[Docs] [txt|pdf] [Tracker] [WG] [Email] [Nits]

Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 RFC 3913

BGMP Working Group                                          D. Thaler
Internet Engineering Task Force                             Microsoft
INTERNET-DRAFT                                              D. Estrin
January 10, 2000                                              USC/ISI
Expires July 2000                                            D. Meyer
                                                                Cisco
                                                              Editors



               Border Gateway Multicast Protocol (BGMP):
                         Protocol Specification
                     <draft-ietf-bgmp-spec-00.txt>





Status of this Memo

This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with all
provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026.

Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Task
Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that other groups
may also distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts.

Internet Drafts are valid for a maximum of six months and may be
updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any time.  It is
inappropriate to use Internet Drafts as reference material or to cite
them other than as a "work in progress".

     The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
     http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt

     The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
     http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.

Abstract

This document describes BGMP, a protocol for inter-domain multicast
routing.  BGMP builds shared trees for active multicast groups, and
allows receiver domains to build source-specific, inter-domain,
distribution branches where needed.  Building upon concepts from CBT and
PIM-SM, BGMP requires that each multicast group be associated with a
single root (in BGMP it is referred to as the root domain).  BGMP
assumes that at any point in time, different ranges of the class D space












Draft                             BGMP                      January 2000


are associated (e.g., with MASC [MASC]) with different domains.  Each of
these domains then becomes the root of the shared domain-trees for all
groups in its range.  Multicast participants will generally receive
better multicast service if the session initiator's address allocator
selects addresses from its own domain's part of the space, thereby
causing the root domain to be local to at least one of the session
participants.

Copyright Notice

Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2000).  All Rights Reserved.


1.  Acknowledgements

   In addition to the editors, the following individuals have
   contributed to the design of BGMP: Cengiz Alaettinoglu, Tony
   Ballardie, Steve Casner, Steve Deering, Dino Farinacci, Bill Fenner,
   Mark Handley, Ahmed Helmy, Van Jacobson, and Satish Kumar.

   This document is the product of the IETF IDMR Working Group with Dave
   Thaler, Deborah Estrin, and David Meyer as editors.

   Rusty Eddy also provided valuable feedback on this document.


2.  Purpose

   It has been suggested that inter-domain multicast is better supported
   with a rendezvous mechanism whereby members receive source's data
   packets without any sort of global broadcast (e.g., DVMRP and PIM-DM
   broadcast initial data packets and MOSPF broadcasts membership
   information).  CBT [CBT] and PIM-SM [PIMSM] use a shared group-tree,
   to which all members join and thereby hear from all sources (and to
   which non-members do not join and thereby hear from no sources).

   This document describes BGMP, a protocol for inter-domain multicast
   routing.  BGMP builds shared trees for active multicast groups, and
   allows domains to build source-specific, inter-domain, distribution
   branches where needed.  Building upon concepts from CBT and PIM-SM,
   BGMP requires that each global multicast group be associated with a
   single root.  However, in BGMP, the root is an entire exchange or
   domain, rather than a single router.

   BGMP assumes that ranges of the class D space have been associated





Expires July 2000                                               [Page 2]

Draft                             BGMP                      January 2000


   (e.g., with MASC [MASC]) with selected domains.  Each such domain
   then becomes the root of the shared domain-trees for all groups in
   its range.  An address allocator will generally achieve better
   distribution trees if it takes its multicast addresses from its own
   domain's part of the space, thereby causing the root domain to be
   local.

   BGMP uses TCP as its transport protocol.  This eliminates the need to
   implement message fragmentation, retransmission, acknowledgement, and
   sequencing.  BGMP uses TCP port 264 for establishing its connections.
   This port is distinct from BGP's port to provide protocol
   independence, and to facilitate distinguishing between protocol
   packets (e.g., by packet classifiers, diagnostic utilities, etc.)

   Two BGMP peers form a TCP connection between one another, and
   exchange messages to open and confirm the connection parameters.
   They then send incremental Join/Prune Updates as group memberships
   change.  BGMP does not require periodic refresh of individual
   entries.  KeepAlive messages are sent periodically to ensure the
   liveness of the connection.  Notification messages are sent in
   response to errors or special conditions.  If a connection encounters
   an error condition, a notification message is sent and the connection
   is closed.




3.  Terminology

This document uses the following technical terms:

Domain:
     A set of one or more contiguous links and zero or more routers
     surrounded by one or more multicast border routers.  Note that this
     loose definition of domain also applies to an external link between
     two domains, as well as an exchange.

Root Domain:
     When constructing a shared tree of domains for some group, one
     domain will be the "root" of the tree.  The root domain receives
     data from each sender to the group, and functions as a rendezvous
     domain toward which member domains can send inter-domain joins, and
     to which sender domains can send data.







Expires July 2000                                               [Page 3]

Draft                             BGMP                      January 2000


Multicast RIB:
     The Routing Information Base, or routing table, used to calculate
     the "next-hop" towards a particular address for multicast traffic.

Multicast IGP (M-IGP):
     A generic term for any multicast routing protocol used for tree
     construction within a domain.  Typical examples of M-IGPs are:
     DVMRP, PIM-DM, PIM-SM, CBT, and MOSPF.

EGP: A generic term for the interdomain unicast routing protocol in use.
     Typically, this will be some version of BGP which can support a
     Multicast RIB, such as MBGP [MBGP], containing both unicast and
     multicast address prefixes.

Component:
     The portion of a border router associated with (and logically
     inside) a particular domain that runs the multicast IGP (M-IGP) for
     that domain, if any.  Each border router thus has zero or more
     components inside routing domains.  In addition, each border router
     with external links that do not fall inside any routing domain will
     have an inter-domain component that runs BGMP.

External peer:
     A border router in another multicast AS (autonomous system, as used
     in BGP), to which a BGMP TCP-connection is open.  Assuming MBGP is
     being used, a separate "eBGP" TCP-connection will also be open to
     the same peer.

Internal peer:
     Another border router of the same multicast AS.  A border router
     either speaks iBGP ("internal" BGP) directly to internal peers in a
     full mesh, or indirectly through a route reflector [REFLECT].  A
     border router is only required to establish a BGMP TCP-connection
     to an internal peer when one border router acts as as a data
     injector for another.

Next-hop peer:
     The next-hop peer towards a given IP address is the next EGP router
     on the path to the given address, according to multicast RIB routes
     in the EGP's routing table (e.g., in MBGP, routes whose Subsequent
     Address Family Identifier field indicates that the route is valid
     for multicast traffic).

target:
     Either an EGP peer, or an M-IGP component.





Expires July 2000                                               [Page 4]

Draft                             BGMP                      January 2000


Tree State Table:
     This is a table of (S-prefix,G-prefix) entries (including (*,G-
     prefix) entries) that have been explicitly joined by a set of
     targets.  Each entry has, in addition to the source and group
     addresses and masks, a list of targets that have explicitly
     requested data (on behalf of directly connected hosts or downstream
     routers).  (S,G) entries also have an "SPT" bit.

The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", and "MAY" in
this document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].


4.  Protocol Overview

   BGMP maintains group-prefix state in response to messages from BGMP
   peers and notifications from M-IGP components.  Group-shared trees
   are rooted at the domain advertising the group prefix covering those
   groups.  When a receiver joins a specific group address, the border
   router towards the root domain generates a group-specific Join
   message, which is then forwarded Border-Router-by-Border-Router
   towards the root domain (see Figure 1).  BGMP Join and Prune messages
   are sent over TCP connections between BGMP peers, and BGMP protocol
   state is refreshed by KEEPALIVE messages periodically sent over TCP.

   BGMP routers build group-specific bidirectional forwarding state as
   they process the BGMP Join messages.  Bidirectional forwarding state
   means that packets received from any target are forwarded to all
   other targets in the target list without any RPF checks.  No group-
   specific state or traffic exists in parts of the network where there
   are no members of that group.

   BGMP routers build source-specific unidirectional forwarding state,
   only where needed, to be compatible with source-specific trees (SPTs)
   used by some M-IGPs (e.g., DVMRP, PIM-DM, or PIM-SM).  A domain that
   uses an SPT-based M-IGP may need to inject multicast packets from
   external sources via different border routers (to be compatible with
   the M-IGP RPF checks) which thus act as "surrogates".  For example,
   in the Transit_1 domain, data from Src_A arrives at BR12, but must be
   injected by BR11.  A surrogate router may create a source-specific
   BGMP branch if no shared tree state exists.  Note: stub domains with
   a single border router, such as Rcvr_Stub_7 in Figure 1, receive all
   multicast data packets through that router, to which all RPF checks
   point.  Therefore, stub domains never build source-specific state.

                    Root_Domain





Expires July 2000                                               [Page 5]

Draft                             BGMP                      January 2000


                     [BR91]--------------------------\
                        |                            |
                     [BR32]                         [BR41]
                    Transit_3                     Transit_4
                     [BR31]                      [BR42] [BR43]
                        |                          |      |
                     [BR22]                      [BR52] [BR53]
                    Transit_2                     Transit_5
                     [BR21]                         [BR51]
                        |                            |
                     [BR12]                         [BR61]
                    Transit_1[BR11]----------[BR62]Stub_6
                     [BR13]                        (Src_A)
                        |                          (Rcvr_D)
              -------------------
              |                 |
           [BR71]              [BR81]
          Rcvr_Stub_7       Src_only_Stub_8
          (Rcvr_C)             (Src_B)

   Figure 1: Example inter-domain topology. [BRXY] represents a BGMP
                                  border
   router.  Transit_X is a transit domain network.  *_Stub_X is a stub
   domain network.


