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In: MissingRef
BLISS                                                   A. Johnston, Ed.
Internet-Draft                                                     Avaya
Expires: September 10, 2009                              M. Soroushnejad
                                                       V. Venkataramanan
                                                   Sylantro Systems Corp
                                                           March 9, 2009


  Shared Appearances of a Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Address of
                              Record (AOR)
                 draft-ietf-bliss-shared-appearances-02

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with the
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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2009 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the



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   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents in effect on the date of
   publication of this document (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info).
   Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights
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Abstract

   This document describes the requirements and implementation of a
   group telephony feature commonly known as Bridged Line Appearance
   (BLA) or Multiple Line Appearance (MLA), or Shared Call/Line
   Appearance (SCA).  When implemented using the Session Initiation
   Protocol (SIP), it is referred to as shared appearances of an Address
   of Record (AOR) since SIP does not have the concept of lines.  This
   feature is commonly offered in IP Centrex services and IP-PBX
   offerings and is likely to be implemented on SIP IP telephones and
   SIP feature servers used in a business environment.  This document
   lists requirements and compares implementation options for this
   feature.  Extensions to the SIP dialog event package are proposed.






























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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   2.  Conventions used in this document  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   3.  Usage Scenarios  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     3.1.   Executive/Assistant Arrangement . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     3.2.   Call Group  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     3.3.   Single Line Extension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   4.  Requirements and Implementation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     4.1.   Requirements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     4.2.   Implementation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   5.  Normative Description  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     5.1.   Elements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     5.2.   Shared Appearance Dialog Package Extensions . . . . . . . 11
       5.2.1.  The <appearance> element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
       5.2.2.  The <exclusive> element  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
       5.2.3.  The <joined-dialog> element  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
       5.2.4.  The <replaced-dialog> element  . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     5.3.   Shared Appearance User Agents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     5.4.   Appearance Agent  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
   6.  XML Schema Definition  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
   7.  User Interface Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
     7.1.   Appearance Number Rendering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
       7.1.1.  Single Appearance UAs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
       7.1.2.  Dual Appearance UAs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
       7.1.3.  Shared Appearance UAs with Fixed Appearance Number . . 18
       7.1.4.  Shared Appearance UAs with Variable Appearance
               Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
     7.2.   Call State Rendering  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
   8.  Interop with non-Shared Appearance UAs . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
     8.1.   Appearance Assignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
     8.2.   Appearance Release  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
     8.3.   UAs Supporting Dialog Events but Not Shared Appearance  . 21
   9.  Provisioning Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
   10. Example Message Flows  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
     10.1.  Registration and Subscription . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
     10.2.  Appearance Selection for Incoming Call  . . . . . . . . . 24
     10.3.  Outgoing Call without Appearance Pre-Selection  . . . . . 28
     10.4.  Outgoing Call with Appearance Pre-Selection . . . . . . . 30
     10.5.  Outgoing Call without using an Appearance Number  . . . . 33
     10.6.  Appearance Release  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
     10.7.  Appearance Pickup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
     10.8.  Calls between UAs within the Group  . . . . . . . . . . . 40
     10.9.  Consultation Hold with Appearances  . . . . . . . . . . . 43
     10.10. Joining or Bridging an Appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
     10.11. Appearance Allocation - Loss of Appearance  . . . . . . . 48
     10.12. Appearance Selection Contention Race Condition  . . . . . 49
     10.13. Appearance Agent Subscription to UAs  . . . . . . . . . . 50



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   11. IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
     11.1.  SIP Event Package Parameter: shared . . . . . . . . . . . 52
     11.2.  URN Sub-Namespace Registration: sa-dialog-info  . . . . . 53
     11.3.  XML Schema Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
   12. Appendix A - Incoming Appearance Assignment  . . . . . . . . . 54
   13. Appendix B - Implementation Options Discussion . . . . . . . . 55
     13.1.  Appearance Implementation Options . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
       13.1.1. URI parameter Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
       13.1.2. Dialog Package Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
       13.1.3. Appearance Selections Mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . . 58
     13.2.  Comparison  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
       13.2.1. Comparison of Appearance Selection Methods . . . . . . 62
   14. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
   15. Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
   16. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65



































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1.  Introduction

   The feature and functionality requirements for SIP user agents (UAs)
   supporting business telephony applications differ greatly from basic
   SIP user agents, both in terms of services and end user experience.
   In addition to basic SIP support [RFC3261], many of the services in a
   business environment require the support for SIP extensions such as
   REFER [RFC3515], SUBSCRIBE/NOTIFY primitives [RFC3265], PUBLISH
   [RFC3903], the SIP Replaces [RFC3891], and Join [RFC3911] header
   fields, etc.  Many of the popular business services have been
   documented in the SIP Service Examples [RFC5359].

   This specification details a method for implementing a group
   telephony feature known variously in telephony as Bridged Line
   Appearance (BLA) or Multiple Line Appearances (MLA), one of the more
   popular advanced features expected of SIP IP telephony devices in a
   business environment.  Other names for this feature include Shared
   Call/Line Appearance (SCA), Shared Call Status and Multiple Call
   Appearance (MCA).  A variant of this feature is known as Single Line
   Extension.

   This document looks at how this feature can be implemented using
   standard SIP [RFC3261] in conjunction with SIP events [RFC3265] and
   publication [RFC3903] for exchanging status among user agents, and
   the SIP dialog state event package [RFC4235] to exchange dialog state
   information to achieve the same.  Different approaches will be
   discussed including the use of URI parameters, feature tags, and
   dialog package extensions along with the strengths and weaknesses of
   the various approaches.

   In traditional telephony, the line is physical.  A common scenario in
   telephony is for a number of business telephones to share a single or
   a small number of lines.  The sharing or appearance of these lines
   between a number of phones is what gives this feature its.  A common
   scenario in SIP is for a number of business telephones to share a
   single or a small number of Address of Record (AOR) URIs.  In
   addition, an AOR can have multiple appearances on a single UA in
   terms of the user interface.  The appearance number relates to the
   user interface for the telephone - typically each appearance or an
   AOR has a visual display (lamp that can change color or blink) and a
   button (used to select the appearance).  The telephony concept of
   line appearance is still relevant to SIP due to the user interface
   considerations.  It is important to keep the appearance number
   construct because:

   1.  Human users are used to the concept and will expect it in
       replacement systems (e.g. an overhead page announcement says "Joe
       pickup line 3").



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   2.  It is a useful structure for user interface representation.

   In this document, we will use the term "appearance" rather than "line
   appearance" since SIP does not have the concept of lines.  Note that
   this does not mean that a conventional telephony user interface
   (lamps and buttons) must be used - implementations may use another
   metaphor as long as the appearance number is readily apparent to the
   user.  Each AOR has a separate appearance numbering space.  As a
   result, a given UA user interface may have multiple occurrences of
   the same appearance number, but they will be for different AORs.


2.  Conventions used in this document

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC-2119 [RFC2119] and
   indicate requirement levels for compliant mechanisms.


3.  Usage Scenarios

   The following examples are common applications of the Shared
   Appearances feature and are mentioned here as informative use cases.
   All these example usages can be supported by the Shared Appearances
   feature described in this document.  The differences relate to the
   user interface considerations of the device.

3.1.  Executive/Assistant Arrangement

   The appearances on the executive's UA also appear on the assistant's
   UA.  The assistant may answer incoming calls to the executive and
   then place the call on hold for the executive to pick up.  The
   assistant can always see the state of all calls on the executive's
   UA.  An assistant can make outgoing calls using the identity of
   either the executive or their own.

3.2.  Call Group

   Users with similar business needs or tasks can be assigned to
   specific groups and share the line appearances of each other on each
   others SIP telephony devices.  For example, an IT department staff of
   five might answer a help line which has three appearances on each
   phone in the IT work area.  A call answered on one phone can be put
   on hold and picked up on another phone.  A shout or an IM to another
   staff member can result in them taking over a call on a particular
   appearance.  Another phone can request to be added to an appearance
   resulting in a conference call.



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3.3.  Single Line Extension

   In this scenario, incoming calls are offered to a group of UAs.  When
   one answers, the other UAs are informed.  If another UA in the group
   selects the line (i.e. goes off hook), it is immediately bridged or
   joined in with the call.  This mimics the way residential telephone
   extensions usually operate.


4.  Requirements and Implementation

   The next section details the requirements and discusses the
   implementation of the shared appearances of an AOR feature.

4.1.  Requirements

   The basic requirements of the shared appearance feature can be
   summarized as follows:

   REQ-1 Incoming calls to the AOR must be offered to a group of UAs and
   can be answered by any of them.

   REQ-2 Each UA in the group must be able to learn the call status of
   the others in the group for the purpose of rendering this information
   to the user.

   REQ-3 Calls can be joined (also called bridged or conferenced
   together) or can be picked up (taken) by another UA in the group in a
   secure way.

   REQ-4 The mechanism should require the minimal amount of
   configuration.  UAs registering against the group AOR should be able
   to learn about each other and join the appearance group.

   REQ-5 The mechanism must scale for large numbers of appearances, n,
   and large numbers of UAs, N, without introducing excessive messaging
   traffic.

   REQ-6 Each call or session (incoming or outgoing) must be assigned a
   common "appearance" number from a managed pool administered for the
   AOR group.  Once the session has terminated, the appearance number is
   released back into the pool and can be reused by another incoming or
   outgoing session.

   REQ-7 Each UA in the group must be able to learn the appearance
   status of the the group.

   REQ-8 There must be mechanisms to resolve appearance contention among



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   the UAs in the group.

   REQ-9 The mechanism must allow all UAs receiving an incoming session
   request to select the same appearance number at the time of alerting.

   REQ-10 The mechanism must have a way of reconstructing appearance
   state after an outage that does not result in excessive traffic and
   processing.

   REQ-11 The mechanism must have backwards compatibility such that a UA
   which is unaware of the feature can still register against the group
   AOR and make and receive calls.

   REQ-12 The mechanism must not allow UAs outside the group to select
   or manipulate appearance numbers.

   REQ-13 For privacy reasons, there must be a mechanism so that
   appearance information is not leaked outside the group of UAs. (e.g.
   "So who do you have on line 1?")

   REQ-14 The mechanism must support a way for UAs to request
   exclusivity on a line appearance.  Exclusivity means that the UA
   requesting it desires to have a private conversation with the
   external party and other UAs must not be allowed to be joined or
   taken.  Exclusivity may be requested at the start of an incoming or
   outgoing session or during the session.  An exclusivity request may
   be accepted or rejected by the entity providing the shared appearance
   service.  Therefore, the mechanism must provide a way of
   communicating the result back to the requester UA.

   REQ-15 The mechanism should support a way for a UA to select a
   particular appearance number for outgoing requests prior to sending
   the actual request.  This is often called seizure.

   REQ-16 The mechanism should support a way for a UA to select a
   particular appearance number and also send the request at the same
   time.  This is needed when a ringdown feature is combined with shared
   appearances - in this case, seizing the line is the same thing as
   dialing.

4.2.  Implementation

   Many of the requirements for this service can be met using standard
   SIP mechanisms such as:

   - A SIP Forking Proxy and Registrar/Location Service meets REQ-1.

   - The SIP Dialog Package meets REQ-2.



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   - The SIP Replaces and Join header fields meets REQ-3.

   - The use of a State Agent for the Dialog Package meets REQ-4 and
   REQ-5.

   REQ-6 suggests the need for an entity which manages the appearance
   resource.  Just as conferencing systems commonly have a single point
   of control, known as a focus, a Shared Appearance group has a single
   point of control of the appearance shared resource.  This is defined
   as an Appearance Agent for a group.  While an Appearance Agent can be
   part of a centralized server, it could also be co-resident in a
   member User Agent who has taken on this functionality for a group.
   The Appearance Agent learns the group state either dialog state
   publications from members.

   While the appearance resource could be managed co-operatively by a
   group of UAs without any central control, this is not discussed in
   this draft, but instead is left as a research project for future
   standardization.  It is also possible that the Appearance Agent logic
   could be distributed in all UAs in the group.  For example, rules
   that govern assigning appearance numbers for incoming requests (e.g.
   lowest available appearance number) and rules for contention handling
   (e.g. when two UAs request the use of the same appearance number,
   hash dialog identifiers and compare with the lowest hash winning)
   would need to be defined and implemented.

   The next section discusses normal SIP operations used to implement
   parts of the shared appearance feature.

   1.  A UA is configured with the AOR of a shared appearance group.  It
       registers against the AOR, then attempts a dialog state
       subscription to the AOR.  If the subscription fails, loops back
       to itself, or returns a 482 Loop Detected, it knows there is no
       State Agent, and hence no Appearance Agent and this feature is
       not implemented.
   2.  If the subscription receives a 200 OK, the UA knows there is a
       State Agent and that the feature is implemented.  The UA then
       follows the steps in this list.
   3.  Information learned about the dialog state of other UAs in the
       group is rendered to the user.
   4.  Incoming calls are forked to all UAs in the group, and any may
       answer.  UAs receive a notification from the Appearance Agent
       indicating the appearance number to use in rendering the incoming
       call.  The UA will also receive a notification if the call is
       answered by another UA in the group so this information can be
       rendered to the user.





