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Versions: (draft-petithuguenin-behave-turn-uri) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 RFC 5928

Network Working Group                                  M. Petit-Huguenin
Internet-Draft                                            (Unaffiliated)
Intended status: Standards Track                       November 25, 2009
Expires: May 29, 2010


     Traversal Using Relays around NAT (TURN) Resolution Mechanism
                     draft-ietf-behave-turn-uri-05

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on May 29, 2010.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2009 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents in effect on the date of
   publication of this document (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info).
   Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights
   and restrictions with respect to this document.

Abstract

   This document defines a resolution mechanism to generate a list of
   server transport addresses that can be tried to create a Traversal
   Using Relays around NAT (TURN) allocation.



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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   3.  Resolution Mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   4.  Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     4.1.  Multiple Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     4.2.  Remote Hosting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   5.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   6.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     6.1.  RELAY Application Service Tag Registration . . . . . . . .  8
     6.2.  turn.udp Application Protocol Tag Registration . . . . . .  9
     6.3.  turn.tcp Application Protocol Tag Registration . . . . . .  9
     6.4.  turn.tls Application Protocol Tag Registration . . . . . .  9
   7.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   8.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     8.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     8.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   Appendix A.  Release notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     A.1.  Modifications between ietf-05 and ietf-04  . . . . . . . . 11
     A.2.  Modifications between ietf-04 and ietf-03  . . . . . . . . 11
     A.3.  Modifications between ietf-03 and ietf-02  . . . . . . . . 11
     A.4.  Modifications between ietf-02 and ietf-01  . . . . . . . . 12
     A.5.  Modifications between ietf-01 and ietf-00  . . . . . . . . 12
     A.6.  Modifications between petithuguenin-03 and ietf-00 . . . . 12
     A.7.  Modifications between petithuguenin-03 and
           petithuguenin-02 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     A.8.  Modifications between petithuguenin-02 and
           petithuguenin-01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     A.9.  Modifications between petithuguenin-01 and
           petithuguenin-00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     A.10. Design Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     A.11. Running Code Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     A.12. TODO List  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
















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1.  Introduction

   The TURN specification [I-D.ietf-behave-turn] defines a process for a
   TURN client to find TURN servers by using DNS SRV resource records,
   but this process does not let the TURN server administrators
   provision the preferred TURN transport protocol between the client
   and the server and for the TURN client to discover this preference.
   This document defines an S-NAPTR application [RFC3958] for this
   purpose.  This application defines "RELAY" as an application service
   tag and "turn.udp", "turn.tcp", and "turn.tls" as application
   protocol tags.

   Another usage of the resolution mechanism described in this document
   would be Remote Hosting as described in [RFC3958] section 4.4.  For
   example a VoIP provider who does not want to deploy TURN servers
   could use the servers deployed by another company but could still
   want to provide configuration parameters to its customers without
   explicitly showing this relationship.  The mechanism permits one to
   implement this indirection, without preventing the company hosting
   the TURN servers from managing them as it see fit.

   [I-D.petithuguenin-behave-turn-uri-bis] can be used as a convenient
   way of carrying the four components needed by the resolution
   mechanism described in this document.


2.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].


3.  Resolution Mechanism

   The resolution mechanism is used only to create an allocation.  All
   other transactions use the IP address, transport and port used for a
   successful allocation creation.

   The resolution algorithm uses a boolean flag, <secure>; an IP address
   or domain name, <host>; a port number that can be empty, <port>; and
   a transport name that can be "udp", "tcp" or empty, <transport> as
   input.  This four parameters are part of the user configuration of
   the TURN client.  The resolution mechanism also uses as input a list
   ordered by preference of TURN transports (UDP, TCP, TLS) supported
   that is provided by the application using the TURN client.  This list
   reflects the capabilities and preferences of the application code as
   opposed to the configuration parameters that reflect the preferences



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   of the user of the application.  The output of the algorithm is a
   list of {IP address, transport, port} tuples that a TURN client can
   try in order to create an allocation on a TURN server.

   An Allocate error response as specified in section 6.4 of
   [I-D.ietf-behave-turn] is processed as a failure as specified by
   [RFC3958] section 2.2.4.  The resolution stops when a TURN client
   gets a successful Allocate response from a TURN server.  After an
   allocation succeeds or all the allocations fail, the resolution
   context MUST be discarded and the resolution algorithm MUST be
   restarted from the beginning for any subsequent allocation.  Servers
   blacklisted as described in section 6.4 of [I-D.ietf-behave-turn]
   SHOULD NOT be used for the specified duration even if returned by a
   subsequent resolution.