   Data packets are forwarded based on a combination of BGMP and M-IGP
   rules.  The router forwards to a set of targets according to a
   matching (S,G) BGMP tree state entry if it exists.  If not found, the
   router checks for a matching (*,G) BGMP tree state entry.  If neither
   is found, then the packet is sent natively to the next-hop EGP peer
   for G, according to the Multicast RIB (for example, in the case of a
   non-member sender such as Src_B in Figure 1).  If a matching entry
   was found, the packet is forwarded to all other targets in the target
   list. In this way BGMP trees forward data in a bidirectional manner.
   If a target is an M-IGP component then forwarding is subject to the
   rules of that M-IGP protocol.


4.1.  Design Rationale

   Several other protocols, or protocol proposals, build shared trees
   within domains [CBT, HPIM, PIM-SM].  The design choices made for BGMP
   result from our focus on Inter-Domain multicast in particular.  The
   design choices made by CBT and PIM-SM are better suited to the wide-





Expires July 2000                                               [Page 6]

Draft                             BGMP                      January 2000


   area intra-domain case.  There are three major differences between
   BGMP and other shared-tree protocols:

   (1) Unidirectional vs. Bidirectional trees

   Bidirectional trees (using bidirectional forwarding state as
   described above) minimize third party dependence which is essential
   in the inter-domain context.  For example, in Figure 1, stub domains
   7 and 8 would like to exchange multicast packets without being
   dependent on the quality of connectivity of the root domain.
   However, unidirectional shared trees (i.e., those using RPF checks)
   have more aggressive loop prevention and share the same processing
   rules as source-specific entries which are inherently unidirectional.

   The lack of third party dependence concerns in the INTRA domain case
   reduces the incentive to employ bidirectional trees.  BGMP supports
   bidirectional trees because it has to, and because it can without
   excessive cost.

   (2) Source-specific distribution trees/branches

   In a departure from other shared tree protocols, source-specific BGMP
   state is built ONLY where (a) it is needed to pull the multicast
   traffic down to a BGMP router that has source-specific (S,G) state,
   and (b) that router is NOT already on the shared tree (i.e., has no
   (*,G) state), and (c) that router does not want to receive packets
   via encapsulation from from a router which is on the shared tree.
   BGMP provides source-specific branches because most M-IGP protocols
   in use today build source-specific trees.  BGMP's source-specific
   branches eliminate the unnecessary overhead of encapsulations for
   high data rate sources from the shared tree's ingress router to the
   surrogate injector (e.g. from BR12 to BR11 in Figure 1).  Moreover,
   cases in which shared paths are significantly longer than SPT paths
   will also benefit.

   However, we do not build source-specific inter-domain trees in
   general because (a) inter-domain connectivity is generally less rich
   than intra-domain connectivity, so shared distribution trees should
   have more acceptible path length and traffic concentration properties
   in the inter-domain context, than in the intra-domain case, and (b)
   by having the shared tree state always take precedence over source-
   specific tree state, we avoid ambiguities that can otherwise arise.

   In summary, BGMP trees are, in a sense, a hybrid between CBT and PIM-
   SM trees.





Expires July 2000                                               [Page 7]

Draft                             BGMP                      January 2000


   (3) Method of choosing root of group shared tree

   The choice of a group's shared-tree-root has implications for
   performance and policy.  In the intra-domain case it can be assumed
   that all potential shared-tree roots (RPs/Cores) within the domain
   are equally suited to be the root for a group that is initiated
   within that domain.  In the INTER-domain case, there is far more
   opportunity for unacceptably poor locality, and administrative
   control of a group's shared-tree root.  Therefore in the intra-domain
   case, other protocols treat all candidate roots (RPs or Cores) as
   equivalent and emphasize load sharing and stability to maximize
   performance.  In the Inter-Domain case, all roots are not equivalent,
   and we adopt an approach whereby a group's root domain is not random
   but is subject to administrative and performance input.


5.  Protocol Details

   In this section, we describe the detailed protocol that border
   routers perform.  We assume that each border router conforms to the
   component-based model described in [INTEROP].


5.1.  Interaction with the EGP

   A fundamental requirement imposed by BGMP on the design of an EGP is
   that it be able to carry multicast prefixes.  For example, a multi-
   protocol BGP (MBGP) must be able to carry a multicast prefix in the
   Unicast Network Layer Reachability Information (NLRI) field of the
   UPDATE message (i.e., either an IPv4 class D prefix or an IPv6 prefix
   with high-order octet equal to FF [IPv6MAA]). This capability is
   required by BGMP in the implementation of bi-directional trees; BGMP
   must be able to forward data and control packets to the next hop
   towards either a unicast source S or a multicast group G (see section
   5.2). It is also required that the path attributes defined in
   [RFC1771] have the same semantics whether they are accompany unicast
   or multicast NLRI.

   MBGP [MBGP] satisfies the requirement described above. [MBGP] defines
   the optional transitive attributes Multiprotocol Reachable NLRI
   (MP_REACH_NLRI) and Multiprotocol Unreachable (MP_UNREACH_NRLI) to
   carry sets of reachable or unreachable destinations, and the
   appropriate next hop in the case of MP_REACH_NLRI. These attributes
   contain an Address Family Information field [RFC1700] which indicates
   the type of NLRI carried in the attribute. In addition, the attribute





Expires July 2000                                               [Page 8]

Draft                             BGMP                      January 2000


   carries another field, the Subsequent Address Family Identifier, or
   SAFI, which can be used to provide additional information about the
   type of NLRI. For example, SAFI value two indicates that the NLRI is
   valid for multicast forwarding.  BGMP's requirement can be satisfied
   by allowing the NLRI field of the MP_REACH_NLRI (or MP_UNREACH_NLRI)
   to carry a multicast prefix in the Prefix field of the NLRI encoding.

   Finally, while not required for correct BGMP operation, the design of
   an EGP should also provide a mechanism that allows discrimination
   between NLRI that is to be used for unicast forwarding and NLRI to be
   used for multicast forwarding. This property is required to support
   multicast-specific policy. As mentioned above, MBGP [MBGP] has this
   capability.


5.2.  Multicast Data Packet Processing

   For BGMP rules to be applied, an incoming packet must first be
   "accepted":

   o  If the packet arrived on an interface owned by an M-IGP, the M-IGP
      component determines whether the packet should be accepted or
      dropped according to its rules.  If the packet is accepted, the
      packet is forwarded (or not forwarded) out any other interfaces
      owned by the same component, as specified by the M-IGP.

   o  If the packet was received over a point-to-point interface owned
      by BGMP, the packet is accepted.

   o  If the packet arrived on a multiaccess network interface owned by
      BGMP, the packet is accepted if it is the designated forwarder for
      longest matching route for S, if it is receiving data on a source-
      specific branch, or for the longest matching route for G.

   If the packet is accepted, then the router checks the tree state
   table for a matching (S,G) entry.  If one is found, but the packet
   was not received from the next hop target towards S (if the entry's
   SPT bit is True), or was not received from the next hop target
   towards G (if the entry's SPT bit is False) then the packet is
   dropped and no further actions are taken.  If no (S,G) entry was
   found, the router then checks for a matching (*,G) entry.

   If neither is found, then the packet is forwarded towards the next-
   hop peer for G, according to the Multicast RIB.  If a matching entry
   was found, the packet is forwarded to all other targets in the target





Expires July 2000                                               [Page 9]

Draft                             BGMP                      January 2000


   list.

   Forwarding to a target which is an M-IGP component means that the
   packet is forwarded out any interfaces owned by that component
   according to that component's multicast forwarding rules.


5.3.  BGMP processing of Join and Prune messages and notifications

5.3.1.  Receiving Joins

   When the BGMP component receives a (*,G) or (S,G) Join alert from
   another component, or a BGMP (S,G) or (*,G) Join message from an
   external peer, it searches the tree state table for a matching entry.
   If an entry is found, and that peer is already listed in the target
   list, then no further actions are taken.

   Otherwise, if no (*,G) or (S,G) entry was found, one is created.  In
   the case of a (*,G), the target list is initialized to contain the
   next-hop peer towards G, if it is an external peer.  If the peer is
   internal, the target list is initialized to contain the M-IGP
   component owning the next-hop interface.  If there is no next-hop
   peer (because G is inside the domain), then the target list is
   initialized to contain the next-hop component.  If an (S,G) entry
   exists for the same G for which the (*,G) Join is being processed,
   and the next-hop peers toward S and G are different, the BGMP router
   must first send a (S,G) Prune message toward the source and clear the
   SPT bit on the (S,G) entry, before activating the (*,G) entry.

   The target from which the Join was received is then added to the
   target list.  The router then looks up S or G in the Multicast RIB to
   find the next-hop EGP peer.  If the target list, not including the
   next-hop target towards G for a (*,G) entry, becomes non-null as a
   result, the next-hop EGP peer must be notified as follows:

   a) If the next-hop peer towards G (for a (*,G) entry) is an external
      peer, a BGMP (*,G) Join message is unicast to the external peer.
      If the next-hop peer towards S (for an (S,G) entry) is an external
      peer, and the router does NOT have any active (*,G) state for that
      group address G, a BGMP (S,G) Join message is unicast to the
      external peer.  A BGMP (S,G) Join message is never sent to an
      external peer by a router that also contains active (*,G) state
      for the same group.  If the next-hop peer towards S (for an (S,G
      entry) is an external peer and the router DOES have active (*,G)
      state for that group G, the SPT bit is always set to False.