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   5.  For outgoing calls, the operation depends on the user input.  If
       the user selects a particular appearance number for the call, the
       UA publishes this information and waits for a 200 OK before
       sending the INVITE.
   6.  For outgoing calls, if the user does not select a particular
       appearance or does not care, the INVITE can be sent immediately,
       and the appearance number learned as the call progresses from a
       notification from the Appearance Agent.
   7.  For outgoing calls, if the user does not wish to select an
       appearance (such as during a consultation call), the UA also
       publishes this prior to sending the INVITE.
   8.  Established calls within the group may be joined (bridged) or
       taken (picked) by another UA.  Information in the dialog package
       notifications can be used to construct Join or Replaces header
       fields.  Since the same appearance number is used for these types
       of operations, this information is published prior to sending the
       INVITE Join or INVITE Replaces.
   9.  In some cases, the Appearance Agent may not have full access to
       the complete dialog state of some or all of the UAs in the group.
       If this is the case, the Appearance Agent will subscribe to the
       dialog state of individual UAs in the group to obtain this
       information.  Normal notifications will be sent every time the
       dialog state changes, including calls placed, answered, placed on
       and off hold, and hangups.


5.  Normative Description

   This section normatively describes the shared appearance feature
   extensions.  For a discussion of various approaches to implement this
   feature, see Appendix B.

5.1.  Elements

   A complete system to implement this feature consists of:

   1.  User Agents that support publications, subscriptions, and
       notifications for the SIP dialog event package, and the shared
       appearance dialog package extensions and behavior.
   2.  An Appearance Agent consisting of a State Agent for the dialog
       event package that implements an Event State Compositor (ESC) and
       the shared appearance dialog package extensions and behavior.
       The Appearance Agent also has logic for assigning and releasing
       appearance numbers, and resolving appearance number contention.
   3.  A forking proxy server that can communicate with the State Agent
   4.  A registrar that supports the registration event package.

   The behavior of these elements is described normatively in the



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   following sections after the definitions of the dialog package
   extensions.

5.2.  Shared Appearance Dialog Package Extensions

   This specification defines four new elements as extensions to the SIP
   Dialog Event package [RFC3265].  The schema is defined in Section 6.
   The elements are <appearance>, <exclusive>, <joined-dialog>, and
   <replaced-dialog> which are sub-elements of the <dialog> element.

5.2.1.  The <appearance> element

   The <appearance> element is used convey the appearance number.  The
   appearance number is a non-negative integer.  When sent in a
   notification in state Trying to the Appearance Agent, it is used to
   request an appearance number.  When sent by the Appearance Agent, it
   indicates that the appearance number is associated with a dialog.

5.2.2.  The <exclusive> element

   The <exclusive> element is a boolean used to indicate whether the UA
   will accept Join or Replaces INVITEs for this dialog.  For example,
   some shared appearance systems only allow call pickup when the call
   is on hold.  In this case, the <exclusive> element should be used to
   explicitly indicate this, rather than implicitly by the hold state.

   It is important to note that this element is a hint.  Although a UA
   may set exclusive to true, the UA must still be ready to reject an
   INVITE Join relating to this dialog.  Also, an INVITE Replaces might
   be sent to the non-shared appearance UA to take the call.  For this
   reason, a UA MAY also not report full dialog identifier information
   to the Appearance Agent for calls set to exclusive.  If these dialog
   identifiers have already been shared with the Appearance Agent, the
   UA could send an INVITE Replaces to change them and then not report
   the new ones to the Appearance Agent.

   If the proxy knows which dialogs are marked exclusive, the proxy MAY
   enforce this exclusivity by rejecting INVITE Join and INVITE Replaces
   requests containing those dialog identifiers with a 403 Forbidden
   response.

5.2.3.  The <joined-dialog> element

   The <joined-dialog> element is used convey dialog identifiers of any
   other dialogs which are joined (mixed or bridged) with the dialog.
   Only the UA which is performing the actual media mixing should
   include this element in notifications to the Appearance Agent.  Note
   that this element should still be used even when the Join header



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   field was not used to join the dialogs.  For example, two separate
   dialogs on a UA could be joined without any SIP call control
   operations.  Joined dialogs will share the same appearance number.

5.2.4.  The <replaced-dialog> element

   The <replaced-dialog> element is used convey dialog identifiers of
   any other dialogs which will be or have been replaced with this
   dialog.  For example, a UA in the group picking up a call on another
   UA by sending an INVITE with Replaces would include this element for
   the replacing dialog.  Replaced dialogs will share the same
   appearance number.

5.3.  Shared Appearance User Agents

   User Agents that support the Shared Appearance feature MUST support
   the dialog state package [RFC4235] with the shared appearance
   extensions and the 'shared' dialog event package parameter defined in
   this draft.

   User Agents MUST support the dialog package extensions in Section 5.2
   along with SUBSCRIBE and NOTIFY [RFC3265] and PUBLISH [RFC3903].
   SUBSCRIBE, NOTIFY, and PUBLISH requests for the dialog event package
   SHOULD include the 'shared' Event header field parameter.

      The presence of the 'shared' Event package parameter tells the
      Appearance Agent that this UA supports this specification.

   Upon initialization and at regular intervals, the UA SHOULD subscribe
   to the dialog event package of the AOR.  If the SUBSCRIBE request
   fails, loops back to itself, or returns a 482 Loop Detected, then no
   Appearance Agent is present and this feature is not active for this
   AOR.  The UA MAY periodically retry the subscription to see if
   conditions have changed.

   User Agents SHOULD support sending and receiving an INVITE with a
   Replaces [RFC3891] header to allow the Call Pickup operation.  User
   Agents MUST support sending an INVITE with a Join [RFC3911] header
   field to initiate bridging.

      Note that the Join operation can be implemented outside the UA,
      for example, in a B2BUA.  This is why UAs must support sending
      Join header fields even if they do not necessarily support
      receiving them.

   When publishing or notifying dialog package information, a UA MUST
   include all dialog identification available at the time of
   publication, with the exception that a UA may omit information if it



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   wishes to prevent other UAs from joining or picking up a call.
   Dialog identification includes local and remote target URIs, call-id,
   to-tag, and from-tag.  When calls are placed on hold, the
   "+sip.rendering=no" feature tag MUST be included in dialog package
   notifications.

      The accurate rendering of the idle/active/alerting/hold state of
      other UAs in the group is an important part of the shared
      appearance feature.

   A UA MUST send dialog package PUBLISH requests in the following
   situations:

   1.  When the user selects a particular appearance number for an
       outgoing call (i.e. seizing an appearance or going "off-hook"
       with an appearance, if the UA's user interface uses this
       metaphor).
   2.  When the user has requested that an appearance number not be used
       for an outgoing call (i.e. during a consultation call or for a
       call not considered part of the shared appearance group).
   3.  When the user has selected to join (or bridge) an existing call.
   4.  When the user has selected to replace (or take) an existing call.

   In all these cases, the INVITE SHOULD NOT be sent until the 200 OK
   response to the PUBLISH has been received, except for an emergency
   call, when a UA MUST never wait for a confirmed seizure before
   sending an INVITE.  Instead, the emergency call MUST proceed
   regardless of the status of PUBLISH transaction.

   Note that when a UA selects an appearance prior to establishment of a
   dialog (#1 and #2 in above list), not all dialog information will be
   available.  In particular, when a UA publishes an attempt to select
   an appearance prior to knowing the destination URI, minimal or no
   dialog information may be available.  For example, in some cases,
   only the local target URI for the call will be known and no dialog
   information.  If no dialog identification information is present in
   the initial PUBLISH, the UA MUST PUBLISH again after receiving the
   100 Trying response.

      The first publication will cause the Appearance Agent to reserve
      the appearance number for this UA.  If the publication does not
      have any dialog identifiers (e.g.  Call-ID, or local tag) the
      Appearance Agent cannot assign the appearance number to a
      particular dialog of the UA until the second publication which
      will contain some dialog identifiers.

   This publication state SHOULD be refreshed during the early dialog
   state or the Appearance Agent may reassign the appearance number.



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   Once the dialog has transitioned to the confirmed state, no
   publication refreshes are necessary.

   UAs SHOULD render information about other appearances to the user.
   This includes the state (idle, active, busy, joined, etc.).  UAs can
   tell that a set of dialogs are joined (bridged or mixed) together by
   the presence of one or more <joined-dialog> elements containing other
   SIP dialog identifiers.  A UA SHOULD render the appearance number to
   the user or display appearance status information to the user in a
   way that preserves the appearance order.

   A UA that does not need to select a particular appearance number (or
   doesn't care) would just send an INVITE as normal to place an
   outbound call.

   A UA wanting to place a call but not have an appearance number
   assigned publishes before sending the INVITE without an 'appearance'
   element but with the 'shared' event package parameter present.  If
   the Appearance Agent policy does not allow calls without an assigned
   appearance number, a 409 Conflict response will be received, and the
   UA will republish either selecting an appearance number or without
   one, in which case the Appearance Agent will assign one.

   When an INVITE is generated to attempt to bridge or take a call (i.e.
   contains Join or Replaces with a dialog identifier of another dialog
   in the shared appearance group), the appearance number of the joined
   or replaced call SHOULD be used.  The publication MUST contain the
   appearance number of the dialog to be joined or replaced and the
   dialog identifier in the 'joined-dialog' or 'replaced-dialog'
   elements.

      Note that this information is provided to the Appearance Agent so
      that it can provide proper appearance assignment behavior.  With
      Join, the goal is to prevent the Appearance Agent from generating
      a 409 Conflict response due to the reuse of an appearance number.
      For Replaces, the goal is to prevent a race condition where the
      BYE could cause the appearance number to be released when it
      should stay with the replacing dialog.

   A UA SHOULD register against the AOR only if it is likely the UA will
   be answering incoming calls.  If the UA is mainly going to be
   monitoring the status of the shared appearance group calls and
   picking or joining calls, the UA SHOULD only subscribe to the AOR and
   not register against the AOR.

      All subscribed UAs will received NOTIFYs of Trying state for
      incoming INVITEs.




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5.4.  Appearance Agent

   An Appearance Agent defined in this specification MUST implement a
   dialog package state agent for the UAs registered against the AOR.
   The Appearance Agent MUST support the appearance dialog package
   extensions defined in Section 5.2.  The Appearance Agent MUST support
   publications and subscriptions for this event package.

   The Appearance Agent MUST have a way of discovering the state of all
   dialogs associated with the AOR.  If this information is not
   available from a call stateful proxy or B2BUA, the Appearance Agent
   MAY use the registration event package [RFC3680] to learn of UAs
   associated with the AOR and MAY subscribe to their dialog event
   state.  As a result, the registrar MUST support the registration
   event package.  The Appearance Agent SHOULD send dialog event state
   notifications whenever the following events happen to UAs in the AOR
   group:

   1.  A call is received, placed, answered, or terminated.
   2.  A call is placed on or off hold.
   3.  A call is joined or replaced.
   4.  An appearance number is reserved or released.

   The Appearance Agent MUST allocate an appearance number for all
   incoming calls and send immediate notifications to the UAs subscribed
   to the shared group AOR.  The Appearance Agent MUST be able to
   communicate with the forking proxy to learn about incoming calls and
   also to pass the appearance number to the proxy to insert in the
   Alert-Info header field.

   An Appearance Agent SHOULD assign an appearance number to an outgoing
   INVITE if a PUBLISH has not been received selecting a particular
   appearance number.

      Note that if the appearance group has non-shared appearance UAs,
      the Appearance Agent will still allocate appearance numbers for
      INVITEs sent by those UAs.

   An Appearance Agent receiving a PUBLISH with an appearance number
   checks to make sure the publication is valid.  An appearance number
   can be assigned to only one dialog unless there is a 'joined-dialog'
   or 'replaced-dialog' element indicating that the dialog will be/has
   been replaced or joined.  A 409 Conflict response is returned if the
   chosen appearance number is invalid, and an immediate NOTIFY should
   be sent to the UA containing full dialog event state.

   An Appearance Agent receiving a PUBLISH without an appearance number
   but with the 'shared' event package parameter present interprets this



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   as a request by the UA to not assign an appearance number.  If the
   Appearance Agent policy does not allow this, a 409 Conflict response
   is returned.  If policy does allow this, a 200 OK response is
   returned and no appearance number is allocated.  In general, the
   dialog state will not be shared with the other UAs in the group.

   The Appearance Agent allocates an appearance number to a dialog from
   the time the appearance is requested via a PUBLISH or from the
   receipt of an INVITE, to the time when the last dialog associated
   with the appearance is terminted, including all dialogs which are
   joined or replaced.  During the early dialog state, the Appearance
   Agent controls the rate of dialog state publication using the Expires
   header field in 200 OK responses to PUBLISH requests.  An interval of
   3 minutes is RECOMMENDED.  After the dialog associated with the
   publication has been confirmed, the expiration of the publication
   state has no effect on the appearance allocation.  If the publication
   contains no dialog state information, the Appearance Agent MUST
   reserve the appearance number for the UA but can not assign the
   appearance to any particular dialog of the UA.  When the publication
   state is updated with any dialog information, the appearance number
   can then be assigned to the particular dialog.

   During dynamic situations, such as during a call pickup or join
   action, the Appearance Agent MAY choose to implement rate limiting to
   reduce the amount of notification traffic.  For example, an
   Appearance Agent may choose not to generate immediate NOTIFYs upon
   receipt of PUBLISHes.  Instead, a single NOTIFY can convey the
   effects of a number of PUBLISHes, thus reducing the NOTIFY traffic
   within the group.

