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Versions: (draft-li-ulp) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 RFC 5109

Internet Draft                                                  Adam Li
draft-ietf-avt-ulp-23.txt                                        Editor
Obsoletes: 2733, 3009 (if approved)
August 2, 2007
Expires: February 2, 2008


        RTP Payload Format for Generic Forward Error Correction


STATUS OF THIS MEMO

   By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any
   applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware
   have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes
   aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section 6 of BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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   http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.

   This document is a submission of the IETF AVT WG. Comments should be
   directed to the AVT WG mailing list, avt@ietf.org.


ABSTRACT

   This document specifies a payload format for generic Forward
   Error Correction (FEC) for media data encapsulated in RTP. It is
   based on the exclusive-or (parity) operation. The payload format
   described in this draft allows end systems to apply protection
   using various protection lengths and levels, in addition to
   using various protection group sizes to adapt to different media
   and channel characteristic. It enables complete recovery of the
   protected packets or partial recovery of the critical parts of
   the payload depending on the packet loss situation. This scheme
   is completely compatible with non-FEC capable hosts, so the



Adam H. Li                                                     [Page 1]

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   receivers in a multicast group that do not implement FEC can
   still work by simply ignoring the protection data. This
   specification obsoletes RFC 2733 and RFC 3009. The FEC specified
   in this document is not backward compatible with RFC 2733 and
   RFC 3009.
















































Adam H. Li                                                     [Page 2]

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Table of Contents

   1. Introduction .................................................. 4
   2. Terminology ................................................... 6
   3. Basic Operation ............................................... 7
   4. Parity Codes .................................................. 7
   5. Uneven Level Protection (ULP) ................................. 8
   6. RTP Media Packet Structure ................................... 10
   7. FEC Packet Structure ......................................... 10
   7.1. Baseline Mode FEC .......................................... 10
   7.2. RTP Header for FEC Packets ................................. 10
   7.3. FEC Header for FEC packets ................................. 11
   7.4. FEC Level Header for FEC Packets ........................... 12
   8. Protection Operation ......................................... 15
   8.1. Generation of the FEC Header ............................... 15
   8.2. Generation of the FEC Payload .............................. 15
   9. Recovery Procedure ........................................... 16
   9.1. Reconstruction of the RTP Header ........................... 16
   9.2. Reconstruction of the RTP Payload .......................... 17
   10. Examples .................................................... 18
   10.1. An Example Offers Similar Protection As RFC 2733 .......... 19
   10.2. An Example With Two Protection Levels ..................... 21
   10.3. An Example With FEC As Redundant Coding ................... 25
   11. Security Considerations ..................................... 27
   12. Congestion Considerations ................................... 29
   13. IANA Considerations ......................................... 29
   13.1. Registration of audio/ulpfec .............................. 30
   13.2. Registration of video/ulpfec .............................. 31
   13.3. Registration of text/ulpfec ............................... 32
   13.4. Registration of application/ulpfec ........................ 33
   14. Multiplexing of FEC ......................................... 34
   14.1. FEC as a Separate Stream .................................. 35
   14.2. FEC as Redundant Encoding ................................. 36
   14.3. Offer / Answer Consideration .............................. 37
   15. Application Statement ....................................... 38
   16. Acknowledgements ............................................ 39
   17. Bibliography ................................................ 40
   17.1. Normative References ...................................... 40
   17.2. Informative References .................................... 40
   18. Author's Address ............................................ 41
   Copyright Statement ............................................. 42
   Disclaimer of Validity .......................................... 42











Adam H. Li                                                     [Page 3]

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1. Introduction

   The nature of real-time applications implies that they usually have
   more stringent delay requirements than normal data transmissions. As
   a result, retransmission of the lost packets is generally not a
   valid option for such applications. In these cases, a better method
   to attempt recovery of information from packet loss is through
   Forward Error Correction (FEC). FEC is one of the main methods used
   to protect against packet loss over packet switched networks [9,
   10]. In particular, the use of traditional error correcting codes,
   such as parity, Reed-Solomon, and Hamming codes, has seen much
   application. To apply these mechanisms, protocol support is
   required. RFC 2733 [9] and RFC 3009 [11] defined one of such FEC
   protocols. However, in these two RFCs a few fields (the P, X, and CC
   fields) in the RTP header are specified in ways which are not
   consistent as they are designed in RTP [1]. This prevents the
   payload-independent validity check of the RTP packets.

   This document extends the FEC defined in RFC 2733 and RFC 3009 to
   include unequal error protection on the payload data. It specifies a
   general algorithm with the two previous RFCs as its special cases.
   This specification also fixes the above-mentioned inconsistency with
   RFC 2733 and RFC 3009, and will obsolete those two previous RFCs.
   Please note that the payload specified in this document is not
   backward compatible with RFC 2733 and RFC 3009. Because the payload
   specified in this document is signaled by different MIME from those
   of RFC 3009, there is no concern of mis-identification of different
   parity FEC version in capacity exchange. For parity FEC specified
   here and in RFC 2733 and RFC 3009, the payload data are un-altered
   and additional FEC data are sent along to protect the payload data.
   Hence the communication of the payload data would flow without
   problem between hosts of different parity FEC versions and hosts
   that did not implement parity FEC. The receiving hosts with
   incompatible FEC from the sending host would not be able to benefit
   from the additional FEC data, so it is recommended that existing
   host implementing RFC 2733 and RFC 3009 should be updated to follow
   this specification when possible.

   This document defines a payload format for RTP [1] which allows for
   generic forward error correction of real time media. In this
   context, generic means that the FEC protocol is (1) independent of
   the nature of the media being protected, be it audio, video, or
   otherwise, (2) flexible enough to support a wide variety of FEC
   configurations, (3) designed for adaptivity so that the FEC
   technique can be modified easily without out-of-band signaling, and
   (4) supportive of a number of different mechanisms for transporting
   the FEC packets.

   Furthermore, in many scenarios the bandwidth of the network
   connections is a very limited resource. On the other hand, most of
   traditional FEC schemes are not designed for optimal utilization of
   the limited bandwidth resource. An often used improvement is unequal

Adam H. Li                                                     [Page 4]

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   error protection that provides different levels of protection for
   different parts of the data stream which vary in importance. The
   unequal error protection schemes can usually make more efficient use
   of bandwidth to provide better overall protection of the data stream
   against the loss. Proper protocol support is essential for realizing
   these unequal error protection mechanisms. The application of most
   of the unequal error protection schemes requires having the
   knowledge of the importance for different parts of the data stream.
   For that reason, most of such schemes are designed for particular
   types of media according to the structure of the media protected,
   and as a result, are not generic.

   The FEC algorithm and protocol are defined in this document for
   generic forward error correction with unequal error protection for
   real-time media. The particular algorithm defined here is called the
   Uneven Level Protection (ULP). The payload data are protected by one
   or more protection levels. Lower protection levels can provide
   greater protection by using smaller group sizes (compared to higher
   protection levels) for generating the FEC packet. As we will discuss
   below, audio/video applications would generally benefit from unequal
   error protection schemes that give more protection to the beginning
   part of each packet such as ULP. The data that are closer to the
   beginning of the packet are in general more important and tend to
   carry more information than the data further behind in the packet.

   It is well known that in many multimedia streams the more important
   parts of the data are always at the beginning of the data packet.
   This is the common practice in codec design since the beginning of
   the packet is closer to the re-synchronization marker at the header
   and thus is more likely to be correctly decoded. In additional,
   almost all media formats have the frame headers at the beginning of
   the packet, which is the most vital part of the packet.

   For video streams, most modern formats have optional data
   partitioning modes to improve error resilience in which the video
   macroblock header data, the motion vector data, and DCT coefficient
   data are separated into their individual partitions. For example, in
   ITU-T H.263 version 3, there is the optional data partitioned syntax
   of Annex V. In MPEG-4 Visual Simple Profile, there is the optional
   data partitioning mode. When these modes are enabled, the video
   macroblock (MB) header and motion vector partitions (which are much
   more important to the quality of the video reconstruction) are
   transmitted in the partition(s) at the beginning of the video packet
   while residue DCT coefficient partitions (which are less important)
   are transmitted in the partition close to the end of the packet.
   Because the data is arranged in descending order of importance, it
   would be beneficial to provide more protection to the beginning part
   of the packet in transmission.

   For audio streams, the bitstreams generated by many of the new audio
   codecs also contain data with different classes of importance. These
   different classes are then transmitted in order of descending

Adam H. Li                                                     [Page 5]

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   importance. Applying more protection to the beginning of the packet
   would also be beneficial in these cases. Even for uniform-
   significance audio streams, various time shifting and stretching
   techniques can be applied to the partially recovered audio data
   packets.

   Audio/video applications would generally benefit from the FEC
   algorithms specified in this document. With ULP, the efficiency of
   the protection of the media payload can potentially be further
   improved. This document specifies the protocol and algorithm for
   applying the generic FEC to the RTP media payloads.


