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Versions: 00 01 02 RFC 4705

INTERNET DRAFT                               R. Housley (Vigil Security)
Informational                                        A. Corry (GigaBeam)
Expires October 2006                                          April 2006


               GigaBeam High-Speed Radio Link Encryption
           <draft-housley-gigabeam-radio-link-encrypt-00.txt>


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Abstract

   This document describes the encryption and key management used by
   GigaBeam as part of the WiFiber(tm) family of radio link products.
   The security solution is documented in the hope that other wireless
   product development efforts will include comparable capabilities.









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1.  Introduction

   The GigaBeam WiFiber(tm) product family provides a high-speed point-
   to-point radio link.  Data rates exceed 1 gigabit/second at a
   distance of about a mile.  GigaBeam links have very low probability
   of interception due to a narrow transmission beam-width (less than
   one degree), even so, some customers require confidentiality and
   integrity protection for the data on the radio link.  This document
   describes the security solution designed and deployed by GigaBeam to
   provide these security services.

   The GigaBeam security solution employs:

     o  AES-GCM [GCM] with a custom security protocol to provide
        confidentiality and integrity protection of subscriber
        traffic on the radio link;

     o  AES-CBC [CBC] and HMAC-SHA-1 [HMAC] with IPsec ESP [ESP] to
        provide confidentiality and integrity protection of management
        traffic between the radio control modules;

     o  AES-CBC [CBC] and HMAC-SHA-1 [HMAC] with IKE [IKE] to provide
        confidentiality and integrity protection of key management
        traffic between the radio control modules; and

     o  OAKLEY key agreement [OAKLEY] and RSA digital signatures [PKCS1]
        with IKE to provide automated key management.

2.  GigaBeam High-Speed Radio Link Overview

   The GigaBeam high-speed radio link transparently provides a fiber
   interface to two network devices.  Figure 1 illustrates the
   connection of two devices that normally communicate using Gigabit
   Ethernet over a fiber optic cable.


     +---------+     +----------+        +----------+     +---------+
     |         |     |          +----/   |          |     |         |
     | Network |     | GigaBeam |   /    | GigaBeam |     | Network |
     | Device  +=====+  Radio   |  /---- +  Radio   +=====+ Device  |
     |         |     |          |        |          |     |         |
     +---------+  ^  +----------+   ^    +----------+  ^  +---------+
                  |                 |                  |
                  |                 |                  |
          Gigabit Ethernet          |          Gigabit Ethernet
                           GigaBeam Radio Link

                  Figure 1.  GigaBeam Radio Link Example.



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   Gigabit Ethernet traffic encoded in 8B/10B format.  The GigaBeam
   Radio Control Module (RCM) decodes the data to recover the 8-bit
   characters plus an indication of whether the character is a control
   code.  The radio link frame is constructed from 224 10-bit input
   words, and a 4-way interleaved (56,50,10) Reed Solomon Forward Error
   Correction block is employed.  Conversion of the Gigabit Ethernet
   data from 8B/10B format creates 224-bits of additional capacity in
   each frame, and another 196 bits is gained by recoding the 9-bit data
   using 64B/65B block codes.  This additional 420 bits of capacity is
   used for the framing overhead required for FEC and link control.

   The fields are summarized in Figure 2, which also provides the length
   of each field in bits.


      Field   Length   Description
      -----   ------   -----------
      SYNC       11    Frame Synchronization Pattern ('10110111000'b)
      KEYSEL      1    Indicates which AES key was used for this frame
      PN         40    AES-GCM Packet Number
      FLAGS      28    Control bits, one bit for each 64B/65B data block
      DCC         8    Data Communications Channel
      DATA     1792    Data (28 encrypted 64B/65B code blocks)
      TAG        96    Authentication Tag
      SPARE      24    Reserved for alternative FEC algorithms
      CHECK     240    Reed-Solomon Check Words for 4 10-bit
                       symbol (56,50) code

              Figure 2.  GigaBeam Radio Link Frame Structure.