Expires July 2000                                              [Page 10]

Draft                             BGMP                      January 2000


   b) If the next-hop peer is an internal peer, a (*,G) or (S,G) Join
      alert is sent to the M-IGP component owning the next-hop
      interface.

   c) If there is no next-hop peer, a (*,G) or (S,G) Join alert is sent
      to the M-IGP component owning the next-hop interface.


5.3.2.  Receiving Prune Notifications

   When the BGMP component receives a (*,G) or (S,G) Prune alert from
   another component, or a BGMP (*,G) or (S,G) Prune message from an
   external peer, it searches the tree state table for a matching entry.
   If no (S,G) entry was found for an (S,G) Prune, but (*,G) state
   exists, an (S,G) entry is created, with the target list copied from
   the (*,G) entry.  If no matching entry exists, or if the component or
   peer is not listed in the target list, no further actions are taken.

   Otherwise, the component or peer is removed from the target list.  If
   the target list becomes null as a result, the next-hop peer towards G
   (for a (*,G) entry), or towards S (for an (S,G) entry if and only if
   the BGMP router does NOT have any corresponding (*,G) entry), must be
   notified as follows.

   a) If the peer is an external peer, a BGMP (*,G) or (S,G) Prune
      message is unicast to it.

   b) If the next-hop peer is an internal peer, a (*,G) or (S,G) Prune
      alert is sent to the M-IGP component owning the next-hop
      interface.

   c) If there is no next-hop peer, a (*,G) or (S,G) Prune alert is sent
      to the M-IGP component owning the next-hop interface.



5.3.3.  Receiving Route Change Notifications

   When a border router receives a route for a new prefix in the
   multicast RIB, or a existing route for a prefix is withdrawn, a route
   change notification for that prefix must be sent to the BGMP
   component.  In addition, when the next hop peer (according to the
   multicast RIB) changes, a route change notification for that prefix
   must be sent to the BGMP component.






Expires July 2000                                              [Page 11]

Draft                             BGMP                      January 2000


   In addition, an internal route for each class-D prefix associated
   with the domain (if any) MUST be injected into the multicast RIB in
   the EGP by the domain's border routers.

   When a route for a new group prefix is learned, or an existing route
   for a group prefix is withdrawn, or the next-hop peer for a group
   prefix changes, a BGMP router updates all affected (*,G) target
   lists.  The router sends a (*,G) Join to the new next-hop target, and
   a (*,G) Prune to the old next-hop target, as appropriate.

   When an existing route for a source prefix is withdrawn, or the next-
   hop peer for a source prefix changes, a BGMP router updates all
   affected (S,G) target lists.  The router sends a (S,G) Join to the
   new next-hop target, and a (S,G) Prune to the old next-hop target, as
   appropriate.


5.4.  Interaction with M-IGP components

   When an M-IGP component on a border router first learns that there
   are internally-reached members for a group G (whose scope is larger
   than that domain), a (*,G) Join alert is sent to the BGMP component.
   Similarly, when an M-IGP component on a border router learns that
   there are no longer internally-reached members for a group G (whose
   scope is larger than a single domain), a (*,G) Prune alert is sent to
   the BGMP component.

   At any time, any M-IGP domain MAY decide to join a source-specific
   branch for some external source S and group G.  When the M-IGP
   component in the border router that is the next-hop router for a
   particular source S learns that a receiver wishes to receive data
   from S on a source-specific path, an (S,G) Join alert is sent to the
   BGMP component.  When it is learned that such receivers no longer
   exist, an (S,G) Prune alert is sent to the BGMP component.  Recall
   that the BGMP component will generate external source-specific Joins
   only where the source-specific branch does not coincide with the
   shared tree distribution tree for that group.

   Finally, we will require that the border router that is the next-hop
   internal peer for a particular address S or G be able to forward data
   for a matching tree state table entry to all members within the
   domain.  This requirement has implications on specific M-IGPs as
   follows.







Expires July 2000                                              [Page 12]

Draft                             BGMP                      January 2000


5.4.1.  Interaction with DVMRP and PIM-DM

   DVMRP and PIM-DM are both "broadcast and prune" protocols in which
   every data packet must pass an RPF check against the packet's source
   address, or be dropped.  If the border router receiving packets from
   an external source is the only BR to inject the route for the source
   into the domain, then there are no problems.  For example, this will
   always be true for stub domains with a single border router (see
   Figure 1).  Otherwise, the border router receiving packets externally
   is responsible for encapsulating the data to any other border routers
   that must inject the data into the domain for RPF checks to succeed.
   Although peering sessions to internal peers are normally not
   required, in this situation, BGMP TCP-connections must exist between
   such internal peers, and the "virtual" interfaces used for
   encapsulation are owned by BGMP.

   When an intended border router injector for a source receives
   encapsulated packets from another border router in its domain, it
   should create source-specific (S,G) BGMP state.  Note that the border
   router may be configured to do this on a data-rate triggered basis so
   that the state is not created for very low data-rate/intermittent
   sources.  If source-specific state is created, then its incoming
   interface points to the virtual encapsulation interface from the
   border router that forwarded the packet, and it has an SPT flag that
   is initialized to be False.

   When the (S,G) BGMP state is created, the BGMP component will in turn
   send a BGMP (S,G) Join message to the next-hop external peer towards
   S if there is no (*,G) state for that same group, G.  The (S,G) BGMP
   state will have the SPT bit set to False if (*,G) BGMP state is
   present.

   When the first data packet from S arrives from the external peer and
   matches on the BGMP (S,G) state, and IF there is no (*,G) state, the
   router sets the SPT flag to True, resets the incoming interface to
   point to the external peer, and sends a BGMP (S,G) Prune message to
   the border router that was encapsulating the packets (e.g., in Figure
   1, BR11 sends the (Src_A,G) Prune to BR12).  When the border router
   with (*,G) state receives the prune for (S,G), it then deletes that
   border router from its list of targets.

   PIM-DM and DVMRP present an additional problem, i.e., no protocol
   mechanism exists for joining and pruning entire groups; only joins
   and prunes for individual sources are available.  We therefore
   require that some form of Domain-Wide Reports (DWRs) [DWR] are





Expires July 2000                                              [Page 13]

Draft                             BGMP                      January 2000


   available within such domains.  Such messages provide the ability to
   join and prune an entire group across the domain.  One simple
   heuristic to approximate DWRs is to assume that if there are any
   internally-reached members, then at least one of them is a sender.
   With this heuristic, the presense of any M-IGP (S,G) state for
   internally-reached sources can be used instead.  Sending a data
   packet to a group is then equivalent to sending a DWR for the group.


5.4.2.  Interaction with PIM-SM

   Protocols such as PIM-SM build unidirectional shared and source-
   specific trees.  As with DVMRP and PIM-DM, every data packet must
   pass an RPF check against some group-specific or source-specific
   address.


   The fewest encapsulations/decapsulations will be done when the intra-
   domain tree is rooted at the next-hop internal peer towards G (which
   becomes the RP), since in general that router will receive the most
   packets from external sources.  To achieve this, each BGMP border
   router to a PIM-SM domain should send Candidate-RP-Advertisements
   within the domain for those groups for which it is the shared-domain
   tree ingress router.  When the border router that is the RP for a
   group G receives an external data packet, it forwards the packet
   according to the M-IGP (i.e., PIM-SM) shared-tree outgoing interface
   list.

   Other border routers will receive data packets from external sources
   that are farther down the bidirectional tree of domains. When a
   border router that is not the RP receives an external packet for
   which it does not have a source-specific entry, the border router
   treats it like a local source by creating (S,G) state with a Register
   flag set, based on normal PIM-SM rules; the Border router then
   encapsulates the data packets in PIM-SM Registers and unicasts them
   to the RP for the group.  As explained above, the RP for the inter-
   domain group will be one of the other border routers of the domain.

   If a source's data rate is high enough, DRs within the PIM-SM domain
   may switch to the shortest path tree.  If the shortest path to an
   external source is via the group's ingress router for the shared
   tree, the new (S,G) state in the BGMP border router will not cause
   BGMP (S,G) Joins because that border router will already have (*,G)
   state.  If however, the shortest path to an external source is via
   some other border router, that border router will create (S,G) BGMP





Expires July 2000                                              [Page 14]

Draft                             BGMP                      January 2000


   state in response to the M-IGP (S,G) Join alert.  In this case,
   because there is no local (*,G) state to supress it, the border
   router will send a BGMP (S,G) Join to the next-hop external peer
   towards S, in order to pull the data down directly.  (See BR11 in
   Figure 1.)  As in normal PIM-SM operation, those PIM-SM routers that
   have (*,G) and (S,G) state pointing to different incoming interfaces
   will prune that source off the shared tree.  Therefore, all internal
   interfaces may be eventually pruned off the internal shared tree.


5.4.3.  Interaction with CBT

   CBT builds bidirectional shared trees but must address two points of
   compatibility with BGMP.  First, CBT can not accommodate more than
   one border router injecting a packet.  Therefore, if a CBT domain
   does have multiple external connections, the M-IGP components of the
   border routers are responsible for insuring that only one of them
   will inject data from any given source.  This mechanism is provided
   in [CBTDM].