   If an INVITE is sent and no appearance number is available, the proxy
   MAY reject the INVITE with a 403 Forbidden response code.


6.  XML Schema Definition

   The 'appearance', 'joined-dialog', 'replaced-dialog', and 'exclusive'
   elements are defined within a new XML namespace URI.  This namespace
   is "urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:sa-dialog-info".  The schema for these
   elements is:











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   <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
     <xs:schema
       targetNamespace="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:sa-dialog-info-info"
       xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:sa-dialog-info"
       xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
       elementFormDefault="qualified">


      <xs:element name="joined-dialog" minOccurs="0"
                                            maxOccurs="unbounded">
             <xs:complexType>
               <xs:attribute name="call-id" type="xs:string"
                 use="mandatory"/>
               <xs:attribute name="local-tag" type="xs:string"
                 use="mandatory"/>
               <xs:attribute name="remote-tag" type="xs:string"
                 use="mandatory"/>
              </xs:complexType>
           </xs:element>

      <xs:element name="replaced-dialog" minOccurs="0"
                                             maxOccurs="unbounded">
             <xs:complexType>
               <xs:attribute name="call-id" type="xs:string"
                 use="mandatory"/>
               <xs:attribute name="local-tag" type="xs:string"
                 use="mandatory"/>
               <xs:attribute name="remote-tag" type="xs:string"
                 use="mandatory"/>
              </xs:complexType>
           </xs:element>

           <xs:element name="appearance" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1">
             <xs:simpleType type="xs:integer">
             </xs:simpleType>
           </xs:element>

           <xs:element name="exclusive" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1">
            <xs:simpleType type="xs:boolean">
            </xs:simpleType>
           </xs:element>
     </xs:schema>









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7.  User Interface Considerations

   The "appearance number" allocated to a call is an important concept
   that enables calls to be handled by multiple devices with
   heterogeneous user interfaces in a manner that still allows users to
   see a consistent model.  Careful treatment of the appearance number
   is essential to meet the expectations of the users.  Also, rendering
   the correct call/appearance state to users is also important.

7.1.  Appearance Number Rendering

   Since different UAs have different user interface capabilities, it is
   usual to find that some UAs have restrictions that others do not.
   Perfect interoperability across all UAs is clearly not possible, but
   by careful design, interoperability up to the limits of each UA can
   be achieved.

   The following guidelines suggest how the appearance number should be
   handled in three typical user interface implementations.

7.1.1.  Single Appearance UAs

   These devices are constrained by only having the capability of
   displaying status indications for a single appearance.  Despite this,
   it is important that devices of this type do not ignore the
   appearance number.  The UA should still send messages annotated with
   an appropriate appearance number (i.e. "0").  Any call indications
   for appearances other than for number "0" should be rejected with a
   486 or 480 response.

7.1.2.  Dual Appearance UAs

   These devices are essentially single appearance phones that implement
   call waiting.  They have a very simple user interface that allows
   them to switch between two appearances (toggle or flash hook) and
   perhaps audible tones to indicate the status of the other appearance.

7.1.3.  Shared Appearance UAs with Fixed Appearance Number

   This UA is the typical 'business-class' hard-phone.  A number of
   appearances are typically configured statically and labeled on
   buttons, and calls may be managed using these configured appearances.
   Any calls outside this range should be ignored, and not mapped to a
   free button.  Users of these devices often select specific appearance
   numbers for outgoing calls, and the UA will need to select the
   appearance number and wait for confirmation from the Appearance Agent
   before proceeding with calls.




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7.1.4.  Shared Appearance UAs with Variable Appearance Number

   This UA is typically a soft-phone or graphically rich user interface
   hard-phone.  In these cases, even the idea of an appearance index may
   seem unnecessary.  However, for these phones to be able to interwork
   successfully with other phone types, it is important that they still
   use the appearance index to govern the order of appearance of calls
   in progress.  No specific guidance on presentation is given except
   that the order should be consistent.  Thought should also be given to
   how an appearance number that has no call associated with it should
   be rendered to the user.  These devices can typically make calls
   without waiting for confirmation from the Appearance Agent on the
   appearance number.

   The problems faced by each style of user interface are readily seen
   in this example:

   1.  A call arrives at the shared appearance group, and is assigned an
       appearance number of 0.  All UAs should be able to render to the
       user the arrival of this call.
   2.  Another call arrives at the shared appearance group, and is
       assigned an appearance number of 1.  The single appearance UA
       should not present this call to the user.  Other user agents
       should have no problems presenting this call distinctly from the
       first call.
   3.  The first call clears, releasing appearance number "0".  The
       single appearance UA should now be indicating no calls since it
       is unable to manage calls other than on the first appearance.
       Both shared appearance UAs should clearly show that appearance
       number 0 is now free, but that there is still a call on
       appearance number 1.
   4.  A third call arrives, and is assigned the appearance number of 0.
       All UAs should be able to render the arrival of this new call to
       the user.  Multiple appearnce UAs should continue to indicate the
       presence of the second call, and should also ensure that the
       presentation order is related to the appearance number and not
       the order of call arrival.

7.2.  Call State Rendering

   UAs that implement the shared appearance feature typically have a
   user interface that provides the state of other appearances in the
   group.  As dialog state NOTIFYs from the Appearance Agent are
   processed, this information can be rendered.  Even the simplest user
   interface typically has three states: idle, active, and hold.  The
   idle state, usually indicated by lamp off, is indicated for an
   appearance when the appearance number is not associated with any
   dialogs, as reported by the Appearance Agent.  The active state,



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   usually indicated by a lamp on, is indicated by an appearance number
   being associated with at least one dialog, as reported by the
   Appearance Agent.  The hold state, often indicated by a blinking
   lamp, means the call state from the perspective of the UA in the
   shared appearance group is hold.  This can be determined by the
   presence of the "sip+rendering=no" feature tag [RFC3840] with the
   local target URI.  Note that the hold state of the remote target URI
   is not relevant to this display.  For joined dialogs, the state is
   rendered as hold only if all local target URIs are indicated with the
   "sip+rendering=no" feature tag.


8.  Interop with non-Shared Appearance UAs

   EDITOR'S NOTE: This section needs to be reviewed in light of recent
   changes in the specification.

   It is desirable to allow a basic UA that does not directly support
   shared appearance to be part of a shared appearance group.  To
   support this the Proxy must collaborate with the Appearance Agent.
   This is not required in the basic shared appearance architecture,
   consequently shared appearance interop with non-shared appearance UAs
   will not be available in all shared appearance deployments.

   First, a UA which does not support dialog events or the shared
   appearance feature will be discussed.  Then, a UA which does support
   dialog events but not the shared appearance feature will be
   discussed.

8.1.  Appearance Assignment

   A UA that has no knowledge of appearances must have appearance
   numbers assigned by the Appearance Agent for both incoming and
   outgoing calls.  If the non-shared appearance UA does not support
   Join or Replaces, all dialogs could be marked "exclusive" to indicate
   that these options are not available.

8.2.  Appearance Release

   In all cases the Appearance Agent must be aware of dialog lifetime to
   release appearances back into the group.

   It is also desirable that any dialog state changes (such as hold,
   etc) be made available to other UAs in the group through the Dialog
   Event Package.  If the Appearance Agent includes a proxy which
   Record-Routes for dialogs from the non-shared appearance aware UA,
   the Appearance Agent will know about the state of dialogs including
   hold, etc.  This information could be determined from inspection of



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   INVITE and re-INVITE messages and added to the dialog information
   conveyed to other UAs.

8.3.  UAs Supporting Dialog Events but Not Shared Appearance

   Interoperability with UAs which support dialog events but not the
   shared appearance feature is more straightforward.  As before, all
   appearance number assignment must be done by the Appearance Agent.
   This type of UA will be detected by the Appearance Agent by the
   absence of the ma event parameter in SUBSCRIBE or PUBLISH messages.
   The Appearance Agent can include appearance information in NOTIFYs -
   this UA will simply ignore this extra information.  This type of UA
   will ignore appearance number limitations and may attempt to Join or
   Replace dialogs marked exclusive.  As a result, the Proxy or UAs may
   need to reject such requests.

   The need for close cooperation between the Proxy and the Appearance
   Agent is not needed as the Appearance Agent will learn about all
   dialogs from the UA itself.


9.  Provisioning Considerations

   Previous versions of this draft required the URI of the Appearance
   Agent be provisioned in each UA in the group.  Since publication is
   now done to the group URI, this provisioning is no longer necessary.

   UAs can automatically discover if this feature is active for an AOR
   by sending a SUBSCRIBE to the AOR, so no provisioning for this is
   needed.

   If the Appearance Agent needs to subscribe to the dialog state of the
   UAs, then the Appearance Agent and the UAs need to be provisioned
   with credentials so the UAs can authenticate the Appearance Agent.


10.  Example Message Flows

   The next section shows call flow and message examples.  The flows and
   descriptions are non-normative.

10.1.  Registration and Subscription

   Bob and Alice are in an appearance group identified by Alice's AOR.
   Bob REGISTERs using contact sip:bob@ua2.example.com.  Alice REGISTERs
   with contact sip:alice@ua1.example.com.

   User Agents for Alice and Bob subscribe to the dialog package for the



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   appearance AOR and publish dialog state to the Appearance Agent.
   Message exchanges between the Registrar, Appearance Agent, Alice, and
   Bob are shown below.  The call flow examples below do not show the
   authentication of subscriptions, publications, and notifications.  It
   should be noted that for security purposes, all subscriptions must be
   authorized before the same is accepted.

   Also note that registrations and subscriptions must all be refreshed
   by Alice at intervals determined by the expiration intervals returned
   by the Registrar or Appearance Agent.

   Registrar     Appearance Agent          Alice
   |                    |                    |
   |                    |                    |
   |<--------------------------- REGISTER F1<|
   |                    |                    |
   |>F2 200 OK ----------------------------->|
   |                    |                    |
   |                    |<----- SUBSCRIBE F3<|
   |                    |                    |
   |                    |>F4 202 Accepted -->|
   |                    |                    |
   |                    |>F5 NOTIFY -------->|
   |                    |                    |
   |                    |<-------- 200 OK F6<|
   |                    |                    |

   Figure 1.

   F1-F2: Alice registers AOR with
          contact: <sip:alice@ua1.example.com>

   F1 Alice ----> Registrar

   REGISTER sip:registrar.example.com SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ua1.example.com;branch=z9hG4bK527b54da8ACC7B09
   From: <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=CDF9A668-909E2BDD
   To: <sip:alice@example.com>
   CSeq: 2 REGISTER
   Call-ID: d3281184-518783de-cc23d6bb
   Contact: <sip:alice@ua1.example.com>
   Max-Forwards: 70
   Expires: 3600
   Content-Length: 0


   F2 Registrar ----> Alice




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   SIP/2.0 200 OK
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ua1.example.com;branch=z9hG4bKfbf176ef7F1D5FA2
   CSeq: 2 REGISTER
   Call-ID: d3281184-518783de-cc23d6bb
   From: <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=CDF9A668-909E2BDD
   To: <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=1664573879820199
   Contact:  <sip:alice@ua1.example.com>
   Expires:  3600
   Content-Length: 0


   F3 to F6: Alice also subscribes to the events associated with the
   Appearance AOR. Appearance Agent also notifies Alice of the status.

   F3 Alice ----> Appearance Agent

   SUBSCRIBE sip:alice@example.com SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ua1.example.com;branch=z9hG4bKf10fac97E7A76D6A
   From: <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=925A3CAD-CEBB276E
   To: <sip:alice@example.com>
   CSeq: 91 SUBSCRIBE
   Call-ID: ef4704d9-bb68aa0b-474c9d94
   Contact: <sip:alice@ua1.example.com>
   Event: dialog;shared
   Accept: application/dialog-info+xml
   Max-Forwards: 70
   Expires: 3700
   Content-Length: 0


   F4 Appearance Agent ----> Alice

   SIP/2.0 202 Accepted
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ua1.example.com;branch=z9hG4bKf10fac97E7A76D6A
   CSeq: 91 SUBSCRIBE
   Call-ID: ef4704d9-bb68aa0b-474c9d94
   From: <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=925A3CAD-CEBB276E
   To: <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=1636248422222257
   Allow-Events: dialog
   Expires: 3700
   Contact: <sip:appearanceagent.example.com>
   Content-Length: 0


   F5 Appearance Agent ----> Alice

   NOTIFY sip:alice@ua1.example.com SIP/2.0
   From: <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=1636248422222257



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   To: <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=925A3CAD-CEBB276E
   Call-ID: ef4704d9-bb68aa0b-474c9d94
   CSeq: 232 NOTIFY
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP appearanceagent.example.com;branch=z9hG4bK1846
   Max-Forwards: 70
   Content-Type: application/dialog-info+xml
   Event: dialog;shared
   Subscription-State: active
   Contact: <appearanceagent.example.com>
   Content-Length: ...