   Each of the fields in the GigaBeam 2240-bit radio link frame are
   described below.

      SYNC     Synchronization field, an 11-bit Barker code.  Always set
               to '10110111000'b.

      KEYSEL   Key Selector -- select the appropriate key register for
               this frame.  Two key registers are maintained to allow
               seamless rollover between encryption keys.

      PN       Packet Number -- needed by AES-GCM; it carries the unique
               counter value for this frame.  The value is incremented
               for each frame.







Housley & Corry                                                 [Page 3]

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      FLAGS    Control bits, one for each 64B/65B data block carried in
               the DATA field.  If the bit is set, then the
               corresponding 64B/65B block in the DATA field contains a
               control code.  This field is integrity protected by
               AES-GCM.

      DCC      Data Communications Channel -- each frame carries one
               octet of the point-to-point data communications channel
               between the two radio control modules.  The Internet
               Protocol (IP) is used on the resulting management
               network.

      DATA     Subscriber data carried as 28 64B/65B code blocks.  This
               field is encrypted and integrity protected by AES-GCM.

      TAG      The authentication tag generated by AES-GCM, truncated to
               96 bits.

      SPARE    24 bits, set to zero.

      CHECK    Forward error correction check value -- 24 check symbols
               are generated by a 4-way interleaved Reed-Solomon
               (56,50,10) algorithm.  FEC is always active, but
               correction can be selectively enabled.  For each frame,
               FEC processing also returns the number of bit errors, the
               number of symbols in error, and whether the FEC
               processing failed for the frame.  This information allows
               an estimation of the bit error rate for the link.

2.  Radio Link Processing

   The fiber interface constantly provides a stream of data encoded in
   8B/10B format.  A radio link frame is constructed from 224 10-bit
   input words.  Conversion of the data from 8B/10B format creates
   224-bits of additional capacity in each frame, and then recoding
   using 64B/65B block codes creates another 196 bits of additional
   capacity.  After encryption, the 64B/65B blocks are carried in the
   DATA field, and the control code indicator bits are carried in the
   FLAGS field. The additional capacity is used for the framing
   overhead.

   The framing overhead DCC field contains a single octet of the point-
   to-point data communications channel between the two GigaBeam RCMs.
   IP is used on data control channel.  IKE [IKE] runs on this two-node
   IP network to manage all cryptographic keying material.  IPsec ESP
   [ESP] is used in the usual fashion to protect all non-IKE traffic on
   the data control channel.  IPsec ESP employs AES-CBC as described in
   [ESP-CBC] and HMAC-SHA1 as described in [ESP-HMAC].



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   Processing proceeds as follows:

     o  encryption and integrity protection as described in section 2.1;

     o  forward error correction (FEC) processing as described in
        section 2.2;

     o  scrambling as described in section 2.3; and

     o  differential encoding as described in section 2.4.

2.1.  Encryption and Integrity Protection

   The GigaBeam RCM contains two key registers.  The single-bit KEYSEL
   field indicates which of the two registers was used for the frame.

   AES-GCM [GCM] employs counter mode for encryption.  Therefore, a
   unique value for each frame is needed to construct the counter.  The
   same value must not be used for more than one frame encrypted with
   the same key.  The PN field carries this unique 40-bit value.

   AES-GCM is used to protect the FLAGS and DATA fields.  The FLAGS
   field is treated as authenticated header data, and it is integrity
   protected, but it is not encrypted.  The DATA field is encrypted and
   authenticated.  The TAG field contains the authentication tag
   generated by AES-GCM, truncated to 96 bits.

   Reception processing performs decryption and integrity checking.  If
   the integrity checks fail, to maintain a continuous stream of
   traffic, the frame is replaced with to K30.7 control characters.
   These control characters are normally used to mark errors in the data
   stream.  Without encryption and integrity checking these control
   characters usually indicate parity or code errors.