2. Terminology

   The following terms are used throughout this document:

   Media Payload: The raw, un-protected user data that are transmitted
   from the sender. The media payload is placed inside of an RTP
   packet.

   Media Header: The RTP header for the packet containing the media
   payload.

   Media Packet: The combination of a media payload and media header is
   called a media packet.

   FEC Packet: The FEC algorithms at the transmitter take the media
   packets as an input. They output both the media packets that they
   are passed, and newly generated packets called FEC packets, which
   contain redundant media data used for error correction. The FEC
   packets are formatted according to the rules specified in this
   document.

   FEC Header: The header information contained in an FEC packet.

   FEC Level Header: The header information contained in an FEC packet
   for each level.

   FEC Payload: The payload of an FEC packet. It may be divided into
   multiple levels.

   Associated: A FEC packet is said to be "associated" with one or more
   media packets (or vice versa) when those media packets are used to
   generate the FEC packet (by use of the exclusive-or operation). It
   refers to only those packets used to generate the Level 0 FEC
   payload, if not explicitly stated otherwise.

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [2].


Adam H. Li                                                     [Page 6]

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3. Basic Operation

   The payload format described here is used when the sender in an RTP
   session would like to protect the media stream it is sending with
   generic parity FEC. The FEC supported by this format is based on
   simple exclusive-or (XOR) parities operation. The sender takes the
   packets from the media stream requiring protection and determines
   the protection levels for these packets and the protection length
   for each level. The data are grouped together as described below in
   Section 7. XOR operation is applied across the payload to generate
   the FEC information. The result following the procedures defined
   here are RTP packets containing FEC information. These packets can
   be used at the receiver to recover the packets or parts of the
   packets used to generate the FEC information.

   The payload format for FEC contains information that allows the
   sender to tell the receiver exactly which media packets are
   protected by the FEC packet, and the protection levels and lengths
   for each of the levels. Specifically, each FEC packet contains an
   offset mask m(k) for each protection level k. If the bit i in the
   mask m(k) is set to 1, then media packet number N + i is protected
   by this FEC packet at level k. N is called the sequence number base,
   and is sent in the FEC packet as well. The amount of data that are
   protected at level k is indicated by L(k), which is also sent in the
   FEC packet. The protection length, offset mask, payload type, and
   sequence number base fully identify the parity code applied to
   generate the FEC packet with little overhead. A set of rules is
   described in Section 7.4 that defines how the mask should be set for
   different protection levels, with examples in Section 10.

   This document also describes procedures on transmitting all the
   protection operation parameters in-band. This allows the sender
   great flexibility; the sender can adapt the protection to current
   network conditions and be certain the receivers can still make use
   of the FEC for recovery.

   At the receiver, both the FEC and original media are received. If no
   media packets are lost, the FEC packets can be ignored. In the event
   of a loss, the FEC packets can be combined with other received media
   to recover all or part of the missing media packets.


4. Parity Codes

   For brevity, we define the function f(x,y,..) to be the XOR (parity)
   operator applied to the data blocks x,y,... The output of this
   function is another block, called the parity block. For simplicity,
   we assume here that the parity block is computed as the bitwise XOR
   of the input blocks. The exact procedure is specified in Section 8.



Adam H. Li                                                     [Page 7]

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   Protection of data blocks using parity codes is accomplished by
   generating one or more parity blocks over a group of data blocks. To
   be most effective, the parity blocks must be generated by linearly
   independent combinations of data blocks. The particular combination
   is called a parity code. The payload format uses XOR parity codes.

   For example, consider a parity code which generates a single parity
   block over two data blocks. If the original media packets are
   a,b,c,d, the packets generated by the sender are:

      a        b        c        d               <-- media stream
                 f(a,b)            f(c,d)        <-- FEC stream

   where time increases to the right. In this example, the error
   correction scheme (we use the terms scheme and code interchangeably)
   introduces a 50% overhead. But if b is lost, a and f(a,b) can be
   used to recover b.

   It may be useful to point out that there are many other types of
   forward error correction codes that can also be used to protect the
   payload besides the XOR parity code. One notable example is Reed-
   Solomon code, and there are many others [12]. However, XOR parity
   code is used here because of its effectiveness and simplicity in
   both protocol design and implementation. This is particularly
   important for implementation in nodes with limited resources.


5. Uneven Level Protection (ULP)

   As we can see from the simple example above, the protection on the
   data depends on the size of the group. In the above example, the
   group size is 2. So if any one of the three packets (two payload
   packets and one FEC packet) is lost, the original payload data can
   still be recovered.

   In general, the FEC protection operation is a trade off between the
   bandwidth and the protection strength. The more FEC packets that are
   generated as a fraction of the source media packets, the stronger
   the protection against loss but the greater the bandwidth consumed
   by the combined stream.

   As is the common case in most of the media payload, not all the
   parts of the packets are of the same importance. Using this
   property, one can potentially achieve more efficient use of the
   channel bandwidth using unequal error protection, i.e., applying
   different protection for different parts of the packet. More
   bandwidth is spent on protecting the more important parts, while
   less bandwidth on the less important parts.

   The packets are separated into sections of decreasing importance,
   and protection of different strength is applied to each portion -
   the sections are known as "levels". The protection operation is

Adam H. Li                                                     [Page 8]

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   applied independently at each level. A single FEC packet can carry
   parity data for multiple levels. This algorithm is called uneven
   level protection, or ULP.

   The protection of ULP is illustrated in Figure 1 below. In this
   example, two ULP FEC packets are protecting four payload packets.

   ULP FEC packet #1 has only one level which protects packet A and B.
   In stead of applying parity operation to the entire packet of A and
   B, it only protects a length of data of both packets. The length,
   which can be chosen and changed dynamically during a session, is
   called the protection length.

   ULP FEC packet #2 has two protection levels. The Level 0 protection
   is the same as for ULP FEC packet #1 except that it is operating on
   packet C and D. The Level 1 protection is using parity operation
   applied on data from packets A, B, C, and D. Note that Level 1
   protection operates on a different set of packets from Level 0 and
   has a different protection length from Level 0, so are any other
   levels. Those information are all conveyed in-band through the
   protocols specified in this document.


         Packet A          #####################
                                  :        :
         Packet B          ############### :
                                  :        :
         ULP FEC Packet #1 @@@@@@@@        :
                                  :        :
         Packet C          ###########     :
                                  :        :
         Packet D          ###################################
                                  :        :
         ULP FEC Packet #2 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
                           :      :        :
                           :<-L0->:<--L1-->:

   Figure 1: Unequal Level Protection


   As we have discussed in the introduction, media streams usually have
   the more important parts at the beginning of the packet. It is
   usually useful to have the stronger protection in the levels closer
   to the beginning of the packet, and weaker protection in the levels
   further back. ULP algorithm provides such FEC protection.

   ULP FEC not only provides more protection to the beginning of the
   packet (which are more important), it also avoids as much as
   possible the less-efficient scenarios that a earlier section of a
   packet is unrecoverable while a later section can be recovered (and
   often has to be discarded).


Adam H. Li                                                     [Page 9]

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6. RTP Media Packet Structure

   The formatting of the media packets is unaffected by FEC. If the FEC
   is sent as a separate stream, the media packets are sent as if there
   was no FEC.

   This approach has the advantage that media packets can be
   interpreted by receivers which do not support FEC. This
   compatibility with non-FEC capable receivers is particularly useful
   in the multicast scenarios. The overhead for using the FEC scheme is
   only present in FEC packets, and can be easily monitored and
   adjusted by tracking the amount of FEC in use.


7. FEC Packet Structure

7.1. Packet Structure

   A FEC packet is constructed by placing an FEC header and one or more
   levels of FEC header and payload into the RTP payload, as shown in
   Figure 2:


   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                RTP Header (12 octets or more)                 |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                    FEC Header (10 octets)                     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                      FEC Level 0 Header                       |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                     FEC Level 0 Payload                       |
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                      FEC Level 1 Header                       |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                     FEC Level 1 Payload                       |
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                            Cont.                              |
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Figure 2: FEC Packet Structure


7.2. RTP Header for FEC Packets

   The RTP header for FEC packets is only used when the FEC are sent in
   a separate stream from the protected payload stream (as defined in
   Section 14). Hence much of the discussion below applies only to that
   scenario. All the fields in the RTP header of FEC packets are used

Adam H. Li                                                    [Page 10]

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   according to RFC 3550 [1], with some of them further clarified
   below.

   Marker: This field is not used for this payload type, and SHALL be
   set to 0.

   SSRC: The SSRC value SHALL be the same as the SSRC value of the
   media stream it protects.

   Sequence number: The sequence number has the standard definition -
   it MUST be one higher than the sequence number in the previously
   transmitted FEC packet.

   Timestamp: The timestamp MUST be set to the value of the media RTP
   clock at the instant the FEC packet is transmitted. Thus, the TS
   value in FEC packets is always monotonically increasing.