   First the resolution algorithm checks that the parameters can be
   resolved with the list of TURN transports supported by the
   application:

   o  If <secure> is false and <transport> is defined as "udp" but the
      list of TURN transports supported by the application does not
      contain UDP then the resolution MUST stop with an error.
   o  If <secure> is false and <transport> is defined as "tcp" but the
      list of TURN transports supported by the application does not
      contain TCP then the resolution MUST stop with an error.
   o  If <secure> is true and <transport> is defined as "udp" then the
      algorithm MUST stop with an error.
   o  If <secure> is true and <transport> is defined as "tcp" but the
      list of TURN transports supported by the application does not
      contain TLS then the resolution MUST stop with an error.
   o  If <secure> is true and <transport> is not defined but the list of
      TURN transports supported by the application does not contain TLS
      then the resolution MUST stop with an error.
   o  If <transport> is defined but unknown then the resolution MUST
      stop with an error.

   After verifying the validity of the URI elements, the algorithm
   filters the list of TURN transports supported by the application by
   removing the UDP and TCP TURN transport if <secure> is true.  If the
   list of TURN transports is empty after this filtering, the resolution
   MUST stop with an error.

   After filtering the list of TURN transports supported by the
   application, the algorithm applies the steps described below.  Note
   that in some steps, <secure> and <transport> have to be converted to
   a TURN transport.  If <secure> is false and <transport> is defined as
   "udp" then the TURN UDP transport is used.  If <secure> is false and
   <transport> is defined as "tcp" then the TURN TCP transport is used.



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   If <secure> is true and <transport> is defined as "tcp" then the TURN
   TLS transport is used.  This is summarized in Table 1.

                +----------+-------------+----------------+
                | <secure> | <transport> | TURN Transport |
                +----------+-------------+----------------+
                | false    | "udp"       | UDP            |
                | false    | "tcp"       | TCP            |
                | true     | "tcp"       | TLS            |
                +----------+-------------+----------------+

                                  Table 1

   1.  If <host> is an IP address, then it indicates the specific IP
       address to be used.  If <port> is not defined, the default port
       declared in [I-D.ietf-behave-turn] for the "turn" SRV service
       name if <secure> is false, or the "turns" SRV service name if
       <secure> is true MUST be used for contacting the TURN server.  If
       <transport> is defined then <secure> and <transport> are
       converted to a TURN transport as specified in Table 1.  If
       <transport> is not defined, the filtered TURN transports
       supported by the application are tried by preference order.  If
       the TURN client cannot contact a TURN server with this IP address
       and port on any of the transports supported by the application
       then the resolution MUST stop with an error.

   2.  If <host> is a domain name and <port> is defined, then <host> is
       resolved to a list of IP addresses via DNS A and AAAA queries.
       If <transport> is defined, then <secure> and <transport> are
       converted to a TURN transport as specified in Table 1.  If
       <transport> is not defined, the filtered TURN transports
       supported by the application are tried in preference order.  The
       TURN client can choose the order to contact the resolved IP
       addresses in any implementation-specific way.  If the TURN client
       cannot contact a TURN server with this port, the transport or
       list of transports, and the resolved IP addresses, then the
       resolution MUST stop with an error.

   3.  If <host> is a domain name and <port> is not defined but
       <transport> is defined, then the SRV algorithm defined in
       [RFC2782] is used to generate a list of IP address and port
       tuples. <host> is used as Name, a value of false for <secure> as
       "turn" for Service, a value of true for <secure> as "turns" for
       Service and <transport> as Protocol in the SRV algorithm.
       <secure> and <transport> are converted to a TURN transport as
       specified in Table 1 and this transport is used with each tuple
       for contacting the TURN server.  The SRV algorithm recommends
       doing an A query if the SRV query returns an error or no SRV RR;



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       in this case the default port declared in [I-D.ietf-behave-turn]
       for the "turn" SRV service name if <secure> is false, or the
       "turns" SRV service name if <secure> is true MUST be used for
       contacting the TURN server.  Also in this case, this
       specification modifies the SRV algorithm by recommending an A and
       AAAA query.  If the TURN client cannot contact a TURN server at
       any of the IP address and port tuples returned by the SRV
       algorithm with the transport converted from <secure> and
       <transport> then the resolution MUST stop with an error.

