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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 RFC 5121

Network Working Group                                   Basavaraj. Patil
Internet-Draft                                                     Nokia
Intended status: Standards Track                              Frank. Xia
Expires: April 26, 2007                                 Behcet. Sarikaya
                                                              Huawei USA
                                                                JH. Choi
                                                             Samsung AIT
                                                       Syam. Madanapalli
                                                               LogicaCMG
                                                        October 23, 2006


         IPv6 Over IPv6 Convergence sublayer in 802.16 Networks
                  draft-ietf-16ng-ipv6-over-ipv6cs-01

Status of this Memo

   By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any
   applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware
   have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes
   aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section 6 of BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that
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   Drafts.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
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   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt.

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   http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.

   This Internet-Draft will expire on April 26, 2007.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2006).

Abstract

   The IEEE 802.16d/e has specified several convergence sublayers which
   are a part of the MAC that can be used for carrying IPv6 packets.



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   The IPv6 convergence sublayer enables transport of IPv6 packets
   directly over the MAC.  Between the 802.16d/e host and the base
   station IPv6 packets are carried over a MAC layer transport
   connection which is a virtual point-to-point link.  This document
   specifies the addressing and operation of IPv6 hosts served by a
   network that utilizes the 802.16d/e air interface.  It recommends the
   assignment of a unique prefix to each host and allow the host to use
   multiple identifiers within that prefix, including support for
   randomly generated identifiers.


Table of Contents

   1.  Conventions used in this document  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   3.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   4.  IEEE 802.16d/e convergence sublayer support for IPv6 . . . . .  4
   5.  Generic network architecture using the 802.16d/e air
       interface  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     5.1.  WiMAX network architecture and IPv6 support  . . . . . . .  6
   6.  IPv6 link  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     6.1.  IPv6 link in 802.16  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
       6.1.1.  IPv6 link in WiMAX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     6.2.  IPv6 link establishment in 802.16  . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
       6.2.1.  IPv6 link establishment in WiMAX . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     6.3.  Maximum transmission unit in 802.16  . . . . . . . . . . .  9
       6.3.1.  Maximum transmission unit in WiMAX . . . . . . . . . . 10
   7.  IPv6 prefix assignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   8.  Router Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     8.1.  Router Solictation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     8.2.  Router Advertisement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     8.3.  Router lifetime and periodic router advertisements . . . . 11
   9.  IPv6 addressing for hosts  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     9.1.  Interface Identifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     9.2.  Duplicate address detection  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     9.3.  Stateless address autoconfiguration  . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     9.4.  Stateful address autoconfiguration . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   10. IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   11. Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   12. Acknowledgments  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   13. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     13.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     13.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 15






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1.  Conventions used in this document

   In this document, the key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED",
   "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT
   RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" are to be interpreted as
   described in BCP 14, RFC 2119 [RFC2119] and indicate requirement
   levels for compliant implementations.


2.  Introduction

   IPv6 transport over the IEEE 802.16d/e specified air interface can be
   accomplished via either the IPv6 convergence sublayer or the Ethernet
   convergence sublayer.  The 802.16d/e [802.16e] specification includes
   the Phy and MAC details.  The convergence sublayers are a part of the
   MAC.  This document specifies IPv6 from the perspective of the IPv6
   convergence sublayer.  The mobile station/host is attached to an
   access router via a base station (BS).  The host and the BS are
   conected via the 802.16d/e at the link and physical layers.  The IPv6
   layer terminates at an access router which may be a part of the BS or
   an entity beyond the BS.  The base station is a layer 2 entity and
   relays the IPv6 packets between the AR and the host via a point-to-
   point connection over the air interface.  The WiMAX (Worldwide
   Interoperability for Microwave Access) forum has defined a network
   architecture in which the air interface is based on the 802.16d/e
   standard.  The addressing and operation of IPv6 described in this
   document is applicable to the WiMAX network as well.


3.  Terminology

   The terminology is based on the definitions used in the network
   architecture specified by the WiMAX forum.