   Payload type: The payload type for the FEC packets is determined
   through dynamic, out-of-band means. According to RFC 3550 [1], RTP
   participants that cannot recognize a payload type must discard it.
   This provides backwards compatibility. The FEC mechanisms can then
   be used in a multicast group with mixed FEC-capable and FEC-
   incapable receivers, particularly when the FEC protection is sent as
   redundant encoding (see Section 14). In such cases, the FEC
   protection will have a payload type which is not recognized by the
   FEC-incapable receivers, and will thus be disregarded.

7.3. FEC Header for FEC Packets

   The FEC header is 10 octets. The format of the header is shown in
   Figure 3 and consists of extension flag (E bit), long-mask flag (L
   bit), P recovery field, X recovery field, CC recovery field, M
   recovery field, PT recovery field, SN base field, TS recovery field,
   and length recovery field.


    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |E|L|P|X|  CC   |M| PT recovery |            SN base            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                          TS recovery                          |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |        length recovery        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Figure 3: FEC Header Format


   The E bit is the extension flag reserved to indicate any future
   extension to this specification. It SHALL be set to 0, and SHOULD be
   ignored by the receiver.

Adam H. Li                                                    [Page 11]

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   The L bit indicates whether the long mask is used. When the L bit is
   not set, the mask is 16-bit long. When the L bit is set, the mask is
   then 48-bit long.

   The P recovery field, the X recovery field, the CC recovery field,
   the M recovery field, and the PT recovery field are obtained via the
   protection operation applied to the corresponding P, X, CC, M, and
   PT values from the RTP header of the media packets associated with
   the FEC packet.

   The SN base field MUST be set to the lowest sequence number, taking
   wrap around into account, of those media packets protected by FEC
   (at all levels). This allows for the FEC operation to extend over
   any string of at most 16 packets when the L field is set to 0, or 48
   packets when the L field is set to 1, and so on.

   The TS recovery field is computed via the protection operation
   applied to the timestamps of the media packets associated with this
   FEC packet. This allows the timestamp to be completely recovered.

   The length recovery field is used to determine the length of any
   recovered packets. It is computed via the protection operation
   applied to the unsigned network-ordered 16 bit representation of the
   sums of the lengths (in bytes) of the media payload, CSRC list,
   extension and padding of each of the media packets associated with
   this FEC packet (in other words, the CSRC list, RTP extension, and
   padding of the media payload packets, if present, are "counted" as
   part of the payload). This allows the FEC procedure to be applied
   even when the lengths of the protected media packets are not
   identical. For example, assume an FEC packet is being generated by
   xor'ing two media packets together. The length of the payload of two
   media packets are 3 (0b011) and 5 (0b101) bytes, respectively. The
   length recovery field is then encoded as 0b011 xor 0b101 = 0b110.

7.4. FEC Level Header for FEC Packets

   The FEC Level Header is 4 or 8 octets (depending on the L bit in the
   FEC header). The formats of the headers are shown in Figure 4.

   The FEC Level Headers consist of a Protection Length field and a
   mask field. The protection length field is 16-bit long. The mask
   field is 16-bit long (when the L bit is not set) or 48-bit long
   (when the L bit is set).

   The mask field in the FEC Level Header indicates which packets are
   associated with the FEC packet at the current level. It is either 16
   or 48 bits depending on the value of the L bit. If bit i in the mask
   is set to 1, then the media packet with sequence number N + i is
   associated with this FEC packet, where N is the SN Base field in the
   FEC packet header. The most significant bit of the mask corresponds


Adam H. Li                                                    [Page 12]

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   to i=0, and the least significant to i=15 when the L bit is set to
   0, or i=47 when the L bit is set to 1.


    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |       Protection Length       |             mask              |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |              mask cont. (present only when L = 1)             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Figure 4: ULP Level Header Format


   The setting of mask field shall follow the following rules:

      a. A media packet SHALL be protected only once at each
         protection level higher than level 0. A media packet MAY be
         protected more than once at level 0 by different packets,
         providing the protection lengths of level 0 of these packets
         are equal.

      b. For a media packet to be protected at level p, it MUST also
         be protect at level p-1 in any FEC packets. Please note that
         the protection level p for a media packet can be in a FEC
         packet that is different from the one which contains
         protection level p-1 for the same media packet.

      c. If an ULP FEC packet contains protection at level p, it MUST
         also contain protection at level p-1. Note that the
         combination of payload packets that are protected in level p
         may be different from those of level p-1.

   The rationale for rule (a) is that multiple protection increases the
   complexity of the recovery implementation. At higher levels, the
   multiple protection offers diminishing benefit, so its application
   is restricted to level 0 for simpler implementation. The rationale
   for rule (b) is that the protection offset (for each associated
   packet) are not explicitly signaled in the protocol. With this
   restriction, the offset can be easily deducted from protection
   lengths of the levels. The rationale of rule (c) is that the level
   of protection is not explicitly indicated. This rule is set to
   implicitly specify the levels.

   One example of the protection combinations is illustrated in Figure
   5 below. It is the same example as shown in Figure 1. This same
   example is also shown in more detail in Section 10.2 to illustrate
   how the fields in the headers are set.




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         Packet A          #####################
                                  :        :
         Packet B          ############### :
                                  :        :
         ULP FEC Packet #1 @@@@@@@@        :
                                  :        :
         Packet C          ###########     :
                                  :        :
         Packet D          ###################################
                                  :        :
         ULP FEC Packet #2 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
                           :      :        :
                           :<-L0->:<--L1-->:

         Payload Packet #  |  ULP FEC packet which protects at level
                           |          L0             L1
      ---------------------+---------------------------------------
                A          |          #1             #2
                B          |          #1             #2
                C          |          #2             #2
                D          |          #2             #2

   Figure 5: An example of protection combination


   In this example, ULP FEC packet #1 only have protection level 0. ULP
   FEC packet #1 has protection level 0 and 1. Read across the table,
   it is shown that payload packet A is protected by ULP FEC packet #1
   at level 0, by ULP FEC packet #2 at level 1, and so on. Also, it can
   be easily seen from the table that ULP FEC packet #2 protects at
   level 0 payload packets C and D, at level 1 payload packets A-D, and
   so on. For additional examples with more details, please refer to
   Section 10 Examples.

   The payload of the ULP FEC packets of each level is the protection
   operation (XOR) applied to the media payload and padding of the
   media packets associated with the ULP FEC packet at that level.
   Details are described in the next section on the protection
   operation.

   The size of the ULP FEC packets are determined by the protection
   lengths chosen for the protection operation. In the above example,
   the ULP FEC packet #1 has length L0 (plus the header overhead). The
   ULP FEC packet #2 with two levels has length L0+L1 (plus the header
   overhead). It is longer than some of the packets it protects (packet
   B and D in this example), and is shorter than some of the packets it
   protects (packet A and D in this example).

   Note that it's possible for the FEC packet (non-ULP and ULP) to be
   larger than the longest media packets it protects because of the
   overhead from the headers and/or if a large protection length is
   chosen for ULP. This could cause difficulties if this results in the

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   FEC packet exceeding the Maximum Transmission Unit size for the path
   along which it is sent.


8. Protection Operation

   FEC packets are formed from an "FEC bit string" which is generated
   from the data of the protected media RTP packets. More specifically,
   the FEC bit string is the bitwise exclusive OR of the "protected bit
   strings" of the protected media RTP packets.

   The following procedure MAY be followed for the protection
   operation. Other procedures MAY be used, but the end result MUST be
   identical to the one described here.

8.1. Generation of the FEC Header

   In the case of FEC header, the protected bit strings (80 bits in
   length) are generated for each media packet to be protected at FEC
   Level 0. It is formed by concatenating the following fields together
   in the order specified:

      o The first 64 bits of the RTP header (64 bits)

      o Unsigned network-ordered 16 bit representation of the media
        packet length in bytes minus 12 (for the fixed RTP header),
        i.e., the sum of the lengths of all the following if present:
        the CSRC List, extension header, RTP payload, and RTP padding
        (16 bits)

   After the FEC bit string is formed from applying parity operation on
   the protected bit strings, the FEC header is generated from the FEC
   bit string as following:

   The first (most significant) two bits in the FEC bit string are
   skipped. The next bit in the FEC bit string is written into the P
   recovery bit of the FEC header in the FEC packet. The next bit in
   the FEC bit string is written into the E recovery bit of the FEC
   header. The next four bits of the FEC bit string are written into
   the CC recovery field of the FEC header. The next bit is written
   into the M recovery bit of the FEC header. The next 7 bits of the
   FEC bit string are written into the PT recovery field in the FEC
   header. The next 16 bits are skipped. The next 32 bits of the FEC
   bit string are written into the TS recovery field in the FEC header.
   The next 16 bits are written into the length recovery field in the
   packet header.

