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BLISS                                                   A. Johnston, Ed.
Internet-Draft                                                     Avaya
Updates: 3261, 4235 (if approved)                        M. Soroushnejad
Intended status: Standards Track                       V. Venkataramanan
Expires: July 20, 2013                             Sylantro Systems Corp
                                                        January 16, 2013


  Shared Appearances of a Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Address of
                              Record (AOR)
                 draft-ietf-bliss-shared-appearances-15

Abstract

   This document describes the requirements and implementation of a
   group telephony feature commonly known as Bridged Line Appearance
   (BLA) or Multiple Line Appearance (MLA), or Shared Call/Line
   Appearance (SCA).  When implemented using the Session Initiation
   Protocol (SIP), it is referred to as shared appearances of an Address
   of Record (AOR) since SIP does not have the concept of lines.  This
   feature is commonly offered in IP Centrex services and IP-PBX
   offerings and is likely to be implemented on SIP IP telephones and
   SIP feature servers used in a business environment.  This feature
   allows several user agents (UAs) to share a common AOR, learn about
   calls placed and received by other UAs in the group, and pick up or
   join calls within the group.  This document discusses use cases,
   lists requirements and defines extensions to implement this feature.
   This specification updates RFC3261 and RFC4235.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on July 20, 2013.

Copyright Notice




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   Copyright (c) 2013 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

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   it for publication as an RFC or to translate it into languages other
   than English.



























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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   2.  Conventions used in this document  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   3.  Usage Scenarios  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     3.1.   Executive/Assistant Arrangement . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     3.2.   Call Group  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     3.3.   Single Line Extension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     3.4.   Changing UAs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   4.  Requirements and Implementation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     4.1.   Requirements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     4.2.   Implementation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   5.  Normative Description  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     5.1.   Elements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     5.2.   Shared Appearance Dialog Package Extensions . . . . . . . 12
       5.2.1.  The <appearance> element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
       5.2.2.  The <exclusive> element  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
       5.2.3.  The <joined-dialog> element  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
       5.2.4.  The <replaced-dialog> element  . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     5.3.   Shared Appearance User Agents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
       5.3.1.  Appearance Numbers and Call Context  . . . . . . . . . 17
       5.3.2.  Appearance Numbers and Call Control  . . . . . . . . . 18
       5.3.3.  Appearance Numbers and Transfer  . . . . . . . . . . . 18
     5.4.   Appearance Agent  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
   6.  XML Schema Definition  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
   7.  Alert-Info Appearance Parameter Definition . . . . . . . . . . 23
   8.  User Interface Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
     8.1.   Appearance Number Rendering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
       8.1.1.  Single Appearance UAs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
       8.1.2.  Dual Appearance UAs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
       8.1.3.  Shared Appearance UAs with Fixed Appearance Number . . 25
       8.1.4.  Shared Appearance UAs with Variable Appearance
               Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
       8.1.5.  Example User Interface Issues  . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
     8.2.   Call State Rendering  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
   9.  Interoperability with non-Shared Appearance UAs  . . . . . . . 26
     9.1.   Appearance Assignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
     9.2.   Appearance Release  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
     9.3.   UAs Supporting Dialog Events but Not Shared Appearance  . 27
   10. Provisioning Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
   11. Example Message Flows  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
     11.1.  Registration and Subscription . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
     11.2.  Appearance Selection for Incoming Call  . . . . . . . . . 32
     11.3.  Outgoing Call without Appearance Seizure  . . . . . . . . 35
     11.4.  Outgoing Call with Appearance Seizure . . . . . . . . . . 38
     11.5.  Outgoing Call without using an Appearance Number  . . . . 42
     11.6.  Appearance Release  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
     11.7.  Appearance Pickup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45



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     11.8.  Calls between UAs within the Group  . . . . . . . . . . . 50
     11.9.  Consultation Hold with Appearances  . . . . . . . . . . . 52
     11.10. Joining or Bridging an Appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
     11.11. Appearance Allocation - Loss of Appearance  . . . . . . . 58
     11.12. Appearance Seizure Contention Race Condition  . . . . . . 59
     11.13. Appearance Agent Subscription to UAs  . . . . . . . . . . 60
     11.14. Appearance Pickup Race Condition Failure  . . . . . . . . 62
     11.15. Appearance Seizure Incoming/Outgoing Contention Race
            Condition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
   12. Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
   13. IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
     13.1.  SIP Event Header Field Parameter: shared  . . . . . . . . 66
     13.2.  SIP Alert-Info Header Field Parameter: appearance . . . . 67
     13.3.  URN Sub-Namespace Registration: sa-dialog-info  . . . . . 68
     13.4.  XML Schema Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
   14. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
   15. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
     15.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
     15.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71































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1.  Introduction

   The feature and functionality requirements for SIP user agents (UAs)
   supporting business telephony applications differ greatly from basic
   SIP user agents, both in terms of services and end user experience.
   In addition to basic SIP support [RFC3261], many of the services in a
   business environment require the support for SIP extensions such as
   REFER [RFC3515], SUBSCRIBE/NOTIFY primitives
   [I-D.ietf-sipcore-rfc3265bis] PUBLISH [RFC3903], the SIP Replaces
   [RFC3891], and Join [RFC3911] header fields, etc.  Many of the
   popular business services have been documented in the SIP Service
   Examples [RFC5359].

   This specification details a method for implementing a group
   telephony feature known variously in telephony as Bridged Line
   Appearance (BLA) or Multiple Line Appearances (MLA), one of the more
   popular advanced features expected of SIP IP telephony devices in a
   business environment.  Other names for this feature include Shared
   Call/Line Appearance (SCA), Shared Call Status and Multiple Call
   Appearance (MCA).  A variant of this feature is known as Single Line
   Extension.

   This document looks at how this feature can be implemented using
   standard SIP [RFC3261] in conjunction with SIP events
   [I-D.ietf-sipcore-rfc3265bis] and publication [RFC3903] (carrying the
   SIP dialog state event package [RFC4235]) for exchanging status among
   user agents.

   In traditional telephony, the line is physical.  A common scenario in
   telephony is for a number of business telephones to share a single or
   a small number of lines.  The sharing or appearance of these lines
   between a number of phones is what gives this feature its name.  A
   common scenario in SIP is for a number of business telephones to
   share a single or a small number of Address of Record (AOR) URIs.

   In addition, an AOR can have multiple appearances on a single UA in
   terms of the user interface.  The appearance number relates to the
   user interface for the telephone - typically each appearance of an
   AOR has a visual display (lamp that can change color or blink or a
   screen icon) and a button (used to select the appearance) where each
   appearance number is associated with a different dialog to/from the
   AOR.  The telephony concept of line appearance is still relevant to
   SIP due to the user interface considerations.  It is important to
   keep the appearance number construct because:

   1.  Human users are used to the concept and will expect it in
       replacement systems (e.g. an overhead page announcement says "Joe
       pickup line 3").



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   2.  It is a useful structure for user interface representation.

   The purpose of the appearance number is to identify active calls to
   facilitate sharing between users (e.g. passing a call from one user
   to another).  If a telephone has enough buttons/lamps, the appearance
   number could be the positional sequence number of the button.  If
   not, it may still be desirable to present the call state, but the
   appearance number should be displayed so that users know which call,
   for example, is on hold on which key.

   In this document, except for the usage scenarios in the next section,
   we will use the term "appearance" rather than "line appearance" since
   SIP does not have the concept of lines.  Note that this does not mean
   that a conventional telephony user interface (lamps and buttons) must
   be used - implementations may use another metaphor as long as the
   appearance number is readily apparent to the user.  Each AOR has a
   separate appearance numbering space.  As a result, a given UA user
   interface may have multiple occurrences of the same appearance
   number, but they will be for different AORs.


2.  Conventions used in this document

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC-2119 [RFC2119] and
   indicate requirement levels for compliant mechanisms.


3.  Usage Scenarios

   The following examples are common applications of the Shared
   Appearances feature and are mentioned here as informative use cases.
   All these example usages can be supported by the Shared Appearances
   feature described in this document.  The main differences relate to
   the user interface considerations of the device.

3.1.  Executive/Assistant Arrangement

   The appearances on the executive's UA also appear on the assistant's
   UA.  The assistant may answer incoming calls to the executive and
   then place the call on hold for the executive to pick up.  The
   assistant can always see the state of all calls on the executive's
   UA.







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3.2.  Call Group

   Users with similar business needs or tasks can be assigned to
   specific groups and share an AOR.  For example, an IT department
   staff of five might answer a help line which has three appearances on
   each phone in the IT work area.  A call answered on one phone can be
   put on hold and picked up on another phone.  A shout or an IM to
   another staff member can result in them taking over a call on a
   particular appearance.  Another phone can request to be added/joined/
   bridged to an existing appearance resulting in a conference call.

3.3.  Single Line Extension

   In this scenario, incoming calls are offered to a group of UAs.  When
   one answers, the other UAs are informed.  If another UA in the group
   seizes the line (i.e. goes off hook), it is immediately bridged or
   joined in with the call.  This mimics the way residential telephone
   extensions usually operate.

3.4.  Changing UAs

   A user is on a call on one UA and wishes to change devices and
   continue the call on another UA.  They place the call on hold, note
   the appearance number of the call, then walk to another UA.  They are
   able to identify the same appearance number on the other UA, pickup
   the call, and continue the conversation.


4.  Requirements and Implementation

   The next section details the requirements and discusses the
   implementation of the shared appearances of an AOR feature.

4.1.  Requirements

   The basic requirements of the shared appearance feature can be
   summarized as follows:

   REQ-1 Incoming calls to the AOR must be offered to a group of UAs and
   can be answered by any of them.

   REQ-2 Each UA in the group must be able to learn the call status of
   the others in the group for the purpose of rendering this information
   to the user.

   REQ-3 A UA must be able to join (also called bridge or conference
   together) or pick up (take) an active call of another UA in the group
   in a secure way.