   BS - The Base Station (BS) is a logical entity that embodies a full
   instance of the 802.16d/e MAC and PHY in compliance with the IEEE
   802.16 suite of applicable standards.  It provides the layer 1/2
   connectivity between the network and the MS.

   MS - The mobile station is an IPv6 host that connects to the AR in
   the network via an 802.16d/e module.

   Transport Connection - 802.16 MAC is connection oriented.  Several
   types of connections are defined and these include broadcast, unicast
   and multicast.  Each connection is uniquely identified by a 16 bit
   connection identifier (CID).  A transport connection is a unicast
   connection intended for user traffic.  A transport connection is
   identified by an uplink and downlink CID.  The scope of the transport



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   connection is between the MS and the BS.

   Access Service Network (ASN) - The ASN is defined as a complete set
   of network functions needed to provide radio access to a WiMAX
   subscriber.  The ASN is the access network to which the MS attaches.
   The IPv6 access router is an entity within the ASN.

   Access Router (AR) - The Access router is the 1st hop default IPv6
   router from the perspective of the MS.  The AR is an entity that can
   be an integral part of the BS or a separate entity within the access
   network.


4.  IEEE 802.16d/e convergence sublayer support for IPv6

   IEEE 802.16d/e has specified multiple convergence sublayers (CS) in
   the MAC.  The convergence sublayers and MAC specifications are
   available in [802.16e].  IPv6 can be implemented in two ways:

   1.  Over the IPv6 convergence sublayer or
   2.  Over Ethernet (which runs over Ethernet CS).

   The figure below shows the options for IPv6 implementation in WiMAX:


           --------------            ---------------
           |  IPv6      |            |   IPV6      |
           --------------            ---------------
           |   IPv6 CS  |            | Ethernet    |
           | .......... |            ---------------
           |    MAC     |            | Ethernet CS |
           --------------            | ........... |
           |    PHY     |            |   MAC       |
           --------------            ---------------
             IPv6 over IPv6 CS       |   PHY       |
                                     ---------------
                                      IPv6 over Ethernet

               Figure 1: IPv6 over IPv6 CS and over Ethernet

   The scope of this document is limited to IPv6 operation over IPv6 CS
   only.


5.  Generic network architecture using the 802.16d/e air interface

   In a network that utilizes the 802.16d/e air interface the host/MS is
   attached to an IPv6 access router (AR) in the network.  The BS is a



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   layer 2 entity only.  The AR can be an integral part of the BS or the
   AR could be an entity beyond the BS within the access network.  IPv6
   packets between the MS and BS are carried over a transport connection
   which has a unique connection identifier (CID).  The transport
   connection is a MAC layer link between the MS and the BS.  The
   figures below describe the possible network architectures and are
   generic in nature.  More esoteric architectures are possible but not
   considered in the scope of this document.  Option A:



           +-----+    CID1     +--------------+
           | MS1 |------------/|     BS/AR    |-----[Internet]
           +-----+           / +--------------+
              .         /---/
              .     CIDn
           +-----+    /
           | MSn |---/
           +-----+


            Figure 2: The IPv6 AR as an integral part of the BS

   Option B:




         +-----+   CID1    +-----+          +-----------+
         | MS1 |----------/| BS1 |----------|     AR    |-----[Internet]
         +-----+         / +-----+          +-----------+
            .           /        ____________
            .     CIDn /        ()__________()
         +-----+      /            L2 Tunnel
         | MSn |-----/
         +-----+


   Figure 3: The IPv6 AR is separate from the BS, which acts as a bridge

   The above network models serve as examples and are shown to
   illustrate the point to point link between the MS and the AR.  The
   next section shows a realization of the generic architecture by the
   WiMAX forum.