   Second, CBT cannot process source-specific Joins or Prunes.  Two
   options thus exist for each CBT domain:

   Option A:
     The CBT component interprets a (S,G) Join alert as if it were an
     (*,G) Join alert, as described in [INTEROP].  That is, if it is not
     already on the core-tree for G, then it sends a CBT (*,G) JOIN-
     REQUEST message towards the core for G.  Similarly, when the CBT
     component receives an (S,G) Prune alert, and the child interface
     list for a group is NULL, then it sends a (*,G) QUIT_NOTIFICATION
     towards the core for G.  This option has the disadvantage of
     pulling all data for the group G down to the CBT domain when no
     members exist.

   Option B:
     The CBT domain does not propagate any source routes (i.e., non-
     class D routes) to their external peers for the Multicast RIB
     unless it is known that no other path exists to that prefix (e.g.,
     routes for prefixes internal to the domain or in a singly-homed
     customer's domain may be propagated).  This insures that source-
     specific joins are never received unless the source's data already
     passes through the domain on the shared tree, in which case the
     (S,G) Join need not be propagated anyway.  BGMP border routers will
     only send source-specific Joins or Prunes to an external peer if
     that external peer advertises source-prefixes in the EGP.  If a





Expires July 2000                                              [Page 15]

Draft                             BGMP                      January 2000


     BGMP-CBT border router does receive an (S,G) Join or Prune, that
     border router should ignore the message.

     To minimize en/de-capsulations, CBTv2 BR's may follow the same
     scheme as described under PIM-SM above, in which Candidate-Core
     advertisements are sent for those groups for which it is the
     shared-tree ingress router.


5.4.4.  Interaction with MOSPF

   As with CBTv2, MOSPF cannot process source-specific Joins or Prunes,
   and the same two options are available.  Therefore, an MOSPF domain
   may either:

   Option A:
     send a Group-Membership-LSA for all of G in response to a (S,G)
     Join alert, and "prematurely age" it out (when no other downstream
     members exist) in response to an (S,G) Prune alert, OR

   Option B:
     not propagate any source routes (i.e., non-class D routes) to their
     external peers for the Multicast RIB unless it is known that no
     other path exists to that prefix (e.g., routes for prefixes
     internal to the domain or in a singly-homed customer's domain may
     be propagated)


5.5.  Operation over Multi-access Networks

   Multiaccess links require special handling to prevent duplicates.
   The following mechanism enables BGMP to operate over multiaccess
   links which do not run an M-IGP.  This avoids broadcast-and-prune
   behavior and does not require (S,G) state.

   To elect a designated forwarder per prefix, BGMP uses a FWDR_PREF
   message to exchange "forwarder preference" values for each prefix.
   The peer with the highest forwarder preference becomes the designated
   forwarder, with ties broken by lowest BGMP Identifier.  The
   designated forwarder is the router responsible for forwarding packets
   up the tree, and is the peer to which joins will be sent.

   When BGMP first learns that a route exists in the multicast RIB whose
   next-hop interface is NOT the multiaccess link, the BGMP router sends
   a BGMP FWDR_PREF message for the prefix, to all BGMP peers on the





Expires July 2000                                              [Page 16]

Draft                             BGMP                      January 2000


   LAN.  The FWDR_PREF message contains a "forwarder preference value"
   for the local router, and the same value MUST be sent to all peers on
   the LAN.  Likewise, when the prefix is no longer reachable, a
   FWDR_PREF of 0 is sent to all peers on the LAN.

   Whenever a BGMP router calculates the next-hop peer towards a
   particular address, and that peer is reached over a BGMP-owned
   multiaccess LAN, the designated forwarder is used instead.

   When a BGMP router receives a FWDR_PREF message from a peer, it looks
   up the matching route in its multicast RIB, and calculates the new
   designated forwarder.  If the router has tree state entries whose
   parent target was the old forwarder, it sends Joins to the new
   forwarder and Prunes to the old forwarder.

   When a BGMP router which is NOT the designated forwarder receives a
   packet on the multiaccess link, it is silently dropped.

   Finally, this mechanism prevents duplicates where full peering exists
   on a "logical" link.  Where full peering does not exist, steps must
   be taken (outside of BGMP) to present separate logical interfaces to
   BGMP, each of which is a link with full peering.  This might entail,
   for example, using different link-layer address mappings, doing
   encapsulation, or changing the physical media.


6.  Interaction with address allocation

6.1.  Requirements for BGMP components

   Each border router must be able to determine (e.g., from MASC [MASC])
   which class-D prefixes (if any) belong to each domain in which an M-
   IGP component resides, so that it can inject routes for them into the
   routing table.



7.  Transition Strategy

   There have been significant barriers to multicast deployment in
   Internet backbones.  While many of the problems with the current
   DVMRP backbone (MBONE) have been documented in [ISSUES], most of
   these problems require longer term engineering solutions. However,
   there is much that can be done with existing technologies to enable
   deployment and put in place an architecture that will enable a smooth





Expires July 2000                                              [Page 17]

Draft                             BGMP                      January 2000


   transition to the next generation of inter-domain multicast routing
   protocols (i.e., BGMP).  This section proposes a near-term transition
   strategy and architecture that is designed to be simple, risk-
   neutral, and provide a smooth, incremental transition path to BGMP.
   In addition, the transition architecture provides for improved
   convergence properties, some initial policy control, and the
   opportunity for providers to run either native or tunneled multicast
   backbones and exchanges.

   The transition strategy proposed here is to initially use MBGP [MBGP]
   to provide the desired convergence and policy control properties, and
   PIM-DM for multicast data forwarding.  Once this architecture is in
   place, backbones and exchanges can incrementally transition to BGMP
   and domains running other M-IGPs may be incorporated more fully.

   Since the current MBone uses a broadcast-and-prune backbone running
   DVMRP, BGMP may view the entire MBone as a single multi-homed stub
   domain (with a new AS number).  The members-are-senders heuristic can
   then be used initially to provide membership notifications within
   this stub domain.

   A BGMP backbone can then be formed by designating one or more neutral
   PIM-DM domains (say, exchanges) as initial BGMP backbones.  Each
   exchange is then associated with a group prefix which is injected
   into the Multicast RIB by all MBGP/BGMP border routers on that
   exchange.

   Any domain which meets the following constraints may then transition
   from a normal MBone-connected domain to one running BGMP:

 (1)   Must peer with another BGMP domain and participate in M-BGP to
       propagate routes in the Multicast RIB.

 (2)   Must establish an internal (to the MBone AS) EGP (e.g., iBGP)
       peer relationship with other border routers of the MBone "stub"
       domain, as is done with unicast routing.  We expect this to
       eventually involve the use of one or more route reflectors
       [REFLECT] inside the MBone domain.

 (3)   If the transition will partition the MBone "stub" domain, then it
       must be insured that the MBone domain will be administratively
       split into multiple domains, each with a different multicast AS
       number.







Expires July 2000                                              [Page 18]

Draft                             BGMP                      January 2000


7.1.  Preventing transit through the MBone stub

   We desire that two AS's which are mutually reachable through BGMP use
   paths which do not pass through the MBone stub domain.  This is
   illustrated in Figure 2, where the MBone stub is AS 5, which is
   multi-homed to both AS 3 and AS 4.  Paths between sources and
   destinations which have already transitioned to MBGP/BGMP should not
   use AS 5 as transit unless no other path exists.

           ----------------------\   /----------------------------
                                 |   |
           DVMRP         /----\  |   |  /----\  IGP/iBGP
           ..............| BR |+++++++++| BR |-----------
                         \----/  | E |  \----/
                            +    | B |     +          AS 3
           MBone            +    | G |     +
                            +    | P \-----+----------------------
           AS 5        iBGP +    |         + eBGP
                            +    |   /-----+----------------------
                            +    |   |     +
                            +    |   |     +
           DVMRP         /----\  |   |  /----\  IGP/iBGP
           ..............| BR |+++++++++| BR |-----------
                         \----/  |   |  \----/
                                 |   |                AS 4
                                 |   |
           ----------------------/   \----------------------------

              Figure 2: Preventing Transit through MBone Stub


   This requirement is easily solved using standard BGP policy
   mechanisms.  The MBone border routers should prefer EGP routes to
   DVMRP routes, since DVMRP cannot tag routes as being external.  Thus,
   external routes may appear in the DVMRP routing table, but will not
   be imported into the EGP since they will be overridden by iBGP
   routes.

   Other EGP routers should prefer routes whose ASpath does not contain
   the well-known MBone AS number.  This will insure that the route
   through the MBone stub is not used unless no other path exists.  For
   safety, routes whose ASpath begins with the MBone AS should receive
   the worst preference.







Expires July 2000                                              [Page 19]

Draft                             BGMP                      January 2000


8.  Message Formats

   This section describes message formats used by BGMP.

   Messages are sent over a reliable transport protocol connection.  A
   message is processed only after it is entirely received.  The maximum
   message size is 4096 octets.  All implementations are required to
   support this maximum message size.

   All fields labelled "Reserved" below must be transmitted as 0, and
   ignored upon receipt.