   <?xml version="1.0"?>
   <dialog-info xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:dialog-info"
                version="40"
                state="full"
                entity="sip:alice@example.com">
   </dialog-info>


   F6 Alice ----> Appearance Agent

   SIP/2.0 200 OK
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP appearanceagent.example.com;branch=z9hG4bK1846
   From: <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=1636248422222257
   To: <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=925A3CAD-CEBB276E
   CSeq: 232 NOTIFY
   Call-ID: ef4704d9-bb68aa0b-474c9d94
   Contact: <sip:alice@ua1.example.com>
   Event: dialog;shared
   Content-Length: 0


10.2.  Appearance Selection for Incoming Call

   In the call flow below Bob and Alice are in an appearance group.
   Carol places a call to the appearance group AOR.  The Appearance
   Agent sends NOTIFYs to Alice and Bob telling them what appearance the
   call is using.  Both Alice and Bob's devices are alerted of the
   incoming call.  Bob answers the call.

   Note that it is possible that both Alice and Bob answer the call and
   send 200 OK responses to Carol.  It is up to Carol to resolve this
   situation.  Typically, Carol will send ACKs to both 200 OKs but send
   a BYE to terminate one of the dialogs.  As a result, either Alice or
   Bob will receive the BYE and publish that their dialog is over.
   However, if Carol answers both Alice and Bob and keeps both dialogs
   active, then the Appearance Agent will need to resolve the situation
   by moving either Alice or Bob's dialog to a different appearance.



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   All NOTIFY messages in the call flow below carry dialog events and
   only dialog states are mentioned for simplicity.  For brevity, the
   details of some messages are not shown below.

              Forking     Appearance
   Carol      Proxy         Agent         Alice      Bob
   |            |             |             |         |
   |>F1 INVITE >|             |             |         |
   |            |< - - - - - >|             |         |
   |            |             |>F2 NOTIFY ----------->|
   |            |             |             |         |
   |            |             |<F3 200 OK -----------<|
   |            |             |             |         |
   |            |             |>F4 NOTIFY ->|         |
   |            |             |             |         |
   |            |             |<-200 OK F5-<|         |
   |<- 100 F6 -<|             |             |         |
   |            |>F7 INVITE (appearance=1) ---------->|
   |            |             |             |         |
   |            |>F8 INVITE (appearance=1) >|         |
   |            |             |             |         |
   |            |<-------------------- Ringing 180 F9<|
   |< 180 F10 -<|             |             |         |
   |            |<--------- 180 Ringing F11<|         |
   |< 180 F12 -<|             |             |         |
   |            |             |             |         |
   |            |<------------------------ 200 OK F13<|
   |< 200 F14 -<|             |             |         |
   |            |             |             |         |
   |            |>F15 CANCEL -------------->|         |
   |            |             |             |         |
   |            |<-------------- 200 OK F16<|         |
   |            |             |             |         |
   |            |<Request Cancelled 487 F17<|         |
   |            |             |             |         |
   |            |>F18 ACK ----------------->|         |
   |>F19 ACK -->|             |             |         |
   |            |>F20 ACK --------------------------->|
   |            |             |             |         |
   |<=============Both way RTP established===========>|
   |            |             |             |         |
   |            |             |>F21 NOTIFY >|         |
   |            |             |             |         |
   |            |             |<- 200 F22 -<|         |
   |            |             |             |         |
   |            |             |>F23 NOTIFY ---------->|
   |            |             |             |         |
   |            |             |<F24 200 OK ----------<|



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   |            |             |                       |

   Figure 2.


   F4 Appearance Agent ----> Alice

   NOTIFY sip:alice@ua1.example.com SIP/2.0
   From: <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=151702541050937
   To: <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=18433323-C3D237CE
   Call-ID: 1e361d2f-a9f51109-bafe31d4
   CSeq: 12 NOTIFY
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP appearanceagent.example.com;branch=z9hG4bK1403
   Max-Forwards: 70
   Content-Type: application/dialog-info+xml
   Event: dialog;shared
   Subscription-State: active
   Contact: <appearanceagent.example.com>
   Content-Length: ...

   <?xml version="1.0"?>
   <dialog-info xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:dialog-info"
                xmlns:sa="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:sa-dialog-info"
                version="13"
                state="partial"
                entity="sip:alice@example.com">
      <dialog id="2a7294823093f5274e3fd2ec54a2d76c"
           call-id="14-1541707345"
           remote-tag="44BAD75D-E3128D42"
           direction="recipient">
         <sa:appearance>1</appearance>
         <state>trying</state>
         <remote>
           <identity>sip:carol@ua.example.com</identity>
         </remote>
      </dialog>
   </dialog-info>


   F7 Proxy ----> Bob

   INVITE sip:alice@ua3.example.com SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ua3.example.com;branch=z9hG4bK4324ea
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP proxy.example.com;branch=z9hG4bK38432ji
   From: <sip:carol@example.com>;tag=44BAD75D-E3128D42
   To: <sip:alice@example.com>
   CSeq: 106 INVITE
   Call-ID: 14-1541707345



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   Contact: <sip:carol@ua3.example.com>
   Max-Forwards: 69
   Alert-Info: <file://ring.pcm>;alert=normal;appearance=1
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: 223

   v=0
   o=- 1102980499 1102980499 IN IP4 ua3.example.com
   s=
   c=IN IP4 ua3.example.com
   t=0 0
   a=sendrecv
   m=audio 2238 RTP/AVP 0 8 101
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
   a=rtpmap:8 PCMA/8000
   a=rtpmap:101 telephone-event/8000


   F21 Appearance Agent ----> Alice

   NOTIFY sip:alice@ua1.example.com SIP/2.0
   From: <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=151702541050937
   To: <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=18433323-C3D237CE
   Call-ID: 1e361d2f-a9f51109-bafe31d4
   CSeq: 12 NOTIFY
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP appearanceagent.example.com;branch=z9hG4bK1403
   Max-Forwards: 70
   Content-Type: application/dialog-info+xml
   Event: dialog;shared
   Subscription-State: active
   Contact: <appearanceagent.example.com>
   Content-Length: ...

   <?xml version="1.0"?>
   <dialog-info xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:dialog-info"
                xmlns:sa="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:sa-dialog-info"
                version="13"
                state="partial"
                entity="sip:alice@example.com">
      <dialog id="2a7294823093f5274e3fd2ec54a2d76c"
           call-id="14-1541707345"
           remote-tag="44BAD75D-E3128D42"
           local-tag="7349dsfjkFD03s"
           direction="recipient">
         <sa:appearance>1</appearance>
         <state>confirmed</state>
         <remote>
           <identity>sip:carol@ua.example.com</identity>



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         </remote>
      </dialog>
   </dialog-info>


10.3.  Outgoing Call without Appearance Pre-Selection

   In this scenario, Bob's UA places a call without first selecting an
   appearance number.  After Bob sends the INVITE, the appearance
   assigns an appearance number for it and notifies both Alice and Bob.

   Carol        Proxy           Alice     Appearance Agent         Bob
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |<------------------------------------- INVITE F1<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |>F2 100 Trying --------------------------------->|
   |<-- INVITE F3<|               |              |                  |
   |              |               |<-- NOTIFY F4<|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |>F5 200 OK -->|                  |
   |              |               |              |------- NOTIFY F6>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<F7 200 OK ------<|
   |>F8 180  ---->|               |              |                  |
   |              |>F9 180 Ringing -------------------------------->|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |<- NOTIFY F10<|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |>F11 200 OK ->|                  |
   |              |               |              |------ NOTIFY F12>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<F13 200 OK -----<|
   |>F14 200 OK ->|               |              |                  |
   |              |>F15 200 OK ------------------------------------>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |<--------------------------------------- ACK F16<|
   |<---- ACK F17<|               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |<================= Both way RTP established ===================>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |<- NOTIFY F18<|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |>F19 200 OK ->|                  |
   |              |               |              |------ NOTIFY F20>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<F21 200 OK -----<|
   |              |               |              |                  |



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   Figure 3.


   F1 Bob ----> Proxy

   INVITE sip:carol@example.com SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ua2.example.com;branch=z9hG4bK98c87c52123A08BF
   From: <sip:bob@example.com>;tag=15A3DE7C-9283203B
   To: <sip:carol@example.com>
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   Call-ID: f3b3cbd0-a2c5775e-5df9f8d5
   Contact: <sip:bob@ua2.example.com>
   Max-Forwards: 70
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: 223

   v=0
   o=- 1102980499 1102980499 IN IP4 ua2.example.com
   s=IP SIP UA
   c=IN IP4 ua2.example.com
   t=0 0
   a=sendrecv
   m=audio 2236 RTP/AVP 0 8 101
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
   a=rtpmap:8 PCMA/8000
   a=rtpmap:101 telephone-event/8000


   F6 Appearance Agent ----> Bob

   NOTIFY sip:bob@ua1.example.com SIP/2.0
   From: <sip:bob@example.com>;tag=497585728578386
   To: <sip:bob@example.com>;tag=633618CF-B9C2EDA4
   Call-ID: a7d559db-d6d7dcad-311c9e3a
   CSeq: 7 NOTIFY
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP appearanceagent.example.com
    ;branch=z9hG4bK1711759878512309
   Max-Forwards: 70
   Content-Type: application/dialog-info+xml
   Event: dialog;shared
   Subscription-State: active
   Contact: <sip:appearanceagent.example.com>
   Content-Length: ...

   <?xml version="1.0"?>
   <dialog-info xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:dialog-info"
                xmlns:sa="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:sa-dialog-info"
                version="27"



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                state="partial"
                entity="sip:alice@example.com">
       <dialog id="fa02538339df3ce597f9e3e3699e28fc"
            call-id="f3b3cbd0-a2c5775e-5df9f8d5"
            local-tag="15A3DE7C-9283203B"    direction="initiator">
               <sa:appearance>0</appearance>
               <sa:exclusive>false</exclusive>
                  <state>trying</state>
                   <local>
                       <target uri="sip:bob@ua2.example.com">
                       </target>
                      </local>
           </dialog>
   </dialog-info>

10.4.  Outgoing Call with Appearance Pre-Selection

   In this scenario, Bob's UA sends out a dialog event PUBLISH with
   state (trying) selecting an appearance number before sending the
   INVITE.  After receiving the 200 OK from the Appearance Agent
   confirming the appearance number, Bob's UA sends the INVITE to Carol
   and establishes a session.  For brevity, details of some of the
   messages are not included in the message flows.




























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   Carol        Proxy           Alice     Appearance Agent         Bob
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<----- PUBLISH F1<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |>F2 200 OK ------>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |<-- NOTIFY F3<|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |>F4 200 OK -->|                  |
   |              |               |              |------- NOTIFY F5>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<F6 200 OK ------<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |<------------------------------------- INVITE F7<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |>F8 100 Trying --------------------------------->|
   |<-- INVITE F9<|               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<---- PUBLISH F10<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |>F11 200 OK ----->|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |>F12 180  --->|               |              |                  |
   |              |>F13 180 Ringing ------------------------------->|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |<- NOTIFY F14<|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |>F15 200 OK ->|                  |
   |              |               |              |------ NOTIFY F16>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<F17 200 OK -----<|
   |>F18 200 OK ->|               |              |                  |
   |              |>F19 200 OK ------------------------------------>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |<--------------------------------------- ACK F20<|
   |<---- ACK F21<|               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |<================= Both way RTP established ===================>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |<- NOTIFY F22<|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |>F23 200 OK ->|                  |
   |              |               |              |------ NOTIFY F24>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<F25 200 OK -----<|
   |              |               |              |                  |

   Figure 4.




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   F1 to F4: Bob uses the shared appearance appearance of Alice on his
   UA to place an outgoing call (e.g., he goes off-hook).  Before
   sending the outgoing INVITE request, Bob publishes to the state agent
   that Alice line appearance is in (trying) state.  The Appearance
   Agent notifies Alice of the same event by forwarding the NOTIFY
   payload provided by Bob after appropriately changing the dialog id
   field in the XML payload to a unique value towards each of the
   entities it is forwarding to (Alice in this example).  Note the
   shortened expiration interval in F2 of 60 seconds.  As long as Bob is
   using the appearance number, he must refresh the publication every 60
   seconds or loose the appearance.


   F1 Bob ----> Appearance Agent

   PUBLISH sip:alice@example.com SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ua2.example.com;branch=z9hG4bK61314d6446383E79
   From: <sip:bob@example.com>;tag=44150CC6-A7B7919D
   To: <sip:alice@example.com>
   CSeq: 7 PUBLISH
   Call-ID: 44fwF144-F12893K38424
   Contact: <sip:bob@ua2.example.com>
   Event: dialog;shared
   Max-Forwards: 70
   Content-Type: application/dialog-info+xml
   Content-Length: ...

   <?xml version="1.0"?>
   <dialog-info xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:dialog-info"
                xmlns:sa="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:sa-dialog-info"
                version="6"
                state="partial"
                entity="sip:alice@example.com">
       <dialog id="id3d4f9c83" direction="initiator">
           <sa:appearance>0</appearance>
           <sa:exclusive>false</exclusive>
           <state>trying</state>
           <local>
               <target uri="sip:bob@ua2.example.com">
               </target>
           </local>
       </dialog>
   </dialog-info>


   F10 Bob ----> Appearance Agent

   PUBLISH sip:alice@example.com SIP/2.0



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   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ua2.example.com;branch=z9hG4bK6d644638E7
   From: <sip:bob@example.com>;tag=0CCf6-A7FdsB79D
   To: <sip:alice@example.com>
   CSeq: 437 PUBLISH
   Call-ID: fwF14d4-F1FFF2F2893K38424
   Contact: <sip:bob@ua2.example.com>
   Event: dialog;shared
   Max-Forwards: 70
   Content-Type: application/dialog-info+xml
   Content-Length: ...