2.2.  Forward Error Correction (FEC)

   The GigaBeam RCM implements a Reed Solomon Code, RS(56,50), designed
   for 10-bit symbols.  The 224 10-bit data symbols that make up each
   radio link frame, which contains the encrypted data payload and the
   framing overhead fields, are grouped into 4 sub-frames each
   consisting of 56 symbols.  The sub-frames are formed by symbol
   interleaving.

   This Reed Solomon Code detects 6 errors and corrects 3 errors within
   each sub-frame.  The FEC function is always active; however, it is
   possible to disable correction of the received data to support
   debugging.




Housley & Corry                                                 [Page 5]

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2.3.  Scrambler

   The scrambling polynomial is (1 + x^14 + x^15).  All words of a frame
   except the SYNC pattern are scrambled prior to transmission using
   this linear feedback shift register (LFSR).  The LFSR is initialized
   to all ones at the start of each frame, prior to the first processed
   bit.  Each processed input bit is added modulo 2 (i.e., an XOR) to
   the output of the x15 tap to form the output bit.

   On reception, an identical process is performed after frame
   synchronization and prior to subsequent processing to recover the
   original bit pattern.

2.4.  Differential Encoding

   The data stream is differentially encoded to avoid symbol ambiguity
   at the receiver.  Since the demodulator could produce true or
   inverted data depending on the details of the RF and IF processing
   chains, differential encoding is used to ensure proper reception of
   the intended bit value.  A zero bit is encoded as no change from the
   previous output bit, and a one bit is encoded as a change from the
   previous output bit.  Thus, an output bit is the result of XORing the
   unencoded bit with the previously transmitted encoded bit.

   On reception, a complementary operation will be performed to produce
   the decoded datastream.  The bitstream is formed by XORing the
   received encoded bit and the previously received encoded bit.

3.  Key Management

   The Internet Key Exchange (IKE) is used for key management [IKE].
   IKE has two phases.  In Phase 1, two ISAKMP peers establish a secure,
   authenticated channel with which to communicate.  This is called the
   ISAKMP Security Association (SA).  In the GigaBeam environment, the
   phase 1 exchange is IKE Aggressive Mode with signatures and
   certificates.  Figure 3 illustrates the Aggressive Mode message
   exchange using the notation in [IKE].  The RSA signature algorithm is
   used to generate the signed data, SIG_I or SIG_R.


      Initiator                                               Responder
      ---------                                               ---------
      HDR, SA, KE, Ni, IDii   --->
                              <---   HDR, SA, KE, Nr, IDir, CERT, SIG_R
      HDR, CERT, SIG_I        --->

       Figure 3.  Aggressive Mode with Signatures and Certificates.




Housley & Corry                                                 [Page 6]

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   Phase 2 negotiates the Security Associations for the GigaBeam custom
   security protocol that protects subscriber traffic and IPsec ESP that
   protects the management traffic between the radio control modules.
   In the GigaBeam environment, the phase 2 exchange is IKE Quick Mode,
   without perfect forward secrecy (PFS).  The information exchanged
   along with Quick Mode is be protected by the ISAKMP SA.  That is, all
   payloads except the ISAKMP header are encrypted.  Figure 4
   illustrates the Quick Mode message exchange using the notation in
   [IKE].  A detailed description can be found in Section 5.5 of [IKE].


      Initiator                                               Responder
      ---------                                               ---------
      HDR*, HASH(1), SA, Ni
        [, IDci, IDcr ]    --->
                           <---   HDR*, HASH(2), SA, Nr [, IDci, IDcr ]
      HDR*, HASH(3)        --->

                    Figure 4.  Quick Mode without PFS.


   When the Security Association is no longer needed, the ISAKMP Delete
   Payload is used to tell the peer GigaBeam device that it is being
   discarded.  Figure 5 illustrates the ISAKMP Notify or Delete Payload
   using the notation in [IKE].