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   REQ-4 The mechanism should require the minimal amount of
   configuration.  UAs registering against the group AOR should be able
   to participate in the appearance group without manual configuration
   of group members.

   REQ-5 The mechanism must scale for large numbers of appearances and
   large numbers of UAs without introducing excessive messaging traffic.

   REQ-6 Each call or session (incoming or outgoing) should be assigned
   a common "appearance" number from a managed pool administered for the
   AOR group.  Once the session has terminated, the appearance number is
   released back into the pool and can be reused by another incoming or
   outgoing session.

   REQ-7 Each UA in the group must be able to learn the status of all
   appearances of the group.

   REQ-8 There must be mechanisms to resolve appearance contention among
   the UAs in the group.  Contention in this context means an appearance
   number being associated with multiple dialogs that are not mixed or
   otherwise associated.

   REQ-9 The mechanism must allow all UAs receiving an incoming session
   request to utilize the same appearance number at the time of
   alerting.

   REQ-10 The mechanism must have a way of reconstructing appearance
   state after an outage that does not result in excessive traffic and
   processing.

   REQ-11 The mechanism must have backwards compatibility such that a UA
   which is unaware of the feature can still register against the group
   AOR and make and receive calls.

   REQ-12 The mechanism must not allow UAs outside the group to select,
   seize or manipulate appearance numbers.

   REQ-13 For privacy reasons, there must be a mechanism so that
   appearance information is not leaked outside the group of UAs. (e.g.
   "So who do you have on line 1?")

   REQ-14 The mechanism must support a way for UAs to request
   exclusivity on a line appearance.  Exclusivity means that the UA
   requesting it desires to have a private conversation with the
   external party and other UAs must not be allowed to join or take the
   call.  Exclusivity may be requested at the start of an incoming or
   outgoing session or during the session.  An exclusivity request may
   be accepted or rejected by the entity providing the shared appearance



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   service.  Therefore, the mechanism must provide a way of
   communicating the result back to the requester UA.

   REQ-15 The mechanism should support a way for a UA to seize a
   particular appearance number for outgoing requests prior to sending
   the actual request.  This is often called seizure.

   REQ-16 The mechanism should support a way for a UA to seize a
   particular appearance number and also send the request at the same
   time.  This is needed when an automatic ringdown feature (a telephone
   configured to immediately dial a phone number when it goes off hook)
   is combined with shared appearances - in this case, seizing the line
   is integrated with dialing.

4.2.  Implementation

   This section non-normatively discusses the implementation of the
   shared appearance feature.  The normative description is in
   Section 5.  Many of the requirements for this service can be met
   using standard SIP mechanisms such as:

   - A SIP Forking Proxy and Registrar/Location Service meets REQ-1.

   - The SIP Dialog Package meets REQ-2.

   - The combination of the SIP Replaces and Join header fields meets
   REQ-3.

   - The use of a State Agent for the Dialog Package meets REQ-4 and
   REQ-5.

   REQ-6 suggests the need for an entity which manages the appearance
   resource.  Just as conferencing systems commonly have a single point
   of control, known as a focus, a Shared Appearance group has a single
   point of control of the appearance shared resource.  This is defined
   as an Appearance Agent for a group.  While an Appearance Agent can be
   part of a centralized server, it could also be co-resident in a
   member User Agent that has taken on this functionality for a group.
   The Appearance Agent knows or is able to determine the dialog state
   of all members of the group.

   While the appearance resource could be managed co-operatively by a
   group of UAs without any central control, this is outside the scope
   of this draft.  It is also possible that the Appearance Agent logic
   could be distributed in all UAs in the group.  For example, rules
   that govern assigning appearance numbers for incoming requests (e.g.
   lowest available appearance number) and rules for contention handling
   (e.g. when two UAs request the use of the same appearance number,



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   hash dialog identifiers and compare with the lowest hash winning)
   would need to be defined and implemented.

   To best meet REQ-9, the appearance number for an incoming INVITE
   needs to be contained in the INVITE, in addition to being delivered
   in the dialog package NOTIFY.  Otherwise, if the NOTIFY is delayed or
   lost, a UA in the group might receive an incoming INVITE but might
   not know which appearance number to render during alerting.

   This specification defines an extension parameter, which is
   normatively defined in Section 7, for the Alert-Info header field in
   RFC 3261 to carry the appearance number:

   Alert-Info: <urn:alert:service:normal>;appearance=1

   The following list describes the operation of the shared appearance
   feature.

   1.  A UA is configured with the AOR of a shared appearance group.  It
       registers against the AOR, then attempts a dialog state
       subscription to the AOR.  If the subscription fails, loops back
       to itself, or returns an error, it knows there is no State Agent,
       and hence no Appearance Agent and this feature is not
       implemented.
   2.  If the subscription receives a 200 OK, the UA knows there is a
       State Agent and that the feature is implemented.  The UA then
       follows the steps in this list.
   3.  Information learned about the dialog state of other UAs in the
       group is rendered to the user.
   4.  Incoming calls are forked to all UAs in the group, and any may
       answer.  UAs receive the appearance number to use in rendering
       the incoming call in a NOTIFY from the Appearance Agent and in
       the INVITE itself.  The UA will also receive a notification if
       the call is answered by another UA in the group so this
       information can be rendered to the user.
   5.  For outgoing calls, the operation depends on the implementation.
       If the user seizes a particular appearance number for the call,
       the UA publishes the trying state dialog information with the
       desired appearance number and waits for a 2xx response before
       sending the INVITE.
   6.  For outgoing calls, if the user does not seize a particular
       appearance or does not care, the INVITE can be sent immediately,
       and the appearance number learned as the call progresses from a
       notification from the Appearance Agent.
   7.  For outgoing calls, if the user does not want an appearance
       number assigned (such as during a consultation call or if a UA is
       fetching 'service media' such as music on hold
       [I-D.worley-service-example]), the UA also publishes prior to



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       sending the INVITE but does not include an appearance number in
       the publication.
   8.  Established calls within the group may be joined (bridged) or
       taken (picked) by another UA.  Information in the dialog package
       notifications can be used to construct Join or Replaces header
       fields.  Since the same appearance number is used for these types
       of operations, this information is published prior to sending the
       INVITE Join or INVITE Replaces.
   9.  The Appearance Agent may not have direct access to the complete
       dialog state of some or all of the UAs in the group.  If this is
       the case, the Appearance Agent will subscribe to the dialog state
       of individual UAs in the group to obtain this information.  In
       any case, the Appearance Agent will send normal notifications
       (via the subscriptions established by the UAs in step 1) every
       time the aggregate dialog state of the AOR changes, including
       when calls are placed, answered, placed on and off hold, and hung
       up.


5.  Normative Description

   This section normatively describes the shared appearance feature
   extensions.  The following definitions are used throughout this
   document:

   Appearance number: An appearance number is a positive integer
   associated with one or more dialogs of an AOR.  Appearance numbers
   are managed by an Appearance Agent and displayed and rendered to the
   user by UAs that support this specification.  When an appearance
   number is assigned or requested, generally the assigned number is the
   smallest positive integer that is not currently assigned as an
   appearance number to a dialog for this AOR.  This specification does
   not define an upper limit on appearance numbers; however, using
   appearance numbers that are not easily represented using common
   integer representations is likely to cause failures.

   Seizing: An appearance can be reserved prior to a call being placed
   by seizing the appearance.  An appearance can be seized by
   communicating an artificial state of "trying" prior to actually
   initiating a dialog (i.e. sending the INVITE), in order to appear as
   if it was already initiating a dialog.

   Selecting(or Not-Seizing): An appearance is merely selected (i.e.,
   not seized) if there is no such communication of artificial state of
   "trying" prior to initiating a dialog: i.e., the state is
   communicated when the dialog is actually initiated.  The appearance
   number is learned after the INVITE is sent.




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5.1.  Elements

   A complete system to implement this feature consists of:

   1.  User Agents that support publications, subscriptions, and
       notifications for the SIP dialog event package, and the shared
       appearance dialog package extensions and behavior.
   2.  An Appearance Agent consisting of a State Agent for the dialog
       event package that implements an Event State Compositor (ESC) and
       the shared appearance dialog package extensions and behavior.
       The Appearance Agent also has logic for assigning and releasing
       appearance numbers, and resolving appearance number contention.
   3.  A forking proxy server that can communicate with the State Agent
   4.  A registrar that supports the registration event package.

   The behavior of these elements is described normatively in the
   following sections after the definitions of the dialog package
   extensions.

5.2.  Shared Appearance Dialog Package Extensions

   This specification defines four new elements as extensions to the SIP
   Dialog Event package [RFC4235].  The schema is defined in Section 6.
   The elements are <appearance>, <exclusive>, <joined-dialog>, and
   <replaced-dialog> which are sub-elements of the <dialog> element.

5.2.1.  The <appearance> element

   The <appearance> element, a child of the <dialog> element, is used to
   convey the appearance number of the dialog described by the parent
   <dialog> element.  When sent by a UA in a PUBLISH with parent
   <dialog> with state attribute "trying" to the Appearance Agent, the
   UA is requesting assignment of the given appearance number to the
   current or future dialog with the given dialog identifiers.  When an
   <appearance> element is sent by the Appearance Agent in a NOTIFY, it
   indicates that the appearance number has been assigned to the
   specified dialog.

   Note that a <dialog-info> element describes the contained dialogs
   from the point of view of the UA (named by the "entity" attribute),
   regardless of whether the containing request is sent by the UA or the
   Appearance Agent.  In particular, if the UA sent a request within the
   described dialog, the To header field URI would match the <remote>
   <identity> value and the to-tag parameter would match the remote-tag
   attribute.  Similarly, the From header field URI would match the
   <local> <identity> value and the from-tag parameter would match the
   local-tag attribute.