   <?xml version="1.0"?>
   <dialog-info xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:dialog-info"
                xmlns:sa="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:sa-dialog-info"
                version="6"
                state="partial"
                entity="sip:alice@example.com">
       <dialog id="id3d4f9c83"
            call-id="f3b3cbd0-a2c5775e-5df9f8d5"
            local-tag="15A3DE7C-9283203B"
                                            direction="initiator">
           <sa:appearance>0</appearance>
           <sa:exclusive>false</exclusive>
           <state>trying</state>
           <local>
               <target uri="sip:bob@ua2.example.com">
               </target>
           </local>
       </dialog>
   </dialog-info>

10.5.  Outgoing Call without using an Appearance Number

   In this scenario, Bob's UA sends out a dialog event PUBLISH with
   state (trying) indicating that he does not want to utilize an
   appearance number for this dialog.  The PUBLISH does not have an
   appearance element but does have the 'shared' dialog event parameter.
   As a result, the Appearance Agent knows the UA does not wish to use
   an appearance number for this call.  If the Appearance Agent does not
   wish to allow this, it would reject the PUBLISH with a 409 Conflict
   response and the UA would know to re-PUBLISH selecting an appearance
   number.

   Carol        Proxy           Alice     Appearance Agent         Bob
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<----- PUBLISH F1<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |>F2 200 OK ------>|



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   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |<-- NOTIFY F3<|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |>F4 200 OK -->|                  |
   |              |               |              |------- NOTIFY F5>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<F6 200 OK ------<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |<------------------------------------- INVITE F7<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |>F8 100 Trying --------------------------------->|
   |<-- INVITE F9<|               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<---- PUBLISH F10<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |>F11 200 OK ----->|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |>F12 180  --->|               |              |                  |
   |              |>F13 180 Ringing ------------------------------->|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |<- NOTIFY F14<|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |>F15 200 OK ->|                  |
   |              |               |              |------ NOTIFY F16>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<F17 200 OK -----<|
   |>F18 200 OK ->|               |              |                  |
   |              |>F19 200 OK ------------------------------------>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |<--------------------------------------- ACK F20<|
   |<---- ACK F21<|               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |<================= Both way RTP established ===================>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |<- NOTIFY F22<|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |>F23 200 OK ->|                  |
   |              |               |              |------ NOTIFY F24>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<F25 200 OK -----<|
   |              |               |              |                  |

   Figure 5.


   F1 Bob ----> Appearance Agent

   PUBLISH sip:appearanceagent.example.com SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ua2.example.com;branch=z9hG4bK61314d6446383E79



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   From: <sip:bob@example.com>;tag=4415df82k39sf
   To: <sip:alice@example.com>
   CSeq: 7 PUBLISH
   Call-ID: 44fwF144-F12893K38424
   Contact: <sip:bob@ua2.example.com>
   Event: dialog;shared
   Max-Forwards: 70
   Content-Type: application/dialog-info+xml
   Content-Length: ...

   <?xml version="1.0"?>
   <dialog-info xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:dialog-info"
                xmlns:sa="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:sa-dialog-info"
                version="6"
                state="partial"
                entity="sip:alice@example.com">
       <dialog id="id3d4f9c83" direction="initiator">
           <sa:exclusive>false</exclusive>
           <state>trying</state>
           <local>
               <target uri="sip:bob@ua2.example.com">
               </target>
           </local>
       </dialog>
   </dialog-info>

10.6.  Appearance Release

   Bob and Carol are in a dialog, created in one of the previous two
   call flows.  Carol sends a BYE to Bob to terminate the dialog.  Bob
   publishes the termination of the dialog and the Appearance Agent de-
   allocates the appearance number used.

   Carol        Proxy           Alice     Appearance Agent         Bob
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |<================= Both way RTP established ===================>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |>F22 BYE ---->|               |              |                  |
   |              |>F23 BYE --------------------------------------->|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |<------------------------------------ 200 OK F24<|
   |<--200 OK F25<|               |              |                  |
   |              |               |<- NOTIFY F26<|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |>F27 200 OK ->|                  |
   |              |               |              |------ NOTIFY F28>|
   |              |               |              |                  |



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   |              |               |              |<F29 200 OK -----<|

   Figure 6.

   F28 Appearance Agent ----> Bob

   NOTIFY sip:bob@ua1.example.com SIP/2.0
   From: <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=497585728578386
   To: <sip:bob@example.com>
   Call-ID: a7d559db-d6d7dcad-311c9e3a
   CSeq: 7 NOTIFY
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP appearanceagent.example.com
    ;branch=z9hG4bK759878512309
   Max-Forwards: 70
   Content-Type: application/dialog-info+xml
   Event: dialog;shared
   Subscription-State: active
   Contact: <sip:appearanceagent.example.com>
   Content-Length: ...

   <?xml version="1.0"?>
   <dialog-info xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:dialog-info"
                xmlns:sa="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:sa-dialog-info"
                version="27"
                state="partial"
                entity="sip:alice@example.com">
       <dialog id="fa02538339df3ce597f9e3e3699e28fc"
            call-id="f3b3cbd0-a2c5775e-5df9f8d5"
            local-tag="15A3DE7C-9283203B"
            remote-tag="65a98f7c-1dd2-11b2-88c6-b0316298f7c"
                                            direction="initiator">
               <sa:appearance>0</appearance>
               <sa:exclusive>false</exclusive>
                  <state>terminated</state>
                   <local>
                       <target uri="sip:bob@ua2.example.com">
                       </target>
                      </local>
           </dialog>
   </dialog-info>


10.7.  Appearance Pickup

   In this scenario, Bob has an established dialog with Carol created
   using the call flows of Figure 1 or Figure 2.  Bob then places Carol
   on hold.  Alice receives a notification of this and renders this on
   Alice's UI.  Alice subsequently picks up the held call and has a



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   established session with Carol.  Finally, Carol hangs up.

   Carol        Proxy           Alice     Appearance Agent         Bob
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |<================= Both way RTP established ===================>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |<------------------------------(hold) INVITE F22<|
   |<- INVITE F23<|               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |>F24 200 OK ->|               |              |                  |
   |              |>F25 200 OK ------------------------------------>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |<--------------------------------------- ACK F26<|
   |<---- ACK F27<|               |              |                  |
   |              |               |<- NOTIFY F28<|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |>F29 200 OK ->|                  |
   |              |               |              |>F30 NOTIFY ----->|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<----- 200 OK F31<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |  Alice decides to pick up the call              |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |>F32 PUBLISH->|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |<- 200 OK F33<|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |<- NOTIFY F34<|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |>F35 200 OK ->|                  |
   |              |               |              |>F36 NOTIFY ----->|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<----- 200 OK F37<|
   |              |<-- INVITE F38<|              |                  |
   |<- INVITE F39<|(w/ Replaces)  |              |                  |
   |( w/ Replaces)|               |              |                  |
   |>F40 200 OK ->|               |              |                  |
   |              |>F41 200 OK -->|              |                  |
   |              |               |              |>F42 NOTIFY ----->|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<----- 200 OK F43<|
   |              |               |<- NOTIFY F44<|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |>F45 200 OK ->|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |<----- ACK F46<|              |                  |
   |<---- ACK F47<|               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |



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   |<= Both way RTP established =>|              |                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |>F48 BYE ---->|               |              |                  |
   |              |>F49 BYE --------------------------------------->|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |<------------------------------------ OK 200 F50<|
   |<- 200 OK F51<|               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |<- NOTIFY F52<|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |>F53 200 OK ->|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |>F54 NOTIFY ----->|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<----- 200 OK F55<|

   Figure 7.


   F28 Appearance ----> Alice

   NOTIFY sip:alice@ua1.example.com SIP/2.0
   From: <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=151702541050937
   To: <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=18433323-C3D237CE
   Call-ID: 1e361d2f-a9f51109-bafe31d4
   CSeq: 12 NOTIFY
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP appearanceagent.example.com
    ;branch=z9hG4bK1403
   Max-Forwards: 70
   Content-Type: application/dialog-info+xml
   Event: dialog;shared
   Subscription-State: active
   Contact: <sip:appearanceagent.example.com>
   Content-Length: ...

   <?xml version="1.0"?>
   <dialog-info xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:dialog-info"
                xmlns:sa="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:sa-dialog-info"
                version="10"
                state="partial"
                entity="sip:alice@example.com:5060">
      <dialog id="id3d4f9c83"
            call-id="f3b3cbd0-a2c5775e-5df9f8d5"
            local-tag="15A3DE7C-9283203B"
            remote-tag="65a98f7c-1dd2-11b2-88c6-b0316298f7c"
            direction="initiator">
            <sa:appearance>0</appearance>
            <sa:exclusive>false</exclusive>



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            <state>active</state>
            <local>
              <target uri="sip:bob@ua2.example.com">
                <param pname="+sip.rendering" pval="no"/>
              </target>
            </local>
            <remote>
              <identity>sip:carol@example.com</identity>
              <target uri="sip:carol@example.com" />
            </remote>
       </dialog>
   </dialog-info>


   F32 Alice ----> Appearance Agent

   PUBLISH sip:alice@example.com SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ua2.example.com;branch=z9hG4bKa5d6cf61F5FBC05A
   From: <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=44150CC6-A7B7919D
   To: <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=428765950880801
   CSeq: 11 PUBLISH
   Call-ID: 87837Fkw87asfds
   Contact: <sip:alice@ua2.example.com>
   Event: dialog;shared
   Max-Forwards: 70
   Content-Type: application/dialog-info+xml
   Content-Length: ...

   <?xml version="1.0"?>
   <dialog-info xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:dialog-info"
                xmlns:sa="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:sa-dialog-info"
                version="10"
                state="partial"
                entity="sip:alice@example.com:5060">
      <dialog id="id3d4f9c83"
          call-id="3d57cd17-47deb849-dca8b6c6"
                         local-tag="8C4183CB-BCEAB710" >
            <sa:appearance>0</appearance>
            <sa:exclusive>false</exclusive>
            <sa:replaced-dialog
              call-id="f3b3cbd0-a2c5775e-5df9f8d5"
              from-tag="15A3DE7C-9283203B"
              to-tag="65a98f7c-1dd2-11b2-88c6-b03162323164+65a98f7c" />
            <state>trying</state>
            <local>
              <target uri="sip:alice@ua1.example.com">
                <param pname="+sip.rendering" pval="yes"/>
              </target>



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            </local>
            <remote>
                <target uri="sip:carol@example.com" />
            </remote>
       </dialog>
   </dialog-info>


   F38 Alice ----> Proxy

   INVITE sip:carol@example.com SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ua1.example.com;branch=z9hG4bK4ea695b5B376A60C
   From: <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=8C4183CB-BCEAB710
   To: <sip:carol@example.com:5075>
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   Call-ID: 3d57cd17-47deb849-dca8b6c6
   Contact: <sip:alice@ua1.example.com>
   <all-one-line>
   Replaces: f3b3cbd0-a2c5775e-5df9f8d5;to-tag=65a98f7c
   -1dd2-11b2-88c6-b03162323164+65a98f7c;from-tag=15A3DE7C-9283203B
   </all-one-line>
   Max-Forwards: 70
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: 223

   v=0
   o=- 1102980497 1102980497 IN IP4 ua1.example.com
   s=IP SIP UA
   c=IN IP4 ua1.example.com
   t=0 0
   a=sendrecv
   m=audio 2238 RTP/AVP 0 8 101
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
   a=rtpmap:8 PCMA/8000
   a=rtpmap:101 telephone-event/8000



10.8.  Calls between UAs within the Group

   In this scenario, Bob calls Alice who is also in the Appearance
   group.

   Carol        Proxy           Alice     Appearance Agent         Bob
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |<--------------------  INVITE (to Alice's UA) F1<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |<- - - - - - ->|              |                  |



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   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |<-- NOTIFY F2<|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |>F3 200 OK -->|                  |
   |              |               |              |>F4 NOTIFY ------>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<------ 200 OK F5<|
   |              |>F6 INVITE --->|              |                  |
   |              | (appearance=1)|              |                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |<------ 180 F7<|              |                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |>F8 180  --------------------------------------->|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |<-- NOTIFY F9<|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |>F10 200 OK ->|                  |
   |              |               |              |>F11 NOTIFY ----->|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<----- 200 OK F12<|
   |              |<-- 200 OK F13<|              |                  |
   |              |               |<- NOTIFY F14<|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |>F15 200 OK ->|                  |
   |              |               |              |>F16 NOTIFY ----->|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<----- 200 OK F17<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |>F18 200 OK ------------------------------------>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |<--------------------------------------- ACK F19<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |>F20 ACK ----->|              |                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |<======= RTP established =======>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |<- NOTIFY F21<|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |>F22 200 OK ->|                  |
   |              |               |              |>F23 NOTIFY ----->|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<----- 200 OK F24<|
   |              |               |              |                  |

   Figure 8.


   F16 Appearance Agent ----> Bob



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   NOTIFY sip:bob@ua1.example.com SIP/2.0
   From: <sip:bob@example.com>;tag=497585728578386
   To: <sip:bob@example.com>;tag=633618CF-B9C2EDA4
   Call-ID: a7d559db-d6d7dcad-311c9e3a
   CSeq: 7 NOTIFY
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP appearanceagent.example.com
    ;branch=z9hG4bK1711759878512309
   Max-Forwards: 70
   Content-Type: application/dialog-info+xml
   Event: dialog;shared
   Subscription-State: active
   Contact: <sip:appearanceagent.example.com>
   Content-Length: ...