8.2. Generation of the FEC Payload

   For generation of the FEC payload, the protected bit strings are
   simply the protected RTP packets. The FEC bit string is thus the
   bitwise exclusive OR of these protected media RTP packets. Such FEC

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   bit strings need to be generated for each level, as the group of
   protected payload packets may be different for each level. If the
   lengths of the protected RTP packets are not equal, each shorter
   packet MUST be padded to the length of the longest packet by adding
   octet 0 at the end.

   For Protection Level n (n = 0, 1, ...), only Ln octets of data are
   set as the FEC Level n payload data after the Level n ULP header.
   The data is the Ln octets of data starting with the (Sn + 13)th
   octet in the FEC bit string, where:

   Sn = sum(Li : 0 <= i < n).

   Li is the Protection Length of Level i, and S0 is defined to be 0.
   The reason for omitting the first 12 octets is that those
   information are protected by the FEC header already.


9. Recovery Procedures

   The FEC packets allow end systems to recover from the loss of media
   packets. This section describes the procedure for performing this
   recovery.

   Recovery requires two distinct operations. The first determines
   which packets (media and FEC) must be combined in order to recover a
   missing packet. Once this is done, the second step is to actually
   reconstruct the data. The second step MUST be performed as described
   below. The first step MAY be based on any algorithm chosen by the
   implementer. Different algorithms result in a tradeoff between
   complexity and the ability to recover missing packets, if possible.

   The lost payload packets may be recovered in full or in parts
   depending on the data lose situation due to the nature of unequal
   error protection (when it is used). The partial recovery of the
   packet can be detected by checking the recovery length of the packet
   retrieved from the FEC header against the actual length of the
   recovered payload data.

9.1. Reconstruction of the RTP Header

   Let T be the list of packets (FEC and media) which can be combined
   to recover some media packet xi at level 0. The procedure is as
   follows:

      1.  For the media packets in T, compute the first 80 bits of the
          protected bit string following the procedure as described for
          generating FEC header in the previous section.

      2.  For the FEC packet in T, the FEC bit string is the 80-bit FEC
          header.


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      3.  Calculate the recovery bit string as the bitwise exclusive OR
          of the protected bit string generated from all the media
          packets in T and the FEC bit string generated from all the
          FEC packets in T.

      4.  Create a new packet with the standard 12 byte RTP header and
          no payload.

      5.  Set the version of the new packet to 2. Skip the first two
          bits in the recovery bit string.

      6.  Set the Padding bit in the new packet to the next bit in the
          recovery bit string.

      7.  Set the Extension bit in the new packet to the next bit in
          the recovery bit string.

      8.  Set the CC field to the next four bits in the recovery bit
          string.

      9.  Set the marker bit in the new packet to the next bit in the
          recovery bit string.

      10. Set the payload type in the new packet to the next 7 bits in
          the recovery bit string.

      11. Set the SN field in the new packet to xi. Skip the next 16
          bits in the recovery bit string.

      12. Set the TS field in the new packet to the next 32 bits in the
          recovery bit string.

      13. Take the next 16 bits of the recovery bit string. Whatever
          unsigned integer this represents (assuming network-order),
          take that many bytes from the recovery bit string and append
          them to the new packet. This represents the CSRC list,
          extension, payload, and the padding of the RTP payload.

      14. Set the SSRC of the new packet to the SSRC of the media
          stream it's protecting, i.e., the SSRC of the media stream to
          which the FEC stream is associated with.

   This procedure will recover the header of an RTP packet up to the
   SSRC field.

9.2. Reconstruction of the RTP Payload

   Let T be the list of packets (FEC and media) which can be combined
   to recover some media packet xi at certain protection level. The
   procedure is as follows:



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      1.  Assume that we are reconstructing the data for level n, the
          first step is to get the Protection Length of Level n (Ln)
          from the ULP Header of Level n.

      2.  For the FEC packets in T, the FEC bit string of Level n is
          FEC Level n Payload, i.e., the Ln octets of data following
          the ULP Header of Level n.

      3.  For the media packets in T, the protected bit string of Level
          n is Ln octets of data starting with the (Sn + 13)th octet of
          the packet. Sn is the same as defined previously in this
          section. Note that the protection of Level 0 starts from the
          13th octet of the media packet after the SSRC field. The
          information of the first 12 octets are protected by the FEC
          header.

      4.  If any of the protected bit strings of Level n generated from
          the media packets are shorter than the Protection Length of
          the current level, pad them to that length. The padding of
          octet 0 MUST be added at the end of the bit string.

      5.  Calculate the recovery bit string as the bitwise exclusive OR
          of the protected bit string of Level n generated from all the
          media packets in T and the FEC bit string of Level n
          generated from all the FEC packets in T.

      6.  The recovery bit string of the current protection level as
          generated above is combined through concatenation with the
          recovery bit string of all the other levels to form the
          (fully or partially) recovered media packet. Note that the
          recovery bit string of each protection level MUST be placed
          at the correct location in the recovered media packet for
          that level based on protection length settings.

      7.  The total length of the recovered media packet is recovered
          from the recovery operation at protection level 0 of the
          recovered media packet. This information can be used to check
          if the complete recovery operation (of all levels) has
          recovered the packet to its full length.

   The data protected at lower protection level is recoverable in
   majority of the cases if the higher level protected data is
   recoverable. This procedure (together with the procedure for the
   lower protection levels) will usually recover both the header and
   payload of an RTP packet up to the Protection Length of the current
   level.


10. Examples

   In the first two examples considered below (Section 10.1, and 10.2),
   we assume the FEC streams are sent through a separate RTP session as

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   described in Section 14.1. For these examples we assume that 4 media
   packets are to be sent, A, B, C and D, from SSRC 2. Their sequence
   numbers are 8, 9, 10 and 11, respectively, and have timestamps of 3,
   5, 7 and 9, respectively. Packet A and C uses payload type 11, and
   packet B and D uses payload type 18. Packet A has 200 bytes of
   payload, packet B 140, packet C 100 and packet D 340. Packet A and C
   have their marker bit set.

   The third example (Section 10.3) is to illustrate when the FEC data
   is sent as redundant data with the payload packets.

10.1. An Example Offers Similar Protection As RFC 2733

   We can protect the four payload packet to their full length in one
   single level with one FEC packet. This offers similar protection as
   RFC 2733. The scheme is as shown in Figure 6.


              +-------------------+             :
   Packet A   |                   |             :
              +-------------+-----+             :
   Packet B   |             |                   :
              +---------+---+                   :
   Packet C   |         |                       :
              +---------+-----------------------+
   Packet D   |                                 |
              +---------------------------------+
                                                :
              +---------------------------------+
   Packet FEC |                                 |
              +---------------------------------+
              :                                 :
              :<------------- L0 -------------->:

   Figure 6: FEC scheme with single level protection


   An FEC packet is generated from these four packets. We assume that
   payload type 127 is used to indicate an FEC packet. The resulting
   RTP header is shown in Figure 7.

   The FEC header in the FEC packet is shown in Figure 8.

   The FEC Level Header for Level 0 is shown in Figure 9.









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    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |1 0|0|0|0 0 0 0|0|1 1 1 1 1 1 1|0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1|
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1|
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0|
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      Version:   2
      Padding:   0
      Extension: 0
      Marker:    0
      PT:        127
      SN:        1
      TS:        9
      SSRC:      2

   Figure 7: RTP Header of FEC Packet


    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |0|0|0|0|0 0 0 0|0|0 0 0 0 0 0 0|0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0|
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0|
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0|
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      E:         0     [this specification]
      L:         0     [short 16-bit mask]
      P rec.:    0     [0 XOR 0 XOR 0 XOR 0]
      X rec.:    0     [0 XOR 0 XOR 0 XOR 0]
      CC rec.:   0     [0 XOR 0 XOR 0 XOR 0]
      M rec.:    0     [1 XOR 0 XOR 1 XOR 0]
      PT rec.:   0     [11 XOR 18 XOR 11 XOR 18]
      SN base:   8     [min(8,9,10,11)]
      TS rec.:   8     [3 XOR 5 XOR 7 XOR 9]
      len. rec.: 372   [200 XOR 140 XOR 100 XOR 340]

   Figure 8: FEC Header of FEC Packet









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    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0|1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0|
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      L0:        340   [the longest of 200, 140, 100, and 340]
      mask:      61440 [with Bit 1, 2, 3, and 4 marked accordingly for
                        Packet 8, 9, 10, and 11]

      The payload length for level 0 is 340 bytes.

   Figure 9: FEC Level Header (Level 0)


10.2. An Example With Two Protection Levels

   A more complex example is to use FEC at two levels. The level 0 FEC
   will provide greater protection to the beginning part of the payload
   packets. The level 1 FEC will apply additional protection to the
   rest of the packets. This is illustrated in Figure 10. In this
   example, we take L0 = 70 and L1 = 90.