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5.2.2.  The <exclusive> element

   The <exclusive> element, a child of the <dialog> element, is a
   boolean, which when true, indicates that the UA is not willing to
   accept an INVITE with a Join or Replaces header field targeted to the
   dialog described by the <dialog> element that is the parent of the
   <exclusive> element.  For example, some shared appearance systems
   only allow call pickup when the call is on hold.  In this case, the
   <exclusive> element should be set to "false" when the call is held
   and "true" when the call is not held, rather than having the
   "exclusive" value implied by the hold state.

   It is important to note that this element is a hint.  In order to
   prevent another UA from taking or joining a call, a UA can, in
   addition to setting the <exclusive> tag, not report full dialog
   information to the Appearance Agent.  Not having the full dialog
   information (Call-ID, remote-tag, and local-tag) prevents another UA
   from constructing a Join or Replaces header field.  Although a UA may
   set exclusive to true, the UA must still be ready to reject an INVITE
   Join relating to this dialog.  If these dialog identifiers have
   already been shared with the Appearance Agent, the UA could send an
   INVITE Replaces to change them and then not report the new ones to
   the Appearance Agent.

   If the proxy knows which dialogs are marked exclusive, the proxy MAY
   enforce this exclusivity by rejecting INVITE Join and INVITE Replaces
   requests containing those dialog identifiers with a 403 Forbidden
   response.

      Note that exclusivity has nothing to do with appearance number
      selection or seizing - instead, it is about call control
      operations that can be performed on a dialog.

   If the <exclusive> element is not present, it is assumed to be false.

5.2.3.  The <joined-dialog> element

   The <joined-dialog> element, a child of the <dialog> element, is used
   to convey dialog identifiers of any other dialogs which are joined
   (mixed or bridged) with the dialog.  Only the UA which is the common
   endpoint of the mixed dialogs (and thus controlling the mixing
   operation) should include this element in publications to the
   Appearance Agent.  Note that this element should still be used even
   when the Join header field was not used to join the dialogs.  For
   example, two separate dialogs on a UA could be joined without any SIP
   call control operations.  Joined dialogs will share the same
   appearance number.




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   If the <joined-dialog> element is not present, it is assumed that the
   dialog is not joined or to be joined to any other dialog.

5.2.4.  The <replaced-dialog> element

   The <replaced-dialog> element, a child of the <dialog> element, is
   used to convey dialog identifiers of any other dialogs which will be
   or have been replaced with this dialog.  For example, a UA in the
   group picking up a call on another UA by sending an INVITE with
   Replaces would include this element for the replacing dialog.
   Replaced dialogs will share the same appearance number.

   If the <replaced-dialog> element is not present, it is assumed that
   the dialog has not replaced or is not to replace to any other dialog.

5.3.  Shared Appearance User Agents

   User Agents that support the Shared Appearance feature use the dialog
   state package [RFC4235] with the shared appearance extensions and the
   'shared' Event header field parameter defined in Section 13.

   User Agents use the dialog package extensions in Section 5.2 along
   with SUBSCRIBE and NOTIFY [I-D.ietf-sipcore-rfc3265bis] and PUBLISH
   [RFC3903].  SUBSCRIBE, NOTIFY, and PUBLISH requests for the dialog
   event package include the 'shared' Event header field parameter as
   required by this specification.

      The presence of the 'shared' Event header field parameter tells
      the Appearance Agent that the UA supports this specification.

   Upon initialization, the UA MUST subscribe to the dialog event
   package of the AOR and refresh the subscription per the SIP Events
   Framework.  If the SUBSCRIBE request fails, then no Appearance Agent
   may be present and this feature is not active for this AOR.  The UA
   MAY periodically retry the subscription to see if conditions have
   changed at intervals no shorter than 4 hours.

      Four hours was chosen to limit the subscription test to 6 per day
      per UA.  Increasing this interval would reduce this failure
      traffic but take longer for a newly activated Appearance Agent to
      be discovered.

   UAs can also use the presence of the 'shared' Event header field
   parameter in NOTIFYs to discover the presence of an Appearance Agent
   for the AOR.

   User Agents which implement the shared appearances feature and call
   pickup, joining and bridging MUST support sending an INVITE with



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   Replaces [RFC3891] or Join [RFC3911].  The User Agent Client needs to
   include the to-tag and from-tag information in the Replaces or Join
   header so that the correct dialog will be matched by the User Agent
   Server per the rules in RFC 3891 and RFC 3911.

   All User Agents which implement the shared appearances feature and
   support INVITE MUST support receiving an INVITE with a Replaces
   [RFC3891] or a Join [RFC3911] header field.

   When publishing or notifying dialog package information, a UA
   includes the largest set of dialog identification available at the
   time of publication, with the exception that a UA may omit
   information if it wishes to prevent other UAs from joining or picking
   up a call.  Dialog identification includes local and remote target
   URIs, call-id, to-tag, and from-tag.  While this dialog
   identification information is optional in [RFC4235], it is essential
   in the shared appearance feature, allowing call control operations.
   When placing calls on hold, use the "+sip.rendering=no" feature tag
   to indicate this in dialog package notifications.  Using the full SDP
   session description instead forces the endpoint to do a lot of extra
   parsing, unnecessarily complicating the code and inviting errors.

      The accurate rendering of the idle/active/alerting/hold state of
      other UAs in the group is an important part of the shared
      appearance feature.

   A UA that does not need to seize a particular appearance number (or
   doesn't care) would just send an INVITE as normal to place an
   outbound call.

   If the call is an emergency call, a UA MUST never wait for a
   confirmed seizure before sending an INVITE.  Instead, the emergency
   call MUST proceed without waiting for the PUBLISH transaction.

   If a UA requires a particular appearance number, the a UA MUST send a
   dialog package PUBLISH request and wait for a 2xx response before
   sending the INVITE.  This is required in the following situations:

   1.  When the user seizes a particular appearance number for an
       outgoing call (e.g. seizing the appearance and going "off-hook",
       if the UA's user interface uses this metaphor).
   2.  When the user has requested that an appearance number not be used
       for an outgoing call (i.e. during a consultation call, a 'service
       media' call such as for music on hold
       [I-D.worley-service-example] or for a call not considered part of
       the shared appearance group).





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   3.  When the user has selected to join (or bridge) an existing call.
   4.  When the user has selected to replace (or take) an existing call.

   Note that when a UA seizes an appearance prior to establishment of a
   dialog (#1 and #2 in above list), not all dialog information will be
   available.  In particular, when a UA publishes an attempt to seize an
   appearance prior to knowing the destination URI, minimal or no dialog
   information may be available.  For example, in some cases, only the
   local target URI for the call will be known and no dialog
   information.  If the From tag and Call-ID were not present in the
   initial PUBLISH, a new PUBLISH MUST be sent as soon as this
   information is available.

      The first publication will cause the Appearance Agent to reserve
      the appearance number for this UA.  If the publication does not
      have any dialog identifiers (e.g.  Call-ID, or local tag) the
      Appearance Agent cannot assign the appearance number to a
      particular dialog of the UA until the second publication which
      will contain some dialog identifiers.

   This publication state is refreshed as described in [RFC3903] during
   the early dialog state or the Appearance Agent may reassign the
   appearance number.  Once the dialog has transitioned to the confirmed
   state, no publication refreshes are necessary.

      This specification assumes that the Appearance Agent has other
      means besides UA publication to learn about the state of UA
      dialogs.  In this specification, PUBLISH is used to indicate
      desired and intended appearance number operations.  Once a dialog
      transitions from early to confirmed, this role is over, and hence
      no publication refreshes are needed.

   Appearance numbers are a shorthand label for active and pending
   dialogs related to an AOR.  Many of the features and services built
   using this extension rely on the correct rendering of this
   information to the human user.  In addition, the group nature of the
   feature means that the rendering must be similar between different
   vendors and different models.  Failure to do so will greatly reduce
   the value and usefulness of these protocol extensions.  In a
   correctly designed user interface for this feature, the appearances
   number for each active and pending dialog is explicitly (i.e. by
   appearance number) or implicitly (using a user interface metaphor
   that makes the numbering and ordering clear to the user) rendered to
   the user.  The far end identity of each dialog (e.g. the remote party
   identity) is not a useful replacement for the appearance number.  The
   state of each appearance is also be rendered (idle, active, busy,
   joined, etc.).  UAs can tell that a set of dialogs are joined
   (bridged or mixed) together by the presence of one or more <joined-



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   dialog> elements containing other SIP dialog identifiers.  Appearance
   numbers of dialogs can be learned by dialog package notifications
   containing the <appearance> element from the Appearance Agent or from
   the 'appearance' Alert-Info parameter in an incoming INVITE.  Should
   they conflict, the dialog package notification takes precedence.

   A user may select an appearance number but then abandon placing a
   call (go back on hook).  In this case, the UA frees up the appearance
   number by removing the event state with a PUBLISH as described in
   [RFC3903].  A failure to do this will require extra unnecessary
   operations by the Appearance Agent, and also tie up appearance
   numbers which could otherwise be used by other UAs in the appearance
   group.

   A UA SHOULD register against the AOR only if it is likely the UA will
   be answering incoming calls.  If the UA is mainly going to be
   monitoring the status of the shared appearance group calls and
   picking or joining calls, the UA SHOULD only subscribe to the AOR and
   not register against the AOR.  If a monitoring UA registers rather
   than just subscribing generates large amounts of unnecessary network
   traffic.

      All subscribed UAs will receive dialog package NOTIFYs of trying
      state for incoming INVITEs.

   A UA MUST NOT insert an 'appearance' parameter into an Alert-Info
   header field in an INVITE or other request.

      The Appearance Agent is solely responsible for doing this.

5.3.1.  Appearance Numbers and Call Context

   There are cases where two separate dialogs at a UA are not mixed but
   share the same 'context'.  That is, they relate to each other and
   should not be treated the same as any other two dialogs within the
   group.  One example of this is a 'consultation call' where a user
   puts an existing dialog on hold, then calls another user, before
   switching back to the original dialog.  Another case, described
   below, occurs during transfer operations, where for a transient
   period, a UA is involved in dialogs with two other UAs, but the
   dialogs are related, and should not be treated as independent
   dialogs.  These cases are best handled by not assigning an appearance
   number to a newly-created dialog when it shares a context with an
   existing dialog.  But if the pre-existing dialog is terminated, its
   appearance number should be reassigned to the newly-created dialog.

