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Versions: (draft-herlein-avt-rtp-speex) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 RFC 5574

AVT                                                           G. Herlein
Internet-Draft
Intended status: Standards Track                                J. Valin
Expires: November 8, 2009                            Xiph.Org Foundation
                                                            A. Heggestad
                                                             Creytiv.com
                                                              A. Moizard
                                                                 Antisip
                                                             May 7, 2009


                 RTP Payload Format for the Speex Codec
                      draft-ietf-avt-rtp-speex-07

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on November 8, 2009.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2009 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
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   Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights
   and restrictions with respect to this document.




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Abstract

   Speex is an open-source voice codec suitable for use in Voice over IP
   (VoIP) type applications.  This document describes the payload format
   for Speex generated bit streams within an RTP packet.  Also included
   here are the necessary details for the use of Speex with the Session
   Description Protocol (SDP).












































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Editors Note

   All references to RFC XXXX are to be replaced by references to the
   RFC number of this memo, when published.


Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   2.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   3.  RTP usage for Speex  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     3.1.  RTP Speex Header Fields  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     3.2.  RTP payload format for Speex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     3.3.  Speex payload  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     3.4.  Example Speex packet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     3.5.  Multiple Speex frames in a RTP packet  . . . . . . . . . .  8
   4.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     4.1.  Media Type Registration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
       4.1.1.  Registration of media type audio/speex . . . . . . . .  9
   5.  SDP usage of Speex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     5.1.  Example supporting all modes, prefer mode 4  . . . . . . . 15
     5.2.  Example supporting only mode 3 and 5 . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     5.3.  Example with Variable Bit Rate and Comfort Noise . . . . . 15
     5.4.  Example with Voice Activity Detection  . . . . . . . . . . 15
     5.5.  Example with Multiple sampling rates . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     5.6.  Example with ptime and Multiple Speex frames . . . . . . . 16
     5.7.  Example with Complete Offer/Answer exchange  . . . . . . . 16
   6.  Implementation Guidelines  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
   7.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
   8.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
   9.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
     9.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
     9.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

















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1.  Introduction

   Speex is based on the CELP [CELP] encoding technique with support for
   either narrowband (nominal 8kHz), wideband (nominal 16kHz) or ultra-
   wideband (nominal 32kHz).  The main characteristics can be summarized
   as follows:

   o  Free software/open-source

   o  Integration of wideband and narrowband in the same bit-stream

   o  Wide range of bit-rates available

   o  Dynamic bit-rate switching and variable bit-rate (VBR)

   o  Voice Activity Detection (VAD, integrated with VBR)

   o  Variable complexity

   The Speex codec supports a wide range of bit-rates from 2.15 kbit/s
   to 44 kbit/s.  In some cases however, it may not be possible for an
   implementation to include support for all rates (e.g. because of
   bandwidth, RAM or CPU constraints).  In those cases, to be compliant
   with this specification, implementations MUST support at least
   narrowband (8 kHz) encoding and decoding at 8 kbit/s bit-rate
   (narrowband mode 3).  Support for narrowband at 15 kbit/s (narrowband
   mode 5) is RECOMMENDED and support for wideband at 27.8 kbit/s
   (wideband mode 8) is also RECOMMENDED.  The sampling rate MUST be 8,
   16 or 32 kHz.  This specification defines only single channel audio
   (mono).





















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2.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC2119 [RFC2119] and
   indicate requirement levels for compliant RTP implementations.













































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3.  RTP usage for Speex

3.1.  RTP Speex Header Fields

   The RTP header is defined in the RTP specification [RFC3550].  This
   section defines how fields in the RTP header are used.

      Payload Type (PT): The assignment of an RTP payload type for this
      packet format is outside the scope of this document; it is
      specified by the RTP profile under which this payload format is
      used, or signaled dynamically out-of-band (e.g., using SDP).

      Marker (M) bit: The M bit is set to one on the first packet sent
      after a silence period, during which packets have not been
      transmitted contiguously.

      Extension (X) bit: Defined by the RTP profile used.

      Timestamp: A 32-bit word that corresponds to the sampling instant
      for the first frame in the RTP packet.