              +------:--------:---+
   Packet A   |      :        :   |
              +------:------+-:---+
   Packet B   |      :      | :
              +------:--+---+ :
                     :        :
              +------+        :
   ULP #1     |      |        :
              +------+        :
                     :        :
              +------:--+     :
   Packet C   |      :  |     :
              +------:--+-----:-----------------+
   Packet D   |      :        :                 |
              +------:--------:-----------------+
                     :        :
              +------:--------+
   ULP #2     |      :        |
              +------:--------+
              :      :        :
              :<-L0->:<--L1-->:

   Figure 10: ULP FEC scheme with protection level 0 and level 1


   This will result in two FEC packets - #1 and #2.



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   The resulting ULP FEC packet #1 will have the RTP header as shown in
   Figure 11. The FEC header for ULP FEC packet #1 will be as shown in
   Figure 12. The level 0 ULP header for #1 will be shown in Figure 13.


    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |1 0|0|0|0 0 0 0|1|1 1 1 1 1 1 1|0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1|
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1|
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0|
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      Version:   2
      Padding:   0
      Extension: 0
      Marker:    1
      PT:        127
      SN:        1
      TS:        5
      SSRC:      2

   Figure 11: RTP Header of FEC Packet #1


    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |0|0|0|0|0 0 0 0|0|0 0 1 1 0 0 1|0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0|
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0|
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0|
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      E:         0     [this specification]
      L:         0     [short 16-bit mask]
      P rec.:    0     [0 XOR 0 XOR 0 XOR 0]
      X rec.:    0     [0 XOR 0 XOR 0 XOR 0]
      CC rec.:   0     [0 XOR 0 XOR 0 XOR 0]
      M rec.:    0     [1 XOR 0 XOR 1 XOR 0]
      PT rec.:   25    [11 XOR 18]
      SN base:   8     [min(8,9)]
      TS rec.:   6     [3 XOR 5]
      len. rec.: 68    [200 XOR 140]

   Figure 12: FEC Header of ULP FEC Packet #1




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    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0|1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0|
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      L0:        70
      mask:      49152 [with Bit 1 and 2 marked accordingly for
                        Packet 8 and 9]

      The payload length for level 0 is 70 bytes.

   Figure 13: FEC Level Header (Level 0) for FEC Packet #1


   The resulting FEC packet #2 will have the RTP header as shown in
   Figure 14. The FEC header for FEC packet #2 will be as shown in
   Figure 15. The level 0 ULP header for #2 will be shown in Figure 16.
   The level 1 ULP header for #2 will be shown in Figure 17.


    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |1 0|0|0|0 0 0 0|1|1 1 1 1 1 1 1|0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0|
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1|
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0|
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      Version:   2
      Padding:   0
      Extension: 0
      Marker:    1
      PT:        127
      SN:        2
      TS:        9
      SSRC:      2

   Figure 14: RTP Header of FEC Packet #2












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    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |0|0|0|0|0 0 0 0|0|0 0 1 1 0 0 1|0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0|
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0|
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0|
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      E:         0     [this specification]
      L:         0     [short 16-bit mask]
      P rec.:    0     [0 XOR 0 XOR 0 XOR 0]
      X rec.:    0     [0 XOR 0 XOR 0 XOR 0]
      CC rec.:   0     [0 XOR 0 XOR 0 XOR 0]
      M rec.:    0     [1 XOR 0 XOR 1 XOR 0]
      PT rec.:   25    [11 XOR 18]
      SN base:   8     [min(8,9,10,11)]
      TS rec.:   14    [7 XOR 9]
      len. rec.: 304   [100 XOR 340]

   Figure 15: FEC Header of FEC Packet #2


    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0|0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0|
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      L0:        70
      mask:      12288 [with Bit 3 and 4 marked accordingly for
                        Packet 10 and 11]

      The payload length for level 0 is 70 bytes.

   Figure 16: FEC Level Header (Level 0) for FEC Packet #2


    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0|1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0|
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      L1:        90
      mask:      61440 [with Bit 1, 2, 3, and 4 marked accordingly for
                        Packet 8, 9, 10, and 11]

      The payload length for level 1 is 90 bytes.

   Figure 17: FEC Level Header (Level 1) for FEC Packet #2

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10.3. An Example With FEC As Redundant Coding

   This example illustrates FEC sent as redundant coding in the same
   stream as the payload. We assume that five media packets are to be
   sent, A, B, C, D, and E, from SSRC 2. Their sequence numbers are 8,
   9, 10, 11, and 12, respectively, and with timestamps of 3, 5, 7, 9,
   and 11, respectively. All the media data are coded with primary
   coding (and FEC as redundant coding only protects the primary
   coding) and uses payload type 11. Packet A has 200 bytes of payload,
   packet B 140, packet C 100, packet D 340, and packet E 160. Packet A
   and C have their marker bit set.

   The FEC scheme we use will be with one level as illustrated by
   Figure 6 in Section 10.1. The protection length L0 = 340 octets.

   A redundant coding packetization is used with payload type 100. The
   payload type of the FEC is assumed to be 127. The first four RED
   packets, RED #1 through RED #4, each contains an individual media
   packet, A, B, C, or D, respectively. The FEC data protecting the
   media data in the first four media packets is generated. The fifth
   packet, RED #5, contains this FEC data as redundant coding along
   with media packet E.

   RED Packet #1:    Media Packet A
   RED Packet #2:    Media Packet B
   RED Packet #3:    Media Packet C
   RED Packet #4:    Media Packet D
   RED Packet #5:    FEC Packet, Media Packet E

   RED packet #1 through #4 will have the structure as shown in Figure
   18. The RTP header of the RED packet #1 is as shown in Figure 19,
   with all the other RED packets in similar format with corresponding
   sequence numbers and time stamps. The primary encoding block header
   of the RED packets is as shown in Figure 20.


   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                 RTP Header (RED) - 6 octets                   |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |        Primary Encoding Block Header (RED) - 1 octet          |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                      Media Packet Data                        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Figure 18: RED Packet Structure - Media Data Only







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    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |1 0|0|0|0 0 0 0|0|1 1 0 0 1 0 0|0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1|
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1|
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0|
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      Version:   2
      Padding:   0
      Extension: 0
      Marker:    0     [Even though media packet A has marker set]
      PT:        100   [Payload type for RED]
      SN:        1
      TS:        5
      SSRC:      2

   Figure 19: RTP Header of RED Packet #1


    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |0|0 0 0 1 0 1 1|
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      F bit:     0     [This is the primary coding data]
      Block PT:  11    [The payload type of media]

   Figure 20: Primary Encoding Block Header


   The FEC data is generated not directly from the RED packets, but
   from the virtual RTP packets containing the media packet data. Those
   virtual RTP packets can be very easily generated from the RED
   packets both with or without redundant coding included. The
   conversion from RED packets to virtual RTP packets is simply done by
   (1) removing any RED block headers and redundant coding data, and
   (2) replace the PT in the RTP header with the PT of the primary
   coding. Note: In the payload format for redundant coding as
   specified by RFC 2198 the marker bit is lost as soon as the primary
   coding is carried in the RED packets. So the marker bit can not be
   recovered regardless the FEC is used or not.

   As mentioned above, RED packet #5 will contain the FEC data (that
   protects media packet A, B, C, and D) as well as the data of media
   packet E. The structure of RED packet #5 is as illustrated in Figure
   21.




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   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                 RTP Header (RED) - 6 octets                   |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |       Redundant Encoding Block Header (RED) - 4 octet         |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                        FEC Packet Data                        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |        Primary Encoding Block Header (RED) - 1 octet          |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                       Media Packet Data                       |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Figure 21: RED Packet Structure - With FEC Data


   The RTP header of the RED packets with FEC included is the same as
   shown in Figure 19, with their corresponding sequence numbers and
   time stamps.

   In RED packet #5, the redundant encoding block header for the FEC
   packet data block is as shown below in Figure 22. It will be
   followed by the FEC packet data which, in this case, includes an FEC
   header (10 octets as shown in Figure 8), ULP Level 0 header (4
   octets as shown in Figure 9) and the ULP Level 0 data (340 octets as
   set for Level 0). These are followed by the primary encoding block
   that contains the data of media packet E.


    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |1|1 1 1 1 1 1 1|0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0|0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0|
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      F bit:     1     [This is the redundant coding data]
      Block PT:  127   [The dynamic payload type for FEC]
      TS Offset: 0     [The instance at which the FEC data is
                        transmitted]
      Block Len: 354   [FEC header (10 octets) plus ULP Level 0 header
                        (4 octets) and ULP Level 0 data (340 octets)]

   Figure 22: Redundant Encoding Block Header


11. Security Considerations

   There are two ways to use FEC with encryption in secure
   communications: one way is to apply the FEC on already encrypted
   payloads, and the other way is to apply the FEC before the
   encryption. The first case is encountered when FEC is needed by a
   not trusted node during transmission after the media data is


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   encrypted. The second case is encountered when media data is
   protected by FEC before transmitted through a secured transport.

   Since the protected payload of this FEC are RTP packets, applying
   FEC on encrypted payloads is primarily applicable in the case of
   secure RTP (SRTP) [13]. Because the FEC applies XOR across the
   payload, the FEC packets should be cryptographically as secure as
   the original payload. In such cases, additional encryption of the
   FEC packets is not necessary.