   A UA wanting to place a call but not have an appearance number
   assigned sends a PUBLISH before sending the INVITE.  The PUBLISH does



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   not have an 'appearance' element present, but does have the 'shared'
   Event header field parameter present.  If the Appearance Agent policy
   does not allow calls without an assigned appearance number, a 400
   (Bad Request) response is sent by the Appearance Agent and the UA
   will republish either selecting/seizing an appearance number or send
   the INVITE without publishing, in which case the Appearance Agent
   will assign one.

      Note that if an Appearance Agent rejects calls without an
      appearance number, certain operations such as consultation calls,
      transfer, and music on hold may be negatively impacted.

5.3.2.  Appearance Numbers and Call Control

   When an INVITE is generated to attempt to bridge or take a call (i.e.
   contains Join or Replaces with a dialog identifier of another dialog
   in the shared appearance group), the UA MUST first send a PUBLISH to
   the Appearance Agent.  This PUBLISH will contain:

   1.  The appearance number of the joined or replaced call in the
       <appearance> element
   2.  If the dialog is being joined, the <joined-dialog> element will
       contain the dialog information from the Join header field
   3.  If the dialog is being replaced, the <replaced-dialog> element
       will contain the dialog information from the Replaces header
       field

      Note that this information is provided to the Appearance Agent so
      that it can provide proper appearance assignment behavior.  If the
      INVITE Join or Replaces was sent without publishing first, the
      Appearance Agent might assign a new appearance number to this
      INVITE, which would be a mistake.  With Join, the publication has
      the <joined-dialog> element to prevent the Appearance Agent from
      generating a 400 (Bad Request) response due to the reuse of an
      appearance number.  For Replaces, the purpose of the <replaced-
      dialog> is to prevent a race condition where the BYE could cause
      the appearance number to be released when it should stay with the
      replacing dialog.

5.3.3.  Appearance Numbers and Transfer

   During a transfer operation, it is important that the appearance
   number not change during the operation.  Consider the example of
   Alice, a member of an appearance group, who is talking to Carol, who
   is outside the appearance group.  Carol transfers Alice to David, who
   is also outside the appearance group.  For example, if Alice is using
   appearance 3 for the session with Carol, the resulting session with
   David should also use appearance number 3.  Otherwise, an appearance



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   number change can cause a "jump" on the UI and confusion to the user.
   There are two possible scenarios using the terminology of RFC 5589:
   Alice is the transferee in any type of transfer (receives the REFER)
   or the transfer target in an attended transfer (receives the INVITE
   with Replaces).

   If Alice is the transferee, the triggered INVITE from the REFER is
   treated as a consultation call.  Alice SHOULD publish requesting that
   the Appearance Agent not assign an appearance number for this INVITE.
   When the transfer completes, Alice SHOULD publish again to move the
   appearance number from the dialog with Carol to the dialog with
   David.  If a PUBLISH is sent to move the appearance number, the
   publication MUST be sent prior to sending the BYE to Carol to avoid a
   race condition where the Appearance Agent reassigns the appearance
   number after seeing the BYE.

   If Alice is the target, the incoming INVITE will contain a Replaces
   header field.  As a result, the Appearance Agent will have reused the
   appearance number of the dialog with Carol, and this appearance
   number will continue to be used after the dialog with Carol has been
   terminated.

5.4.  Appearance Agent

   An Appearance Agent defined in this specification MUST implement a
   dialog package state agent for the UAs registered against the AOR.
   The Appearance Agent MUST support the appearance dialog package
   extensions defined in Section 5.2 and use the 'shared' Event header
   field parameter.  The Appearance Agent MUST support publications and
   subscriptions for this event package.

   The Appearance Agent MUST have a way of discovering the state of all
   dialogs associated with the AOR.  If this information is not
   available from a call stateful proxy or Back-to-Back User Agent
   (B2BUA), the Appearance Agent can use the registration event package
   [RFC3680] to learn of UAs associated with the AOR and subscribe to
   their dialog event state.  An Appearance Agent can also subscribe to
   a UAs dialog event state in order to reconstruct state.  As a result,
   the registrar MUST support the registration event package.  Dialog
   package notifications are recommended by RFC 4235 to "only contain
   information on the dialogs whose state or participation information
   has changed."  This specification extends RFC 4235 as follows.  The
   Appearance Agent SHOULD send dialog event state notifications
   whenever the following events happen to UAs in the AOR group:

   1.  A call is received, placed, answered, or terminated.





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   2.  A call is placed on or off hold.
   3.  A call is joined or replaced.
   4.  An appearance number is reserved or released.

   The Appearance Agent MUST allocate an appearance number for all
   incoming calls and send immediate notifications to the UAs subscribed
   to the shared group AOR.  A new appearance number is allocated except
   for an incoming INVITE with a Join or Replaces header field.  For
   this case, the appearance number should match the appearance number
   of the dialog being joined or replaced.  If the INVITE Replaces or
   Join comes from outside the appearance group, the Appearance Agent
   will include a <joined-dialog> or <replaced-dialog> element in the
   NOTIFY containing the dialog information from the Replaces or Joined
   header field.

   The Appearance Agent MUST be able to communicate with the forking
   proxy to learn about incoming calls and also to pass the appearance
   number to the proxy, or otherwise ensure the Alert-Info header field
   is included in the INVITE with the appropriate appearance number.

      Note that UAs need to be able to handle incoming INVITEs without
      an appearance number assigned.  This could be caused by a failure
      of the Appearance Agent or other error condition.  Although the
      proper rendering of the INVITE may not be possible, this is better
      than ignoring or failing the INVITE.

   An Appearance Agent SHOULD assign an appearance number to an outgoing
   dialog if a PUBLISH has not been received selecting/seizing a
   particular appearance number.

      Note that if the appearance group has appearance-unaware UAs
      making calls, the Appearance Agent will still allocate appearance
      numbers for INVITEs sent by those UAs.

   An Appearance Agent receiving a PUBLISH with an appearance number
   checks to make sure the publication is valid.  An appearance number
   can be assigned to only one dialog unless there is a <joined-dialog>
   or <replaced-dialog> element indicating that the dialog will be/has
   been replaced or joined.  A 400 (Bad Request) response is returned if
   the chosen appearance number is invalid, and an immediate NOTIFY
   SHOULD be sent to the UA containing full dialog event state.

   An Appearance Agent receiving a PUBLISH without an appearance number
   but with the 'shared' Event header field parameter present interprets
   this as a request by the UA to not assign an appearance number.  If
   the Appearance Agent policy does not allow this, a 400 (Bad Request)
   response is returned.  If policy does allow this, a 200 OK response
   is returned and no appearance number is allocated.  An Appearance



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   Agent does not have to share this dialog information (i.e. send a
   NOTIFY) with other UAs in the group as the information will not be
   rendered by the other UAs.

   The Appearance Agent allocates an apperance number to a dialog from
   the time the appearance is requested via a PUBLISH or from the
   receipt of an INVITE, to the time when the last dialog associated
   with the appearance is terminated, including all dialogs which are
   joined or replaced.  During the early dialog state, the Appearance
   Agent controls the rate of dialog state publication using the Expires
   header field in 200 OK responses to PUBLISH requests.  An interval of
   3 minutes is RECOMMENDED.  After the dialog associated with the
   publication has been confirmed, the expiration of the publication
   state has no effect on the appearance allocation.  If the publication
   contains no dialog state information, the Appearance Agent MUST
   reserve the appearance number for the UA but can not assign the
   appearance to any particular dialog of the UA.  When the publication
   state is updated with any dialog information, the appearance number
   can then be assigned to the particular dialog.  A UA which has been
   allocated an appearance number using a PUBLISH MAY free up the
   appearance number by removing the event state with a PUBLISH as
   described in [RFC3903].

   If an INVITE is sent by a member of the group to the shared AOR (i.e.
   they call their own AOR), the Appearance Agent MUST assign two
   appearance numbers.  The first appearance number will be the one
   selected or assigned to the outgoing INVITE.  The second appearance
   number will be another one assigned by the Appearance Agent for the
   INVITE as it is forked back to the members of the group.

      The is to preserve a common behavior in legacy systems.

   If an INVITE is sent by a member of the group using the shared AOR or
   sent to the shared AOR and no appearance number is available, the
   proxy MAY reject the INVITE with a 403 Forbidden response code.

   Appearance numbers are only used for dialogs in which one or more UAs
   associated with the group AOR is a participant.  If an incoming
   INVITE to the group AOR is forwarded to another AOR, the appearance
   number is immediately freed up and can be assigned to another dialog.


6.  XML Schema Definition

   The 'appearance', 'joined-dialog', 'replaced-dialog', and 'exclusive'
   elements are defined within a new XML namespace URI.  This namespace
   is "urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:sa-dialog-info".  The schema for these
   elements is:



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   <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
     <xs:schema
       targetNamespace="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:sa-dialog-info"
       xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:sa-dialog-info"
       xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
       elementFormDefault="qualified">


      <xs:element name="joined-dialog" minOccurs="0"
                                            maxOccurs="unbounded">
           <xs:complexType>
               <xs:attribute name="call-id" type="xs:string"
                 use="mandatory"/>
               <xs:attribute name="local-tag" type="xs:string"
                 use="mandatory"/>
               <xs:attribute name="remote-tag" type="xs:string"
                 use="mandatory"/>
           </xs:complexType>
      </xs:element>

      <xs:element name="replaced-dialog" minOccurs="0"
                                             maxOccurs="unbounded">
           <xs:complexType>
               <xs:attribute name="call-id" type="xs:string"
                 use="mandatory"/>
               <xs:attribute name="local-tag" type="xs:string"
                 use="mandatory"/>
               <xs:attribute name="remote-tag" type="xs:string"
                 use="mandatory"/>
           </xs:complexType>
       </xs:element>

       <xs:element name="appearance" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1">
           <xs:simpleType type="xs:integer">
           </xs:simpleType>
       </xs:element>

       <xs:element name="exclusive" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1">
           <xs:simpleType type="xs:boolean">
           </xs:simpleType>
       </xs:element>
   </xs:schema>









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7.  Alert-Info Appearance Parameter Definition

   This specification extends RFC 3261 [RFC3261] to add an 'appearance'
   parameter to the Alert-Info header field, and to also allow proxies
   to modify or delete the Alert-Info header field.

