes using their percent-encoded form as defined in
      the URI and IRI specification.  [RFC3986] [RFC3987]

   Applications/protocols that use this URI scheme name.
      Web Socket protocol.

   Interoperability considerations.
      None.







Hickson                  Expires April 16, 2010                [Page 27]

Internet-Draft           The Web Socket protocol            October 2009


   Security considerations.
      See "Security considerations" section above.

   Contact.
      Ian Hickson <ian@hixie.ch>

   Author/Change controller.
      Ian Hickson <ian@hixie.ch>

   References.
      This document.

8.2.  Registration of wss: scheme

   A |wss:| URL identifies a Web Socket server and resource name, and
   indicates that traffic over that connection is to be encrypted.

   URI scheme name.
      wss

   Status.
      Permanent.

   URI scheme syntax.
      In ABNF terms using the terminals from the URI specifications:
      [RFC5234] [RFC3986]

           "wss" ":" hier-part [ "?" query ]

      The path and query components form the resource name sent to the
      server to identify the kind of service desired.  Other components
      have the meanings described in RFC3986.

   URI scheme semantics.
      The only operation for this scheme is to open a connection using
      the Web Socket protocol, encrypted using TLS.

   Encoding considerations.
      Characters in the host component that are excluded by the syntax
      defined above must be converted from Unicode to ASCII by applying
      the IDNA ToASCII algorithm to the Unicode host name, with both the
      AllowUnassigned and UseSTD3ASCIIRules flags set, and using the
      result of this algorithm as the host in the URI.  [RFC3490]

      Characters in other components that are excluded by the syntax
      defined above must be converted from Unicode to ASCII by first
      encoding the characters as UTF-8 and then replacing the
      corresponding bytes using their percent-encoded form as defined in



Hickson                  Expires April 16, 2010                [Page 28]

Internet-Draft           The Web Socket protocol            October 2009


      the URI and IRI specification.  [RFC3986] [RFC3987]

   Applications/protocols that use this URI scheme name.
      Web Socket protocol over TLS.

   Interoperability considerations.
      None.

   Security considerations.
      See "Security considerations" section above.

   Contact.
      Ian Hickson <ian@hixie.ch>

   Author/Change controller.
      Ian Hickson <ian@hixie.ch>

   References.
      This document.

8.3.  Registration of the "WebSocket" HTTP Upgrade keyword

   Name of token.
      WebSocket

   Author/Change controller.
      Ian Hickson <ian@hixie.ch>

   Contact.
      Ian Hickson <ian@hixie.ch>

   References.
      This document.

8.4.  WebSocket-Origin

   This section describes a header field for registration in the
   Permanent Message Header Field Registry.  [RFC3864]

   Header field name
      WebSocket-Origin

   Applicable protocol
      http







Hickson                  Expires April 16, 2010                [Page 29]

Internet-Draft           The Web Socket protocol            October 2009


   Status
      reserved; do not use outside WebSocket handshake

   Author/Change controller
      IETF

   Specification document(s)
      This document is the relevant specification.

   Related information
      None.

8.5.  WebSocket-Protocol

   This section describes a header field for registration in the
   Permanent Message Header Field Registry.  [RFC3864]

   Header field name
      WebSocket-Protocol

   Applicable protocol
      http

   Status
      reserved; do not use outside WebSocket handshake

   Author/Change controller
      IETF

   Specification document(s)
      This document is the relevant specification.

   Related information
      None.

8.6.  WebSocket-Location

   This section describes a header field for registration in the
   Permanent Message Header Field Registry.  [RFC3864]

   Header field name
      WebSocket-Location

   Applicable protocol
      http






Hickson                  Expires April 16, 2010                [Page 30]

Internet-Draft           The Web Socket protocol            October 2009


   Status
      reserved; do not use outside WebSocket handshake

   Author/Change controller
      IETF

   Specification document(s)
      This document is the relevant specification.