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5.1.  WiMAX network architecture and IPv6 support

   The WiMAX network architecture consists of the Access Service Network
   (ASN) and the Connectivity Service Network (CSN).  The ASN is the
   access network which includes the BS and the AR in addition to other
   functions such as AAA, Mobile IP Foreign agent, Paging controller,
   Location Register etc.  The CSN is the entity that provides
   connectivity to the Internet and includes functions such as Mobile IP
   Home agent and AAA.  The figure below shows the WiMAX reference
   model:



                        -------------------
                        | ----      ASN   |                    |----|
         ----           | |BS|\ R6 -------|    |---------|     | CSN|
         |MS|-----R1----| ---- \---|ASN-GW| R3 |  CSN    | R5  |    |
         ----           |  |R8  /--|------|----|         |-----|Home|
                        | ---- /          |    |  visited|     | NSP|
                        | |BS|/           |    |   NSP   |     |    |
                        | ----            |    |---------|     |    |
                        |       NAP       |         \          |----|
                        -------------------          \---|        /
                                |                        |       /
                                |                     (--|------/----)
                                |R4                  (                )
                                |                   (      ASP network )
                            ---------                ( or Internet    )
                            |  ASN  |                 (              )
                            ---------                   (----------)



                  Figure 4: WiMAX Network reference model

   Three different types of ASN realizations called profiles are defined
   by the architecture.  ASNs of profile types A and C include BS' and
   ASN-gateway(s) which are connected to each other via an R6 interface.
   An ASN of profile type B is one in which the functionality of the BS
   and other ASN functions are merged together.  No ASN-GW is
   specifically defined in a profile B ASN.  However all the functions
   of an ASN such as the MIP4 FA, AAA, AR exist within the scope of an
   ASN.  The absence of the R6 interface is also a profile B specific
   characteristic.  The MS at the IPv6 layer is associated with the AR
   in the ASN.  The AR may be a function of the ASN-GW in the case of
   profiles A and C and is a function in the ASN in the case of profile
   B. When the BS and the AR are separate entities and linked via the R6
   interface, IPv6 packets between the BS and the AR are carried over a



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   GRE tunnel.  The granularity of the GRE tunnel can be on a per flow
   basis, per MS basis or on a BS basis.  The protocol stack in WiMAX
   for IPv6 is shown below:


   |-------|
   | App   |- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -(to app peer)
   |       |
   |-------|                                   /------      -------
   |       |                                  / IPv6 |      |     |
   | IPv6  |- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -  /       |      |     |-->
   |       |      ---------------    -------/        |      | IPv6|
   |-------|      |    \Relay/  |    |      |        |- - - |     |
   |       |      |     \   /   |    | GRE  |        |      |     |
   |       |      |      \ /GRE | -  |      |        |      |     |
   |       |- - - |       |-----|    |------|        |      |     |
   | IPv6CS|      |IPv6CS | IP  | -  | IP   |        |      |     |
   | ..... |      |...... |-----|    |------|--------|      |-----|
   |  MAC  |      | MAC   | L2  | -  | L2   |  L2    |- - - | L2  |
   |-------|      |------ |-----|    |----- |--------|      |-----|
   |  PHY  |- - - | PHY   | L1  | -  | L1   |  L1    |- - - | L1  |
    --------      ---------------    -----------------      -------

      MS             BS                   AR/ASN-GW          CSN Rtr



                      Figure 5: WiMAX protocol stack

   As can be seen from the protocol stack description, the IPv6 end-
   points are constituted in the MS and the AR.  The BS provides lower
   layer connectivity for the IPv6 link.


6.  IPv6 link

   RFC 2461 defines link as a communication facility or medium over
   which nodes can communicate at the link layer, i.e., the layer
   immediately below IP [RFC2461].  Usually a link is bounded by routers
   that decrement TTL.  When an MS moves within a link, it can keep
   using its IP addresses.  This is a layer 3 definition and note that
   the definition is not identical with the definition of the term '(L2)
   link' in IEEE 802 standards.  This section presents a model for the
   last mile link, i.e. the link to which MSs attach themselves.







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6.1.  IPv6 link in 802.16

   For 802.16 network, following the 3GPP precedent [RFC3314], point-to-
   point link model is recommended.  In 802.16, there exists L2 layer
   Transport Connection between an MS and a BS over which packets are
   transferred.  A Transport Connection is represented by CID
   (Connection Identifier) and multiple Transport Connections can be
   assigned to an MS.