   The changes to RFC 3261 ABNF [RFC5234] are:

        alert-param      =  LAQUOT absoluteURI RAQUOT *( SEMI
                              (generic-param / appearance-param) )
        appearance-param = "appearance" EQUAL 1*DIGIT

   A proxy inserting an 'appearance' Alert-Info parameter follows normal
   Alert-Info policies.  To indicate the appearance number for this
   dialog, the proxy adds the Alert-Info header field with the
   'appearance' parameter to the INVITE.  If an Alert-Info is already
   present, the proxy adds the 'appearance' parameter to the Alert-Info
   header field.  If an appearance number parameter is already present
   (associated with another AOR or by mistake), the value is rewritten
   adding the new appearance number.  There MUST NOT be more than one
   appearance parameter in an Alert-Info header field.

   If no special ringtone is desired, a normal ringtone SHOULD be
   indicated using the urn:alert:service:normal in the Alert-Info, as
   per [I-D.ietf-salud-alert-info-urns].  The appearance number present
   in an Alert-Info header field SHOULD be rendered by the UA to the
   user, following the guidelines in Section 5.3.  If the INVITE is
   forwarded to another AOR, the appearance parameter in the Alert-Info
   SHOULD be removed before forwarding outside the group.

   The determination as to what value to use in the appearance parameter
   can be done at the proxy that forks the incoming request to all the
   registered UAs.

      There are a variety of ways the proxy can use to determine what
      value it should use to populate this parameter.  For example, the
      proxy could fetch this information by initiating a SUBSCRIBE
      request with Expires: 0 to the Appearance Agent for the AOR to
      fetch the list of lines that are in use.  Alternatively, it could
      act like a UA that is a part of the appearance group and SUBSCRIBE
      to the State-Agent like any other UA.  This would ensure that the
      active dialog information is available without having to poll on a
      need basis.  It could keep track of the list of active calls for
      the appearance AOR based on how many unique INVITE requests it has
      forked to or received from the appearance AOR.  Another approach
      would be for the Proxy to first send the incoming INVITE to the
      Appearance Agent which would redirect to the appearance group URI
      and escape the proper Alert-Info header field for the Proxy to



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      recurse and distribute to the other UAs in the group.
      The Appearance Agent needs to know about all incoming requests to
      the AOR in order to seize the appearance number.  One way in which
      this could be done is for the Appearance Agent to register against
      the AOR with a higher q value.  This will result in the INVITE
      being sent to the Appearance Agent first, then being offered to
      the UAs in the group.


8.  User Interface Considerations

   The "appearance number" allocated to a call is an important concept
   that enables calls to be handled by multiple devices with
   heterogeneous user interfaces in a manner that still allows users to
   see a consistent model.  Careful treatment of the appearance number
   is essential to meet the expectations of the users.  Also, rendering
   the correct call/appearance state to users is also important.

8.1.  Appearance Number Rendering

   Since different UAs have different user interface capabilities, it is
   usual to find that some UAs have restrictions that others do not.
   Perfect interoperability across all UAs is clearly not possible, but
   by careful design, interoperability up to the limits of each UA can
   be achieved.

   The following guidelines suggest how the appearance number should be
   handled in three typical user interface implementations.

8.1.1.  Single Appearance UAs

   These devices are constrained by only having the capability of
   displaying status indications for a single appearance.  The UA SHOULD
   still send messages annotated with appearance number "1".  Any call
   indications for appearances other than for number "1" SHOULD be
   rejected with a 486 or 480 response.  Note that this means that a
   single appearance UA cannot answer its own call to the shared AOR,
   since this call would use a second appearance number.

8.1.2.  Dual Appearance UAs

   These devices are essentially single appearance phones that implement
   call waiting.  They have a very simple user interface that allows
   them to switch between two appearances (toggle or flash hook) and
   perhaps audible tones to indicate the status of the other appearance.
   Only appearance numbers "1" and "2" will be used by these UAs.





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8.1.3.  Shared Appearance UAs with Fixed Appearance Number

   This UA is the typical 'business-class' hard-phone.  A number of
   appearances are typically configured statically and labeled on
   buttons, and calls may be managed using these configured appearances.
   Any calls outside this range should be rejected, and not mapped to a
   free button.  Users of these devices often seize specific appearance
   numbers for outgoing calls, and the UA will need to seize the
   appearance number and wait for confirmation from the Appearance Agent
   before proceeding with calls.

8.1.4.  Shared Appearance UAs with Variable Appearance Number

   This UA is typically a soft-phone or graphically rich user interface
   hard-phone.  In these cases, even the idea of an appearance index may
   seem unnecessary.  However, for these phones to be able to interwork
   successfully with other phone types, it is important that they still
   use the appearance index to govern the order of appearance of calls
   in progress.  No specific guidance on presentation is given except
   that the order should be consistent.  These devices can typically
   make calls without waiting for confirmation from the Appearance Agent
   on the appearance number.

8.1.5.  Example User Interface Issues

   The problems faced by each style of user interface are readily seen
   in this example:

   1.  A call arrives at the shared appearance group, and is assigned an
       appearance number of "1".  All UAs should be able to render to
       the user the arrival of this call.
   2.  Another call arrives at the shared appearance group, and is
       assigned an appearance number of "2".  The single appearance UA
       should not present this call to the user.  Other user agents
       should have no problems presenting this call distinctly from the
       first call.
   3.  The first call clears, releasing appearance number "1".  The
       single appearance UA should now be indicating no calls since it
       is unable to manage calls other than on the first appearance.
       Both shared appearance UAs should clearly show that appearance
       number "1" is now free, but that there is still a call on
       appearance number "2".
   4.  A third call arrives, and is assigned the appearance number of
       "1".  All UAs should be able to render the arrival of this new
       call to the user.  Multiple appearance UAs should continue to
       indicate the presence of the second call, and should also ensure
       that the presentation order is related to the appearance number
       and not the order of call arrival.



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8.2.  Call State Rendering

   UAs that implement the shared appearance feature typically have a
   user interface that provides the state of other appearances in the
   group.  As dialog state NOTIFYs from the Appearance Agent are
   processed, this information can be rendered.  Even the simplest user
   interface typically has three states: idle, active, and hold.  The
   idle state, usually indicated by lamp off, is indicated for an
   appearance when the appearance number is not associated with any
   dialogs, as reported by the Appearance Agent.  The active state,
   usually indicated by a lamp on, is indicated by an appearance number
   being associated with at least one dialog, as reported by the
   Appearance Agent.  The hold state, often indicated by a blinking
   lamp, means the call state from the perspective of the UA in the
   shared appearance group is hold.  This can be determined by the
   presence of the "+sip.rendering=no" feature tag [RFC3840] with the
   local target URI.  Note that the hold state of the remote target URI
   is not relevant to this display.  For joined dialogs, the state is
   rendered as hold only if all local target URIs are indicated with the
   "+sip.rendering=no" feature tag.


9.  Interoperability with non-Shared Appearance UAs

   It is desirable to allow a basic UA that does not directly support
   shared appearance to be part of a shared appearance group.  To
   support this the Proxy must collaborate with the Appearance Agent.
   This is not required in the basic shared appearance architecture,
   consequently shared appearance interoperability with non-shared
   appearance UAs will not be available in all shared appearance
   deployments.

   First, a UA which does not support dialog events or the shared
   appearance feature will be discussed.  Then, a UA which does support
   dialog events but not the shared appearance feature will be
   discussed.

9.1.  Appearance Assignment

   A UA that has no knowledge of appearances must will only have
   appearance numbers for outgoing calls if assigned by the Appearance
   Agent.  If the non-shared appearance UA does not support Join or
   Replaces, all dialogs SHOULD be marked "exclusive" to indicate that
   these options are not available.  Marking these dialogs "exclusive"
   provides a better user experience and avoids extra SIP messaging
   failures.





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9.2.  Appearance Release

   In all cases the Appearance Agent must be aware of dialog lifetime to
   release appearances back into the group.

   It is also desirable that any dialog state changes (such as hold,
   etc) be made available to other UAs in the group through the Dialog
   Event Package.  If the Appearance Agent includes a proxy which
   Record-Routes for dialogs from the non-shared appearance aware UA,
   the Appearance Agent will know about the state of dialogs including
   hold, etc.  This information could be determined from inspection of
   non-end-to-end-encrypted INVITE and re-INVITE messages and added to
   the dialog information conveyed to other UAs.

9.3.  UAs Supporting Dialog Events but Not Shared Appearance

   Interoperability with UAs which support dialog events but not the
   shared appearance feature is more straightforward.  As before, all
   appearance number assignment must be done by the Appearance Agent.
   The Appearance Agent SHOULD still include appearance information in
   NOTIFYs - this UA will simply ignore this extra information.  This
   type of UA will also ignore appearance number limitations and may
   attempt to Join or Replace dialogs marked exclusive.  As a result,
   the Proxy or UAs need to reject such requests or the dialogs will get
   joined or taken.


10.  Provisioning Considerations

   UAs can automatically discover if this feature is active for an AOR
   by looking for the 'shared' Event header field parameter in a
   response to a dialog package SUBSCRIBE to the AOR, so no provisioning
   for this is needed.