   <?xml version="1.0"?>
   <dialog-info xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:dialog-info"
                xmlns:sa="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:sa-dialog-info"
                version="10"
                state="partial"
                entity="sip:alice@example.com:5060">
      <dialog id="3xdsd4f9c83"
              call-id="b3cbd0-ad2c5775e-5df9f8d5"
                 local-tag="34322kdfr234f"
              remote-tag="3153DE7C-928203B"
              direction="initiator">
            <sa:exclusive>true</exclusive>
            <sa:appearance>1</appearance>
            <state>connected</state>
            <local>
              <target uri="sip:bob@ua2.example.com">
              </target>
            </local>
            <remote>
              <identity>sip:alice@example.com</identity>
              <target uri="sip:alice@ua1.example.com" />
            </remote>
       </dialog>

       <dialog id="4839589"
              call-id="b3cbd0-ad2c5775e-5df9f8d5"
              local-tag="3153DE7C-928203B"
                 remote-tag="34322kdfr234f"
              direction="responder">
            <sa:exclusive>true</exclusive>
            <sa:appearance>1</appearance>
            <state>connected</state>
            <local>
               <target uri="sip:alice@ua1.example.com" />



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            </local>
            <remote>
              <identity>sip:alice@example.com</identity>
              <target uri="sip:bob@ua2.example.com" />
            </remote>
       </dialog>


   </dialog-info>

10.9.  Consultation Hold with Appearances

   In this scenario, Bob has a call with Carol.  Bob makes a
   consultation call to Alice by putting Carol on hold and calling
   Alice.  Bob chooses not to have an appearance number for the call to
   Alice since he is treating it as part of the call to Carol.  He
   indicates this in his PUBLISH F32 which is sent before the INVITE to
   Alice to ensure no appearance number is assigned by the Appearance
   Agent.  Finally, Bob hangs up with Alice and resumes the call with
   Carol.  Note that the Appearance Agent does not generate
   notifications on the dialog state of the consultation call.

   Note that if Carol hangs up while Bob is consulting with Alice, Bob
   can decide if he wants to reuse the appearance number used with Carol
   for the call with Alice.  If not, Bob publishes the termination of
   the dialog with Carol and the Appearance Agent will re-allocate the
   appearance.  If he wants to keep the appearance, Bob will publish the
   termination of the dialog with Carol and also publish the appearance
   with the dialog with Alice.  This will result in Bob keeping the
   appearance number until he reports the dialog with Alice terminated.

   Carol        Proxy           Alice     Appearance Agent         Bob
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |<================= Both way RTP established ===================>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |<------------------------------(hold) INVITE F22<|
   |<- INVITE F23<|               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |>F24 200 OK ->|               |              |                  |
   |              |>F25 200 OK ------------------------------------>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |<--------------------------------------- ACK F26<|
   |<---- ACK F27<|               |              |                  |
   |              |               |<- NOTIFY F28<|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |>F29 200 OK ->|                  |
   |              |               |              |>F30 NOTIFY ----->|
   |              |               |              |                  |



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   |              |               |              |<----- 200 OK F31<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |  Bob makes a consultation call to Alice         |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<---- PUBLISH F32<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |>F33 200 OK ----->|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |<------------------------------------ INVITE F34<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |>F35 INVITE -->|              |                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |<-- 200 OK F36<|              |                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |>F37 200 OK ------------------------------------>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |<--------------------------------------- ACK F38<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |>F39 ACK ----->|              |                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |<======= RTP established =======>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |            Bob hangs up with Alice              |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |<--------------------------------------- BYE F40<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |>F41 BYE ----->|              |                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |<-- 200 OK F42<|              |                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |>F43 200 OK ------------------------------------>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |<----------------------------(unhold) INVITE F44<|
   |<- INVITE F45<|               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |>F46 200 OK ->|               |              |                  |
   |              |>F47 200 OK ------------------------------------>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |<--------------------------------------- ACK F48<|
   |<---- ACK F49<|               |              |                  |
   |              |               |<- NOTIFY F50<|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |>F51 200 OK ->|                  |
   |              |               |              |>F52 NOTIFY ----->|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<----- 200 OK F53<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |<================= Both way RTP established ===================>|



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   |              |               |              |                  |

   Figure 9.

   F32 Bob ----> Appearance Agent

   PUBLISH sip:alice@example.com SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ua2.example.com;branch=z9hG4bKa5d6cf61F5FBC05A
   From: <sip:bob@example.com>;tag=44150CC6-A7B7919D
   To: <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=428765950880801
   CSeq: 11 PUBLISH
   Call-ID: 44fwF144-F12893K38424
   Contact: <sip:bob@ua2.example.com>
   Event: dialog;shared
   Max-Forwards: 70
   Content-Type: application/dialog-info+xml
   Content-Length: ...

   <?xml version="1.0"?>
   <dialog-info xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:dialog-info"
                xmlns:sa="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:sa-dialog-info"
                version="10"
                state="partial"
                entity="sip:alice@example.com:5060">
      <dialog id="id3d4f9c83"
              call-id="b3cbd0-ad2c5775e-5df9f8d5"
              local-tag="3153DE7C-928203B"
              direction="initiator">
            <sa:exclusive>true</exclusive>
            <state>trying</state>
            <local>
              <target uri="sip:bob@ua2.example.com">
              </target>
            </local>
            <remote>
              <identity>sip:alice@example.com</identity>
              <target uri="sip:alice@example.com" />
            </remote>
       </dialog>
   </dialog-info>

10.10.  Joining or Bridging an Appearance

   In this call flow, a call answered by Bob is joined by Alice or
   "bridged".  The Join header field is used by Alice to request this
   bridging.  If Bob did not support media mixing, Bob could obtain
   conferencing resources as described in [RFC4579].




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   Carol    Forking Proxy Appearance Agent  Alice      Bob
     |            |             |             |         |
     |<=============Both way RTP established===========>|
     |            |             |             |         |
     |            |             |< PUBLISH F22|         |
     |            |             |             |         |
     |            |             |>F23 200 OK >|         |
     |            |             |             |         |
     |            |<---- INVITE (w/ Join) F24<|         |
     |            |             |             |         |
     |            |>F25 INVITE (w/Join)---------------->|
     |            |             |             |         |
     |            |<---- OK 200 Contact:Bob;isfocus F26<|
     |            |             |             |         |
     |            |             |>F27 NOTIFY >|         |
     |            |             |             |         |
     |            |             |< 200 OK F28<|         |
     |            |             |             |         |
     |            |             |>F29 NOTIFY ---------->|
     |            |             |             |         |
     |            |             |<F30 200 OK ----------<|
     |            |             |             |         |
     |            |>F31 200 OK Contact:B----->|         |
     |            |             |             |         |
     |            |<----------------- ACK F32<|         |
     |            |             |             |         |
     |            |>ACK F33---------------------------->|
     |            |             |             |         |
     |            |<-----INVITE Contact:Bob;isfocus F34<|
     |<-INVITE F35|             |             |         |
     |            |             |             |         |
     |>F26 200 -->|             |             |         |
     |            |>F37 200 OK ------------------------>|
     |            |             |             |         |
     |            |<--------------------------- ACK F38<|
     |<--- ACK F39|             |             |         |
     |            |             |             |<==RTP==>|
     |<=============Both way RTP established===========>|
     |            |             |             |         |
     |            |             |>F40 NOTIFY >|         |
     |            |             |             |         |
     |            |             |< 200 OK F41<|         |
     |            |             |             |         |
     |            |             |>F42 NOTIFY ---------->|
     |            |             |             |         |
     |            |             |<F43 200 OK ----------<|
     |            |             |             |         |




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   Figure 10.

   F22 Alice ----> Appearance Agent

   PUBLISH sip:alice@example.com SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ua2.example.com;branch=z9hG4bKa5d6cf61F5FBC05A
   From: <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=44150CC6-A7B7919D
   To: <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=428765950880801
   CSeq: 11 PUBLISH
   Call-ID: 87837Fkw87asfds
   Contact: <sip:alice@ua2.example.com>
   Event: dialog;shared
   Max-Forwards: 70
   Content-Type: application/dialog-info+xml
   Content-Length: ...

   <?xml version="1.0"?>
   <dialog-info xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:dialog-info"
                xmlns:sa="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:sa-dialog-info"
                version="10"
                state="partial"
                entity="sip:alice@example.com:5060">
      <dialog id="id3d4f9c83"
          call-id="dc95da63-60db1abd-d5a74b48"
          local-tag="605AD957-1F6305C2" >
            <sa:appearance>0</appearance>
            <sa:exclusive>false</exclusive>
            <sa:joined-dialog
              call-id="14-1541707345"
              from-tag="44BAD75D-E3128D42"
              to-tag="d3b06488-1dd1-11b2-88c5-b03162323164+d3e48f4c" />
            <state>trying</state>
            <local>
              <target uri="sip:alice@ua1.example.com">
              </target>
            </local>
            <remote>
                <target uri="sip:bob@example.com" />
            </remote>
       </dialog>
   </dialog-info>


   F24 Alice ----> Proxy

   INVITE sip:bob@ua.example.com SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ua1.example.com;branch=z9hG4bKcc9d727c2C29BE31
   From: <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=605AD957-1F6305C2



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   To: <sip:bob@ua.example.com>
   CSeq: 2 INVITE
   Call-ID: dc95da63-60db1abd-d5a74b48
   Contact: <sip:alice@ua1.example.com>
   <all-one-line>
   Join: 14-1541707345;to-tag=d3b06488-1dd1-11b2-88c5
   -b03162323164+d3e48f4c;from-tag=44BAD75D-E3128D42
   </all-one-line>
   Max-Forwards: 70
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: 223

   v=0
   o=- 1103061265 1103061265 IN IP4 ua1.example.com
   s=IP SIP UA
   c=IN IP4 ua1.example.com
   t=0 0
   a=sendrecv
   m=audio 2236 RTP/AVP 0 8 101
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
   a=rtpmap:8 PCMA/8000
   a=rtpmap:101 telephone-event/8000

10.11.  Appearance Allocation - Loss of Appearance

   Bob reserves an appearance with a PUBLISH, sends an INVITE to Carol,
   then becomes unreachable.  When he fails to refresh his publication
   to the appearance agent, the Appearance Agent declares the dialog
   terminated and frees up the appearance using NOTIFYs R24 and F26.
   After retransmitting the NOTIFY F26 to Bob, the subscription is
   terminated.




















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   Carol        Proxy           Alice     Appearance Agent         Bob
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<----- PUBLISH F1<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |>F2 200 OK ------>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |<-- NOTIFY F3<|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |>F4 200 OK -->|                  |
   |              |               |              |------- NOTIFY F5>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<F6 200 OK ------<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |<------------------------------------- INVITE F7<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |>F8 100 Trying --------------------------------->|
   |<-- INVITE F9<|               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<---- PUBLISH F10<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |>F11 200 OK ----->|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |>F12 180  --->|               |              |                  |
   |              |>F13 180 Ringing ------------------------------->|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              | Bob goes offline
   |              |               |              |
   |              |               | Appearance selection times out
   |              |               |              |
   |              |               |              |
   |              |               |<- NOTIFY F14<|
   |              |               |              |
   |              |               |>F15 200 OK ->|
   |              |               |              |------ NOTIFY F16>
   |              |               |              |
   |              |               |   NOTIFY is retransmitted

   Figure 11.


10.12.  Appearance Selection Contention Race Condition

   Bob and Alice both try to reserve appearance 2 by publishing at the
   same time.  The Appearance Agent allocates the appearance to Bob by
   sending a 200 OK and denies it to Alice by sending a 409 Conflict.
   After the NOTIFY F24, Alice learns that Bob is using appearance 2.
   Alice republishes for appearance 3 which is accepted.





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   Carol        Proxy           Alice     Appearance Agent         Bob
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<----- PUBLISH F1<|
   |              |               |              |        (appearance=2)
   |              |               |>F2 PUBLISH ->|                  |
   |              |               |     (appearance=2)              |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |>F3 200 OK ------>|
   |              |               |<---- F4 409 <|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |<-- NOTIFY F5<|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |>F6 200 OK -->|                  |
   |              |               |              |------- NOTIFY F7>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<F8 200 OK ------<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |<------------------------------------- INVITE F9<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |>F10 100 Trying -------------------------------->|
   |<- INVITE F11<|               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<---- PUBLISH F12<|
   |              |               |              |        (appearance=2)
   |              |               |              |>F13 200 OK ----->|
   |              |               |>F14 PUBLISH->|                  |
   |              |               |     (appearance=3)              |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |<--- F15 200 <|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |<- NOTIFY F16<|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
                  |               |>F17 200 OK ->|                  |
   Dave           |               |              |------ NOTIFY F18>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<F19 200 OK -----<|
   |              |<-- INVITE F20<|              |                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |>F21 100 ----->|              |                  |
   |<- INVITE F22<|               |              |                  |

   Figure 12.