8.1.  Message Header Format

   Each message has a fixed-size (4-byte) header.  There may or may not
   be a data portion following the header, depending on the message
   type.  The layout of these fields is shown below:

       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |          Length               |      Type     |    Reserved   |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


   Length:
     This 2-octet unsigned integer indicates the total length of the
     message, including the header, in octets.  Thus, e.g., it allows
     one to locate in the transport-level stream the start of the next
     message.  The value of the Length field must always be at least 4
     and no greater than 4096, and may be further constrained, depending
     on the message type.  No "padding" of extra data after the message
     is allowed, so the Length field must have the smallest value
     required given the rest of the message.


   Type:
     This 1-octet unsigned integer indicates the type code of the
     message.  The following type codes are defined:

           1 - OPEN
           2 - UPDATE
           3 - NOTIFICATION
           4 - KEEPALIVE





Expires July 2000                                              [Page 20]

Draft                             BGMP                      January 2000


8.2.  OPEN Message Format

   After a transport protocol connection is established, the first
   message sent by each side is an OPEN message.  If the OPEN message is
   acceptable, a KEEPALIVE message confirming the OPEN is sent back.
   Once the OPEN is confirmed, UPDATE, KEEPALIVE, and NOTIFICATION
   messages may be exchanged.

   In addition to the fixed-size BGMP header, the OPEN message contains
   the following fields:

     0                   1                   2                   3
     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |   Version     |    Reserved   |           Hold Time           |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                        BGMP Identifier                        |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                                                               |
    +                      (Optional Parameters)                    |
    |                                                               |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


   Version:
     This 1-octet unsigned integer indicates the protocol version number
     of the message.  The current BGMP version number is 1.


   Hold Time:
     This 2-octet unsigned integer indicates the number of seconds that
     the sender proposes for the value of the Hold Timer.  Upon receipt
     of an OPEN message, a BGMP speaker MUST calculate the value of the
     Hold Timer by using the smaller of its configured Hold Time and the
     Hold Time received in the OPEN message.  The Hold Time MUST be
     either zero or at least three seconds.  An implementation may
     reject connections on the basis of the Hold Time.  The calculated
     value indicates the maximum number of seconds that may elapse
     between the receipt of successive KEEPALIVE, and/or UPDATE messages
     by the sender.


   BGMP Identifier:
     This 4-octet unsigned integer indicates the BGMP Identifier of the
     sender. A given BGMP speaker sets the value of its BGMP Identifier





Expires July 2000                                              [Page 21]

Draft                             BGMP                      January 2000


     to a globally-unique value assigned to that BGMP speaker (e.g., an
     IPv4 address).  The value of the BGMP Identifier is determined on
     startup and is the same for every BGMP session opened.


   Optional Parameters:
     This field may contain a list of optional parameters, where each
     parameter is encoded as a <Parameter Length, Parameter Type,
     Parameter Value> triplet.  The combined length of all optional
     parameters can be derived from the Length field in the message
     header.

      0                   1
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-...
     |  Parm. Type   | Parm. Length  |  Parameter Value (variable)
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-...

     Parameter Type is a one octet field that unambiguously identifies
     individual parameters. Parameter Length is a one octet field that
     contains the length of the Parameter Value field in octets.
     Parameter Value is a variable length field that is interpreted
     according to the value of the Parameter Type field.

     This document defines the following Optional Parameters:


   a) Authentication Information (Parameter Type 1):
     This optional parameter may be used to authenticate a BGMP peer.
     The Parameter Value field contains a 1-octet Authentication Code
     followed by a variable length Authentication Data.

          0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
         +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
         |  Auth. Code   |
         +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
         |                                                     |
         |              Authentication Data                    |
         |                                                     |
         +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Authentication Code:

      This 1-octet unsigned integer indicates the authentication
      mechanism being used.  Whenever an authentication mechanism is





Expires July 2000                                              [Page 22]

Draft                             BGMP                      January 2000


      specified for use within BGMP, three things must be included in
      the specification:

      - the value of the Authentication Code which indicates use of the
      mechanism, - the form and meaning of the Authentication Data, and
      - the algorithm for computing values of Marker fields.

      Note that a separate authentication mechanism may be used in
      establishing the transport level connection.

   Authentication Data:

      The form and meaning of this field is a variable-length field
      depend on the Authentication Code.

   The minimum length of the OPEN message is 12 octets (including
   message header).


   b) Capability Information (Parameter Type 2):
     This is an Optional Parameter that is used by a BGMP-speaker to
     convey to its peer the list of capabilities supported by the
     speaker.  The parameter contains one or more triples <Capability
     Code, Capability Length, Capability Value>, where each triple is
     encoded as shown below:
           +------------------------------+
           | Capability Code (1 octet)    |
           +------------------------------+
           | Capability Length (1 octet)  |
           +------------------------------+
           | Capability Value (variable)  |
           +------------------------------+
   Capability Code:

      Capability Code is a one octet field that unambiguously identifies
      individual capabilities.

   Capability Length:

      Capability Length is a one octet field that contains the length of
      the Capability Value field in octets.

   Capability Value:

      Capability Value is a variable length field that is interpreted





Expires July 2000                                              [Page 23]

Draft                             BGMP                      January 2000


      according to the value of the Capability Code field.

   A particular capability, as identified by its Capability Code, may
   occur more than once within the Optional Parameter.

   This document reserves Capability Codes 128-255 for vendor-specific
   applications.

   This document reserves value 0.

   Capability Codes (other than those reserved for vendor specific use)
   are assigned only by the IETF consensus process and IESG approval.



8.3.  UPDATE Message Format

   UPDATE messages are used to transfer Join/Prune/FwdrPref information
   between BGMP peers.  The UPDATE message always includes the fixed-
   size BGMP header, and one or more attributes as described below.

   The message format below allows compact encoding of (*,G) Joins and
   Prunes, while allowing the flexibility needed to do other updates
   such as (S,G) Joins and Prunes towards sources as well as on the
   shared tree.  In the discussion below, an Encoded-Address-Prefix is
   of the form:
     0                   1                   2                   3
     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
                                                    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                                                    |EnTyp| AddrFam |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                         Address (variable length)             |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                         Mask    (variable length)             |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   EnTyp:
     0 - All 1's Mask.  The Mask field is 0 bytes long.
     1 - Mask length included.  The Mask field is 4 bytes long, and
         contains the mask length, in bits.
     2 - Full Mask included.  The Mask field is the same length
         as the Address field, and contains the full bitmask.

   AddrFam:
     The IANA-assigned address family number of the encoded prefix.





Expires July 2000                                              [Page 24]

Draft                             BGMP                      January 2000


     These include (among others):

     Number    Description
     ------    -----------
        1      IP (IP version 4)
        2      IPv6 (IP version 6)


   Address:
     The address associated with the given prefix to be encoded.  The
     length is determined based on the Address Family.

   Mask:
     The mask associated with the given prefix.  The format (or absence)
     of this field is determined by the EnTyp field.

     Each attribute is of the form:

       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |              Length           |     Type      |   Data ...
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     All attributes are 4-byte aligned.


   Length:
     The Length is the length of the entire attribute, including the
     length, type, and data fields.  If other attributes are nested
     within the data field, the length includes the size of all such
     nested attributes.


   Type:

     Types 128-255 are reserved for "optional" attributes.  If a
     required attribute is unrecognized, a NOTIFICATION will be sent and
     the connection will be closed.  Unrecognized optional attributes
     are simply ignored.

        0 - JOIN
        1 - PRUNE
        2 - GROUP
        3 - SOURCE
        4 - FWDR_PREF





Expires July 2000                                              [Page 25]

Draft                             BGMP                      January 2000


     a) JOIN (Type Code 0)

     The JOIN attribute indicates that all GROUP or SOURCE options
     nested immediately within the JOIN option should be joined.

       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |              Length           |    Type=0     |   Reserved    |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |  Nested Attributes ...
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     No JOIN, PRUNE, or FWDR_PREF attributes may be immediately nested
     within a JOIN attribute.

     b) PRUNE (Type Code 1)

     The PRUNE attribute indicates that all GROUP or SOURCE attributes
     nested immediately within the PRUNE attribute should be pruned.

       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |              Length           |    Type=1     |   Reserved    |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |  Nested Attributes ...
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     No JOIN, PRUNE, or FWDR_PREF attributes may be immediately nested
     within a PRUNE attribute.

     c) GROUP (Type Code 2)

     The GROUP attribute identifies a given group-prefix.  In addition,
     any attributes nested immediately within the GROUP attribute also
     apply to the given group-prefix.

       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |              Length           |    Type=2     |               |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+               +
      |                                                               |
      |                   Encoded-Address-Prefix                      |
      |                                                               |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+





Expires July 2000                                              [Page 26]

Draft                             BGMP                      January 2000


      | Nested Attributes (optional) ...
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     Encoded-Address-Prefix
                        The multicast group prefix to be joined to
     pruned,
                        in the format described above.
     Nested Attributes   No GROUP, SOURCE, or FWDR_PREF attributes may
     be
                         immediately nested within a GROUP attribute.

     d) SOURCE (Type Code 3):

     The SOURCE attribute identifies a given source-prefix.  In
     addition, any attributes nested immediately within the SOURCE
     attribute also apply to the given source-prefix.