   4.  If <host> is a domain name and <port> and <transport> are not
       defined, then <host> is converted to an ordered list of IP
       address, port and transport tuples via the S-NAPTR algorithm
       defined in [RFC3958] by using <host> as the initial target domain
       name and "RELAY" as the Application Service Tag. The filtered
       list of TURN transports supported by the application are
       converted in Application Protocol Tags by using "turn.udp" if the
       TURN transport is UDP, "turn.tcp" if the TURN transport is TCP
       and "turn.tls" if the TURN transport is TLS.  The order to try
       the Application Protocol Tags is provided by the ranking of the
       first set of NAPTR records.  If multiple Application Protocol
       Tags have the same ranking, the preferred order set by the
       application is used.  If the first NAPTR query fails, the
       processing continues in step 5.  If the TURN client cannot
       contact a TURN server with any of the IP address, port and
       transport tuples returned by the S-NAPTR algorithm then the
       resolution MUST stop with an error.

   5.  If the first NAPTR query in the previous step does not return any
       result then the SRV algorithm defined in [RFC2782] is used to
       generate a list of IP address and port tuples.  The SRV algorithm
       is applied by using each transport in the filtered list of TURN
       transports supported by the application for the Protocol, <host>
       for the Name, "turn" for the Service if <secure> is false or
       "turns" for the Service if <secure> is true.  The same transport
       that was used to generate a list of tuples is used with each of
       this tuples for contacting the TURN server.  The SRV algorithm
       recommends doing an A query if the SRV query returns an error or
       no SRV RR; in this case the default port declared in
       [I-D.ietf-behave-turn] for the "turn" SRV service name if
       <secure> is false, or the "turns" SRV service name if <secure> is
       true MUST be used for contacting the TURN server.  Also in this
       case, this specification modifies the SRV algorithm by
       recommending an A and AAAA query.  If the TURN client cannot
       contact a TURN server at any of the IP address and port tuples
       returned by the SRV algorithm with the transports from the
       filtered list then the resolution MUST stop with an error.




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4.  Examples

4.1.  Multiple Protocols

   With the DNS RRs in Figure 1 and an ordered TURN transport list of
   {TLS, TCP, UDP}, the resolution algorithm will convert the parameters
   <secure> with a value of false, <host> with a value of "example.net"
   and <port> and <transport> been empty to the list of IP addresses,
   port and protocol tuples in Table 2.

   example.net.
   IN NAPTR 100 10 "" RELAY:turn.udp "" datagram.example.net.
   IN NAPTR 200 10 "" RELAY:turn.tcp:turn.tls "" stream.example.net.

   datagram.example.net.
   IN NAPTR 100 10 S RELAY:turn.udp "" _turn._udp.example.net.

   stream.example.net.
   IN NAPTR 100 10 S RELAY:turn.tcp "" _turn._tcp.example.net.
   IN NAPTR 200 10 A RELAY:turn.tls "" a.example.net.

   _turn._udp.example.net.
   IN SRV   0 0 3478 a.example.net.

   _turn._tcp.example.net.
   IN SRV   0 0 5000 a.example.net.

   a.example.net.
   IN A     192.0.2.1


                                 Figure 1

                 +-------+----------+------------+------+
                 | Order | Protocol | IP address | Port |
                 +-------+----------+------------+------+
                 | 1     | UDP      | 192.0.2.1  | 3478 |
                 | 2     | TLS      | 192.0.2.1  | 5349 |
                 | 3     | TCP      | 192.0.2.1  | 5000 |
                 +-------+----------+------------+------+

                                  Table 2

4.2.  Remote Hosting

   In the example in Figure 2, a VoIP provider (example.com) is using
   the TURN servers managed by the administrators of the example.net
   domain (defined in Figure 1).  The resolution algorithm using the



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   ordered TURN transport list of {TLS, TCP, UDP} would convert the same
   parameters than in the previous example but with the <host> parameter
   equal to "example.com" to the list of IP addresses, port and protocol
   tuples in Table 2.


   example.com.
   IN NAPTR 100 10 "" "RELAY:turn.udp:turn.tcp:turn.tls" "" example.net.


                                 Figure 2


5.  Security Considerations

   Security considerations for TURN are discussed in
   [I-D.ietf-behave-turn].

