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Versions: (draft-perkins-avt-rapid-rtp-sync) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 RFC 6051

Network Working Group                                         C. Perkins
Internet-Draft                                     University of Glasgow
Updates: 3550 (if approved)                                   T. Schierl
Intended status: Standards Track                          Fraunhofer HHI
Expires: December 1, 2010                                   May 30, 2010


                   Rapid Synchronisation of RTP Flows
                  draft-ietf-avt-rapid-rtp-sync-11.txt

Abstract

   This memo outlines how RTP sessions are synchronised, and discusses
   how rapidly such synchronisation can occur.  We show that most RTP
   sessions can be synchronised immediately, but that the use of video
   switching multipoint conference units (MCUs) or large source specific
   multicast (SSM) groups can greatly increase the synchronisation
   delay.  This increase in delay can be unacceptable to some
   applications that use layered and/or multi-description codecs.

   This memo introduces three mechanisms to reduce the synchronisation
   delay for such sessions.  First, it updates the RTP Control Protocol
   (RTCP) timing rules to reduce the initial synchronisation delay for
   SSM sessions.  Second, a new feedback packet is defined for use with
   the Extended RTP Profile for RTCP-based Feedback (RTP/AVPF), allowing
   video switching MCUs to rapidly request resynchronisation.  Finally,
   new RTP header extensions are defined to allow rapid synchronisation
   of late joiners, and guarantee correct timestamp based decoding order
   recovery for layered codecs in the presence of clock skew.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
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   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on December 1, 2010.

Copyright Notice



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   Copyright (c) 2010 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
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   described in the Simplified BSD License.


Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Synchronisation of RTP Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     2.1.  Initial Synchronisation Delay  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
       2.1.1.  Unicast Sessions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
       2.1.2.  Source Specific Multicast (SSM) Sessions . . . . . . .  6
       2.1.3.  Any Source Multicast (ASM) Sessions  . . . . . . . . .  7
       2.1.4.  Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     2.2.  Synchronisation for Late Joiners . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   3.  Reducing RTP Synchronisation Delays  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     3.1.  Reduced Initial RTCP Interval for SSM Senders  . . . . . .  9
     3.2.  Rapid Resynchronisation Request  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     3.3.  In-band Delivery of Synchronisation Metadata . . . . . . . 11
   4.  Application to Decoding Order Recovery in Layered Codecs . . . 13
     4.1.  In-band Synchronisation for Decoding Order Recovery  . . . 14
     4.2.  Timestamp based decoding order recovery  . . . . . . . . . 15
     4.3.  Example  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
   5.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
   6.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
   7.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
   8.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
     8.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
     8.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20












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1.  Introduction

   When using RTP to deliver multimedia content it's often necessary to
   synchronise playout of audio and video components of a presentation.
   This is achieved using information contained in RTP Control Protocol
   (RTCP) Sender Report (SR) packets [1].  These are sent periodically,
   and the components of a multimedia session cannot be synchronised
   until sufficient RTCP SR packets have been received for each RTP flow
   to allow the receiver to establish mappings between the media clock
   used for each RTP flow, and the common (NTP-format) reference clock
   used to establish synchronisation.

   Recently, concern has been expressed that this synchronisation delay
   is problematic for some applications, for example those using layered
   or multi-description video coding.  This memo reviews the operations
   of RTP synchronisation, and describes the synchronisation delay that
   can be expected.  Three backwards compatible extensions to the basic
   RTP synchronisation mechanism are proposed:

   o  The RTCP transmission timing rules are relaxed for SSM senders, to
      reduce the initial synchronisation latency for large SSM groups.
      See Section 3.1.

   o  An enhancement to the Extended RTP Profile for RTCP-based Feedback
      (RTP/AVPF) [2] is defined to allow receivers to request additional
      RTCP SR packets, providing the metadata needed to synchronise RTP
      flows.  This can reduce the synchronisation delay when joining
      sessions with large RTCP reporting intervals, in the presence of
      packet loss, or when video switching MCUs are employed.  See
      Section 3.2.

   o  Two RTP header extensions are defined, to deliver synchronisation
      metadata in-band with RTP data packets.  These extensions provide
      synchronisation metadata that is aligned with RTP data packets,
      and so eliminate the need to estimate clock-skew between flows
      before synchronisation.  They can also reduce the need to receive
      RTCP SR packets before flows can be synchronised, although it does
      not eliminate the need for RTCP.  See Section 3.3.

   The immediate use-case for these extensions is to reduce the delay
   due to synchronisation when joining a layered video session (e.g. an
   H.264/SVC session in NI-T mode [9]).  The extensions are not specific
   to layered coding, however, and can be used in any environment when
   synchronisation latency is an issue.

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [3].