10.13.  Appearance Agent Subscription to UAs

   In this scenario, the Appearance Agent does not have any way of
   knowing Bob's dialog state information, except through Bob. This
   could be because the Appearance Agent is not part of a B2BUA, or



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   perhaps Bob is remotely registering.  When Bob registers, the
   Appearance Agent receives a registration event package notification
   from the registrar.  The Appearance Agent then SUBSCRIBEs to Bob's
   dialog event state.  Whenever Bob's dialog state changes, a NOTIFY is
   sent to the Appearance Agent who then notifies the other other UAs in
   the group.

   Carol        Proxy           Alice     Appearance Agent         Bob
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |<----------------------------------- REGISTER F1<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |>F2 200 OK ------------------------------------->|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |>F3 NOTIFY ------------------>|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |<------------------ 200 OK F4<|                  |
   |              |               |              |---- SUBSCRIBE F5>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<F6 200 OK ------<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<------ NOTIFY F7<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |>F8 200 OK ------>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<--- SUBSCRIBE F9<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |>F10 200 OK ----->|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |------ NOTIFY F11>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<F12 200 OK -----<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |<------------------------------------ INVITE F13<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |>F14 100 Trying -------------------------------->|
   |<- INVITE F15<|               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<----- NOTIFY F16<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |>F17 200 OK ----->|
   |              |               |<- NOTIFY F18<|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |>F19 200 OK ->|                  |
   |              |               |              |------ NOTIFY F20>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<F21 200 OK -----<|
   |>F22 180  --->|               |              |                  |
   |              |>F23 180 Ringing ------------------------------->|
   |              |               |              |                  |



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   |              |               |              |<----- NOTIFY F24<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |>F25 200 OK ----->|
   |              |               |<- NOTIFY F26<|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |>F27 200 OK ->|                  |
   |              |               |              |------ NOTIFY F28>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<F29 200 OK -----<|
   |>F30 200 OK ->|               |              |                  |
   |              |>F31 200 OK ------------------------------------>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<----- NOTIFY F32<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |>F33 200 OK ----->|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |<--------------------------------------- ACK F34<|
   |<---- ACK F35<|               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |<================= Both way RTP established ===================>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |<- NOTIFY F36<|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |>F37 200 OK ->|                  |
   |              |               |              |------ NOTIFY F38>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<F39 200 OK -----<|
   |              |               |              |                  |

   Figure 13.



11.  IANA Considerations

   This section registers the SIP Alert-Info header field parameter
   "appearance" and the XML namespace extensions to the SIP Dialog
   Package.

11.1.  SIP Event Package Parameter: shared

   This specification also defines a new event parameter 'shared' for
   the Dialog Package.  When used in a NOTIFY, it indicates that the
   notifier supports the shared appearance feature.  When used in a
   PUBLISH, it indicates that the publisher has explicit appearance
   information contained in the message body.  If not present in a
   PUBLISH, the Appearance Agent MAY assign an appearance number to any
   new dialogs in the message body.



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11.2.  URN Sub-Namespace Registration: sa-dialog-info


      This section registers a new XML namespace per the procedures
   in [RFC3688].

      URI: urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:sa-dialog-info.

      Registrant Contact: IETF BLISS working group, <bliss@ietf.org>,
      Alan Johnston <alan@sipstation.com>

      XML:

      BEGIN
       <?xml version="1.0"?>
       <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML Basic 1.0//EN"
                 "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml-basic/xhtml-basic10.dtd">
       <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
       <head>
         <meta http-equiv="content-type"
            content="text/html;charset=iso-8859-1"/>
         <title>Shared Appearance Dialog Information Namespace</title>
       </head>
       <body>
        <h1>Namespace for Shared Appearance Dialog Information</h1>
        <h2>urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:dialog-info</h2>
        <p>See <a href="ftp://ftp.rfc-editor.org/in-notes/rfcXXXX.txt">
           RFCXXXX</a>.</p>
       </body>
       </html>
      END

11.3.  XML Schema Registration

      This section registers an XML schema per the procedures in
    [RFC3688].

      URI: urn:ietf:params:xml:schesa:sa-dialog-info.

      Registrant Contact: IETF BLISS working group, <bliss@ietf.org>,
       Alan Johnston <alan@sipstation.com>

      The XML for this schema can be found in Section 6.








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12.  Appendix A - Incoming Appearance Assignment

   To best meet REQ-9, the appearance number for an incoming INVITE
   should be contained in the INVITE itself.

   For the dialog package parameter approach, REQ-9 could be met in two
   ways.  When an incoming request is received, the Appearance Agent
   could send out a NOTIFY with state trying and include the appearance
   number to be used for this request.  Upon receipt of this NOTIFY, the
   UAs could begin alerting using the appearance number selected.  This
   approach is sub-optimal since the UAs could receive the INVITE but be
   unable to begin alerting if the NOTIFY from the Appearance Agent is
   delayed or lost

   An alternative approach is to define an extension parameter for the
   Alert-Info header field in RFC 3261 such as:

   Alert-Info: <file://ring.pcm>;alert=normal;appearance=0

   This Alert-Info header would indicate to place the call on the first
   line appearance instance.

      OPEN ISSUE: What URI do we use if no special ring is requested?

   The determination as to what value to use in the appearance parameter
   can be done at the proxy that forks the incoming request to all the
   registered UAs.  There are a variety of ways the proxy can use to
   determine what value it should use to populate this parameter.  For
   example, the proxy could fetch this information by initiating a
   SUBSCRIBE request with Expires: 0 to the Appearance Agent for the AOR
   to fetch the list of lines that are in use.  Alternatively, it could
   act like a UA that is a part of the appearance group and SUBSCRIBE to
   the State-Agent like any other UA.  This would ensure that the active
   dialog information is available without having to poll on a need
   basis.  It could keep track of the list of active calls for the
   appearance AOR based on how many unique INVITE requests it has forked
   to or received from the appearance AOR.  Another approach would be
   for the Proxy to first send the incoming INVITE to the Appearance
   Agent which would redirect to the appearance group URI and escape the
   proper Alert-Info header field for the Proxy to recurse and
   distribute to the other UAs in the group.

   The Appearance Agent needs to know about all incoming requests to the
   AOR in order to select the appearance number.  One way in which this
   could be done is for the Appearance Agent to register against the AOR
   with a higher q value.  This will result in the INVITE being sent to
   the Appearance Agent first, then being offered to the UAs in the
   group.



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   The changes to RFC 3261 ABNF would be:

   alert-param = LAQUOT absoluteURI RAQUOT *( SEMI (generic-param /
   appearance-param) )

   appearance-param = "appearance" EQUAL *DIGIT


13.  Appendix B - Implementation Options Discussion

   This section discusses some options on how to implement the Shared
   Appearances feature in SIP.  This section is non-normative.

13.1.  Appearance Implementation Options

   This section discusses and compares two methods of implementing,
   conveying, and selecting appearances in SIP while meeting the
   requirements of Section 4.  One approach involves a URI parameter and
   is discussed in section 5.1.1.  The other approach uses a SIP dialog
   package extension parameter and is discussed in section 5.1.2.  Both
   approaches assume an Appearance Agent.  In addition, this section
   discusses approaches for incoming appearance indication, REQ-9, and
   appearance contention, REQ-8.  These approaches will be discussed for
   an example appearance group of N phones each with n line appearances.
   The usage of the word phone does not imply that this feature is
   limited to telephony devices.

13.1.1.  URI parameter Approach

   Some implementations of this feature utilize a URI parameter such as
   "line=3" on the Contact URI.  Each appearance is effectively a
   logical UA, so each line appearance requires a separate registration.
   The number of line appearances needs to be provisioned on each phone.
   Each appearance also requires a separate dialog package subscription.
   Even using a State Agent for the dialog package, each phone must
   maintain n subscriptions to the dialog package.

   This results in 2nN total subscriptions and nN registrations for this
   implementation.

   Since Contact URI parameters will be conveyed by the dialog package,
   REQ-7 is met.

   REQ-10 can be met by having the Appearance Agent send a SUBSCRIBE to
   each UA and line number to obtain the current dialog state - this
   will result in nN SUBSCRIBEs and NOTIFYs.

   It is not obvious how to meet REQ-11 with this approach.  A UA



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   registering against the AOR but does not implement the appearance URI
   parameter will not include a line appearance number in Contact URIs
   and dialog package NOTIFYs.  The Appearance Agent will have no way of
   indicating to the other UAs the appearance number being used by this
   UA, as adding a parameter to the Contact URI would cause call control
   operations such as Replaces and Join to fail.

   REQs 12 and 13 are difficult to meet with this approach as the line
   appearance number will be present in the Request-URI of incoming
   requests and the Contact URI in INVITE and 200 OK messages.  This
   approach will require integrity protection of all dialog creating
   requests and responses, and privacy mechanisms to hide the Contact
   URI from other UAs.

   Also, this approach will require mechanisms to protect against
   another UA sending an INVITE directly to a group member with the line
   appearance number already set.

13.1.2.  Dialog Package Parameter

   Instead of the URI parameter approach, consider an extension
   parameter "appearance" to the SIP dialog package.  The e.g.:


   <?xml version="1.0"?>
   <dialog-info xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:dialog-info"
                xmlns:sa="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:sa-dialog-info"
                version="6"
                state="partial"
                entity="sip:alice@example.com">
      <dialog id="id3d4f9c83" from-tag="3423"
            to-tag="a3f423j88uju1" direction="initiator">
          <sa:appearance>2</appearance>
          <sa:exclusive>false</exclusive>
          <sa:joined-dialog call-id="sdfg" from-tag="832d1"
                                            to-tag="4542454" />
          <sa:joined-dialog call-id="873287876" from-tag="433"
                                            to-tag="jwjwuf5" />
          <state>connected</state>
          <local>
              <target uri="sip:bob@pc.example.com" />
          </local>
      </dialog>
   </dialog-info>
   ...

   In this approach, the appearance number is never carried in a
   Request-URI or Contact URI.  Instead, it is only present in dialog



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   package NOTIFY and PUBLISH messages.  As a result, only a single
   registration per AOR is required.  Also, only a single dialog package
   subscription in each direction per AOR.

   This results in 2N total subscriptions and N registrations for this
   approach.

   If the dialog package is extended to carry the appearance number,
   then REQ-7 is met.

   REQ-10 can be met by having the Appearance Agent send a SUBSCRIBE to
   each UA and line number to obtain the current dialog state - this
   will result in N SUBSCRIBEs and NOTIFYs.

   REQ-11 can be met by this approach.  Even though a UA does not
   provide an appearance number in dialog package NOTIFYs, the
   Appearance Agent can assign one and include it in NOTIFYs to the
   other UAs.  This parameter would simply be ignored by the UAs that
   did not understand the parameter, and have no impact on call control
   operations.

   REQs 12 and 13 are met because the appearance number is only conveyed
   in dialog package NOTIFYs.  Integrity and privacy of NOTIFY bodies
   can be achieved using normal SIP mechanisms independent of the
   security mechanisms used for other requests.

   The dialog-package [RFC3265] describes a mechanism whereby shared-
   line privacy REQ-14 can be accomplished by suppressing certain dialog
   information from being presented to the UAs.  The reasoning behind
   that is if the UAs were unaware of a dialog's call-id, local-tag and
   remote-tag then they will be unable to create requests such as INVITE
   with Replaces [RFC3891] and Join [RFC3911] header fields to barge-in
   or pickup the line appearance.  Below is a quote from section 3.6 of
   dialog-package[RFC3265] that describes this approach:

   Note that many implementations of "shared-lines" have a feature that
   allows details of calls on a shared address-of-record to be made
   private.  This is a completely reasonable authorization policy that
   could result in notifications that contain only the id attribute of
   the dialog element and the state element when shared-line privacy is
   requested, and notifications with more complete information when
   shared-line privacy is not requested.

   There are certain fundamental drawbacks in the privacy-by-obscurity
   approach described in [RFC3265] .  It models exclusivity as a static
   property of the appearance AOR.  There are situations where
   exclusivity needs to be a dynamic property (e.g. boss does not want
   secretary to listen-in on a particular part of the conversation).  In



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   addition, [RFC3265] does not address how a UA can request exclusivity
   at the start of a session or mid-session and how that request will be
   granted or rejected.

   Exclusivity being a dynamic property means that a UA can request it
   to be turned on or off in the middle of a session.  When exclusivity
   is turned off all the UAs that share the line AOR will need to see
   the complete dialog information.  Once they have that information it
   can not be taken back from them.  This will not allow exclusivity to
   be turned on later on in the dialog lifetime.  Therefore, there needs
   to be a centralized entity that will actually enforce exclusivity.

   The approach proposed for meeting REQ-14 is to include an exclusivity
   parameter to the dialog package.  This allows a UA to request
   exclusivity, by setting the exclusive parameter in notifications.
   This could be done prior to a call being made or answered, or during
   a call at any time.  A UA can remove exclusivity by sending a
   notification at any time during a call and setting "exclusive=no".
   It also allows a UA to learn that a particular dialog is exclusive by
   the presence of this parameter in a NOTIFY.  In addition, a UA can
   still apply policy to any INVITE Join or Replaces requests it
   receives, as per normal SIP call control mechanisms.

   With this approach, the number of appearances is centrally managed
   and controlled by the Appearance Agent.  For UAs with soft keys or
   buttons, this gives a great deal of flexibility in system management.