      Initiator                                               Responder
      ---------                                               ---------
      HDR*, HASH(1), N/D    --->

                Figure 5.  ISAKMP Notify or Delete Payload


3.1.  Certificates

   Each GigaBeam device generates its own public/private key pair.  This
   generation is performed at the factory, and the public key is
   certified by a Certification Authority (CA) in the factory.  The
   certificate includes a name of the following format:

      C=US
      O=GigaBeam Corporation
      OU=GigaBeam WiFiber(tm)
      SerialNumber=<device-model-identifier>/<device-serial-number>






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   The ISAKMP Certificate Payload is used to transport certificates, and
   in the GigaBeam environment, the "X.509 Certificate - Signature"
   certificate encoding type (indicated by a value of 4) is always used.

   GigaBeam devices are always installed in pairs.  At installation
   time, each one is configured with the device model identifier and
   device serial number of its peer.  The device model identifier and
   device serial number of a backup device can also be provided.  An
   access control check is performed when certificates are exchanged.
   The certificate subject name must match one of these configured
   values, and the certification path must validate to the GigaBeam Root
   CA using the validation rules in [PKIX1].

3.2.  Oakley Groups

   With IKE, several possible Diffie-Hellman groups are supported.
   These groups originated with the Oakley protocol and are therefore
   called "Oakley Groups".

   GigaBeam devices use group 14, which is described in section 3 of
   [MODP].

3.3.  Security Protocol Identifier

   The ISAKMP proposal syntax was specifically designed to allow for the
   simultaneous negotiation of multiple Phase 2 security protocol
   suites.  The identifiers for the IPsec Domain of Interpretation (DOI)
   are given in [IPDOI].

   The GigaBeam custom security protocol has been assigned the
   PROTO_GIGABEAM_RADIO protocol identifier, with a value of TBD.

   The PROTO_GIGABEAM_RADIO specifies the use of the GigaBeam radio link
   frame structure, which uses a single algorithm for both
   confidentiality and authentication.  The following table indicates
   the algorithm values that are currently defined.

      Transform ID                      Value
      ------------                      -----
      RESERVED                            0
      GIGABEAM_AES128_GCM                 1

3.4.  Keying Material

   GIGABEAM_AES128_GCM requires 20 octets of keying material (called
   KEYMAT in [IKE]).  The first 16 octets are the 128-bit AES key, and
   the remaining four octets are used as the salt value in the AES
   counter block.



Housley & Corry                                                 [Page 8]

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3.5.  Identification Type Values

   The following table lists the assigned values for the Identification
   Type field found in the ISAKMP Identification Payload.

      ID Type                           Value
      -------                           -----
      RESERVED                            0
      ID_IPV4_ADDR                        1
      ID_FQDN                             2
      ID_USER_FQDN                        3
      ID_IPV4_ADDR_SUBNET                 4
      ID_IPV6_ADDR                        5
      ID_IPV6_ADDR_SUBNET                 6
      ID_IPV4_ADDR_RANGE                  7
      ID_IPV6_ADDR_RANGE                  8
      ID_DER_ASN1_DN                      9
      ID_DER_ASN1_GN                     10
      ID_KEY_ID                          11

   The ID_DER_ASN1_DN will be used when negotiating security
   associations for use with the GigaBeam custom security protocol.  The
   provided distinguished name must match the peer's subject name
   provided in the X.509 certificate.

3.6.  Security Parameter Index

   The least significant bit of the Security Parameter Index (SPI) is
   used in the GigaBeam custom security protocol.  When two GigaBeam
   custom security protocol security associations are active at the same
   time for communications in the same direction, the least significant
   bit of the SPI must be different to ensure that these active security
   associations can be distinguished by the single bit in the GigaBeam
   custom security protocol.

4.  Security Considerations

   The security consideration in [IKE], [OAKLEY], [PKCS1], and [ESP]
   apply to the security system defined in this document.