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2.  Synchronisation of RTP Flows

   RTP flows are synchronised by receivers based on information that is
   contained in RTCP SR packets generated by senders (specifically, the
   NTP-format timestamp and the RTP timestamp).  Synchronisation
   requires that a common reference clock MUST be used to generate the
   NTP-format timestamps in a set of flows that are to be synchronised
   (i.e. when synchronising several RTP flows, the RTP timestamps for
   each flow are derived from separate, and media specific, clocks, but
   the NTP format timestamps in the RTCP SR packets of all flows to be
   synchronised MUST be sampled from the same clock).  To achieve faster
   and more accurate synchronisation, it is further RECOMMENDED that
   senders and receivers use a synchronised common NTP format reference
   clock with common properties, especially timebase, where possible
   (recognising that this is often not possible when RTP is used outside
   of controlled environments); the means by which that common reference
   clock and its properties are signalled and distributed is outside the
   scope of this memo.

   For multimedia sessions, each type of media (e.g. audio or video) is
   sent in a separate RTP session, and the receiver associates RTP flows
   to be synchronised by means of the canonical end-point identifier
   (CNAME) item included in the RTCP Source Description (SDES) packets
   generated by the sender or signalled out of band [10].  For layered
   media, different layers can be sent in different RTP sessions, or
   using different SSRC values within a single RTP session; in both
   cases, the CNAME is used to identify flows to be synchronised.  To
   ensure synchronisation, an RTP sender MUST therefore send periodic
   compound RTCP packets following Section 6 of RFC 3550 [1].

   The timing of these periodic compound RTCP packets will depend on the
   number of members in each RTP session, the fraction of those that are
   sending data, the session bandwidth, the configured RTCP bandwidth
   fraction, and whether the session is multicast or unicast (see RFC
   3550 Section 6.2 for details).  In summary, RTCP control traffic is
   allocated a small fraction, generally 5%, of the session bandwidth,
   and of that fraction, one quarter is allocated to active RTP senders,
   while receivers use the remaining three quarters (these fractions can
   be configured via SDP [11]).  Each member of an RTP session derives
   an RTCP reporting interval based on these fractions, whether the
   session is multicast or unicast, the number of members it has
   observed, and whether it is actively sending data or not.  It then
   sends a compound RTCP packet on average once per reporting interval
   (the actual packet transmission time is randomised in the range [0.5
   ... 1.5] times the reporting interval to avoid synchronisation of
   reports).

   A minimum reporting interval of 5 seconds is RECOMMENDED, except that



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   the delay before sending the initial report "MAY be set to half the
   minimum interval to allow quicker notification that the new
   participant is present" [1].  Also, for unicast sessions, "the delay
   before sending the initial compound RTCP packet MAY be zero" [1].  In
   addition, for unicast sessions, and for active senders in a multicast
   session, the fixed minimum reporting interval MAY be scaled to "360
   divided by the session bandwidth in kilobits/second.  This minimum is
   smaller than 5 seconds for bandwidths greater than 72 kb/s." [1]

2.1.  Initial Synchronisation Delay

   A multimedia session comprises a set of concurrent RTP sessions among
   a common group of participants, using one RTP session for each media
   type.  For example, a videoconference (which is a multimedia session)
   might contain an audio RTP session and a video RTP session.  To allow
   a receiver to synchronise the components of a multimedia session, a
   compound RTCP packet containing an RTCP SR packet and an RTCP SDES
   packet with a CNAME item MUST be sent to each of the RTP sessions in
   the multimedia session by each sender.  A receiver cannot synchronise
   playout across the multimedia session until such RTCP packets have
   been received on all of the component RTP sessions.  If there is no
   packet loss, this gives an expected initial synchronisation delay
   equal to the average time taken to receive the first RTCP packet in
   the RTP session with the longest RTCP reporting interval.  This will
   vary between unicast and multicast RTP sessions.

   The initial synchronisation delay for layered sessions is similar to
   that for multimedia sessions.  The layers cannot be synchronised
   until the RTCP SR and CNAME information has been received for each
   layer in the session.

2.1.1.  Unicast Sessions

   For unicast multimedia or layered sessions, senders SHOULD transmit
   an initial compound RTCP packet (containing an RTCP SR packet and an
   RTCP SDES packet with a CNAME item) immediately on joining each RTP
   session in the multimedia session.  The individual RTP sessions are
   considered to be joined once any in-band signalling for NAT traversal
   (e.g. [12]) and/or security keying (e.g. [13],[14]) has concluded,
   and the media path is open.  This implies that the initial RTCP
   packet is sent in parallel with the first data packet following the
   guidance in RFC 3550 that "the delay before sending the initial
   compound RTCP packet MAY be zero" and, in the absence of any packet
   loss, flows can be synchronised immediately.

   It is expected that NAT pinholes, firewall holes, quality-of-service,
   and media security keys will have been negotiated as part of the
   signalling, whether in-band or out-of-band, before the first RTCP



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   packet is sent.  This should ensure that any middleboxes are ready to
   accept traffic, and reduce the likelihood that the initial RTCP
   packet will be lost.

2.1.2.  Source Specific Multicast (SSM) Sessions

   For multicast sessions, the delay before sending the initial RTCP
   packet, and hence the synchronisation delay, varies with the session
   bandwidth and the number of members in the session.  For a multicast
   multimedia or layered session, the average synchronisation delay will
   depend on the slowest of the component RTP sessions; this will
   generally be the session with the lowest bandwidth (assuming all the
   RTP sessions have the same number of members).