   When an AR and a BS is collocated, the collection of Transport
   Connections to an MS is defined as a single link.  When an AR and a
   BS is separated, it is recommended that a tunnel is established
   between the AR and a BS whose granuality is no greater than 'per MS'.
   Then the tunnel(s) for an MS, in combination with the MS's Transport
   Connections, forms a single point-to-point link.

6.1.1.  IPv6 link in WiMAX

   The MS and the AR are connected via a combination of :

   1.  The transport connection which is identified by a Connection
       Identifier (CID) over the air interface, i.e the MS and BS and,
   2.  A GRE tunnel between the BS and AR which transports the IPv6
       packets

   From an IPv6 perspective the MS and the AR are connected by a point-
   to-point link.  The combination of transport connection over the air
   interface and the GRE tunnel between the BS and AR creates a (point-
   to-point) tunnel at the layer below IPv6.

   The collection of service flows (tunnels) to an MS is defined as a
   single link.  Each link has only an MS and an AR.  Each MS belongs to
   a different link.  No two MSs belong to the same link.  A different
   prefix should be assigned to a different link.  This link is fully
   consistent with a standard IP link, without exception and conforms
   with the definition of a point-to-point link in RFC2461 [RFC2461].

6.2.  IPv6 link establishment in 802.16

   The MS goes through the network entry procedure as specified by
   802.16d/e.  At a high level the network entry procedure can be
   described as follows:

   1.  MS performs initial ranging with the BS.  Ranging is a process by
       which an MS becomes time aligned with the BS.  The MS is
       synchronized with the BS at the succesful completion of ranging
       and is ready to setup a connection.




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   2.  The MS does capability exchange with the BS.  As part of this
       step, the MS indicates its capability which includes support for
       IPv6 convergence sublayer among others.
   3.  The MS now progresses to an authentication phase.  Authentication
       is based on PKMv2 as defined in the 802.16e specification.
   4.  On succesfull completion of authentication, the MS performs
       802.16e registration with the network.
   5.  The MS can request the establishment of a service flow over the
       IPv6 convergence sublayer.  The service flow can also be
       triggered by the network as a result of pre-provisioning.  The
       service flow establishes a link between the MS and the AR over
       which IPv6 packets can be sent and received.
   6.  The AR sends a router advertisement to the MS.

   The above flow does not show the actual 802.16e messages that are
   used for ranging, capability exchange or service flow establishment.
   Details of these are in [802.16e].

6.2.1.  IPv6 link establishment in WiMAX

   The mobile station performs initial network entry as specified in
   802.16e.  On succesful completion of the network entry procedure the
   ASN gateway/AR triggers the establishment of the initial service flow
   (ISF) for IPv6 towards the MS.  The ISF is a GRE tunnel between the
   ASN-GW/AR and the BS.  The BS in turn requests the MS to establish a
   transport connection over the air interface.  The end result is a
   transport connection over the air interface for carrying IPv6 packets
   and a GRE tunnel between the BS and AR for relaying the IPv6 packets.
   On succesful completion of the establishment of the ISF, IPv6 packets
   can be sent and received between the MS and AR.  The ISF enables the
   MS to communicate with the AR for host configuration procedures.
   After the establishment of the ISF, the AR can send a router
   advertisement to the MS.  An MS can establish multiple service flows
   with different QoS characteristics.  The ISF can be considered as the
   primary service flow.  The ASN GW/ AR treats each ISF, along with the
   other service flows to the same MS, as a unique link which is managed
   as a (virtual) interface.

6.3.  Maximum transmission unit in 802.16

   The MAC PDU is of the format shown in the figure below:



     |--------------------------//----------------|
     |Generic MAC HDR |      Payload        | CRC |
     |-------------------------//-----------------|




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                         Figure 6: MAC PDU Format

   The MAC HDR is a 6 byte header followed by the payload and a 4 byte
   CRC which covers the whole PDU.  The length of the PDU is indicated
   by the Len parameter in the Generic MAC HDR.  The Len parameter has a
   size of 11 bits.  Hence the total PDU size is 2048 bytes.  The IPv6
   payload can be a max value of 2038 bytes (MAC HDR - CRC).  IPv6 MTU
   for 802.16 may be a value which is less than 2038 bytes.