   The registrar will need to be provisioned to accept either first or
   third party registrations for the shared AOR.  First party
   registration means the To and From URIs in the REGISTER request are
   the shared AOR URI.  Third party registration means the To URI is the
   shared AOR URI and the From URI is a different AOR, perhaps that of
   the individual user.  Either the credentials of the shared AOR or the
   user MUST be accepted by the registrar and the Appearance Agent,
   depending on the authorization policy in place for the domain.

   If the Appearance Agent needs to subscribe to the dialog state of the
   UAs, then the Appearance Agent and the UAs need to be provisioned
   with credentials so the UAs can authenticate the Appearance Agent.

   In some cases, UAs in the shared appearance group might have a UI



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   limitation on the number of appearances that can be rendered.
   Typically this will be hard phones with buttons/lamps instead of more
   flexible UIs.  In this case, it can be useful for the Appearance
   Agent to know this maximum number.  This can allow the Appearance
   Agent to apply policy when this limit is reached, e.g. deny a call.
   However, this mechanism does not provide any way to discover this by
   protocol means.


11.  Example Message Flows

   The next section shows call flow and message examples.  The flows and
   descriptions are non-normative.  Note that in these examples, all
   INVITEs sent by a UA in the group will be From the shared AOR
   (sip:HelpDesk@example.com in this case), and all INVITES sent to the
   group will have a Request-URI of the shared AOR.  Any other requests
   would not apply to this feature and would be handled using normal SIP
   mechanisms.

   Note that the first twelve examples assume the Appearance Agent is
   aware of dialog state events.  The example in Section 11.13 shows the
   case where this is not the case and as a result the Appearance Agent
   initiates a subscription to users of the shared AOR.  Any of the
   other call flow examples could have shown this mode of operation as
   it is equally valid.

11.1.  Registration and Subscription

   Bob and Alice are in an appearance group identified by the shared
   appearance AOR sip:HelpDesk@example.com.  Bob REGISTERs using contact
   sip:bob@ua2.example.com.  Alice REGISTERs with contact
   sip:alice@ua1.example.com.

   User Agents for Alice and Bob subscribe to the dialog package for the
   appearance AOR and publish dialog state to the Appearance Agent.
   Message exchanges between the Registrar, Appearance Agent, Alice, and
   Bob are shown below.  The call flow examples below do not show the
   authentication of subscriptions, publications, and notifications.  It
   should be noted that for security purposes, all publications and
   subscriptions must be authorized before they are accepted.

   Also note that registrations and subscriptions must all be refreshed
   by Alice at intervals determined by the expiration intervals returned
   by the Registrar or Appearance Agent.

   Registrar     Appearance Agent          Alice             Bob
   |                    |                    |                |
   |                    |                    |                |



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   |<--------------------------- REGISTER F1<|                |
   |                    |                    |                |
   |>F2 200 OK ----------------------------->|                |
   |                    |                    |                |
   |                    |<----- SUBSCRIBE F3<|                |
   |                    |                    |                |
   |                    |>F4 200 OK -------->|                |
   |                    |                    |                |
   |                    |>F5 NOTIFY -------->|                |
   |                    |                    |                |
   |                    |<-------- 200 OK F6<|                |
   |                    |                    |                |
   |<-------------------------------------------- REGISTER F7<|
   |                    |                    |                |
   |>F8 200 OK ---------------------------------------------->|
   |                    |                    |                |
   |                    |<---------------------- SUBSCRIBE F9<|
   |                    |                    |                |
   |                    |>F10 200 OK ------------------------>|
   |                    |                    |                |
   |                    |>F11 NOTIFY ------------------------>|
   |                    |                    |                |
   |                    |<------------------------ 200 OK F12<|
   |                    |                    |                |

   Figure 1.

   F1-F2: Alice registers AOR with
          contact: <sip:alice@ua1.example.com>

   F1 Alice ----> Registrar

   REGISTER sip:registrar.example.com SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ua1.example.com;branch=z9hG4bK527b54da8ACC7B09
   From: <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=CDF9A668-909E2BDD
   To: <sip:HelpDesk@example.com>
   CSeq: 2 REGISTER
   Call-ID: d3281184-518783de-cc23d6bb
   Contact: <sip:alice@ua1.example.com>
   Max-Forwards: 70
   Expires: 3600
   Content-Length: 0


   F2 Registrar ----> Alice

   SIP/2.0 200 OK
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ua1.example.com;branch=z9hG4bK527b54da8ACC7B09



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   CSeq: 2 REGISTER
   Call-ID: d3281184-518783de-cc23d6bb
   From: <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=CDF9A668-909E2BDD
   To: <sip:HelpDesk@example.com>;tag=1664573879820199
   Contact:  <sip:alice@ua1.example.com>;expires=3600
   Content-Length: 0


   F3 to F6: Alice also subscribes to the events associated with the
   Appearance AOR. Appearance Agent notifies Alice of the status.

   F3 Alice ----> Appearance Agent

   SUBSCRIBE sip:HelpDesk@example.com SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ua1.example.com;branch=z9hG4bKf10fac97E7A76D6A
   From: <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=925A3CAD-CEBB276E
   To: <sip:HelpDesk@example.com>
   CSeq: 91 SUBSCRIBE
   Call-ID: ef4704d9-bb68aa0b-474c9d94
   Contact: <sip:alice@ua1.example.com>
   Event: dialog;shared
   Accept: application/dialog-info+xml
   Max-Forwards: 70
   Expires: 3700
   Content-Length: 0


   F4 Appearance Agent ----> Alice

   SIP/2.0 200 OK
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ua1.example.com;branch=z9hG4bKf10fac97E7A76D6A
   CSeq: 91 SUBSCRIBE
   Call-ID: ef4704d9-bb68aa0b-474c9d94
   From: <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=925A3CAD-CEBB276E
   To: <sip:HelpDesk@example.com>;tag=1636248422222257
   Allow-Events: dialog
   Expires: 3700
   Contact: <sip:appearanceagent.example.com>
   Content-Length: 0


   F5 Appearance Agent ----> Alice

   NOTIFY sip:alice@ua1.example.com SIP/2.0
   From: <sip:HelpDesk@example.com>;tag=1636248422222257
   To: <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=925A3CAD-CEBB276E
   Call-ID: ef4704d9-bb68aa0b-474c9d94
   CSeq: 232 NOTIFY



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   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP appearanceagent.example.com;branch=z9hG4bK1846
   Max-Forwards: 70
   Content-Type: application/dialog-info+xml
   Event: dialog;shared
   Subscription-State: active;expires=3000
   Contact: <appearanceagent.example.com>
   Content-Length: ...

   <?xml version="1.0"?>
   <dialog-info xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:dialog-info"
                version="40"
                state="full"
                entity="sip:HelpDesk@example.com">
   </dialog-info>


   F6 Alice ----> Appearance Agent

   SIP/2.0 200 OK
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP appearanceagent.example.com;branch=z9hG4bK1846
   From: <sip:HelpDesk@example.com>;tag=1636248422222257
   To: <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=925A3CAD-CEBB276E
   CSeq: 232 NOTIFY
   Call-ID: ef4704d9-bb68aa0b-474c9d94
   Contact: <sip:alice@ua1.example.com>
   Content-Length: 0


   F7 Bob ----> Registrar

   REGISTER sip:registrar.example.com SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ua2.example.com;branch=z9hG4b53b54d87B
   From: <sip:bob@example.com>;tag=34831131
   To: <sip:HelpDesk@example.com>
   CSeq: 72 REGISTER
   Call-ID: 139490230230249348
   Contact: <sip:bob@ua2.example.com>
   Max-Forwards: 70
   Expires: 3600
   Content-Length: 0


   F8 Registrar ----> Bob

   SIP/2.0 200 OK
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ua2.example.com;branch=z9hG4b53b54d87B
   From: <sip:bob@example.com>;tag=34831131
   To: <sip:HelpDesk@example.com>;tag=fkwlwqi1



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   CSeq: 72 REGISTER
   Call-ID: 139490230230249348
   Contact: <sip:alice@ua1.example.com>;expires=3200
   Contact: <sip:bob@ua2.example.com>;expires=3600
   Content-Length: 0




11.2.  Appearance Selection for Incoming Call

   In the call flow below Bob and Alice are in an appearance group.
   Carol places a call to the appearance group AOR.  The Appearance
   Agent sends NOTIFYs to Alice and Bob telling them what appearance the
   call is using.  Both Alice and Bob's devices are alerted of the
   incoming call.  Bob answers the call.

   Note that it is possible that both Alice and Bob answer the call and
   send 200 OK responses to Carol.  It is up to Carol to resolve this
   situation.  Typically, Carol will send ACKs to both 200 OKs but send
   a BYE to terminate one of the dialogs.  As a result, either Alice or
   Bob will receive the BYE and publish that their dialog is over.
   However, if Carol answers both Alice and Bob and keeps both dialogs
   active, then the Appearance Agent will need to resolve the situation
   by moving either Alice or Bob's dialog to a different appearance.

   All NOTIFY messages in the call flow below carry dialog events and
   only dialog states are mentioned for simplicity.  For brevity, the
   details of some messages are not shown below.  Note that the order of
   F2 - F5 and F7 - F8 could be reversed.