   In the following discussion, it is assumed that the FEC is applied
   to the payload before the encryption. The use of FEC has
   implications on the usage and changing of keys for encryption. As
   the FEC packets do consist of a separate stream, there are a number
   of combinations on the usage of encryption. These include:

      o The FEC stream may be encrypted, while the media stream is not.

      o The media stream may be encrypted, while the FEC stream is not.

      o The media stream and FEC stream are both encrypted, but using
        the same key.

      o The media stream and FEC stream are both encrypted, but using
        different keys.

   The first three of these would require all application level
   signaling protocols used to be aware of the usage of FEC, and to
   thus exchange keys and negotiate encryption usage on the media and
   FEC streams separately. In the final case, no such additional
   mechanisms are needed. The first two cases present a layering
   violation, as ULP FEC packets should be treated no differently than
   other RTP packets. Encrypting just one stream may also make certain
   known-plaintext attacks possible. For these reasons, applications
   utilizing encryption SHOULD encrypt both streams, i.e., the last two
   options.

   Furthermore, because of the encryption may potentially be weakened
   by the known relationship between the media payload and FEC data for
   certain ciphers, different encryption keys MUST be used for each
   stream when the media payload and the FEC data are sent in separate
   streams. Note that when SRTP [13] is used for security of the RTP
   sessions, different keys for each RTP session is required by the
   SRTP specification.

   The changing of encryption keys is another crucial issue needs to be
   addressed. Consider the case where two packets a and b are sent
   along with the FEC packet that protects them. The keys used to
   encrypt a and b are different, so which key should be used to decode
   the FEC packet? In general, old keys need to be cached, so that when
   the keys change for the media stream, the old key can be used until
   it is determined that the key has changed for the ULP FEC packets as

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   well. Further more, the new key SHOULD be used to encrypt the FEC
   packets that are generated from a combination of payload packets
   encrypted by the old and new keys. The sender and the receiver need
   to define how the encryption is performed and how the keys are used.

   Altering the FEC data and packets can have a big impact on the
   reconstruction operation. An attack by changing some bits in the FEC
   data can have significant effect on the calculation and the recovery
   of the payload packets. For example, changing the length recovery
   field can result in the recovery of a packet that is too long. Also,
   the computational complexity of the recovery can easily be effected
   for up to at least one order of magnitude. Depending on the
   application scenario, it may be helpful to perform a sanity check on
   the received payload and FEC data before performing the recovery
   operation and to determine the validity of the recovered data from
   the recovery operation before using them.


12. Congestion Considerations

   Another issue with the use of FEC is its impact on network
   congestion. In many situations, the packet loss in the network is
   induced by congestions. In such scenarios, adding FEC when
   encountering increasing network losses should be avoided. If it is
   used on a widespread basis, this can result in increased congestion
   and eventual congestion collapse. The applications may include
   stronger protections while at the same time reduce the bandwidth for
   the payload packets. In any event, implementations MUST NOT
   substantially increase the total amount of bandwidth in use
   (including the payload and the FEC) as network losses increase.

   The general congestion control considerations for transporting RTP
   data apply, see RTP [1] and any applicable RTP profile like AVP
   [14]. An additional requirement if best-effort service is being used
   is: users of this payload format MUST monitor packet loss to ensure
   that the packet loss rate is within acceptable parameters. Packet
   loss is considered acceptable if a TCP flow across the same network
   path, and experiencing the same network conditions, would achieve an
   average throughput, measured on a reasonable timescale, that is not
   less than the RTP flow is achieving.  This condition can be
   satisfied by implementing congestion control mechanisms to adapt the
   transmission rate (or the number of layers subscribed for a layered
   multicast session), or by arranging for a receiver to leave the
   session if the loss rate is unacceptably high.


13. IANA Considerations

   Four new media sub-types as described in this section are to be
   registered with IANA. This registration is done using the
   registration template [3] and following RFC 3555 [4].


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13.1. Registration of audio/ulpfec

   Type name: audio

   Subtype name: ulpfec

   Required parameters:

      rate: The RTP timestamp rate which is used to mark the time of
         transmission of the FEC packet in separate stream. In cases
         it is sent as redundant data to another stream the rate SHALL
         be the same as the primary encoding it is used to protect.
         When used in a separate stream the rate SHALL be larger than
         1000 Hz to provide sufficient resolution to RTCP operations.
         The selected rate MAY be any value above 1000 Hz but is
         RECOMMENDED to match the rate of the media this stream
         protects.

   Optional parameters:

      onelevelonly: This specifies whether only one level of FEC
         protection is used. The permissible values are 0 and 1. If 1
         is signaled, only one level of FEC protection SHALL be used
         in the stream. If 0 is signaled, more than one level of FEC
         protection MAY be used. If omitted, it has the default value
         of 0.

   Encoding considerations: This format is framed (see Section 4.8 in
   the template document [3]) and contains binary data.

   Security considerations: the same security considerations apply to
   these media type registrations as to the payloads for them, as
   detailed in RFC xxxx.

   Interoperability considerations: none

   Published specification: RFC xxxx.

   Applications which use this media type: Multimedia applications
   which seek to improve resiliency to loss by sending additional data
   with the media stream.

   Additional information: none

   Person & email address to contact for further information:
      Adam Li adamli@hyervision.com
      IETF Audio/Video Transport Working Group

   Intended usage: COMMON

   Restrictions on usage: This media type depends on RTP framing, and
   hence is only defined for transfer via RTP [1]. Transport within

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   other framing protocols SHALL NOT be defined as this is a robustness
   mechanism for RTP.

   Author:
      Adam Li adamli@hyervision.com

   Change controller:
      IETF Audio/Video Transport Working Group delegated from the
      IESG.

13.2. Registration of video/ulpfec

   Type name: video

   Subtype name: ulpfec

   Required parameters:

      rate: The RTP timestamp rate which is used to mark the time of
         transmission of the FEC packet in separate stream. In cases
         it is sent as redundant data to another stream the rate SHALL
         be the same as the primary encoding it is used to protect.
         When used in a separate stream the rate SHALL be larger than
         1000 Hz to provide sufficient resolution to RTCP operations.
         The selected rate MAY be any value above 1000 Hz but is
         RECOMMENDED to match the rate of the media this stream
         protects.

   Optional parameters:

      onelevelonly: This specifies whether only one level of FEC
         protection is used. The permissible values are 0 and 1. If 1
         is signaled, only one level of FEC protection SHALL be used
         in the stream. If 0 is signaled, more than one level of FEC
         protection MAY be used. If omitted, it has the default value
         of 0.

   Encoding considerations: This format is framed (see Section 4.8 in
   the template document [3]) and contains binary data.

   Security considerations: the same security considerations apply to
   these media type registrations as to the payloads for them, as
   detailed in RFC xxxx.

   Interoperability considerations: none

   Published specification: RFC xxxx.

   Applications which use this media type: Multimedia applications
   which seek to improve resiliency to loss by sending additional data
   with the media stream.


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   Additional information: none

   Person & email address to contact for further information:
      Adam Li adamli@hyervision.com
      IETF Audio/Video Transport Working Group

   Intended usage: COMMON

   Restrictions on usage: This media type depends on RTP framing, and
   hence is only defined for transfer via RTP [1]. Transport within
   other framing protocols SHALL NOT be defined as this is a robustness
   mechanism for RTP.

   Author:
      Adam Li adamli@hyervision.com

   Change controller:
      IETF Audio/Video Transport Working Group delegated from the
      IESG.

13.3. Registration of text/ulpfec

   Type name: text

   Subtype name: ulpfec

   Required parameters:

      rate: The RTP timestamp rate which is used to mark the time of
         transmission of the FEC packet in separate stream. In cases
         it is sent as redundant data to another stream the rate SHALL
         be the same as the primary encoding it is used to protect.
         When used in a separate stream the rate SHALL be larger than
         1000 Hz to provide sufficient resolution to RTCP operations.
         The selected rate MAY be any value above 1000 Hz but is
         RECOMMENDED to match the rate of the media this stream
         protects.

   Optional parameters:

      onelevelonly: This specifies whether only one level of FEC
         protection is used. The permissible values are 0 and 1. If 1
         is signaled, only one level of FEC protection SHALL be used
         in the stream. If 0 is signaled, more than one level of FEC
         protection MAY be used. If omitted, it has the default value
         of 0.

   Encoding considerations: This format is framed (see Section 4.8 in
   the template document [3]) and contains binary data.




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   Security considerations: the same security considerations apply to
   these media type registrations as to the payloads for them, as
   detailed in RFC xxxx.

   Interoperability considerations: none

   Published specification: RFC xxxx.

   Applications which use this media type: Multimedia applications
   which seek to improve resiliency to loss by sending additional data
   with the media stream.