   Related information
      None.








































Hickson                  Expires April 16, 2010                [Page 31]

Internet-Draft           The Web Socket protocol            October 2009


9.  Using the Web Socket protocol from other specifications

   The Web Socket protocol is intended to be used by another
   specification to provide a generic mechanism for dynamic author-
   defined content, e.g. in a specification defining a scripted API.

   Such a specification first needs to "establish a Web Socket
   connection", providing that algorithm with:

   o  The destination, consisting of a /host/ and a /port/.

   o  A /resource name/, which allows for multiple services to be
      identified at one host and port.

   o  A /secure/ flag, which is true if the connection is to be
      encrypted, and false otherwise.

   o  An ASCII serialization of an origin that is being made responsible
      for the connection.  [ORIGIN]

   o  Optionally a string identifying a protocol that is to be layered
      over the Web Socket connection.

   The /host/, /port/, /resource name/, and /secure/ flag are usually
   obtained from a URL using the steps to parse a Web Socket URL's
   components.  These steps fail if the URL does not specify a Web
   Socket.

   If a connection can be established, then it is said that the "Web
   Socket connection is established".

   If at any time the connection is to be closed, then the specification
   needs to use the "close the Web Socket connection" algorithm.

   When the connection is closed, for any reason including failure to
   establish the connection in the first place, it is said that the "Web
   Socket connection is closed".

   While a connection is open, the specification will need to handle the
   cases when "a Web Socket message has been received" with text /data/.

   To send some text /data/ to an open connection, the specification
   needs to "send /data/ using the Web Socket".








Hickson                  Expires April 16, 2010                [Page 32]

Internet-Draft           The Web Socket protocol            October 2009


10.  Normative References

   [HTML5]    Hickson, I., "HTML5", October 2009.

   [ORIGIN]   Barth, A., Jackson, C., and I. Hickson, "The HTTP Origin
              Header", September 2009.

   [RFC2109]  Kristol, D. and L. Montulli, "HTTP State Management
              Mechanism", RFC 2109, February 1997.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC2246]  Dierks, T. and C. Allen, "The TLS Protocol Version 1.0",
              RFC 2246, January 1999.

   [RFC2616]  Fielding, R., Gettys, J., Mogul, J., Frystyk, H.,
              Masinter, L., Leach, P., and T. Berners-Lee, "Hypertext
              Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1", RFC 2616, June 1999.

   [RFC2965]  Kristol, D. and L. Montulli, "HTTP State Management
              Mechanism", RFC 2965, October 2000.

   [RFC3490]  Faltstrom, P., Hoffman, P., and A. Costello,
              "Internationalizing Domain Names in Applications (IDNA)",
              RFC 3490, March 2003.

   [RFC3629]  Yergeau, F., "UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO
              10646", STD 63, RFC 3629, November 2003.

   [RFC3864]  Klyne, G., Nottingham, M., and J. Mogul, "Registration
              Procedures for Message Header Fields", BCP 90, RFC 3864,
              September 2004.

   [RFC3986]  Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform
              Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66,
              RFC 3986, January 2005.

   [RFC3987]  Duerst, M. and M. Suignard, "Internationalized Resource
              Identifiers (IRIs)", RFC 3987, January 2005.

   [RFC5234]  Crocker, D. and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax
              Specifications: ABNF", STD 68, RFC 5234, January 2008.

   [WEBADDRESSES]
              Connolly, D. and C. Sperberg-McQueen, "Web addresses in
              HTML 5", May 2009.




Hickson                  Expires April 16, 2010                [Page 33]

Internet-Draft           The Web Socket protocol            October 2009


   [WSAPI]    Hickson, I., "The Web Sockets API", October 2009.


















































Hickson                  Expires April 16, 2010                [Page 34]

Internet-Draft           The Web Socket protocol            October 2009


Author's Address

   Ian Hickson
   Google, Inc.

   Email: ian@hixie.ch
   URI:   http://ln.hixie.ch/












































Hickson                  Expires April 16, 2010                [Page 35]


Html markup produced by rfcmarkup 1.108, available from http://tools.ietf.org/tools/rfcmarkup/