     The SOURCE attribute has the following format:

       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |              Length           |    Type=2     |               |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+               +
      |                                                               |
      |                   Encoded-Address-Prefix                      |
      |                                                               |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      | Nested Attributes (optional) ...
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     Encoded-Address-Prefix
                         The Source-prefix in the format described
     above.
     Nested Attributes   No GROUP, SOURCE, or FWDR_PREF attributes may
     be
                         immediately nested within a SOURCE attribute.

     e) FWDR_PREF (Type Code 4)

     The FWDR_PREF attribute provides a forwarder preference value for
     all GROUP or SOURCE attributes nested immediately within the
     FWDR_PREF attribute.  It is used by a BGMP speaker to inform other
     BGMP speakers of the originating speaker's degree of preference for
     a given group or source prefix.  Usage of this attribute is
     described in 5.5.






Expires July 2000                                              [Page 27]

Draft                             BGMP                      January 2000


       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |              Length           |    Type=1     |   Reserved    |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                       Preference Value                        |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |  Nested Attributes ...
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     Preference Value    A 32-bit non-negative integer.
     Nested Attributes   No JOIN, PRUNE, or FWDR_PREF attributes may be
                         immediately nested within a FWDR_PREF
     attribute.


8.4.  Encoding examples

   Below are enumerated examples of how various updates are built using
   nested attributes, where A ( B ) denotes that attribute B is nested
   within attribute A.
   (*,G-prefix) Join: JOIN ( GROUP )
   (*,G-prefix) Prune: PRUNE ( GROUP )
   (S,G) Join towards S : GROUP ( JOIN ( SOURCE ) )
   (S,G) Join cancelling prune towards G: GROUP ( JOIN ( SOURCE ) )
   (S,G) Prune towards S: GROUP ( PRUNE ( SOURCE ) )
   (S,G) Prune towards G: GROUP ( PRUNE ( SOURCE ) )
   Switch from (*,G) to (S,G): PRUNE ( GROUP ( JOIN ( SOURCE ) ) )
   Switch from (S,G) to (*,G): JOIN ( GROUP )
   Initial (*,G) Join with S pruned: JOIN ( GROUP ( PRUNE ( SOURCE ) ) )
   Forwarder preference announcement for G-prefix: FWDR_PREF ( GROUP )
   Forwarder preference announcement for S-prefix: FWDR_PREF ( SOURCE )


8.5.  KEEPALIVE Message Format

   BGMP does not use any transport protocol-based keep-alive mechanism
   to determine if peers are reachable.  Instead, KEEPALIVE messages are
   exchanged between peers often enough as not to cause the Hold Timer
   to expire.  A reasonable maximum time between the last KEEPALIVE or
   UPDATE message sent, and the time at which a KEEPALIVE message is
   sent, would be one third of the Hold Time interval.  KEEPALIVE
   messages MUST NOT be sent more frequently than one per second.  An
   implementation MAY adjust the rate at which it sends KEEPALIVE
   messages as a function of the Hold Time interval.






Expires July 2000                                              [Page 28]

Draft                             BGMP                      January 2000


   If the negotiated Hold Time interval is zero, then periodic KEEPALIVE
   messages MUST NOT be sent.

   A KEEPALIVE message consists of only a message header, and has a
   length of 4 octets.


8.6.  NOTIFICATION Message Format

   A NOTIFICATION message is sent when an error condition is detected.
   The BGMP connection is closed immediately after sending it.

   In addition to the fixed-size BGMP header, the NOTIFICATION message
   contains the following fields:
     0                   1                   2                   3
     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    | Error code    | Error subcode |           Data                |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                               +
    |                                                               |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

         Error Code:

            This 1-octet unsigned integer indicates the type of
            NOTIFICATION.  The following Error Codes have been defined:

               Error Code       Symbolic Name               Reference

                 1         Message Header Error             Section 9.1

                 2         OPEN Message Error               Section 9.2

                 3         UPDATE Message Error             Section 9.3

                 4         Hold Timer Expired               Section 9.5

                 5         Finite State Machine Error       Section 9.6

                 6         Cease                            Section 9.7

         Error subcode:

            This 1-octet unsigned integer provides more specific
            information about the nature of the reported error.  Each





Expires July 2000                                              [Page 29]

Draft                             BGMP                      January 2000


   Error
            Code may have one or more Error Subcodes associated with it.
            If no appropriate Error Subcode is defined, then a zero
            (Unspecific) value is used for the Error Subcode field.

            Message Header Error subcodes:

                                  2  - Bad Message Length.
                                  3  - Bad Message Type.

            OPEN Message Error subcodes:

                                  1  - Unsupported Version Number
                                  4  - Unsupported Optional Parameter
                                  5  - Authentication Failure
                                  6  - Unacceptable Hold Time
                                  7  - Unsupported Capability

            UPDATE Message Error subcodes:

                                  1 - Malformed Attribute List
                                  2 - Unrecognized Well-known Attribute
                                  5 - Attribute Length Error
                                 10 - Invalid Prefix Field
   Data:
      This variable-length field is used to diagnose the reason for the
      NOTIFICATION.  The contents of the Data field depend upon the
      Error Code and Error Subcode.  See Section 9 below for more
      details.

      Note that the length of the Data field can be determined from the
      message Length field by the formula:

         Message Length = 6 + Data Length

      The minimum length of the NOTIFICATION message is 6 octets
      (including message header).


9.  BGMP Error Handling

   This section describes actions to be taken when errors are detected
   while processing BGMP messages.  BGMP Error Handling is similar to
   that of BGP [BGP].






Expires July 2000                                              [Page 30]

Draft                             BGMP                      January 2000


   When any of the conditions described here are detected, a
   NOTIFICATION message with the indicated Error Code, Error Subcode,
   and Data fields is sent, and the BGMP connection is closed.  If no
   Error Subcode is specified, then a zero must be used.

   The phrase "the BGMP connection is closed" means that the transport
   protocol connection has been closed and that all resources for that
   BGMP connection have been deallocated.  The remote peer is removed
   from the target list of all tree state entries.

   Unless specified explicitly, the Data field of the NOTIFICATION
   message that is sent to indicate an error is empty.


9.1.  Message Header error handling

   All errors detected while processing the Message Header are indicated
   by sending the NOTIFICATION message with Error Code Message Header
   Error.  The Error Subcode elaborates on the specific nature of the
   error.

   If the Length field of the message header is less than 4 or greater
   than 4096, or if the Length field of an OPEN message is less  than
   the minimum length of the OPEN message, or if the Length field of an
   UPDATE message is less than the minimum length of the UPDATE message,
   or if the Length field of a KEEPALIVE message is not equal to 4, then
   the Error Subcode is set to Bad Message Length.  The Data field
   contains the erroneous Length field.

   If the Type field of the message header is not recognized, then the
   Error Subcode is set to Bad Message Type.  The Data field contains
   the erroneous Type field.


9.2.  OPEN message error handling

   All errors detected while processing the OPEN message are indicated
   by sending the NOTIFICATION message with Error Code OPEN Message
   Error.  The Error Subcode elaborates on the specific nature of the
   error.

   If the version number contained in the Version field of the received
   OPEN message is not supported, then the Error Subcode is set to
   Unsupported Version Number.  The Data field is a 2-octet unsigned
   integer, which indicates the largest locally supported version number





Expires July 2000                                              [Page 31]

Draft                             BGMP                      January 2000


   less than the version the remote BGMP peer bid (as indicated in the
   received OPEN message).


   If the Hold Time field of the OPEN message is unacceptable, then the
   Error Subcode MUST be set to Unacceptable Hold Time.  An
   implementation MUST reject Hold Time values of one or two seconds.
   An implementation MAY reject any proposed Hold Time.  An
   implementation which accepts a Hold Time MUST use the negotiated
   value for the Hold Time.

   If one of the Optional Parameters in the OPEN message is not
   recognized, then the Error Subcode is set to Unsupported Optional
   Parameters.

   If the OPEN message carries Authentication Information (as an
   Optional Parameter), then the corresponding authentication procedure
   is invoked.  If the authentication procedure (based on Authentication
   Code and Authentication Data) fails, then the Error Subcode is set to
   Authentication Failure.

   If the OPEN message indicates that the peer does not support a
   capability which the receiver requires, the receiver may send a
   NOTIFICATION message to the peer, and terminate peering.  The Error
   Subcode in the message is set to Unsupported Capability.  The Data
   field in the NOTIFICATION message lists the set of capabilities that
   cause the speaker to send the message.  Each such capability is
   encoded the same way as it was encoded in the received OPEN message.


9.3.  UPDATE message error handling

   All errors detected while processing the UPDATE message are indicated
   by sending the NOTIFICATION message with Error Code UPDATE Message
   Error.  The error subcode elaborates on the specific nature of the
   error.


   If any recognized attribute has Attribute Length that conflicts with
   the expected length (based on the attribute type code), then the
   Error Subcode is set to Attribute Length Error.  The Data field
   contains the erroneous attribute (type, length and value).


   If the Encoded-Address-Prefix field in some attribute is





Expires July 2000                                              [Page 32]

Draft                             BGMP                      January 2000


   syntactically incorrect, then the Error Subcode is set to Invalid
   Prefix Field.

   If any other is encountered when processing attributes (such as
   invalid nestings), then the Error Subcode is set to Malformed
   Attribute List, and the problematic attribute is included in the data
   field.