   When sending to a multicast group, the reduced minimum RTCP reporting
   interval of 360 seconds divided by the session bandwidth in kilobits
   per second [1] should be used when synchronisation latency is likely
   to be an issue.  Also, as usual, the reporting interval is halved for
   the first RTCP packet.  Depending on the session bandwidth and the
   number of members, this gives the average synchronisation delays
   shown in Figure 1.


        Session| Number of receivers:
      Bandwidth|  2     3     4     5     10   100   1000  10000
             --+------------------------------------------------
         8 kbps| 2.73  4.10  5.47  5.47  5.47  5.47  5.47  5.47
        16 kbps| 2.50  2.50  2.73  2.73  2.73  2.73  2.73  2.73
        32 kbps| 2.50  2.50  2.50  2.50  2.50  2.50  2.50  2.50
        64 kbps| 2.50  2.50  2.50  2.50  2.50  2.50  2.50  2.50
       128 kbps| 1.41  1.41  1.41  1.41  1.41  1.41  1.41  1.41
       256 kbps| 0.70  0.70  0.70  0.70  0.70  0.70  0.70  0.70
       512 kbps| 0.35  0.35  0.35  0.35  0.35  0.35  0.35  0.35
         1 Mbps| 0.18  0.18  0.18  0.18  0.18  0.18  0.18  0.18
         2 Mbps| 0.09  0.09  0.09  0.09  0.09  0.09  0.09  0.09
         4 Mbps| 0.04  0.04  0.04  0.04  0.04  0.04  0.04  0.04

   Figure 1: Average initial synchronisation delay in seconds for an RTP
                          Session with 1 sender.

   These numbers assume a source specific multicast channel with a
   single active sender, assuming an average RTCP packet size of 70
   octets.  These intervals are sufficient for lip-synchronisation
   without excessive delay, but might be viewed as having too much
   latency for synchronising parts of a layered video stream.

   The RTCP interval is randomised in the usual manner, so the minimum
   synchronisation delay will be half these intervals, and the maximum



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   delay will be 1.5 times these intervals.  Note also that these RTCP
   intervals are calculated assuming perfect knowledge of the number of
   members in the session.

2.1.3.  Any Source Multicast (ASM) Sessions

   For ASM sessions, the fraction of members that are senders plays an
   important role, and causes more variation in average RTCP reporting
   interval.  This is illustrated in Figure 2 and Figure 3, which show
   the RTCP reporting interval for the same session bandwidths and
   receiver populations as the SSM session described in Figure 1, but
   for sessions with 2 and 10 senders respectively.  It can be seen that
   the initial synchronisation delay scales with the number of senders
   (this is to ensure that the total RTCP traffic from all group members
   does not grow without bound) and can be significantly larger than for
   source specific groups.  Despite this, the initial synchronisation
   time remains acceptable for lip-synchronisation in typical small-to-
   medium sized group video conferencing scenarios.

   Note that multi-sender groups implemented using multi-unicast with a
   central RTP translator (Topo-Translator in the terminology of [15])
   or mixer (Topo-Mixer), or some forms of video switching MCU (Topo-
   Video-switch-MCU) distribute RTCP packets to all members of the
   group, and so scale in the same way as an ASM group with regards to
   initial synchronisation latency.


        Session| Number of receivers:
      Bandwidth|  2     3     4     5     10   100   1000  10000
             --+------------------------------------------------
         8 kbps| 2.73  4.10  5.47  6.84 10.94 10.94 10.94 10.94
        16 kbps| 2.50  2.50  2.73  3.42  5.47  5.47  5.47  5.47
        32 kbps| 2.50  2.50  2.50  2.50  2.73  2.73  2.73  2.73
        64 kbps| 2.50  2.50  2.50  2.50  2.50  2.50  2.50  2.50
       128 kbps| 1.41  1.41  1.41  1.41  1.41  1.41  1.41  1.41
       256 kbps| 0.70  0.70  0.70  0.70  0.70  0.70  0.70  0.70
       512 kbps| 0.35  0.35  0.35  0.35  0.35  0.35  0.35  0.35
         1 Mbps| 0.18  0.18  0.18  0.18  0.18  0.18  0.18  0.18
         2 Mbps| 0.09  0.09  0.09  0.09  0.09  0.09  0.09  0.09
         4 Mbps| 0.04  0.04  0.04  0.04  0.04  0.04  0.04  0.04

   Figure 2: Average initial synchronisation delay in seconds for an RTP
                          Session with 2 senders.








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        Session| Number of receivers:
      Bandwidth|  2     3     4     5     10   100   1000  10000
             --+------------------------------------------------
         8 kbps| 2.73  4.10  5.47  6.84 13.67 54.69 54.69 54.69
        16 kbps| 2.50  2.50  2.73  3.42  6.84 27.34 27.34 27.34
        32 kbps| 2.50  2.50  2.50  2.50  3.42 13.67 13.67 13.67
        64 kbps| 2.50  2.50  2.50  2.50  2.50  6.84  6.84  6.84
       128 kbps| 1.41  1.41  1.41  1.41  1.41  3.42  3.42  3.42
       256 kbps| 0.70  0.70  0.70  0.70  0.70  1.71  1.71  1.71
       512 kbps| 0.35  0.35  0.35  0.35  0.35  0.85  0.85  0.85
         1 Mbps| 0.18  0.18  0.18  0.18  0.18  0.43  0.43  0.43
         2 Mbps| 0.09  0.09  0.09  0.09  0.09  0.21  0.21  0.21
         4 Mbps| 0.04  0.04  0.04  0.04  0.04  0.11  0.11  0.11

   Figure 3: Average initial synchronisation delay in seconds for an RTP
                         Session with 10 senders.