6.3.1.  Maximum transmission unit in WiMAX

   The WiMAX forum [WMF] has specified the SDU size as 1522 octets.
   Hence the IPv6 path MTU can be 1500 octets.  However because of the
   overhead of the GRE tunnel used to transport IPv6 packets between the
   BS and AR and the 6 byte MAC header over the air interface, using a
   value of 1500 would result in fragmentation of packets.  It is
   recommended that the default MTU for IPv6 be set to 1400 octets for
   the MS.  Note that the 1522 octet specification is a WiMAX forum
   specification and not the size of the SDU that can be transmitted
   over 802.16d/e, which is higher.  RFC2461 [RFC2461] recommends that
   IPv6 nodes implement Path MTU discovery.  In such cases the default
   value can be over-ridden.  Additionally if the 802.16d/e MAC layer
   can provide an indication of the MTU size to be used, the MS can use
   that as the default MTU.


7.  IPv6 prefix assignment

   Each MS can be considered to be on a separate subnet as a result of
   the point-to-point connection.  A CPE type of device which serves
   multiple IPv6 hosts, may be the end point of the connection.  Hence
   one or more /64 prefixes should be assigned to a link.  The prefixes
   are advertised with the on-link (L-bit) flag set to facilitate
   Detecting Network Attachment (DNA) operation [RFC4135].


8.  Router Discovery

8.1.  Router Solictation

   On completion of the establishment of the IPv6 link, the MS may send
   a router solicitation message to solicit a Router Advertisement
   message from the AR to acquire necessary information as specified in
   RFC2461 [RFC2461].  An MS that is network attached may also send
   router solicitations at any time.






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8.2.  Router Advertisement

   The AR should send a number of router advertisements as soon as the
   IPv6 link is established to the MS [FRD].  The AR may send
   unsolicited router advertisements periodically as specified in
   RFC2461 [RFC2461].  However to conserve the battery lifetime of hosts
   and to conserve radio resources over the air interface, unsolicited
   router advertisement transmission are not recommended.

8.3.  Router lifetime and periodic router advertisements

   The router lifetime should be set to a large value, preferably in
   hours. 802.16d/e hosts have the capability to transition to an idle
   mode in which case the radio link between the BS and MS is torn down.
   Paging is required in case the network needs to deliver packets to
   the MS.  In order to avoid waking a mobile which is in idle mode and
   consuming resources on the air interface, the interval between
   periodic router advertisements should be set quite high.  The
   MaxRtrAdvInterval should be configurable to a value which is greater
   than 1800 seconds.


9.  IPv6 addressing for hosts

   The addressing scheme for IPv6 hosts in 802.16 network follows the
   IETFs recommendation for hosts specified in RFC 4294.  The IPv6 node
   requirements RFC RFC4294 [RFC4294] specifies a set of RFCs that are
   applicable for addressing.

9.1.  Interface Identifier

   The MS has a 48-bit MAC address as specified in 802.16e [802.16e].
   This MAC address is used to generate the 64 bit interface identifier
   which is used by the MS for address autoconfiguration.  The IID is
   generated by the MS as specified in RFC2464 [RFC2464].  For addresses
   that are based on privacy extensions, the MS may generate random IIDs
   as specified in RFC3041 [RFC3041].

9.2.  Duplicate address detection

   DAD is performed as per RFC2461 [RFC2461] and, RFC2462 [RFC2462].

9.3.  Stateless address autoconfiguration

   If the A-bit in the prefix information option (PIO) are set, the MS
   performs stateless address autoconfiguration as per RFC 2461, 2462.
   The AR is the default router that advertises a unique /64 prefix (or
   prefixes) that is used by the MS to configure an address.