3.2.  RTP payload format for Speex

   The RTP payload for Speex has the format shown in Figure 1.  No
   additional header fields specific to this payload format are
   required.  For RTP based transportation of Speex encoded audio the
   standard RTP header [RFC3550] is followed by one or more payload data
   blocks.  An optional padding terminator may also be used.

        0                   1                   2                   3
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                         RTP Header                            |
       +=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+
       |                 one or more frames of Speex ....              |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |        one or more frames of Speex ....       |    padding    |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                     Figure 1: RTP payload for Speex

3.3.  Speex payload

   For the purposes of packetizing the bit stream in RTP, it is only
   necessary to consider the sequence of bits as output by the Speex
   encoder [speex_manual], and present the same sequence to the decoder.
   The payload format described here maintains this sequence.




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   A typical Speex frame, encoded at the maximum bitrate, is approx. 110
   octets and the total number of Speex frames SHOULD be kept less than
   the path MTU to prevent fragmentation.  Speex frames MUST NOT be
   fragmented across multiple RTP packets,

   The Speex frames must be placed starting with the oldest frame and
   then continue consecutive in time.

   An RTP packet MAY contain Speex frames of the same bit rate or of
   varying bit rates, since the bit-rate for a frame is conveyed in band
   with the signal.

   The encoding and decoding algorithm can change the bit rate at any 20
   msec frame boundary, with the bit rate change notification provided
   in-band with the bit stream.  Each frame contains both sampling rate
   (narrowband, wideband or ultra-wideband) and "mode" (bit-rate)
   information in the bit stream.  No out-of-band notification is
   required for the decoder to process changes in the bit rate sent by
   the encoder.

   The sampling rate MUST be either 8000 Hz, 16000 Hz, or 32000 Hz.

   The RTP payload MUST be padded to provide an integer number of octets
   as the payload length.  These padding bits are LSB aligned in network
   octet order and consist of a 0 followed by all ones (until the end of
   the octet).  This padding is only required for the last frame in the
   packet, and only to ensure the packet contents ends on an octet
   boundary.

3.4.  Example Speex packet

   In the example below we have a single Speex frame with 5 bits of
   padding to ensure the packet size falls on an octet boundary.

       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                      RTP Header                               |
      +=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+
      |                        ..speex data..                         |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                        ..speex data..               |0 1 1 1 1|
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+








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3.5.  Multiple Speex frames in a RTP packet

   Below is an example of two Speex frames contained within one RTP
   packet.  The Speex frame length in this example fall on an octet
   boundary so there is no padding.

   The Speex decoder [speex_manual] can detect the bitrate from the
   payload and is responsible for detecting the 20 msec boundaries
   between each frame.

       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                      RTP Header                               |
      +=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+
      |                     ..speex frame 1..                         |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |       ..speex frame 1..       |      ..speex frame 2..        |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                      ..speex frame 2..                        |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+






























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4.  IANA Considerations

   This document defines the Speex media type.

4.1.  Media Type Registration

   This section describes the media types and names associated with this
   payload format.  The section registers the media types, as per
   RFC4288 [RFC4288]

4.1.1.  Registration of media type audio/speex

   Media type name: audio

   Media subtype name: speex

   Required parameters:

      rate: RTP timestamp clock rate, which is equal to the sampling
      rate in Hz.  The sampling rate MUST be either 8000, 16000, or
      32000.

   Optional parameters:

      ptime: SHOULD be a multiple of 20 msec [RFC4566]

      maxptime: SHOULD be a multiple of 20 msec [RFC4566]

      vbr: variable bit rate - either 'on' 'off' or 'vad' (defaults to
      off).  If on, variable bit rate is enabled.  If off, disabled.  If
      set to 'vad' then constant bit rate is used but silence will be
      encoded with special short frames to indicate a lack of voice for
      that period.  This parameter is a preference to the encoder.


      cng: comfort noise generation - either 'on' or 'off' (defaults to
      off).  If off then silence frames will be silent; if 'on' then
      those frames will be filled with comfort noise.  This parameter is
      a preference to the encoder.


      mode: Comma-separated list of supported Speex decoding modes, in
      order of preference.  The first is the most preferred and the
      remaining is in decreasing order of preference.  The valid modes
      are different for narrowband and wideband, and are defined as
      follows:





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      *  {1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,any} for narrowband

      *  {0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,any} for wideband and ultra-wideband