   Confidentiality and integrity are provided by the use of negotiated
   algorithms.  AES-GCM [GCM] is used with the GigaBeam custom security
   protocol to provide confidentiality and integrity protection of
   subscriber traffic on the radio link.  AES-CBC [CBC] and HMAC-SHA-1
   [HMAC] are used with IPsec ESP [ESP] to provide confidentiality and
   integrity protection of management traffic between the radio control
   modules.




Housley & Corry                                                 [Page 9]

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   Repeated re-keying using Quick Mode increases the amount of traffic
   that will be exposed by disclosing the Diffie-Hellman shared secret.
   Therefore, the number of Quick Mode Exchanges between exponentiations
   should not exceed 48.  Implementations should perform a fresh Phase 1
   exchange before this limit is exceeded.

   Diffie-Hellman exponents used in IKE Phase 1 should be erased from
   memory immediately after use.

5.  Informative References

   [ESP]      Kent, S. and R. Atkinson, "IP Encapsulating
              Security Payload (ESP)", RFC 2406, November 1998.

   [ESP-CBC]  Frankel, S., Glenn, R., and S. Kelly, "The AES-CBC
              Cipher Algorithm and Its Use with IPsec", RFC 3602,
              September 2003.

   [ESP-HMAC] Madson, C., and R. Glenn, "The Use of HMAC-SHA-1-96
              within ESP and AH", RFC 2404, November 1998.

   [GCM]      McGrew, D. and J. Viega, "The Galois/Counter Mode of
              Operation (GCM)", Submission to NIST. http://
              csrc.nist.gov/CryptoToolkit/modes/proposedmodes/gcm/
              gcm-spec.pdf, January 2004.
              [ Soon: NIST SP 800-38D. ]

   [HMAC]     Krawczyk, H., Bellare, M., and R. Canetti, "HMAC:
              Keyed-Hashing for Message Authentication", RFC 2104,
              February 1997.

   [IKE]      Harkins, D. and D. Carrel, "The Internet Key Exchange
              (IKE)", RFC 2409, November 1998.

   [IPDOI]    Piper, D., "The Internet IP Security Domain of
              Interpretation for ISAKMP", RFC 2407, November 1998.

   [MODP]     Kivinen, T., and M. Kojo. "More Modular Exponential (MODP)
              Diffie-Hellman groups for Internet Key Exchange (IKE)",
              RFC 3526, May 2003.

   [OAKLEY]   Orman, H., "The Oakley Key Determination Protocol",
              RFC 2412, November 1998.

   [PKCS1]    Kaliski, B., "PKCS #1: RSA Encryption Version 1.5",
              RFC 2313, March 1998.





Housley & Corry                                                [Page 10]

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   [PKIX1]    Housley, R., Polk, W., Ford, W. and D. Solo, "Internet
              X.509 Public Key Infrastructure Certificate and
              Certificate Revocation List (CRL) Profile", RFC 3280,
              April 2002.

6.  IANA Considerations

   IANA has assigned one IPsec Security Protocol Identifier in
   http://www.iana.org/assignments/isakmp-registry for
   PROTO_GIGABEAM_RADIO.  It was assigned the value TBD.

7.  Acknowledgements

   The authors thank Bob Sutherland and Dave Marcellas for their
   contributions and review.

Authors' Addresses

   Russell Housley
   Vigil Security, LLC
   918 Spring Knoll Drive
   Herndon, VA 20170
   USA
   EMail: housley <at> vigilsec <dot> com

   Alan Corry
   GigaBeam Corporation
   470 Springpark Place, Suite 900
   Herndon, VA 20170
   EMail: acorry <at> gigabeam <dot> com

Copyright Statement

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2006).

   This document is subject to the rights, licenses and restrictions
   contained in BCP 78, and except as set forth therein, the authors
   retain all their rights.

   This document and the information contained herein are provided on an
   "AS IS" basis and THE CONTRIBUTOR, THE ORGANIZATION HE/SHE REPRESENTS
   OR IS SPONSORED BY (IF ANY), THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET
   ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED,
   INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE
   INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED
   WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.





Housley & Corry                                                [Page 11]


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