              Forking     Appearance
   Carol      Proxy         Agent         Alice      Bob
   |            |             |             |         |
   |>F1 INVITE >|             |             |         |
   |            |< - - - - - >|             |         |
   |            |             |>F2 NOTIFY ----------->|
   |            |             |             |         |
   |            |             |<F3 200 OK -----------<|
   |            |             |             |         |
   |            |             |>F4 NOTIFY ->|         |
   |            |             |             |         |
   |            |             |<-200 OK F5-<|         |
   |<- 100 F6 -<|             |             |         |
   |            |>F7 INVITE (appearance=1) ---------->|
   |            |             |             |         |
   |            |>F8 INVITE (appearance=1) >|         |
   |            |             |             |         |



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   |            |<-------------------- Ringing 180 F9<|
   |< 180 F10 -<|             |             |         |
   |            |<--------- 180 Ringing F11<|         |
   |< 180 F12 -<|             |             |         |
   |            |             |             |         |
   |            |<------------------------ 200 OK F13<|
   |< 200 F14 -<|             |             |         |
   |            |             |             |         |
   |            |>F15 CANCEL -------------->|         |
   |            |             |             |         |
   |            |<-------------- 200 OK F16<|         |
   |            |             |             |         |
   |            |<Request Cancelled 487 F17<|         |
   |            |             |             |         |
   |            |>F18 ACK ----------------->|         |
   |>F19 ACK -->|             |             |         |
   |            |>F20 ACK --------------------------->|
   |            |             |             |         |
   |<=============Both way RTP established===========>|
   |            |             |             |         |
   |            |< - - - - - >|             |         |
   |            |             |             |         |
   |            |             |>F21 NOTIFY >|         |
   |            |             |             |         |
   |            |             |<- 200 F22 -<|         |
   |            |             |             |         |
   |            |             |>F23 NOTIFY ---------->|
   |            |             |             |         |
   |            |             |<F24 200 OK ----------<|
   |            |             |                       |

   Figure 2.


   F4 Appearance Agent ----> Alice

   NOTIFY sip:alice@ua1.example.com SIP/2.0
   From: <sip:HelpDesk@example.com>;tag=151702541050937
   To: <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=18433323-C3D237CE
   Call-ID: 1e361d2f-a9f51109-bafe31d4
   CSeq: 12 NOTIFY
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP appearanceagent.example.com;branch=z9hG4bK1403
   Max-Forwards: 70
   Content-Type: application/dialog-info+xml
   Event: dialog;shared
   Subscription-State: active;expires=2800
   Contact: <appearanceagent.example.com>
   Content-Length: ...



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   <?xml version="1.0"?>
   <dialog-info xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:dialog-info"
                xmlns:sa="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:sa-dialog-info"
                version="13"
                state="partial"
                entity="sip:HelpDesk@example.com">
      <dialog id="2a7294823093f5274e3fd2ec54a2d76c"
           call-id="14-1541707345"
           remote-tag="44BAD75D-E3128D42"
           direction="recipient">
         <sa:appearance>1</sa:appearance>
         <state>trying</state>
         <remote>
           <identity>sip:carol@ua.example.com</identity>
         </remote>
      </dialog>
   </dialog-info>


   F7 Proxy ----> Bob

   INVITE sip:bob@ua2.example.com SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ua3.example.com;branch=z9hG4bK4324ea
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP proxy.example.com;branch=z9hG4bK38432ji
   From: <sip:carol@example.com>;tag=44BAD75D-E3128D42
   To: <sip:HelpDesk@example.com>
   CSeq: 106 INVITE
   Call-ID: 14-1541707345
   Contact: <sip:carol@ua3.example.com>
   Max-Forwards: 69
   Alert-Info: <urn:alert:service:normal>;appearance=1
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: ...

   v=0
   o=- 1102980499 1102980499 IN IP4 ua3.example.com
   s=
   c=IN IP4 ua3.example.com
   t=0 0
   m=audio 2238 RTP/AVP 0 8 101
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
   a=rtpmap:8 PCMA/8000
   a=rtpmap:101 telephone-event/8000


   F21 Appearance Agent ----> Alice

   NOTIFY sip:alice@ua1.example.com SIP/2.0



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   From: <sip:HelpDesk@example.com>;tag=151702541050937
   To: <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=18433323-C3D237CE
   Call-ID: 1e361d2f-a9f51109-bafe31d4
   CSeq: 13 NOTIFY
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP appearanceagent.example.com;branch=z9hG4bK4164F03j
   Max-Forwards: 70
   Content-Type: application/dialog-info+xml
   Event: dialog;shared
   Subscription-State: active;expires=2500
   Contact: <appearanceagent.example.com>
   Content-Length: ...

   <?xml version="1.0"?>
   <dialog-info xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:dialog-info"
                xmlns:sa="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:sa-dialog-info"
                version="17"
                state="partial"
                entity="sip:HelpDesk@example.com">
      <dialog id="2a7294823093f5274e3fd2ec54a2d76c"
           call-id="14-1541707345"
           remote-tag="44BAD75D-E3128D42"
           local-tag="7349dsfjkFD03s"
           direction="recipient">
         <sa:appearance>1</sa:appearance>
         <state>confirmed</state>
         <local>
           <target>sip:bob@ua2.example.com</target>
         </local>
         <remote>
           <identity>sip:carol@ua.example.com</identity>
         </remote>
      </dialog>
   </dialog-info>


11.3.  Outgoing Call without Appearance Seizure

   In this scenario, Bob's UA places a call without first selecting/
   seizing an appearance number.  After Bob sends the INVITE, the
   appearance assigns an appearance number for it and notifies both
   Alice and Bob.


   Carol        Proxy           Alice     Appearance Agent         Bob
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |<------------------------------------- INVITE F1<|
   |              |               |              |                  |



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   |              |>F2 100 Trying --------------------------------->|
   |<-- INVITE F3<|               |              |                  |
   |              |< - - - - - - - - - - - - - ->|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |<-- NOTIFY F4<|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |>F5 200 OK -->|                  |
   |              |               |              |------- NOTIFY F6>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<F7 200 OK ------<|
   |>F8 180  ---->|               |              |                  |
   |              |>F9 180 Ringing -------------------------------->|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |< - - - - - - - - - - - - - ->|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |<- NOTIFY F10<|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |>F11 200 OK ->|                  |
   |              |               |              |------ NOTIFY F12>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<F13 200 OK -----<|
   |>F14 200 OK ->|               |              |                  |
   |              |>F15 200 OK ------------------------------------>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |<--------------------------------------- ACK F16<|
   |<---- ACK F17<|               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |<================= Both way RTP established ===================>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |< - - - - - - - - - - - - - ->|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |<- NOTIFY F18<|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |>F19 200 OK ->|                  |
   |              |               |              |------ NOTIFY F20>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<F21 200 OK -----<|
   |              |               |              |                  |

   Figure 3.


   F1 Bob ----> Proxy

   INVITE sip:carol@example.com SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ua2.example.com;branch=z9hG4bK98c87c52123A08BF
   From: <sip:HelpDesk@example.com>;tag=15A3DE7C-9283203B
   To: <sip:carol@example.com>



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   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   Call-ID: f3b3cbd0-a2c5775e-5df9f8d5
   Contact: <sip:bob@ua2.example.com>
   Max-Forwards: 70
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: 223

   v=0
   o=- 1102980499 1102980499 IN IP4 ua2.example.com
   s=IP SIP UA
   c=IN IP4 ua2.example.com
   t=0 0
   a=sendrecv
   m=audio 2236 RTP/AVP 0 8 101
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
   a=rtpmap:8 PCMA/8000
   a=rtpmap:101 telephone-event/8000


   F4 Appearance Agent ----> Alice

   NOTIFY sip:alice@ua1.example.com SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP appearanceagent.example.com;branch=z9hG4bK81d84f62
   From: <sip:HelpDesk@example.com>;tag=1636248422222257
   To: <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=925A3CAD-CEBB276E
   Call-ID: ef4704d9-bb68aa0b-474c9d94
   CSeq: 233 NOTIFY
   Max-Forwards: 70
   Content-Type: application/dialog-info+xml
   Event: dialog;shared
   Subscription-State: active;expires=2200
   Contact: <appearanceagent.example.com>
   Content-Length: ...

   <?xml version="1.0"?>
   <dialog-info xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:dialog-info"
                xmlns:sa="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:sa-dialog-info"
                version="27"
                state="partial"
                entity="sip:HelpDesk@example.com">
       <dialog id="fa02538339df3ce597f9e3e3699e28fc"
            call-id="f3b3cbd0-a2c5775e-5df9f8d5"
            local-tag="15A3DE7C-9283203B"    direction="initiator">
               <sa:appearance>1</sa:appearance>
               <sa:exclusive>false</sa:exclusive>
                  <state>trying</state>
                   <local>
                       <target uri="sip:bob@ua2.example.com">



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                       </target>
                      </local>
           </dialog>
   </dialog-info>


   F6 Appearance Agent ----> Bob

   NOTIFY sip:bob@ua1.example.com SIP/2.0
   From: <sip:HelpDesk@example.com>;tag=497585728578386
   To: <sip:bob@example.com>;tag=633618CF-B9C2EDA4
   Call-ID: a7d559db-d6d7dcad-311c9e3a
   CSeq: 7 NOTIFY
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP appearanceagent.example.com
    ;branch=z9hG4bK1711759878512309
   Max-Forwards: 70
   Content-Type: application/dialog-info+xml
   Event: dialog;shared
   Subscription-State: active;expires=2000
   Contact: <sip:appearanceagent.example.com>
   Content-Length: ...

   <?xml version="1.0"?>
   <dialog-info xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:dialog-info"
                xmlns:sa="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:sa-dialog-info"
                version="78"
                state="partial"
                entity="sip:HelpDesk@example.com">
       <dialog id="02538339hfgdf3ce597f9e3egkl3699e28fc"
            call-id="f3b3cbd0-a2c5775e-5df9f8d5"
            local-tag="15A3DE7C-9283203B"    direction="initiator">
               <sa:appearance>1</sa:appearance>
               <sa:exclusive>false</sa:exclusive>
                  <state>trying</state>
                   <local>
                       <target uri="sip:bob@ua2.example.com">
                       </target>
                      </local>
           </dialog>
   </dialog-info>

11.4.  Outgoing Call with Appearance Seizure

   In this scenario, Bob's UA sends out a dialog event PUBLISH with
   state (trying) selecting/seizing an appearance number before sending
   the INVITE.  After receiving the 200 OK from the Appearance Agent
   confirming the appearance number, Bob's UA sends the INVITE to Carol
   and establishes a session.  For brevity, details of some of the



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   messages are not included in the message flows.  Bob's UA puts as
   much of the dialog information from F7 as can be determined in
   advance.  In this case, the minimum of the Contact URI is included
   which allows the Appearance Agent to correlate the INVITE with the
   PUBLISH.