   Additional information: none

   Person & email address to contact for further information:
      Adam Li adamli@hyervision.com
      IETF Audio/Video Transport Working Group

   Intended usage: COMMON

   Restrictions on usage: This media type depends on RTP framing, and
   hence is only defined for transfer via RTP [1]. Transport within
   other framing protocols SHALL NOT be defined as this is a robustness
   mechanism for RTP.

   Author:
      Adam Li adamli@hyervision.com

   Change controller:
      IETF Audio/Video Transport Working Group delegated from the
      IESG.

13.4. Registration of application/ulpfec

   Type name: application

   Subtype name: ulpfec

   Required parameters:

      rate: The RTP timestamp rate which is used to mark the time of
         transmission of the FEC packet in separate stream. In cases
         it is sent as redundant data to another stream the rate SHALL
         be the same as the primary encoding it is used to protect.
         When used in a separate stream the rate SHALL be larger than
         1000 Hz to provide sufficient resolution to RTCP operations.
         The selected rate MAY be any value above 1000 Hz but is
         RECOMMENDED to match the rate of the media this stream
         protects.

   Optional parameters:


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      onelevelonly: This specifies whether only one level of FEC
         protection is used. The permissible values are 0 and 1. If 1
         is signaled, only one level of FEC protection SHALL be used
         in the stream. If 0 is signaled, more than one level of FEC
         protection MAY be used. If omitted, it has the default value
         of 0.

   Encoding considerations: This format is framed (see Section 4.8 in
   the template document [3]) and contains binary data.

   Security considerations: the same security considerations apply to
   these media type registrations as to the payloads for them, as
   detailed in RFC xxxx.

   Interoperability considerations: none

   Published specification: RFC xxxx.

   Applications which use this media type: Multimedia applications
   which seek to improve resiliency to loss by sending additional data
   with the media stream.

   Additional information: none

   Person & email address to contact for further information:
      Adam Li adamli@hyervision.com
      IETF Audio/Video Transport Working Group

   Intended usage: COMMON

   Restrictions on usage: This media type depends on RTP framing, and
   hence is only defined for transfer via RTP [1]. Transport within
   other framing protocols SHALL NOT be defined as this is a robustness
   mechanism for RTP.

   Author:
      Adam Li adamli@hyervision.com

   Change controller:
      IETF Audio/Video Transport Working Group delegated from the
      IESG.


14. Multiplexing of FEC

   The FEC packets can be sent to the receiver along with the protected
   payload primarily in one of the two ways: as a separate stream, or
   in the same stream as redundant encoding. The configuration options
   MUST be indicated out of band. This section also describes how this
   can be accomplished using the Session Description Protocol (SDP),
   specified in RFC 2327 [8].


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14.1. FEC as a Separate Stream

   When the FEC packets are sent in a separate stream, several pieces
   of information must be conveyed:

   o The address and port where the FEC is being sent to

   o The payload type number for the FEC

   o Which media stream the FEC is protecting

   There is no static payload type assignment for FEC, so dynamic
   payload type numbers MUST be used. The SSRC of the FEC stream MUST
   be set to that of the protected payload stream. The association of
   the FEC stream with its corresponding stream is done by line
   grouping in SDP [5] with the FEC semantics [6] or other external
   means.

   Following the principles as discussed in Section 5.2 of RFC 3550
   [1], multiplexing of the FEC stream and its associated payload
   stream is usually provided by the destination transport address
   (network address and port number) which is different for each RTP
   session. Sending FEC together with the payload in one single RTP
   session and multiplex only by SSRC or payload type precludes: (1)
   the use of different network paths or network resource allocations
   for the payload and the FEC protection data; (2) reception of a
   subset of the media if desired, particularly for the hosts which do
   not understand FEC; and (3) receiver implementations that use
   separate processes for the different media. In additional,
   multiplexing FEC with payload data streams will affect the timing
   and sequence number space of the original payload stream, which is
   usually undesirable. So the FEC stream and the payload stream SHOULD
   be sent through two separate RTP session, and multiplexing them by
   payload type into one single RTP session SHOULD be avoided. In
   additional, the FEC and the payload MUST NOT be multiplexed by SSRC
   into one single RTP session since they always have the same SSRC.

   Just like any media stream, the port number and the payload type
   number for the FEC stream is conveyed in its m line in the SDP.
   There is no static payload type assignment for FEC, so dynamic
   payload type numbers MUST be used. The binding to the number is
   indicated by an rtpmap attribute. The name used in this binding is
   "ulpfec". The address that the FEC stream is on is conveyed in its
   corresponding c line.

   The association relationship between the FEC stream and the payload
   stream it protects is conveyed through media line grouping in SDP
   (RFC 3388) [5] using FEC semantics (RFC 4756) [6]. The FEC stream
   and the protected payload stream forms an FEC group.

   The following is an example SDP for FEC application in a multicast
   session:

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      v=0
      o=adam 289083124 289083124 IN IP4 host.example.com
      s=ULP FEC Seminar
      t=0 0
      c=IN IP4 224.2.17.12/127
      a=group:FEC 1 2
      a=group:FEC 3 4
      m=audio 30000 RTP/AVP 0
      a=mid:1
      m=application 30002 RTP/AVP 100
      a=rtpmap:100 ulpfec/8000
      a=mid:2
      m=video 30004 RTP/AVP 31
      a=mid:3
      m=application 30004 RTP/AVP 101
      c=IN IP4 224.2.17.13/127
      a=rtpmap:101 ulpfec/8000
      a=mid:4

   The presence of two a=group lines in this SDP indicates that there
   are two FEC groups. The first FEC group, as indicated by the
   "a=group:FEC 1 2" line, consists of stream 1 (an audio stream using
   PCM) and stream 2 (the protecting FEC stream). The FEC stream is
   sent to the same multicast group and has the same TTL as the audio,
   but on a port number two higher. The second FEC group, as indicated
   by the "a=group:FEC 3 4" line, consists of stream 3 (an video
   stream) and stream 4 (the protecting FEC stream). The FEC stream is
   sent to a different multicast address, but has the same port number
   (30004) as the payload video stream.

14.2. FEC as Redundant Encoding

   When the FEC stream is being sent as a secondary codec in the
   redundant encoding format, this must be signaled through SDP. To do
   this, the procedures defined in RFC 2198 [7] are used to signal the
   use of redundant encoding. The FEC payload type is indicated in the
   same fashion as any other secondary codec. The FEC MUST protect only
   the main codec, with the payload of FEC engine coming from virtual
   RTP packets created from the main codec data. The virtual RTP
   packets can be very easily converted from the RFC 2198 packets by
   simply (1) removing all the additional headers and the redundant
   coding data, and (2) replacing the payload type in the RTP header
   with that of the primary codec. Note: In the payload format for
   redundant coding as specified by RFC 2198 the marker bit is lost as
   soon as the primary coding is carried in the RED packets. So the
   marker bit can not be recovered regardless the FEC is used or not.

   Because the FEC data (including the ULP header) is sent in the same
   packets as the protected payload. The FEC data is associated with
   the protected payload by being bundled in the same stream.


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   When the FEC stream is sent as a secondary codec in the redundant
   encoding format, this can signaled through SDP. To do this, the
   procedures defined in RFC 2198 [7] are used to signal the use of
   redundant encoding. The FEC payload type is indicated in the same
   fashion as any other secondary codec. An rtpmap attribute MUST be
   used to indicate a dynamic payload type number for the FEC packets.
   The FEC MUST protect only the main codec.

   For example:

      m=audio 12345 RTP/AVP 121 0 5 100
      a=rtpmap:121 red/8000/1
      a=rtpmap:100 ulpfec/8000
      a=fmtp:121 0/5/100

   This SDP indicates that there is a single audio stream, which can
   consist of PCM (media format 0) , DVI (media format 5), the
   redundant encodings (indicated by media format 121, which is bound
   to red through the rtpmap attribute), or FEC (media format 100,
   which is bound to ulpfec through the rtpmap attribute). Although the
   FEC format is specified as a possible coding for this stream, the
   FEC MUST NOT be sent by itself for this stream. Its presence in the
   m line is required only because non-primary codecs must be listed
   here according to RFC 2198. The fmtp attribute indicates that the
   redundant encodings format can be used, with DVI as a secondary
   coding and FEC as a tertiary encoding.

14.3. Offer / Answer Consideration

   Some considerations are needed when SDP is used for offer / answer
   [15] exchange.

   The "onelevelonly" parameter is declarative. For streams declared as
   sendonly, the value indicates whether only one level of FEC will be
   sent. For streams declared as recvonly or sendrecv, the value
   indicates what the receiver accepts to receive.