      The 'mode' parameters may contain multiple values.  In this case,
      the remote party SHOULD configure its encoder using the first
      supported mode provided.  When 'any' is used, the offerer
      indicates that it supports all decoding modes.  The 'mode'
      parameter value MUST always be quoted.  If the 'mode' parameter is
      not provided, the mode value is considered to be equivalent to
      'mode="3,any"' in narrowband and 'mode="8,any"' in wideband and
      ultra-wideband.  Note that each Speex frame does contains the mode
      (or bit-rate) that should be used to decode it.  Thus application
      MUST be able to decode any Speex frame unless the SDP clearly
      specify that some modes are not supported. (e.g., by not including
      'mode="any"') Indicating support for a given set of decoding
      modes, also implies that the implementation support the same
      encoding modes.

   Encoding considerations:

      This media type is framed and binary, see section 4.8 in
      [RFC4288].

   Security considerations: See Section 6

   Interoperability considerations:

      None.

   Published specification:

      RFC XXXX [RFC Editor: please replace by the RFC number of this
      memo, when published]

   Applications which use this media type:

      Audio streaming and conferencing applications.

   Additional information: none

   Person and email address to contact for further information :

      Alfred E. Heggestad: aeh@db.org

   Intended usage: COMMON

   Restrictions on usage:



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      This media type depends on RTP framing, and hence is only defined
      for transfer via RTP [RFC3550].  Transport within other framing
      protocols is not defined at this time.

   Author: Alfred E. Heggestad

   Change controller:

      IETF Audio/Video Transport working group delegated from the IESG.










































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5.  SDP usage of Speex

   The information carried in the media type specification has a
   specific mapping to fields in the Session Description Protocol (SDP)
   [RFC4566], which is commonly used to describe RTP sessions.  When SDP
   is used to specify sessions employing the Speex codec, the mapping is
   as follows:

   o  The media type ("audio") goes in SDP "m=" as the media name.

   o  The media subtype ("speex") goes in SDP "a=rtpmap" as the encoding
      name.  The required parameter "rate" also goes in "a=rtpmap" as
      the clock rate.

   o  The parameters "ptime" and "maxptime" go in the SDP "a=ptime" and
      "a=maxptime" attributes, respectively.

   o  Any remaining parameters go in the SDP "a=fmtp" attribute by
      copying them directly from the media type string as a semicolon
      separated list of parameter=value pairs.

   The tables below include the equivalence between modes and bitrates
   for narrowband, wideband and ultra-wideband.  Also, the corresponding
   "Speex quality" setting (see SPEEX_SET_QUALITY in The Speex Codec
   Manual [speex_manual]) is included as an indication.


























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                  +------+---------------+-------------+
                  | mode | Speex quality |   bitrate   |
                  +------+---------------+-------------+
                  |   1  |       0       | 2.15 kbit/s |
                  |      |               |             |
                  |   2  |       2       | 5.95 kbit/s |
                  |      |               |             |
                  |   3  |     3 or 4    | 8.00 kbit/s |
                  |      |               |             |
                  |   4  |     5 or 6    | 11.0 kbit/s |
                  |      |               |             |
                  |   5  |     7 or 8    | 15.0 kbit/s |
                  |      |               |             |
                  |   6  |       9       | 18.2 kbit/s |
                  |      |               |             |
                  |   7  |       10      | 24.6 kbit/s |
                  |      |               |             |
                  |   8  |       1       | 3.95 kbit/s |
                  +------+---------------+-------------+