   The Application Service Tag and Application Protocol Tags defined in
   this document do not introduce any specific security issues beyond
   the security considerations discussed in [RFC3958].  [RFC3958]
   requests that an S-NAPTR application defines some form of end-to-end
   authentication to ensure that the correct destination has been
   reached.  This is achieved by the Long-Term Credential Mechanism
   defined in [RFC5389], which is mandatory for TURN
   [I-D.ietf-behave-turn].  Additionally the usage of TLS has the
   capability to address the requirement.  In this case the client MUST
   verify the identity of the server by following the identification
   procedure in section 7.2.2 of [RFC5389].


6.  IANA Considerations

   This section contains the registration information for one S-NAPTR
   Application Service Tag and three S-NAPTR Application Protocol Tags
   (in accordance with [RFC3958]).

6.1.  RELAY Application Service Tag Registration

   Application Protocol Tag: RELAY

   Intended usage: See Section 3.

   Interoperability considerations: N/A

   Security considerations: See Section 5.

   Relevant publications: This document.



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   Contact information: Marc Petit-Huguenin <petithug@acm.org>

   Author/Change controller: The IESG

6.2.  turn.udp Application Protocol Tag Registration

   Application Protocol Tag: turn.udp

   Intended usage: See Section 3.

   Interoperability considerations: N/A

   Security considerations: See Section 5.

   Relevant publications: This document.

   Contact information: Marc Petit-Huguenin <petithug@acm.org>

   Author/Change controller: The IESG

6.3.  turn.tcp Application Protocol Tag Registration

   Application Protocol Tag: turn.tcp

   Intended usage: See Section 3.

   Interoperability considerations:

   Security considerations: See Section 5.

   Relevant publications: This document.

   Contact information: Marc Petit-Huguenin <petithug@acm.org>

   Author/Change controller: The IESG

6.4.  turn.tls Application Protocol Tag Registration

   Application Protocol Tag: turn.tls

   Intended usage: See Section 3.

   Interoperability considerations: N/A

   Security considerations: See Section 5.

   Relevant publications: This document.




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   Contact information: Marc Petit-Huguenin <petithug@acm.org>

   Author/Change controller: The IESG


7.  Acknowledgements

   Thanks to Pasi Eronen, Margaret Wasserman, Magnus Westerlund, Juergen
   Schoenwaelder, Sean Turner, Ted Hardie, Dave Thaler, Alfred E.
   Heggestad, Eilon Yardeni, Dan Wing, Alfred Hoenes and Jim Kleck for
   their comments, suggestions and questions that helped to improve this
   document.

   This document was written with the xml2rfc tool described in
   [RFC2629].


8.  References

8.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC2782]  Gulbrandsen, A., Vixie, P., and L. Esibov, "A DNS RR for
              specifying the location of services (DNS SRV)", RFC 2782,
              February 2000.

   [RFC3958]  Daigle, L. and A. Newton, "Domain-Based Application
              Service Location Using SRV RRs and the Dynamic Delegation
              Discovery Service (DDDS)", RFC 3958, January 2005.

   [RFC5234]  Crocker, D. and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax
              Specifications: ABNF", STD 68, RFC 5234, January 2008.

   [RFC5389]  Rosenberg, J., Mahy, R., Matthews, P., and D. Wing,
              "Session Traversal Utilities for NAT (STUN)", RFC 5389,
              October 2008.

   [I-D.ietf-behave-turn]
              Rosenberg, J., Mahy, R., and P. Matthews, "Traversal Using
              Relays around NAT (TURN): Relay Extensions to Session
              Traversal Utilities for NAT (STUN)",
              draft-ietf-behave-turn-16 (work in progress), July 2009.







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8.2.  Informative References

   [RFC2629]  Rose, M., "Writing I-Ds and RFCs using XML", RFC 2629,
              June 1999.

   [RFC4395]  Hansen, T., Hardie, T., and L. Masinter, "Guidelines and
              Registration Procedures for New URI Schemes", BCP 35,
              RFC 4395, February 2006.

   [I-D.petithuguenin-behave-turn-uri-bis]
              Petit-Huguenin, M., "Traversal Using Relays around NAT
              (TURN) Uniform Resource Identifiers",
              draft-petithuguenin-behave-turn-uri-bis-00 (work in
              progress), November 2009.