   When the FEC is sent as a separate stream and signaled through media
   line grouping in SDP (RFC 3388) [5] using FEC semantics (RFC 4756)
   [6], the offering side MUST implement both RFC 3388 and RFC 4756.
   The rules for offer / answer in RFC 3388 and RFC 4756 SHALL be
   followed with the below additional consideration. For all offers
   with FEC, the answerer MAY refuse the separate FEC session by
   setting the port to 0, and remove the "a=group" attribute that
   groups that FEC session with the RTP session being protected. If the
   answerer accepts the usage of FEC, the answer simply accepts the FEC
   RTP session and the grouping in the offer by including the same
   grouping in the answer. Note that the rejection of FEC RTP session
   does not prevent the media sessions from being accepted and used
   without FEC.



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   When the FEC stream is sent as a secondary codec in the redundant
   encoding format (RFC 2198) [7], the offering side can indicate the
   FEC stream as specified in Section 14.2. The answer MAY reject the
   FEC stream by removing the payload type for the FEC stream. To
   accept the usage of FEC, the answerer must in the answer include the
   FEC payload type. Note that in cases the redundancy payload format
   [7] is used with FEC as the only secondary codec, when the FEC
   stream is rejected the redundant encoding payload type SHOULD also
   be removed.


15. Application Statement

   This document describes a generic protocol for Forward Error
   Correction supporting a wide range of short block parity FEC
   algorithms, such as simple and interleaved parity codes. The scheme
   is limited to interleaving parity codes over a distance of 48
   packets. This FEC algorithm is fully compatible the hosts that are
   not FEC-capable. Since the media payload is not altered and the
   protection is sent as additional information, the receivers that are
   unaware of the generic FEC as specified in this document can simply
   ignore the additional FEC information and process the main media
   payload. This interoperability is particularly important for
   compatibility with existing hosts, and also in the scenario where
   many different hosts need to communicate with each other at the same
   time, such as during multicast.

   The generic FEC algorithm specified in this document is also a
   generic protection algorithm with the following features: (1) it is
   independent of the nature of the media being protected, whether that
   media is audio, video, or otherwise, (2) it is flexible enough to
   support a wide variety of FEC mechanisms and settings, (3) it is
   designed for adaptivity, so that the FEC parameters can be modified
   easily without resorting to out of band signaling, and (4) it
   supports a number of different mechanisms for transporting the FEC
   packets.

   The FEC specified here also provides user with Unequal Error
   Protection capabilities. Some other algorithms may also provide the
   Unequal Error Protection capabilities thought other means. For
   example, an Unequal Erasure Protection (UXP) scheme has been
   proposed in the AVT Working Group in "An RTP Payload Format for
   Erasure-Resilient Transmission of Progressive Multimedia Streams".
   The UXP scheme applies unequal error protection to the media
   payloads by interleaving the payload stream to be protected with the
   additional redundancy information obtained using Reed-Solomon
   operations.

   By altering the structure of the protected media payload, the UXP
   scheme sacrifices the backward compatibility with terminals that do
   not support UXP. This makes it more difficult to apply UXP when
   backward compatibility is desired. In the case of ULP, however, the

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   media payload remains un-altered and can always be used by the
   terminals. The extra protection can simply be ignored if the
   receiving terminals do not support ULP.

   At the same time, also because the structure of the media payload is
   altered in UXP, UXP offers the unique ability to change packet size
   independent of the original media payload structure and protection
   applied, and is only subject to the protocol overhead constraint.
   This property is useful in scenarios when altering the packet size
   of the media at transport level is desired.

   Because of the interleaving used in UXP, delays will be introduced
   at both the encoding and decoding sides. For UXP, all data within a
   transmission block need to arrive before encoding can begin, and a
   reasonable number of packets must be received before a transmission
   block can be decoded. The ULP scheme introduces little delay at the
   encoding side. On the decoding side, correctly received packets can
   be delivered immediately. Delay is only introduced in ULP when
   packet losses occur.

   Because UXP is an interleaved scheme, the un-recoverable errors
   occurring in data protected by UXP usually result in a number of
   corrupted holes in the payload stream. In ULP, on the other hand,
   the unrecoverable errors due to packet loss in the bitstream usually
   appear as contiguous missing pieces at the end of the packets.
   Depending on the encoding of the media payload stream, many
   applications may find it easier to parse and extract data from a
   packet with only a contiguous piece missing at the end than a packet
   with multiple corrupted holes, especially when the holes are not
   coincident with the independently decodable fragment boundaries.

   The exclusive-or (XOR) parity check operation used by ULP is simpler
   and faster than the more complex operations required by Reed-Solomon
   codes. This makes ULP more suitable for applications where
   computational cost is a constraint.

   As discussed above, both the ULP and the UXP schemes apply unequal
   error protection to the RTP media stream, but each uses a different
   technique. Both schemes have their own unique characteristics, and
   each can be applied to scenarios with different requirements.


16. Acknowledgments

   The following authors have made significant contributions to this
   document: Adam H. Li, Fang Liu, John D. Villasenor, Dong-Seek Park,
   Jeong-Hoon, Yung-Lyul Lee, Jonathan D. Rosenberg, and Henning
   Schulzrinne. The authors would also like to acknowledge the
   suggestions from many people, particularly Stephen Casner, Jay
   Fahlen, Cullen Jennings, Colin Perkins, Tao Tian, Matthieu
   Tisserand, Jeffery Tseng, Mark Watson, Stephen Wenger, and Magnus
   Westerlund.

Adam H. Li                                                    [Page 39]

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17. Bibliography

17.1. Normative References

   [1] H. Schulzrinne, S. Casner, R. Frederick, and V. Jacobson, "RTP:
   a transport protocol for real-time applications," Request for
   Comments 3550, Internet Engineering Task Force, July 2003.

   [2] S. Bradner, "Key words for use in RFCs to indicate requirement
   levels," Request for Comments 2119, Internet Engineering Task Force,
   March 1997.

   [3] N. Freed, and J. Klensin, "Media Type Specifications and
   Registration Procedures", Request for Comments 4288, Internet
   Engineering Task Force, December 2005.

   [4] S. Casner, "Media type registration of RTP payload formats",
   IETF work in Progress.

   [5] G. Camarillo, J. Holler, and H. Schulzrinne, "Grouping of Media
   Lines in the Session Description Protocol (SDP)", Request for
   Comments 3388, December 2002.

   [6] A. Li, "Forward Error Correction Grouping Semantics in Session
   Description Protocol", Request for Comments 4756, Internet
   Engineering Task Force, November 2006.

   [7] C. Perkins, I. Kouvelas, O. Hodson, V. Hardman, M. Handley, J.C.
   Bolot, A. Vega-Garcia, and S. Fosse-Parisis, "RTP Payload for
   Redundant Audio Data", Request for Comments 2198, Internet
   Engineering Task Force, September 1997.

   [8] M. Handley, and V. Jacobson, "SDP: Session Description
   Protocol", Request for Comments 2327, Internet Engineering Task
   Force, April 1998.

17.2. Informative References

   [9] J. Rosenberg and H. Schulzrinne, "An RTP Payload Format for
   Generic Forward Error Correction," Request for Comments 2733,
   Internet Engineering Task Force, December 1999.

   [10] C. Perkins and O. Hodson, "Options for repair of streaming
   media", Request for Comments 2354, Internet Engineering Task Force,
   June 1998.

   [11] J. Rosenberg and H. Schulzrine, "Registration of parityfec MIME
   types", Request for Comments 3009, Internet Engineering Task Force,
   November 2000.


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   [12] M. Luby, L. Vicisano, J. Gemmell, L. Rizzo, M. Handley, and J.
   Crowcroft, "Forward Error Correction (FEC) Building Block", Request
   for Comments 3452, Internet Engineering Task Force, December 2002.

   [13] M. Baugher, D. McGrew, M. Naslund, E. Carrara, K. Norrman, "The
   Secure Real-time Transport Protocol (SRTP)", Request for Comments
   3711, Internet Engineering Task Force, March 2004.

   [14] H. Schulzrinne and S. Casner, "RTP Profile for Audio and Video
   Conferences with Minimal Control", Request for Comments 3551,
   Internet Engineering Task Force, July 2003.

   [15] J. Rosenberg and H. Schulzrinne, "An Offer/Answer Model with
   the Session Description Protocol (SDP)", Request for Comments 3264,
   Internet Engineering Task Force, June 2002.


18. Author's Addresses

   Adam H. Li
   10194 Wateridge Circle #152
   San Diego, CA 92121
   USA
   Phone: +1 858 622 9038
   Email: adamli@hyervision.com




























Adam H. Li                                                    [Page 41]

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Copyright Statement

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Adam H. Li                                                    [Page 42]

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RFC Editor Considerations

   The RFC editor is kindly requested to perform the following
   editing to this draft:

   - Replace all occurrences of xxxx with the RFC number this
   document receives.

   - Remove this and the next section "Changes".

Changes

   Compared to the previous version of this document, draft-ietf-avt-
   ulp-22.txt, the following changes have been made:

   (1)  In Section 1, further clarified that there is no backward
        compatibility issue.
   (2)  In Section 11, further required that different keys MUST be
        used for separate payload and FEC streams.

This Internet-Draft expires February 2, 2008.
































Adam H. Li                                                    [Page 43]


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