2.1.4.  Discussion

   For unicast sessions, the existing RTCP SR-based mechanism allows for
   immediate synchronisation, provided the initial RTCP packet is not
   lost.

   For SSM sessions, the initial synchronisation delay is sufficient for
   lip-synchronisation, but may be larger than desired for some layered
   codecs.  The rationale for not sending immediate RTCP packets for
   multicast groups is to avoid implosion of requests when large numbers
   of members simultaneously join the group ("flash crowd").  This is
   not an issue for SSM senders, since there can be at most one sender,
   so it is desirable to allow SSM senders to send an immediate RTCP SR
   on joining a session (as is currently allowed for unicast sessions,
   which also don't suffer from the implosion problem).  SSM receivers
   using unicast feedback would not be allowed to send immediate RTCP.
   For ASM sessions, implosion of responses is a concern, so no change
   is proposed to the RTCP timing rules.

   In all cases, it is possible that the initial RTCP SR packet is lost.
   In this case, the receiver will not be able to synchronise the media
   until the reporting interval has passed, and the next RTCP SR packet
   is sent.  This is undesirable.  Section 3.2 defines a new RTP/AVPF
   transport layer feedback message to request an RTCP SR be generated,
   allowing rapid resynchronisation in the case of packet loss.

2.2.  Synchronisation for Late Joiners

   Synchronisation between RTP sessions is potentially slower for late
   joiners than for participants present at the start of the session.
   The reasons for this are three-fold:



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   1.  Many of the optimisations that allow rapid transmission of RTCP
       SR packets apply only at the start of a session.  This implies
       that a new participant may have to wait a complete RTCP reporting
       interval for each session before receiving the necessary data to
       synchronise media streams.  This might potentially take several
       seconds, depending on the configured session bandwidth and the
       number of participants.

   2.  Additional synchronisation delay comes from the nature of the
       RTCP timing rules.  Packets are generated on average once per
       reporting interval, but with the exact transmission times being
       randomised +/- 50% to avoid synchronisation of reports.  This is
       important to avoid network congestion in multicast sessions, but
       does mean that the timing of RTCP SR reports for different RTP
       sessions isn't synchronised.  Accordingly, a receiver must
       estimate the skew on the NTP-format clock in order to align RTP
       timestamps across sessions.  This estimation is an essential part
       of an RTP synchronisation implementation, and can be done with
       high accuracy given sufficient reports.  Collecting sufficient
       RTCP SR data to perform this estimation, however, may require
       reception of several RTCP reports, further increasing the
       synchronisation delay.

   3.  Many media codecs have the notion of periodic access points, such
       that a newly joined receiver often cannot start decoding a media
       stream until the packets corresponding to the access point have
       been received.  These access points may be sent less often than
       RTCP SR packets, and so may be the limiting factor in starting
       synchronised media playout for late joiners.  The RTP extension
       for unicast-based rapid acquisition of multicast RTP sessions
       [16] may be used to reduce the time taken to receive the access
       points in some scenarios.

   These delays are likely an issue for tuning in to an ongoing
   multicast RTP session, or for video switching MCUs.


3.  Reducing RTP Synchronisation Delays

   Three backwards compatible RTP extensions are defined to reduce the
   possible synchronisation delay: a reduced initial RTCP interval for
   SSM senders, a rapid resynchronisation request message, and RTP
   header extensions that can convey synchronisation metadata in-band.

3.1.  Reduced Initial RTCP Interval for SSM Senders

   In SSM sessions where the initial synchronisation delay is important,
   the RTP sender MAY set the delay before sending the initial compound



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   RTCP packet to zero, and send its first RTCP packet immediately upon
   joining the SSM session.  RTP receivers in an SSM session, sending
   unicast RTCP feedback, MUST NOT send RTCP packets with zero initial
   delay; the timing rules defined in [4] apply unchanged to receivers.

3.2.  Rapid Resynchronisation Request

   The general format of an RTP/AVPF transport layer feedback message is
   shown in Figure 4 (see [2] for details).


       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |V=2|P|   FMT   | PT=RTPFB=205  |          length               |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                  SSRC of packet sender                        |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                  SSRC of media source                         |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      :            Feedback Control Information (FCI)                 :
      :                                                               :

            Figure 4: RTP/AVP Transport Layer Feedback Message

   One new feedback message type, RTCP-SR-REQ, is defined with FMT = 5.
   The Feedback Control Information (FCI) part of the feedback message
   MUST be empty.  The SSRC of packet sender indicates the member that
   is unable to synchronise media streams, while the SSRC of media
   source indicates the sender of the media it is unable to synchronise.
   The length MUST equal 2.