                   Mode vs Bitrate table for narrowband

                                  Table 1




























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   +------+---------------+------------------+------------------------+
   | mode | Speex quality | wideband bitrate | ultra wideband bitrate |
   +------+---------------+------------------+------------------------+
   |   0  |       0       |    3.95 kbit/s   |       5.75 kbit/s      |
   |      |               |                  |                        |
   |   1  |       1       |    5.75 kbit/s   |       7.55 kbit/s      |
   |      |               |                  |                        |
   |   2  |       2       |    7.75 kbit/s   |       9.55 kbit/s      |
   |      |               |                  |                        |
   |   3  |       3       |    9.80 kbit/s   |       11.6 kbit/s      |
   |      |               |                  |                        |
   |   4  |       4       |    12.8 kbit/s   |       14.6 kbit/s      |
   |      |               |                  |                        |
   |   5  |       5       |    16.8 kbit/s   |       18.6 kbit/s      |
   |      |               |                  |                        |
   |   6  |       6       |    20.6 kbit/s   |       22.4 kbit/s      |
   |      |               |                  |                        |
   |   7  |       7       |    23.8 kbit/s   |       25.6 kbit/s      |
   |      |               |                  |                        |
   |   8  |       8       |    27.8 kbit/s   |       29.6 kbit/s      |
   |      |               |                  |                        |
   |   9  |       9       |    34.2 kbit/s   |       36.0 kbit/s      |
   |      |               |                  |                        |
   |  10  |       10      |    42.2 kbit/s   |       44.0 kbit/s      |
   +------+---------------+------------------+------------------------+

           Mode vs Bitrate table for wideband and ultra-wideband

                                  Table 2

   The Speex parameters indicate the decoding capabilities of the agent,
   and what the agent prefers to receive.

   The Speex parameters in an SDP Offer/Answer exchange are completely
   orthogonal, and there is no relationship between the SDP Offer and
   the Answer.

   Several Speex specific parameters can be given in a single a=fmtp
   line provided that they are separated by a semi-colon:

             a=fmtp:97 mode="1,any";vbr=on

   Some example SDP session descriptions utilizing Speex encodings
   follow.







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5.1.  Example supporting all modes, prefer mode 4

   The offerer indicates that it wishes to receive a Speex stream at
   8000Hz, and wishes to receive Speex 'mode 4'.  It is important to
   understand that any other mode might still be sent by remote party:
   the device might have bandwidth limitation or might only be able to
   send 'mode="3"'.  Thus, application that support all decoding modes
   SHOULD include 'mode="any"' as shown in the example below:

             m=audio 8088 RTP/AVP 97
             a=rtpmap:97 speex/8000
             a=fmtp:97 mode="4,any"

5.2.  Example supporting only mode 3 and 5

   The offerer indicates the mode he wishes to receive (Speex 'mode 3').
   This offer indicates mode 3 and mode 5 are supported and that no
   other modes are supported.  The remote party MUST NOT configure its
   encoder using another Speex mode.

             m=audio 8088 RTP/AVP 97
             a=rtmap:97 speex/8000
             a=fmtp:97 mode="3,5"

5.3.  Example with Variable Bit Rate and Comfort Noise

   The offerer indicates that it wishes to receive variable bit rate
   frames with comfort noise:

             m=audio 8088 RTP/AVP 97
             a=rtmap:97 speex/8000
             a=fmtp:97 vbr=on;cng=on

5.4.  Example with Voice Activity Detection

   The offerer indicates that it wishes to use silence suppression.  In
   this case vbr=vad parameter will be used:

             m=audio 8088 RTP/AVP 97
             a=rtmap:97 speex/8000
             a=fmtp:97 vbr=vad

5.5.  Example with Multiple sampling rates

   The offerer indicates that it wishes to receive Speex audio at 16000
   Hz with mode 10 (42.2 kbit/s), alternatively Speex audio at 8000 Hz
   with mode 7 (24.6 kbit/s).  The offerer supports decoding all modes.




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             m=audio 8088 RTP/AVP 97 98
             a=rtmap:97 speex/16000
             a=fmtp:97 mode="10,any"
             a=rtmap:98 speex/8000
             a=fmtp:98 mode="7,any"

5.6.  Example with ptime and Multiple Speex frames

   The "ptime" SDP attribute is used to denote the packetization
   interval (ie, how many milliseconds of audio is encoded in a single
   RTP packet).  Since Speex uses 20 msec frames, ptime values of
   multiples of 20 denote multiple Speex frames per packet.  It is
   recommended to use ptime values which are a multiple of 20.

   If ptime contains a value which is not multiple of 20, the internal
   interpretation of it should be rounded up to the nearest multiple of
   20 before the number of Speex frames is calculated.  For example if
   the "ptime" attribute is set to 30, the internal interpretation
   should be rounded up to 40 and then used to calculate 2 Speex frames
   per packet.

   In the example below the ptime value is set to 40, indicating that
   there are 2 frames in each packet.

             m=audio 8088 RTP/AVP 97
             a=rtpmap:97 speex/8000
             a=ptime:40

   Note that the ptime parameter applies to all payloads listed in the
   media line and is not used as part of an a=fmtp directive.