9.4.  NOTIFICATION message error handling

   If a peer sends a NOTIFICATION message, and there is an error in that
   message, there is unfortunately no means of reporting this error via
   a subsequent NOTIFICATION message.  Any such error, such as an
   unrecognized Error Code or Error Subcode, should be noticed, logged
   locally, and brought to the attention of the administration of the
   peer.  The means to do this, however, lies outside the scope of this
   document.


9.5.  Hold Timer Expired error handling

   If a system does not receive successive KEEPALIVE and/or UPDATE
   and/or NOTIFICATION messages within the period specified in the Hold
   Time field of the OPEN message, then the NOTIFICATION message with
   Hold Timer Expired Error Code must be sent and the BGMP connection
   closed.


9.6.  Finite State Machine error handling

   Any error detected by the BGMP Finite State Machine (e.g., receipt of
   an unexpected event) is indicated by sending the NOTIFICATION message
   with Error Code Finite State Machine Error.


9.7.  Cease

   In absence of any fatal errors (that are indicated in this section),
   a BGMP peer may choose at any given time to close its BGMP connection
   by sending the NOTIFICATION message with Error Code Cease.  However,
   the Cease NOTIFICATION message must not be used when a fatal error
   indicated by this section does exist.







Expires July 2000                                              [Page 33]

Draft                             BGMP                      January 2000


9.8.  Connection collision detection

   If a pair of BGMP speakers try simultaneously to establish a TCP
   connection to each other, then two parallel connections between this
   pair of speakers might well be formed.  We refer to this situation as
   connection collision.  Clearly, one of these connections must be
   closed.

   Based on the value of the BGMP Identifier a convention is established
   for detecting which BGMP connection is to be preserved when a
   collision does occur. The convention is to compare the BGMP
   Identifiers of the peers involved in the collision and to retain only
   the connection initiated by the BGMP speaker with the higher-valued
   BGMP Identifier.

   Upon receipt of an OPEN message, the local system must examine all of
   its connections that are in the OpenConfirm state.  A BGMP speaker
   may also examine connections in an OpenSent state if it knows the
   BGMP Identifier of the peer by means outside of the protocol.  If
   among these connections there is a connection to a remote BGMP
   speaker whose BGMP Identifier equals the one in the OPEN message,
   then the local system performs the following collision resolution
   procedure:

   1. The BGMP Identifier of the local system is compared to the BGMP
   Identifier of the remote system (as specified in the OPEN message).

   2. If the value of the local BGMP Identifier is less than the remote
   one, the local system closes BGMP connection that already exists (the
   one that is already in the OpenConfirm state), and accepts BGMP
   connection initiated by the remote system.

   3. Otherwise, the local system closes newly created BGMP connection
   (the one associated with the newly received OPEN message), and
   continues to use the existing one (the one that is already in the
   OpenConfirm state).

   Comparing BGMP Identifiers is done by treating them as (4-octet long)
   unsigned integers.

   A connection collision with an existing BGMP connection that is in
   Established states causes unconditional closing of the newly created
   connection. Note that a connection collision cannot be detected with
   connections that are in Idle, or Connect, or Active states.






Expires July 2000                                              [Page 34]

Draft                             BGMP                      January 2000


   Closing the BGMP connection (that results from the collision
   resolution procedure) is accomplished by sending the NOTIFICATION
   message with the Error Code Cease.


10.  BGMP Version Negotiation

   BGMP speakers may negotiate the version of the protocol by making
   multiple attempts to open a BGMP connection, starting with the
   highest version number each supports.  If an open attempt fails with
   an Error Code OPEN Message Error, and an Error Subcode Unsupported
   Version Number, then the BGMP speaker has available the version
   number it tried, the version number its peer tried, the version
   number passed by its peer in the NOTIFICATION message, and the
   version numbers that it supports.  If the two peers do support one or
   more common versions, then this will allow them to rapidly determine
   the highest common version. In order to support BGMP version
   negotiation, future versions of BGMP must retain the format of the
   OPEN and NOTIFICATION messages.


10.1.  BGMP Capability Negotiation

   When a BGMP speaker sends an OPEN message to its BGMP peer, the
   message may include an Optional Parameter, called Capabilities.  The
   parameter lists the capabilities supported by the speaker.

   A BGMP speaker may use a particular capability when peering with
   another speaker only if both speakers support that capability.  A
   BGMP speaker determines the capabilities supported by its peer by
   examining the list of capabilities present in the Capabilities
   Optional Parameter carried by the OPEN message that the speaker
   receives from the peer.


11.  BGMP Finite State machine

   This section specifies BGMP operation in terms of a Finite State
   Machine (FSM).  Following is a brief summary and overview of BGMP
   operations by state as determined by this FSM.

   Initially BGMP is in the Idle state.

   Idle state:






Expires July 2000                                              [Page 35]

Draft                             BGMP                      January 2000


      In this state BGMP refuses all incoming BGMP connections.  No
      resources are allocated to the peer.  In response to the Start
      event (initiated by either system or operator) the local system
      initializes all BGMP resources, starts the ConnectRetry timer,
      initiates a transport connection to the other BGMP peer, while
      listening for a connection that may be initiated by the remote
      BGMP peer, and changes its state to Connect.  The exact value of
      the ConnectRetry timer is a local matter, but should be
      sufficiently large to allow TCP initialization.

      If a BGMP speaker detects an error, it shuts down the connection
      and changes its state to Idle. Getting out of the Idle state
      requires generation of the Start event.  If such an event is
      generated automatically, then persistent BGMP errors may result in
      persistent flapping of the speaker.  To avoid such a condition it
      is recommended that Start events should not be generated
      immediately for a peer that was previously transitioned to Idle
      due to an error. For a peer that was previously transitioned to
      Idle due to an error, the time between consecutive generation of
      Start events, if such events are generated automatically, shall
      exponentially increase. The value of the initial timer shall be 60
      seconds. The time shall be doubled for each consecutive retry.

      Any other event received in the Idle state is ignored.

   Connect state:

      In this state BGMP is waiting for the transport protocol
      connection to be completed.

      If the transport protocol connection succeeds, the local system
      clears the ConnectRetry timer, completes initialization, sends an
      OPEN message to its peer, and changes its state to OpenSent.  If
      the transport protocol connect fails (e.g., retransmission
      timeout), the local system restarts the ConnectRetry timer,
      continues to listen for a connection that may be initiated by the
      remote BGMP peer, and changes its state to Active state.

      In response to the ConnectRetry timer expired event, the local
      system restarts the ConnectRetry timer, initiates a transport
      connection to the other BGMP peer, continues to listen for a
      connection that may be initiated by the remote BGMP peer, and
      stays in the Connect state.

      The Start event is ignored in the Connect state.





Expires July 2000                                              [Page 36]

Draft                             BGMP                      January 2000


      In response to any other event (initiated by either system or
      operator), the local system releases all BGMP resources associated
      with this connection and changes its state to Idle.

   Active state:

      In this state BGMP is trying to acquire a peer by initiating a
      transport protocol connection.

      If the transport protocol connection succeeds, the local system
      clears the ConnectRetry timer, completes initialization, sends an
      OPEN message to its peer, sets its Hold Timer to a large value,
      and changes its state to OpenSent.  A Hold Timer value of 4
      minutes is suggested.

      In response to the ConnectRetry timer expired event, the local
      system restarts the ConnectRetry timer, initiates a transport
      connection to other BGMP peer, continues to listen for a
      connection that may be initiated by the remote BGMP peer, and
      changes its state to Connect.

      If the local system detects that a remote peer is trying to
      establish BGMP connection to it, and the IP address of the remote
      peer is not an expected one, the local system restarts the
      ConnectRetry timer, rejects the attempted connection, continues to
      listen for a connection that may be initiated by the remote BGMP
      peer, and stays in the Active state.

      The Start event is ignored in the Active state.

      In response to any other event (initiated by either system or
      operator), the local system releases all BGMP resources associated
      with this connection and changes its state to Idle.

   OpenSent state:

      In this state BGMP waits for an OPEN message from its peer.  When
      an OPEN message is received, all fields are checked for
      correctness.  If the BGMP message header checking or OPEN message
      checking detects an error (see Section 6.2), or a connection
      collision (see Section 6.8) the local system sends a NOTIFICATION
      message and changes its state to Idle.

      If there are no errors in the OPEN message, BGMP sends a KEEPALIVE
      message and sets a KeepAlive timer.  The Hold Timer, which was





Expires July 2000                                              [Page 37]

Draft                             BGMP                      January 2000


      originally set to a large value (see above), is replaced with the
      negotiated Hold Time value (see section 4.2).  If the negotiated
      Hold Time value is zero, then the Hold Time timer and KeepAlive
      timers are not started.  If the value of the Autonomous System
      field is the same as the local Autonomous System number, then the
      connection is an "internal" connection; otherwise, it is
      "external".  Finally, the state is changed to OpenConfirm.

      If a disconnect notification is received from the underlying
      transport protocol, the local system closes the BGMP connection,
      restarts the ConnectRetry timer, while continue listening for
      connection that may be initiated by the remote BGMP peer, and goes
      into the Active state.

      If the Hold Timer expires, the local system sends NOTIFICATION
      message with error code Hold Timer Expired and changes its state
      to Idle.

      In response to the Stop event (initiated by either system or
      operator) the local system sends NOTIFICATION message with Error
      Code Cease and changes its state to Idle.

      The Start event is ignored in the OpenSent state.

      In response to any other event the local system sends NOTIFICATION
      message with Error Code Finite State Machine Error and changes its
      state to Idle.