   If the RTP/AVPF profile [2] is in use, this feedback message MAY be
   sent by a receiver to indicate that it's unable to synchronise some
   media streams, and desires that the media source transmit an RTCP SR
   packet as soon as possible (within the constraints of the RTCP timing
   rules for early feedback).  When it receives such an indication, a
   media source that understands the RTCP-SR-REQ packet SHOULD generate
   an RTCP SR packet as soon as possible while complying with the RTCP
   early feedback rules.  If the use of non-compound RTCP [5] was
   previously negotiated, both the feedback request and the RTCP SR
   response may be sent as non-compound RTCP packets.  The RTCP-SR-REQ
   packet MAY be repeated once per RTCP reporting interval if no RTCP SR
   packet is forthcoming.  The media source may ignore RTCP-SR-REQ
   packets if its regular schedule for transmission of synchronisation
   metadata can be expected to allow the receiver to synchronise the
   media streams within a reasonable time frame.




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   When using SSM sessions with unicast feedback, is possible that the
   feedback target and media source are not co-located.  If a feedback
   target receives an RTCP-SR-REQ feedback message in such a case, the
   request should be forwarded to the media source.  The mechanism to be
   used for forwarding such requests is not defined here.

3.3.  In-band Delivery of Synchronisation Metadata

   The RTP header extension mechanism defined in [6] can be adopted to
   carry an OPTIONAL NTP format timestamp in RTP data packets.  If such
   a timestamp is included, it MUST correspond to the same time instant
   as the RTP timestamp in the packet's header, and MUST be derived from
   the same clock used to generate the NTP format timestamps included in
   RTCP SR packets.  Provided it has knowledge of the SSRC to CNAME
   mapping, either from prior receipt of an RTCP CNAME packet or via
   out-of-band signalling [10], the receiver can use the information
   provided as input to the synchronisation algorithm, in exactly the
   same way as if an additional RTCP SR packet was been received for the
   flow.

   Two variants are defined for this header extension.  The first
   variant extends the RTP header with a 64 bit NTP timestamp format
   timestamp as defined in [7].  The second variant carries the lower 24
   bit part of the Seconds of a NTP timestamp format timestamp and the
   32 bit of the Fraction of a NTP timestamp format timestamp.  The
   formats of the two variants are shown in Figure 5 and Figure 6.

























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       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |V=2|P|1|  CC   |M|     PT      |       sequence number         |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+R
      |                           timestamp                           |T
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+P
      |           synchronisation source (SSRC) identifier            |
      +=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+
      |       0xBE    |    0xDE       |           length=3            |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+E
      |  ID-A | L=7   |   NTP timestamp format - Seconds (bit 0-23)   |x
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+t
      |NTP Sec.(24-31)|   NTP timestamp format - Fraction(bit 0-23)   |n
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |NTP Frc.(24-31)|    0 (pad)    |    0 (pad)    |    0 (pad)    |
      +=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+
      |                         payload data                          |
      |                             ....                              |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

            Figure 5: Variant A/64-bit NTP RTP header extension


       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |V=2|P|1|  CC   |M|     PT      |       sequence number         |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+R
      |                           timestamp                           |T
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+P
      |           synchronisation source (SSRC) identifier            |
      +=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+
      |       0xBE    |    0xDE       |           length=2            |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+E
      |  ID-B | L=6   |  NTP timestamp format - Seconds (bit 8-31)    |x
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+t
      |           NTP timestamp format - Fraction (bit 0-31)          |n
      +=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+
      |                         payload data                          |
      |                             ....                              |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

            Figure 6: Variant B/56-bit NTP RTP header extension

   An NTP timestamp format timestamp MAY be included on any RTP packets
   the sender chooses, but it is RECOMMENDED when performing timestamp
   based decoding order recovery for layered codecs transported in



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   multiple RTP flows, as further specified in Section 4.1.  This header
   extension SHOULD be also sent on the RTP packets corresponding to a
   video random access point, and on the associated audio packets, to
   allow rapid synchronisation for late joiners in multimedia sessions,
   and in video switching scenarios.

   Note: The inclusion of an RTP header extension will reduce the
   efficiency of RTP header compression, if it is used.  Furthermore,
   middle boxes which do not understand the header extensions may remove
   them or may not update the content according to this memo.

   In all cases, irrespective of whether in-band NTP timestamp format
   timestamps are included or not, regular RTCP SR packets MUST be sent
   to provide backwards compatibility with receivers that synchronise
   RTP flows according to [1], and robustness in the face of middleboxes
   (RTP translators) that might strip RTP header extensions.  If the
   Variant B/56-bit NTP RTP header extension is used, RTCP sender
   reports MUST be used to derive the upper 8 bit of the Seconds for the
   NTP timestamp format timestamp.

   When the SDP is used, the use of the RTP header extensions defined
   above MUST be indicated as specified in [6].  Therefore the following
   URIs MUST be used:

   o  The URI used for signalling the use of Variant A/64-bit NTP RTP
      header extension in SDP is "urn:ietf:params:rtp-hdrext:ntp-64".

   o  The URI used for signalling the use of Variant B/56-bit NTP RTP
      header extension in SDP is "urn:ietf:params:rtp-hdrext:ntp-56".