   The User Agents in the group could SUBSCRIBE to each other and NOTIFY
   dialog state events, but in a large group the User Agents have to
   manage a larger number of SUBSCRIPTIONS and NOTIFICATIONS.  The State
   Agent in the Appearance Agent helps in managing large groups better.
   Further, the State Agent can filter dialog state events and NOTIFY
   User Agents of the dialog state events which are required for the
   application or feature.  The State Agent can also SUBSCRIBE to dialog
   state events with filters to reduce the number of NOTIFY messages
   exchanged between the State Agent and the user agents in the group.
   This allows a group of N UAs to each only establish a pair of dialog
   state subscriptions (one in each direction) to learn the dialog state
   of all other group members.  This results in 2N total subscriptions
   for the entire group.  A full mesh of subscriptions without a state
   agent would result in N(N-1) total subscriptions.

13.1.3.  Appearance Selections Mechanisms

   Regardless of how the appearance number is conveyed by UAs, there is
   still the issue of how appearance numbers are selected.  For example,
   some UAs might have actual buttons and lamps, and pressing a
   particular button requires the UA to reserve a particular appearance



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   number.  For devices with this type of user interface, the selection
   must be done before the user continues with the call and dials digits
   or a URI.  Other UAs with different user interfaces can be flexible
   at the time of dialing, updating the display with the appearance
   number at a later date.  For devices which require advance appearance
   selection, there are three options discussed in the following
   sections for meeting REQ-15.

13.1.3.1.  Floor Control Appearance Selection Mechanism

   This approach models each appearance number as a floor (shared
   resource) and uses a floor control server to arbitrate exclusive
   access (seizure of a particular appearance number).  This approach
   uses a standard SIP Event State Compositor (ESC), a standard Floor
   Control Server that uses the Appearance Agent as Moderator.  The
   Binary Floor Control Protocol (BFCP) is used between the UAs and the
   Floor Control Server.  A Registrar/Forking Proxy Server talks to
   Appearance Agent about incoming calls.  The Appearance Agent acts as
   a Moderator for the floor control server and tells forking proxy to
   insert the appearance number in incoming and outgoing requests.

   Appearance numbers are allocated/selected/reserved in two ways:

   For incoming calls, the Forking Proxy interacts with the Appearance
   Agent.  The Appearance Agent selects an appearance by taking a
   particular floor and marking it "moderator controlled".  This
   appearance number is then included by the Forking Proxy in INVITEs
   using the Alert-Info parameter.  When a UA answers the call, it takes
   the appearance number from the Alert-Info and includes it in the
   dialog state publication.  It then requests the floor associated with
   the appearance number from the floor control server, which forwards
   the request to the Appearance Agent (moderator).  The Appearance
   Agent correlates the floor control request with the dialog state
   notification with the dialog ID from the INVITE with the Alert-Info.
   If they match, the floor is granted.  If they do not match, it means
   the floor request is not an answer of the call but is a random
   appearance selection by the UA and will be rejected.

   For outgoing calls, the UA sends an INVITE and requests a particular
   floor from the floor control server.  Depending on the User Interface
   requirements, the floor request can be done before or after sending
   the INVITE.  The floor grant policy for most appearances is set to
   "first come first serve".  Once the floor has been granted and the
   call answered, the dialog state publication by the UA will include
   the appearance number.

   When a call has ended, the UA releases the floor to the floor control
   server and this appearance is now available for incoming and outgoing



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   calls.

   When a UA in the group which does not support BFCP is in a call, the
   Appearance Agent will grant the floor associated with that appearance
   to that UA.  When that call is over, the Appearance Agent will
   release the floor.  Since the UA will not publish the appearance
   number to the ESC, the Appearance Agent will need to do that on their
   behalf.  If the UA does publish dialog state but without the
   appearance number, the Appearance Agent will still need to re-publish
   the dialog state including the appearance number.  UAs in the group
   will be able to recognize these two dialogs as one since they will
   have the same SIP dialog ID.

13.1.3.2.  INVITE Appearance Selection Mechanism

   This is an alternative approach that utilizes sending an INVITE to
   select/reserve/seize an appearance number.

   A UA that does not need to select a particular appearance number (or
   doesn't care) would just send an INVITE as normal.  The Appearance
   Agent would tell the proxy which appearance number was being used by
   inserting this information in a header field in the first non-100
   provisional response sent back to the calling UA.  The UA would then
   PUBLISH this appearance number to the Dialog Event State Compositor
   for the AOR which would distribute details of the dialog and the
   appearance number to the other UAs in the group.

   If an INVITE is sent and no appearance number is available, the proxy
   would reject the INVITE with a suitable response code and perhaps a
   header field indication.

   A UA that does need to select a particular appearance number would
   use an approach similar to overlap dialing (multi-stage dialing).  An
   INVITE would be sent when the appearance number is requested (i.e.
   when the button is pressed, before dialing begins).  The appearance
   number selected would be carried in the INVITE, in a header field or
   in the Request-URI, for example.  The proxy would reject the INVITE
   with a 484 Address Incomplete response (see RFC 3578) if the
   appearance number is Available and start a timer.  The UA could then
   resend the INVITE after the URI has been dialed and then PUBLISH this
   appearance number to the ESC.  If the appearance number is not
   available, another response code such as 403 would be sent.  The user
   could then select a different appearance number and resend the
   INVITE.  If no INVITE with a matching Call-ID is received before the
   timer expires, the appearance seizure is cancelled and is made
   available for other calls.

   Note that this approach does not actually require a B2BUA, but it



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   does require a proxy that can act as a UAS and communicate with an
   Appearance Agent which keeps track of appearance number allocations.

13.1.3.3.  PUBLISH Appearance Selection Mechanism

   The approach used in previous versions of this draft is to use the
   PUBLISH to the event state compositor to select an appearance number.
   This approach requires a special event state compositor and special
   behavior on the part of the UA.

   In the selection of an appearance for requests initiated by UAs in
   the group, there is the possibility of contention where more than one
   UA select the same appearance number.

   One way to solve this and meet REQ-8 is to require UAs to send a
   notification (trying) to the Appearance Agent indicating the
   appearance number to be used for the session.  The Appearance Agent
   would confirm the allocation of the appearance number in a NOTIFY
   sent to the group UAs.  Should the appearance number be unavailable
   or otherwise not allowed, there are two options:

   - The notification could be rejected with a 500 response and a Retry-
   After header field.  The Appearance Agent would send an immediate
   NOTIFY indicating that the appearance is unavailable.  If the NOTIFY
   is received before the expiration of the Retry-After time, the
   notification state information would become out of date and would be
   discarded without resending.  The UA would select another appearance
   number and send another notification.

   - The notification could be accepted but an immediate NOTIFY
   generated by the Appearance Agent indicating that the appearance is
   unavailable.  The UA would then select another appearance number and
   PUBLISH again.

   UAs would wait for a notification from the Appearance Agent before
   sending the INVITE.

13.2.  Comparison

   In comparing the URI parameter and the dialog package parameter,
   there are clear differences in the number of registrations and
   subscriptions, with the dialog package approach requiring n times
   fewer in both cases.

   The security model for the dialog package parameter approach is much
   cleaner, since only NOTIFY and PUBLISH requests need integrity and
   privacy.  The security model for the URI parameter approach would
   likely require a B2BUA which introduces many undesirable properties.



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   The dialog package parameter approach has better backwards
   compatibility than the URI parameter approach.

   In summary, the dialog package parameter approach better meets REQs
   5, 10, 11, 12, and 13 while the URI parameter approach better meets
   REQ-9.  However, the combined dialog package parameter approach and
   the Alert-Info parameter approach meets REQ-9.

13.2.1.  Comparison of Appearance Selection Methods

   All three approaches meet REQ-15 and REQ-16.

   Previous versions of this draft proposed the publish/notify method of
   appearance selection.  The advantage of this approach is that the
   appearance number is only carried in one place (dialog package XML
   documents) and the same protocol/mechanism is used to select and
   learn appearance numbers.  The disadvantage of this approach is that
   a specialized event state compositor must be used, since it is aware
   of appearance numbers.  Also, concerns have been raised about whether
   this approach defines new semantics for publish/notify beyond that in
   RFC 3265.

   The floor control approach makes good reuse of existing protocols
   such as Binary Floor Control Protocol (BFCP) and cleanly models the
   state.  However, while BFCP can be used in conferencing applications,
   it is unlikely most UAs implementing shared appearances would utilize
   the protocol.  Also, having appearance state in two places (dialog
   package XML documents and floor control messages) complicates the
   application.  Also, BFCP only runs over TCP and requires a separate
   offer/answer exchange to establish the connection, making operation
   through NATs and firewalls more difficult.  The BFCP approach is also
   radically different from all current implementations of this feature.
   As a result, standardizing this approach would likely result in an
   increase in feature interoperability rather than a decrease.

   The INVITE selection mechanism is based on overlap dialing.  Overlap
   dialing is supported in very few SIP UAs and is regarded as a
   somewhat archaic leftover from the PSTN.  As such, it is not regarded
   as a good starting point for a common feature such as shared
   appearances.

   The PUBLISH selection mechanism reuses the SIP events extensions
   which already must be implemented by UAs supporting this feature.  In
   fact, it results in no additional messages or round trips.  It is
   also very similar to many current feature implementations today.
   Standardizing this approach is likely to increase overall
   interoperability of this feature.




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   The rest of this document will only discuss the PUBLISH appearance
   selection mechanism.


14.  Acknowledgements

   The following individuals were part of the shared appearance Design
   team and have provided input and text to the document (in
   alphabetical order):

   Martin Dolly, Andrew Hutton, Raj Jain, Fernando Lombardo, Derek
   MacDonald, Bill Mitchell, Michael Procter, Theo Zowzouvillys.

   Thanks to Chris Boulton for helping with the XML schema.

   Much of the material has been drawn from previous work by Mohsen
   Soroushnejad, Venkatesh Venkataramanan, Paul Pepper and Anil Kumar,
   who in turn received assistance from:

   Kent Fritz, John Weald, and Sunil Veluvali of Sylantro Systems, Steve
   Towlson, and Michael Procter of Citel Technologies, Rob Harder and
   Hong Chen of Polycom Inc, John Elwell, J D Smith of Siemens
   Communications, Dale R. Worley of Pingtel, Graeme Dollar of Yahoo
   Inc.

   Also thanks to Geoff Devine, Paul Kyzivat, Jerry Yin, John Elwell,
   Dan York, Spenser Dawkins, Martin Dolly, and Brett Tate for their
   comments.


15.  Security Considerations

   Since multiple line appearance features are implemented using
   semantics provided by [RFC3261], Event Package for Dialog State as
   define in , and Event Notification [RFC3265], [RFC3903], security
   considerations in these documents apply to this draft as well.

   Specifically, since dialog state information and the dialog
   identifiers are supplied by UA's in an appearance group to other
   members, the same is prone to "call hijacks".  For example, a rogue
   UA could snoop for these identifiers and send an INVITE with Replaces
   header containing these call details to take over the call.  As such
   INVITES with Replaces header MUST be authenticated using the standard
   mechanism (like Digest or S/MIME) described in [RFC3261]. before it
   is accepted.  NOTIFY or PUBLISH message bodies that provide the
   dialog state information and the dialog identifiers MAY be encrypted
   end-to-end using the standard mechanics.  All SUBSCRIBES between the
   UA's and the Appearance Agent MUST be authenticated.



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16.  Informative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC3261]  Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Camarillo, G., Johnston,
              A., Peterson, J., Sparks, R., Handley, M., and E.
              Schooler, "SIP: Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 3261,
              June 2002.

   [RFC3515]  Sparks, R., "The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Refer
              Method", RFC 3515, April 2003.

   [RFC3265]  Roach, A., "Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)-Specific
              Event Notification", RFC 3265, June 2002.

   [RFC3903]  Niemi, A., "Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Extension
              for Event State Publication", RFC 3903, October 2004.

   [RFC3891]  Mahy, R., Biggs, B., and R. Dean, "The Session Initiation
              Protocol (SIP) "Replaces" Header", RFC 3891,
              September 2004.

   [RFC5359]  Johnston, A., Sparks, R., Cunningham, C., Donovan, S., and
              K. Summers, "Session Initiation Protocol Service
              Examples", BCP 144, RFC 5359, October 2008.

   [RFC4235]  Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., and R. Mahy, "An INVITE-
              Initiated Dialog Event Package for the Session Initiation
              Protocol (SIP)", RFC 4235, November 2005.

   [RFC3911]  Mahy, R. and D. Petrie, "The Session Initiation Protocol
              (SIP) "Join" Header", RFC 3911, October 2004.

   [RFC4579]  Johnston, A. and O. Levin, "Session Initiation Protocol
              (SIP) Call Control - Conferencing for User Agents",
              BCP 119, RFC 4579, August 2006.

   [RFC3840]  Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., and P. Kyzivat,
              "Indicating User Agent Capabilities in the Session
              Initiation Protocol (SIP)", RFC 3840, August 2004.

   [RFC3688]  Mealling, M., "The IETF XML Registry", BCP 81, RFC 3688,
              January 2004.

   [RFC3680]  Rosenberg, J., "A Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Event
              Package for Registrations", RFC 3680, March 2004.




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Authors' Addresses

   Alan Johnston (editor)
   Avaya
   St. Louis, MO  63124

   Email: alan@sipstation.com


   Mohsen Soroushnejad
   Sylantro Systems Corp

   Email: mohsen.soroush@sylantro.com


   Venkatesh Venkataramanan
   Sylantro Systems Corp

   Email: vvenkatar@gmail.com
































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