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9.4.  Stateful address autoconfiguration

   The Stateful Address Autoconfiguration is invoked if the M-flag is
   set in the Router Advertisement.  Obtaining the IPv6 address through
   stateful address autoconfiguration method is specified in the RFC3315
   [RFC3315].


10.  IANA Considerations

   This draft does not require any actions from IANA.


11.  Security Considerations

   This document does not introduce any new vulnerabilities to IPv6
   specifications or operation as a result of the 802.16d/e air
   interface or the WiMAX network architecture.


12.  Acknowledgments

   TBD.


13.  References

13.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement  Levels", RFC 2119, March 1997,
              <ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc2119>.

   [RFC2461]  Narten, T., Nordmark, E., and W. Simpson, "Neighbor
              Discovery for IP Version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 2461,
              December 1998, <ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc2461>.

   [RFC2462]  Thomson, S. and T. Narten, "IPv6 Stateless Address
              Autoconfiguration", RFC 2462, December 1998,
              <ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc2462>.

   [RFC2464]  Crawford, M., "Transmission of IPv6 Packets over Ethernet
              Networks", RFC 2464, December 1998,
              <ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc2464>.

   [RFC3041]  Narten, T. and R. Draves, "Privacy Extensions for
              Stateless Address Autoconfiguration in IPv6", RFC 3041,
              January 2001, <ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc3041>.



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   [RFC3314]  Wasserman, Ed., M., "Recommendations for IPv6 in Third
              Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Standards",
              RFC 3314, September 2002,
              <ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc3314>.

   [RFC3315]  Droms, Ed., R., Bound, J., Volz, B., Lemon, T., Perkins,
              C., and M. Carney, "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
              for IPv6 (DHCPv6)", RFC 3315, July 2003,
              <ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc3315>.

   [RFC3756]  Nikander, P., Kempf, J., and E.  Nordmark, "IPv6 Neighbor
              Discovery (ND) Trust Models and Threats", RFC 3756,
              May 2004, <ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc3756 >.

   [RFC4135]  Choi, JH. and G. Daley, "Goals of Detecting Network
              Attachment in IPv6", RFC 4135, August 2005,
              <ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc4135>.

   [RFC4294]  Loughney, Ed., J., "IPv6 Node requirements", RFC 4294,
              April 2006, <ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc4294>.

   [RFC4921]  Hinden, R. and S.  Deering, "IP Version 6 Addressing
              Architecture", RFC 4921, February  2006,
              <ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc4291>.

13.2.  Informative References

   [802.16e]  "IEEE Std 802.16e: IEEE Standard for Local and
              metropolitan area networks, Amendment for Physical and
              Medium Access Control Layers for Combined Fixed and Mobile
              Operation in Licensed Bands", October 2005.

   [FRD]      Choi, JH., Shin, DongYun., and W. Haddad, "Fast Router
              Discovery with L2 support", August 2006, <http://
              www.ietf.org/internet-drafts/draft-ietf-dna-frd-02.txt>.

   [WMF]      "http://www.wimaxforum.org".

   [WiMAXArch]
              "WiMAX End-to-End Network Systems Architecture
              http://www.wimaxforum.org/technology/documents",
              August 2006.









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Authors' Addresses

   Basavaraj Patil
   Nokia
   6000 Connection Drive
   Irving, TX  75039
   USA

   Email: basavaraj.patil@nokia.com


   Frank Xia
   Huawei USA
   1700 Alma Dr. Suite 100
   Plano, TX  75075

   Email: xiayangsong@huawei.com


   Behcet Sarikaya
   Huawei USA
   1700 Alma Dr. Suite 100
   Plano, TX  75075

   Email: sarikaya@ieee.org


   JinHyeock Choi
   Samsung AIT
   Networking Technology Lab
   P.O.Box 111
   Suwon, Korea  440-600

   Email: jinchoe@samsung.com


   Syam Madanapalli
   LogicaCMG
   125 Yemlur P.O.
   Off Airport Road
   Bangalore, India  560037

   Email: smadanapalli@gmail.com








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Full Copyright Statement

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