4.  Application to Decoding Order Recovery in Layered Codecs

   Packets in RTP flows are often predictively coded, with a receiver
   having to arrange the packets into a particular order before it can
   decode the media data.  Depending on the payload format, the decoding
   order might be explicitly specified as a field in the RTP payload
   header, or the receiver might decode the packets in order of their
   RTP timestamps.  If a layered encoding is used, where the media data
   is split across several RTP flows, then it is often necessary to
   exactly synchronise the RTP flows comprising the different layers
   before layers other than the base layer can be decoded.  Examples of
   such layered encodings are H.264 SVC in NI-T mode [9] and MPEG
   surround multi-channel audio [17].  As described in Section 2, such
   synchronisation is possible in RTP, but can be difficult to perform
   rapidly.  In the following, we describe how the extensions defined in
   Section 3.3 can be used to synchronise layered flows, and provide a
   common timestamp-based decoding order.



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4.1.  In-band Synchronisation for Decoding Order Recovery

   When a layered, multi-description, or multi-view codec is used, with
   the different components of the media being transferred on separate
   RTP flows, the RTP sender SHOULD use periodic synchronous in-band
   delivery of synchronisation metadata to allow receivers to rapidly
   and accurately synchronise the separate components of the layered
   media flow.  There are three parts to this:

   o  The sender must negotiate the use of the RTP header extensions
      described in Section 3.3, and must periodically and synchronously
      insert such header extensions into all the RTP flows forming the
      separate components of the layered, multi-description, or multi-
      view flow.

   o  Synchronous insertion requires the sender insert these RTP header
      extensions into packets corresponding to the exact same sampling
      instant in all the flows.  Since the header extensions for each
      flow are inserted at exactly the same sampling instant, they will
      have identical NTP-format timestamps, hence allowing receivers to
      exactly align the RTP timestamps for the component flows.  This
      may require the insertion of extra data packets into some of the
      component RTP flows, if some component flows contain packets for
      sampling instants that do not exist in other flows (for example, a
      layered video codec, where the layers have differing frame rates).

   o  The frequency with which the sender inserts the header extensions
      will directly correspond to the synchronisation latency, with more
      frequent insertion leading to higher per-flows overheads, but
      lower synchronisation latency.  It is RECOMMENDED that the sender
      insert the header extensions synchronously into all component RTP
      flows at least once per random access point of the media, but they
      MAY be inserted more often.

   The sender MUST continue to send periodic RTCP reports including SR
   packets, and MUST ensure the RTP timestamp to NTP-format timestamp
   mapping in the RTCP SR packets is consistent with that used in the
   RTP header extensions.  Receivers should use both the information
   contained in RTCP SR packets and the in-band mapping of RTP and NTP-
   format timestamps as input to the synchronisation process, but it is
   RECOMMENDED that receivers sanity check the mappings received and
   discard outliers, to provide robustness against invalid data (one
   might think it more likely that the RTCP SR mappings are invalid,
   since they are sent at irregular times and subject to skew, but the
   presence of broken RTP translators could also corrupt the timestamps
   in the RTP header extension; receivers need to cope with both types
   of failure).




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4.2.  Timestamp based decoding order recovery

   Once a receiver has synchronised the components of a layered, multi-
   description, or multi-view flow using the RTP header extensions as
   described in Section 4.1, it may then derive a decoding order based
   on the synchronised timestamps as follows (or it may use information
   in the RTP payload header to derive the decoding order, if present
   and desired).

   There may be explicit dependencies between the component flows of a
   layered, multi-description, or multi-view flow.  For example, it is
   common for layered flows to be arranged in a hierarchy, where flows
   from "higher" layers cannot be decoded until the corresponding data
   in "lower" layer flows has been received and decoded.  If such a
   decoding hierarchy exists, it MUST be signalled out of band, for
   example using [8] when SDP signalling is used.

   Each component RTP flow MUST contain packets corresponding to all the
   sampling instants of the RTP flows on which it depends.  If such
   packets are not naturally present in the RTP flow, the sender MUST
   generate additional packets as necessary in order to satisfy this
   rule.  The format of these packets depends on the payload format
   used.  For H.264 SVC, the Empty NAL unit packet [9] should be used.
   Flows may also include packets corresponding to additional sampling
   instants that are not present in the flows on which they depend.

   The receiver should decode the packets in all the component RTP flows
   as follows:

   o  For each RTP packet in each flow, use the mapping contained in the
      RTP header extensions and RTCP SR packets to derive the NTP-format
      timestamp corresponding to its RTP timestamp.

   o  Group together RTP data packets from all component flows that have
      identical calculated NTP-format timestamps.

   o  Processing groups in order of ascending NTP-format timestamp,
      decode the RTP packets in each group according to the signalled
      RTP flow decoding hierarchy.  That is, pass the RTP packet data
      from the flow on which all other flows depend to the decoder
      first, then that from the next dependent flow, and so on.  The
      decoding order of the RTP flow hierarchy may be indicated by
      mechanisms defined in [8] or by some other means.