Appendix A.  Release notes

   This section must be removed before publication as an RFC.

A.1.  Modifications between ietf-05 and ietf-04

   o  Moved the URI stuff to [I-D.petithuguenin-behave-turn-uri-bis].

A.2.  Modifications between ietf-04 and ietf-03

   o  Improved the algorithm steps.
   o  It is possible to use a TLS transport event if the scheme is
      turn:.
   o  Clarified when to stop the resolution with an error in step 2.
   o  Added transport list filtering process.
   o  Improved security section following sec-dir review.
   o  Fixed nits reported by gen-art review.
   o  Added example for remote hosting.
   o  Removed URIs section.
   o  Editorial modification.

A.3.  Modifications between ietf-03 and ietf-02

   o  A turn:<host>?transport=TCP URI fails if the list of supported
      transports contains only TLS.  Using a TLS transport in this case
      was underspecified.
   o  Reordered paragraphes in section 4.
   o  Added table for conversion of <scheme> and <transport> to TURN
      transport.
   o  Various editorial modifications.





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   o  SRV algorithm changed to "...recommending an A and AAAA query."
   o  Put back the changelog for the versions before been accepted as WG
      item.

A.4.  Modifications between ietf-02 and ietf-01

   o  Shorten the abstract so it does not overflow on the second page.
   o  Added text to explicitly say that the resolution is only to create
      an allocation.
   o  Added text about failures.
   o  Fixed the default port for TLS in the example.
   o  Changed some priority in the example for RFC3958 section 2.2.5.
   o  Fixed the service/protocol order for the SRV RR in the example.
   o  Removed reference to draft-wood-tae-specifying-uri-transports as
      it has an experimental status.

A.5.  Modifications between ietf-01 and ietf-00

   o  Fixed the contact email.
   o  Changed the IPR to trust200902.
   o  Added case for transport defined but unknown.
   o  Moved RFC 3958 to Normative References.
   o  Added study of draft-wood-tae-specifying-uri-transports in TODO
      list.

A.6.  Modifications between petithuguenin-03 and ietf-00

   o  Renamed the document to "draft-ietf-behave-turn-uri".
   o  Changed author affiliation.
   o  Fixed the text in the IANA considerations.

A.7.  Modifications between petithuguenin-03 and petithuguenin-02

   o  Added Running Code Consideration section.
   o  Added Remote Hosting example in introduction.
   o  Changed back to opaque URIs because of [RFC4395] Section 2.2.  Now
      use "?" as separator.
   o  Added IANA considerations section.
   o  Added security considerations section.

A.8.  Modifications between petithuguenin-02 and petithuguenin-01

   o  Receiving a successful Allocate response stops the resolution
      mechanism and the resolution context must be discarded after this.
   o  Changed from opaque to hierarchical URIs because the ";" character
      is used in <reg-name>.





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   o  Various nits.

A.9.  Modifications between petithuguenin-01 and petithuguenin-00

   o  Added <transport-ext> in the ABNF.
   o  Use the <rulename> and "literal" usages for free-form text defined
      by [RFC5234].
   o  Fixed various typos.
   o  Put the rule to convert <scheme> and <transport> to a TURN
      transport in a separate paragraph.
   o  Modified the SRV usage to be in line with RFC 2782.
   o  Clarified that the NAPTR protocol ranking must be used before the
      application ranking.
   o  Added an example.
   o  Added release notes.

A.10.  Design Notes

   o  The Application Service Tag is "RELAY" so other relaying
      mechanisms than TURN (e.g., TWIST) can be registered as
      Application Protocol Tags.
   o  S-NAPTR was preferred to U-NAPTR because there is no use case for
      U-NAPTR.
   o  Adding optional capabilities (IPv6 allocation, preserve bit,
      etc...) in the resolution process was rejected at the Dublin
      meeting.

A.11.  Running Code Considerations

   o  Zap (<http://www.croczilla.com/zap>).  Eilon Yardeni, 8x8 Inc.
      Implements version -00.
   o  Reference Implementation of TURN URI parser and resolver
      (<http://ietf.implementers.org/turn-uri-0.3.zip>).  Marc Petit-
      Huguenin.  Implements version -05.

A.12.  TODO List

   (Empty)


Author's Address

   Marc Petit-Huguenin
   (Unaffiliated)

   Email: petithug@acm.org





Petit-Huguenin            Expires May 29, 2010                 [Page 13]


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