      Whenever BGMP changes its state from OpenSent to Idle, it closes
      the BGMP (and transport-level) connection and releases all
      resources associated with that connection.

   OpenConfirm state:

      In this state BGMP waits for a KEEPALIVE or NOTIFICATION message.

      If the local system receives a KEEPALIVE message, it changes its
      state to Established.

      If the Hold Timer expires before a KEEPALIVE message is received,
      the local system sends NOTIFICATION message with error code Hold
      Timer Expired and changes its state to Idle.

      If the local system receives a NOTIFICATION message, it changes
      its state to Idle.





Expires July 2000                                              [Page 38]

Draft                             BGMP                      January 2000


      If the KeepAlive timer expires, the local system sends a KEEPALIVE
      message and restarts its KeepAlive timer.

      If a disconnect notification is received from the underlying
      transport protocol, the local system changes its state to Idle.

      In response to the Stop event (initiated by either system or
      operator) the local system sends NOTIFICATION message with Error
      Code Cease and changes its state to Idle.

      The Start event is ignored in the OpenConfirm state.

      In response to any other event the local system sends NOTIFICATION
      message with Error Code Finite State Machine Error and changes its
      state to Idle.

      Whenever BGMP changes its state from OpenConfirm to Idle, it
      closes the BGMP (and transport-level) connection and releases all
      resources associated with that connection.

   Established state:

      In the Established state BGMP can exchange UPDATE, NOTIFICATION,
      and KEEPALIVE messages with its peer.

      If the local system receives an UPDATE or KEEPALIVE message, it
      restarts its Hold Timer, if the negotiated Hold Time value is non-
      zero.

      If the local system receives a NOTIFICATION message, it changes
      its state to Idle.

      If the local system receives an UPDATE message and the UPDATE
      message error handling procedure (see Section 6.3) detects an
      error, the local system sends a NOTIFICATION message and changes
      its state to Idle.

      If a disconnect notification is received from the underlying
      transport protocol, the local system changes its state to Idle.

      If the Hold Timer expires, the local system sends a NOTIFICATION
      message with Error Code Hold Timer Expired and changes its state
      to Idle.

      If the KeepAlive timer expires, the local system sends a KEEPALIVE





Expires July 2000                                              [Page 39]

Draft                             BGMP                      January 2000


      message and restarts its KeepAlive timer.

      Each time the local system sends a KEEPALIVE or UPDATE message, it
      restarts its KeepAlive timer, unless the negotiated Hold Time
      value is zero.

      In response to the Stop event (initiated by either system or
      operator), the local system sends a NOTIFICATION message with
      Error Code Cease and changes its state to Idle.

      The Start event is ignored in the Established state.

      In response to any other event, the local system sends
      NOTIFICATION message with Error Code Finite State Machine Error
      and changes its state to Idle.

      Whenever BGMP changes its state from Established to Idle, it
      closes the BGMP (and transport-level) connection, releases all
      resources associated with that connection, and deletes all routes
      derived from that connection.


12.  Security Considerations

Security issues are not discussed in this memo.



13.  Authors' Addresses

     Dave Thaler
     Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
     Microsoft
     One Microsoft Way
     Redmond, WA 98052
     EMail: dthaler@microsoft.com

     Deborah Estrin
     Computer Science Dept./ISI
     University of Southern California
     Los Angeles, CA 90089
     EMail: estrin@usc.edu

     David Meyer
     Cisco Systems





Expires July 2000                                              [Page 40]

Draft                             BGMP                      January 2000


     San Jose, CA
     EMail: dmm@cisco.com


14.  References

[BGP]
     Rekhter, Y., and T. Li, "A Border Gateway Protocol 4 (BGP-4)", RFC
     1771, March 1995.

[MBGP]
     Bates, T., Chandra, R., Katz, D., and Y. Rekhter, "Multiprotocol
     Extensions for BGP-4", RFC 2283, February 1998.

[CBT]
     Ballardie, A. J., "Core Based Trees (CBT) Multicast: Architectural
     Overview and Specification", University College London, November
     1994.

[CBTDM]
     Ballardie, A., "Core Based Tree (CBT) Multicast Border Router
     Specification" draft-ietf-idmr-cbt-br-spec-00.txt, October 1997.

[DVMRP]
     Pusateri, T., "Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol", draft-
     ietf-idmr-dvmrp-v3-05.txt, October 1997.

[DWR]
     Fenner, W., "Domain-Wide Reports", Work in progress.

[INTEROP]
     Thaler, D., "Interoperability Rules for Multicast Routing
     Protocols", draft-thaler-multicast-interop-01.txt, March 1997.

[IPv6MAA]
     R. Hinden, S. Deering, "IPv6 Multicast Address Assignments", draft-
     ietf-ipngwg-multicast-assgn-04.txt, July 1997.

[ISSUES]
     Meyer, D., "Some Issues for an Inter-domain Multicast Routing
     Protocol", draft-ietf-mboned-imrp-some-issues-02.txt, June 1997.

[MASC]
     Estrin, D., Handley, M, and D. Thaler, "Multicast-Address-Set
     advertisement and Claim mechanism", Work in Progress, June 1997.





Expires July 2000                                              [Page 41]

Draft                             BGMP                      January 2000


[MOSPF]
     Moy, J., "Multicast Extensions to OSPF", RFC 1584, Proteon, March
     1994.

[PIMDM]
     Estrin, et al., "Protocol Independent Multicast-Dense Mode (PIM-
     DM): Protocol Specification", draft-ietf-idmr-pim-dm-spec-05.txt,
     May 1997.

[PIMSM]
     Estrin, et al., "Protocol Independent Multicast-Sparse Mode (PIM-
     SM): Protocol Specification", RFC 2117, June 1997.

[REFLECT]
     Bates, T., and R. Chandra, "BGP Route Reflection: An alternative to
     full mesh IBGP", RFC 1966, June 1996.

[RFC1700]
     S. J. Reynolds, J. Postel, "ASSIGNED NUMBERS", RFC 1700, October
     1994.

[RFC1771]
     Y. Rekhter, T. Li, "A Border Gateway Protocol 4 (BGP-4)", RFC 1771,
     March 1995.

[RFC2119]
     S. Bradner, "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
     Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.



15.  Full Copyright Statement

Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2000).  All Rights Reserved.

This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to
others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it or
assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published and
distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any kind,
provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph are included
on all such copies and derivative works.  However, this document itself
may not be modified in any way, such as by removing the copyright notice
or references to the Internet Society or other Internet organizations,
except as needed for the purpose of developing Internet standards in
which case the procedures for copyrights defined in the Internet





Expires July 2000                                              [Page 42]

Draft                             BGMP                      January 2000


languages other than English.

The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not be
revoked by the Internet Society or its successors or assigns.

This document and the information contained herein is provided on an "AS
IS" basis and THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET ENGINEERING TASK
FORCE DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT
LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT
INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR
FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.

Table of Contents


1 Acknowledgements ................................................    2
2 Purpose .........................................................    2
3 Terminology .....................................................    3
4 Protocol Overview ...............................................    5
4.1 Design Rationale ..............................................    6
5 Protocol Details ................................................    8
5.1 Interaction with the EGP ......................................    8
5.2 Multicast Data Packet Processing ..............................    9
5.3 BGMP processing of Join and Prune messages and notifications
     ..............................................................   10
5.3.1 Receiving Joins .............................................   10
5.3.2 Receiving Prune Notifications ...............................   11
5.3.3 Receiving Route Change Notifications ........................   11
5.4 Interaction with M-IGP components .............................   12
5.4.1 Interaction with DVMRP and PIM-DM ...........................   13
5.4.2 Interaction with PIM-SM .....................................   14
5.4.3 Interaction with CBT ........................................   15
5.4.4 Interaction with MOSPF ......................................   16
5.5 Operation over Multi-access Networks ..........................   16
6 Interaction with address allocation .............................   17
6.1 Requirements for BGMP components ..............................   17
7 Transition Strategy .............................................   17
7.1 Preventing transit through the MBone stub .....................   19
8 Message Formats .................................................   20
8.1 Message Header Format .........................................   20
8.2 OPEN Message Format ...........................................   21
8.3 UPDATE Message Format .........................................   24
8.4 Encoding examples .............................................   28
8.5 KEEPALIVE Message Format ......................................   28
8.6 NOTIFICATION Message Format ...................................   29





Expires July 2000                                              [Page 43]

Draft                             BGMP                      January 2000


9 BGMP Error Handling .............................................   30
9.1 Message Header error handling .................................   31
9.2 OPEN message error handling ...................................   31
9.3 UPDATE message error handling .................................   32
9.4 NOTIFICATION message error handling ...........................   33
9.5 Hold Timer Expired error handling .............................   33
9.6 Finite State Machine error handling ...........................   33
9.7 Cease .........................................................   33
9.8 Connection collision detection ................................   34
10 BGMP Version Negotiation .......................................   35
10.1 BGMP Capability Negotiation ..................................   35
11 BGMP Finite State machine ......................................   35
12 Security Considerations ........................................   40
13 Authors' Addresses .............................................   40
14 References .....................................................   41
15 Full Copyright Statement .......................................   42


































Expires July 2000                                              [Page 44]


Html markup produced by rfcmarkup 1.109, available from https://tools.ietf.org/tools/rfcmarkup/