   Note that the decoding order will not necessarily match the packet
   transmission order.  The receiver will need to buffer packets for a
   codec-dependent amount of time in order for all necessary packets to
   arrive to allow decoding.



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4.3.  Example

   The example shown in Figure 7 refers to three RTP flows A, B and C
   containing a layered, a multi-view or a multi-description media
   stream.  In the example, the dependency signalling as defined in [8]
   indicates that flow A is the lowest RTP flow, B is the first higher
   RTP flow and depends on A, and C is the second higher RTP flow
   corresponding to flow A and depends on A and B. A media coding
   structure is used that results in samples present in higher flows but
   not present in all lower flows.  Flow A has the lowest frame rate and
   Flow B and C have the same but higher frame rate.  The figure shows
   the full video samples with their corresponding RTP timestamps "(x)".
   The video samples are already re-ordered according to their RTP
   sequence number order.  The figure indicates for the received sample
   in decoding order within each RTP flow, as well as the associated NTP
   media timestamps ("TS[..]").  These timestamps may be derived using
   the NTP format timestamp provided in the RTCP sender reports or as
   shown in the figure directly from the NTP timestamp contained in the
   RTP header extensions as indicate by the timestamp in "<x>".  Note
   that the timestamps are not in increasing order since, in this
   example, the decoding order is different from the output/presentation
   order.

   The process first proceeds to the sample parts associated with the
   first available synchronous insertion of NTP timestamp into RTP
   header extensions at NTP media timestamp TS=[8] and starts in the
   highest RTP flow C and removes/ignores all preceding sample parts (in
   decoding order) to sample parts with TS=[8] in each of the de-
   jittering buffers of RTP flows A, B, and C. Then, starting from flow
   C, the first media timestamp available in decoding order (TS=[8]) is
   selected and sample parts starting from RTP flow A, and flow B and C
   are placed in order of the RTP flow dependency as indicated by
   mechanisms defined in [8] (in the example for TS[8]: first flow B and
   then flow C into the video sample VS(TS[8]) associated with NTP media
   timestamp TS=[8].  Then the next media timestamp TS=[6] (RTP
   timestamp=(4)) in order of appearance in the highest RTP flow C is
   processed and the process described above is repeated.  Note that
   there may be video samples with no sample parts present, e.g., in the
   lowest RTP flow A (see, e.g., TS=[5]).  The decoding order recovery
   process could be also started after receiving all RTP sender reports
   RTP timestamp to NTP-format timestamp mapping (indicated as
   timestamps "(x){y}") assuming that there is no clock skew in the
   source used for the NTP-format timestamp generation.








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   C:-(0)----(2)----(7)<8>--(5)----(4)----(6)-----(11)----(9){10}-
      |      |      |       |      |      |       |       |
   B:-(3)----(5)---(10)<8>--(8)----(7)----(9){7}--(14)----(12)----
                    |       |                     |       |
   A:---------------(3)<8>--(1)-------------------(7){12}-(5)-----

   ---------------------------------------decoding/transmission order->
   TS:[1]    [3]    [8]=<8> [6]    [5]    [7]    [12]    [10]


   Key:
   A, B, C               - RTP flows
   Integer values in "()"- video sample with its RTP timestamp as
                          indicated in its RTP packet.
   "|"                   - indicates corresponding samples / parts of
                          sample of the same video sample VS(TS[..])
                          in the RTP flows.
   Integer values in "[]"- NTP media timestamp TS, sampling time
                          as derived from the NTP timestamp associated
                          with the video sample AU(TS[..]), consisting
                          of sample parts in the flows above.
   Integer values in "<>"- NTP media timestamp TS as directly
                         taken from the NTP RTP header extensions.
   Integer values in "{}"- NTP media timestamp TS as provided in the
                          RTCP sender reports.

                 Figure 7: Example of a layered RTP stream


5.  Security Considerations

   The security considerations of the RTP specification [1], the
   Extended RTP profile for RTCP-Based Feedback [2], and the General
   Mechanism for RTP Header Extensions [6] apply.

   The RTP header extensions defined in Section 3.3 include an NTP-
   format timestamp.  When an RTP session using this header extension is
   protected by the Secure RTP framework [18], that header extension is
   not part of the encrypted portion of the RTP data packets or RTCP
   control packets; however these NTP-format timestamps are encrypted
   when using SRTP without this header extension.  This is a minor
   information leak, but one that is not believed to be significant.
   The inclusion of this header extension will also reduce the
   efficiency of RTP header compression, if it is used.  Furthermore,
   middle boxes which do not understand the header extensions may remove
   them or may not update the content according to this memo.





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6.  IANA Considerations

   NOTE TO RFC EDITOR: Please replace "RFC XXXX" in the following with
   the RFC number assigned to this memo, and delete this note.