   Care must be taken when setting the value of ptime so that the RTP
   packet size does not exceed the path MTU.

5.7.  Example with Complete Offer/Answer exchange

   The offerer indicates that it wishes to receive Speex audio at 16000
   Hz, alternatively Speex audio at 8000 Hz.  The offerer does support
   ALL modes because no mode is specified.

             m=audio 8088 RTP/AVP 97 98
             a=rtmap:97 speex/16000
             a=rtmap:98 speex/8000

   The answerer indicates that it wishes to receive Speex audio at 8000
   Hz, which is the only sampling rate it supports.  The answerer does
   support ALL modes because no mode is specified.




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             m=audio 8088 RTP/AVP 99
             a=rtmap:99 speex/8000

















































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6.  Implementation Guidelines

   Implementations that supports Speex are responsible for correctly
   decoding incoming Speex frames.

   Each Speex frame does contains all needed informations to decode
   itself.  In particular, the 'mode' and 'ptime' values proposed in the
   SDP contents MUST NOT be used for decoding: those values are not
   needed to properly decode a RTP Speex stream.










































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7.  Security Considerations

   RTP packets using the payload format defined in this specification
   are subject to the security considerations discussed in the RTP
   specification [RFC3550], and any appropriate RTP profile.  This
   implies that confidentiality of the media streams is achieved by
   encryption.  Because the data compression used with this payload
   format is applied end-to-end, encryption may be performed after
   compression so there is no conflict between the two operations.

   A potential denial-of-service threat exists for data encodings using
   compression techniques that have non-uniform receiver-end
   computational load.  The attacker can inject pathological datagrams
   into the stream which are complex to decode and cause the receiver to
   be overloaded.  However, this encoding does not exhibit any
   significant non-uniformity.

   As with any IP-based protocol, in some circumstances a receiver may
   be overloaded simply by the receipt of too many packets, either
   desired or undesired.  Network-layer authentication may be used to
   discard packets from undesired sources, but the processing cost of
   the authentication itself may be too high.





























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8.  Acknowledgements

   The authors would like to thank Equivalence Pty Ltd of Australia for
   their assistance in attempting to standardize the use of Speex in
   H.323 applications, and for implementing Speex in their open source
   OpenH323 stack.  The authors would also like to thank Brian C. Wiles
   <brian@streamcomm.com> of StreamComm for his assistance in developing
   the proposed standard for Speex use in H.323 applications.

   The authors would also like to thank the following members of the
   Speex and AVT communities for their input: Ross Finlayson, Federico
   Montesino Pouzols, Henning Schulzrinne, Magnus Westerlund, Colin
   Perkins, Ivo Emanuel Goncalves.

   Thanks to former authors of this document; Simon Morlat, Roger
   Hardiman, Phil Kerr.



































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9.  References

9.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC3550]  Schulzrinne, H., Casner, S., Frederick, R., and V.
              Jacobson, "RTP: A Transport Protocol for Real-Time
              Applications", STD 64, RFC 3550, July 2003.

   [RFC4566]  Handley, M., Jacobson, V., and C. Perkins, "SDP: Session
              Description Protocol", RFC 4566, July 2006.

9.2.  Informative References

   [CELP]     "CELP, U.S. Federal Standard 1016.", National Technical
              Information Service (NTIS) website http://www.ntis.gov/.

   [RFC4288]  Freed, N. and J. Klensin, "Media Type Specifications and
              Registration Procedures", BCP 13, RFC 4288, December 2005.

   [speex_manual]
              Valin, J., "The Speex Codec Manual", Speex
              website http://www.speex.org/docs/.


























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Authors' Addresses

   Greg Herlein
   2034 Filbert Street
   San Francisco, California  94123
   United States

   Email: gherlein@herlein.com


   Jean-Marc Valin
   Xiph.Org Foundation

   Email: jean-marc.valin@usherbrooke.ca


   Alfred E. Heggestad
   Creytiv.com
   Biskop J. Nilssonsgt. 20a
   Oslo  0659
   Norway

   Email: aeh@db.org


   Aymeric Moizard
   Antisip
   5 Place Benoit Crepu
   Lyon,   69005
   France





















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