   The IANA is requested to register one new value in the table of FMT
   Values for RTPFB Payload Types [2] as follows:


      Name:          RTCP-SR-REQ
      Long name:     RTCP Rapid Resynchronisation Request
      Value:         5
      Reference:     RFC XXXX

   The IANA is also requested to register two new RTP Compact Header
   Extensions [6], according to the following:


      Extension URI: urn:ietf:params:rtp-hdrext:ntp-64
      Description:   Synchronisation metadata: 64-bit timestamp format
      Contact:       Thomas Schierl <ts@thomas-schierl.de>
                     IETF Audio/Video Transport Working Group
      Reference:     RFC XXXX

      Extension URI: urn:ietf:params:rtp-hdrext:ntp-56
      Description:   Synchronisation metadata: 56-bit timestamp format
      Contact:       Thomas Schierl <ts@thomas-schierl.de>
                     IETF Audio/Video Transport Working Group
      Reference:     RFC XXXX


7.  Acknowledgements

   This memo has benefited from discussions with numerous members of the
   IETF AVT working group, including Jonathan Lennox, Magnus Westerlund,
   Randell Jesup, Gerard Babonneau, Ingemar Johansson, Ali C. Begen, Ye-
   Kui Wang, Roni Even, Michael Dolan, Art Allison, and Stefan Doehla.
   The RTP header extension format of Variant A in Section 3.3 was
   suggested by Dave Singer, matching a similar mechanism specified by
   ISMA.


8.  References

8.1.  Normative References

   [1]   Schulzrinne, H., Casner, S., Frederick, R., and V. Jacobson,
         "RTP: A Transport Protocol for Real-Time Applications", STD 64,



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         RFC 3550, July 2003.

   [2]   Ott, J., Wenger, S., Sato, N., Burmeister, C., and J. Rey,
         "Extended RTP Profile for Real-time Transport Control Protocol
         (RTCP)-Based Feedback (RTP/AVPF)", RFC 4585, July 2006.

   [3]   Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
         Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [4]   Ott, J., Chesterfield, J., and E. Schooler, "RTP Control
         Protocol (RTCP) Extensions for Single-Source Multicast Sessions
         with Unicast Feedback", RFC 5760, February 2010.

   [5]   Johansson, I. and M. Westerlund, "Support for Reduced-Size
         Real-Time Transport Control Protocol (RTCP): Opportunities and
         Consequences", RFC 5506, April 2009.

   [6]   Singer, D. and H. Desineni, "A General Mechanism for RTP Header
         Extensions", RFC 5285, July 2008.

   [7]   Mills, D., "Network Time Protocol (Version 3) Specification,
         Implementation", RFC 1305, March 1992.

   [8]   Schierl, T. and S. Wenger, "Signaling Media Decoding Dependency
         in the Session Description Protocol (SDP)", RFC 5583,
         July 2009.

8.2.  Informative References

   [9]   Wenger, S., Wang, Y., Schierl, T., and A. Eleftheriadis, "RTP
         Payload Format for SVC Video", draft-ietf-avt-rtp-svc-21 (work
         in progress), April 2010.

   [10]  Lennox, J., Ott, J., and T. Schierl, "Source-Specific Media
         Attributes in the Session Description Protocol (SDP)",
         RFC 5576, June 2009.

   [11]  Casner, S., "Session Description Protocol (SDP) Bandwidth
         Modifiers for RTP Control Protocol (RTCP) Bandwidth", RFC 3556,
         July 2003.

   [12]  Rosenberg, J., "Interactive Connectivity Establishment (ICE): A
         Protocol for Network Address Translator (NAT) Traversal for
         Offer/Answer Protocols", RFC 5245, April 2010.

   [13]  McGrew, D. and E. Rescorla, "Datagram Transport Layer Security
         (DTLS) Extension to Establish Keys for Secure Real-time
         Transport Protocol (SRTP)", draft-ietf-avt-dtls-srtp-07 (work



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         in progress), February 2009.

   [14]  Zimmermann, P., Johnston, A., and J. Callas, "ZRTP: Media Path
         Key Agreement for Unicast Secure RTP",
         draft-zimmermann-avt-zrtp-18 (work in progress), April 2010.

   [15]  Westerlund, M. and S. Wenger, "RTP Topologies", RFC 5117,
         January 2008.

   [16]  Steeg, B., Begen, A., Caenegem, T., and Z. Vax, "Unicast-Based
         Rapid Acquisition of Multicast RTP Sessions",
         draft-ietf-avt-rapid-acquisition-for-rtp-09 (work in progress),
         April 2010.

   [17]  de Bont, F., Doehla, S., Schmidt, M., and R. Sperschneider,
         "RTP Payload Format for Elementary Streams with MPEG Surround
         Multi-Channel Audio", RFC 5691, October 2009.

   [18]  Baugher, M., McGrew, D., Naslund, M., Carrara, E., and K.
         Norrman, "The Secure Real-time Transport Protocol (SRTP)",
         RFC 3711, March 2004.


Authors' Addresses

   Colin Perkins
   University of Glasgow
   Department of Computing Science
   Glasgow  G12 8QQ
   UK

   Email: csp@csperkins.org


   Thomas Schierl
   Fraunhofer HHI
   Einsteinufer 37
   D-10587 Berlin
   Germany

   Phone: +49-30-31002-227
   Email: ts@thomas-schierl.de









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