   Carol        Proxy           Alice     Appearance Agent         Bob
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<----- PUBLISH F1<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |>F2 200 OK ------>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |<-- NOTIFY F3<|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |>F4 200 OK -->|                  |
   |              |               |              |------- NOTIFY F5>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<F6 200 OK ------<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |<------------------------------------- INVITE F7<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |>F8 100 Trying --------------------------------->|
   |<-- INVITE F9<|               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<---- PUBLISH F10<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |>F11 200 OK ----->|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |>F12 180  --->|               |              |                  |
   |              |>F13 180 Ringing ------------------------------->|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |< - - - - - - - - - - - - - ->|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |<- NOTIFY F14<|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |>F15 200 OK ->|                  |
   |              |               |              |------ NOTIFY F16>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<F17 200 OK -----<|
   |>F18 200 OK ->|               |              |                  |
   |              |>F19 200 OK ------------------------------------>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |<--------------------------------------- ACK F20<|
   |<---- ACK F21<|               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |<================= Both way RTP established ===================>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |< - - - - - - - - - - - - - ->|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |



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   |              |               |<- NOTIFY F22<|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |>F23 200 OK ->|                  |
   |              |               |              |------ NOTIFY F24>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<F25 200 OK -----<|
   |              |               |              |                  |

   Figure 4.

   F1 to F4: Bob uses the shared appearance of the Help Desk on his UA
   to place an outgoing call (e.g., he goes off-hook).  Before sending
   the outgoing INVITE request, Bob publishes to the Appearance Agent
   reserving appearance number 1.  The Appearance Agent notifies Alice
   (and all other UAs, including Bob) of the event by sending NOTIFYs.


   F1 Bob ----> Appearance Agent

   PUBLISH sip:HelpDesk@example.com SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ua2.example.com;branch=z9hG4bK61314d6446383E79
   From: <sip:bob@example.com>;tag=44150CC6-A7B7919D
   To: <sip:HelpDesk@example.com>
   CSeq: 7 PUBLISH
   Call-ID: 44fwF144-F12893K38424
   Contact: <sip:bob@ua2.example.com>
   Event: dialog;shared
   Max-Forwards: 70
   Content-Type: application/dialog-info+xml
   Content-Length: ...

   <?xml version="1.0"?>
   <dialog-info xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:dialog-info"
                xmlns:sa="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:sa-dialog-info"
                version="6"
                state="full"
                entity="sip:HelpDesk@example.com">
       <dialog id="id3d4f9c83" direction="initiator">
           <sa:appearance>1</sa:appearance>
           <sa:exclusive>false</sa:exclusive>
           <state>trying</state>
           <local>
               <target uri="sip:bob@ua2.example.com">
               </target>
           </local>
       </dialog>
   </dialog-info>




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   F2 Appearance Agent  ----> Bob

   SIP/2.0 200 OK
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ua2.example.com;branch=z9hG4bK61314d6446383E79
   From: <sip:bob@example.com>;tag=44150CC6-A7B7919D
   To: <sip:HelpDesk@example.com>
   CSeq: 7 PUBLISH
   Call-ID: 44fwF144-F12893K38424
   Contact: <sip:bob@ua2.example.com>
   Event: dialog;shared
   SIP-Etag: 482943245
   Allow-Events: dialog
   Expires: 60
   Content-Length: 0


   F7 Bob ---> Proxy

   INVITE sip:carol@example.com SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ua2.example.com;branch=z9hG4bK342122
   Max-Forwards: 70
   From: <sip:HelpDesk@example.com>;tag=15A3DE7C-9283203B
   To: <sip:carol@example.com>
   Call-ID: f3b3cbd0-a2c5775e-5df9f8d5
   CSeq: 31 INVITE
   Contact: <sip:bob@ua2.example.com>
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: ...

   (SDP Not Shown)


   F10 Bob ----> Appearance Agent

   PUBLISH sip:HelpDesk@example.com SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ua2.example.com;branch=z9hG4bK6d644638E7
   From: <sip:bob@example.com>;tag=0CCf6-A7FdsB79D
   To: <sip:HelpDesk@example.com>
   CSeq: 437 PUBLISH
   Call-ID: fwF14d4-F1FFF2F2893K38424
   Contact: <sip:bob@ua2.example.com>
   Event: dialog;shared
   Max-Forwards: 70
   Content-Type: application/dialog-info+xml
   Content-Length: ...

   <?xml version="1.0"?>
   <dialog-info xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:dialog-info"



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                xmlns:sa="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:sa-dialog-info"
                version="6"
                state="full"
                entity="sip:HelpDesk@example.com">
       <dialog id="id3d4f9c83"
            call-id="f3b3cbd0-a2c5775e-5df9f8d5"
            local-tag="15A3DE7C-9283203B"
                                            direction="initiator">
           <sa:appearance>1</sa:appearance>
           <sa:exclusive>false</sa:exclusive>
           <state>trying</state>
           <local>
               <target uri="sip:bob@ua2.example.com">
               </target>
           </local>
           <remote>
               <identity uri="sip:carol@example.com">
               </identity>
           </remote>
       </dialog>
   </dialog-info>

11.5.  Outgoing Call without using an Appearance Number

   In this scenario, Bob's UA sends out a dialog event PUBLISH with
   state (trying) indicating that he does not want to utilize an
   appearance number for this dialog.  The PUBLISH does not have an
   appearance element but does have the 'shared' Event header field
   parameter.  As a result, the Appearance Agent knows the UA does not
   wish to use an appearance number for this call.  If the Appearance
   Agent does not wish to allow this, it would reject the PUBLISH with a
   400 (Bad Request) response and the UA would know to re-PUBLISH
   selecting/seizing an appearance number.

   Carol        Proxy           Alice     Appearance Agent         Bob
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<----- PUBLISH F1<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |>F2 200 OK ------>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |<-- NOTIFY F3<|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |>F4 200 OK -->|                  |
   |              |               |              |------- NOTIFY F5>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<F6 200 OK ------<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |<------------------------------------- INVITE F7<|



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   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |>F8 100 Trying --------------------------------->|
   |<-- INVITE F9<|               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<---- PUBLISH F10<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |>F11 200 OK ----->|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |>F12 180  --->|               |              |                  |
   |              |>F13 180 Ringing ------------------------------->|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |< - - - - - - - - - - - - - ->|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |<- NOTIFY F14<|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |>F15 200 OK ->|                  |
   |              |               |              |------ NOTIFY F16>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<F17 200 OK -----<|
   |>F18 200 OK ->|               |              |                  |
   |              |>F19 200 OK ------------------------------------>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |<--------------------------------------- ACK F20<|
   |<---- ACK F21<|               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |<================= Both way RTP established ===================>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |< - - - - - - - - - - - - - ->|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |<- NOTIFY F22<|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |>F23 200 OK ->|                  |
   |              |               |              |------ NOTIFY F24>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<F25 200 OK -----<|
   |              |               |              |                  |

   Figure 5.


   F1 Bob ----> Appearance Agent

   PUBLISH sip:appearanceagent.example.com SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ua2.example.com;branch=z9hG4bK61314d6446383E79
   From: <sip:bob@example.com>;tag=4415df82k39sf
   To: <sip:HelpDesk@example.com>
   CSeq: 7 PUBLISH
   Call-ID: 44fwF144-F12893K38424
   Contact: <sip:bob@ua2.example.com>



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   Event: dialog;shared
   Max-Forwards: 70
   Content-Type: application/dialog-info+xml
   Content-Length: ...

   <?xml version="1.0"?>
   <dialog-info xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:dialog-info"
                xmlns:sa="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:sa-dialog-info"
                version="6"
                state="full"
                entity="sip:HelpDesk@example.com">
       <dialog id="id3d4f9c83" direction="initiator">
           <sa:exclusive>false</sa:exclusive>
           <state>trying</state>
           <local>
               <target uri="sip:bob@ua2.example.com">
               </target>
           </local>
       </dialog>
   </dialog-info>

   Note that F7 would be the same as the previous example.

11.6.  Appearance Release

   Bob and Carol are in a dialog, created, for example as in
   Section 11.3.  Carol sends a BYE to Bob to terminate the dialog and
   the Appearance Agent de-allocates the appearance number used, sending
   notifications out to the UAs in the shared group.

   Carol        Proxy           Alice     Appearance Agent         Bob
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |<================= Both way RTP established ===================>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |>F22 BYE ---->|               |              |                  |
   |              |>F23 BYE --------------------------------------->|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |<------------------------------------ 200 OK F24<|
   |<--200 OK F25<|               |              |                  |
   |              |< - - - - - - - - - - - - - ->|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |<- NOTIFY F26<|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |>F27 200 OK ->|                  |
   |              |               |              |------ NOTIFY F28>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<F29 200 OK -----<|



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   Figure 6.

   F28 Appearance Agent ----> Bob

   NOTIFY sip:bob@ua1.example.com SIP/2.0
   From: <sip:HelpDesk@example.com>;tag=497585728578386
   To: <sip:bob@example.com>
   Call-ID: a7d559db-d6d7dcad-311c9e3a
   CSeq: 7 NOTIFY
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP appearanceagent.example.com
    ;branch=z9hG4bK759878512309
   Max-Forwards: 70
   Content-Type: application/dialog-info+xml
   Event: dialog;shared
   Subscription-State: active;expires=1800
   Contact: <sip:appearanceagent.example.com>
   Content-Length: ...

   <?xml version="1.0"?>
   <dialog-info xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:dialog-info"
                xmlns:sa="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:sa-dialog-info"
                version="27"
                state="partial"
                entity="sip:HelpDesk@example.com">
       <dialog id="fa02538339df3ce597f9e3e3699e28fc"
            call-id="f3b3cbd0-a2c5775e-5df9f8d5"
            local-tag="15A3DE7C-9283203B"
            remote-tag="65a98f7c-1dd2-11b2-88c6-b0316298f7c"
                                            direction="initiator">
               <sa:appearance>1</sa:appearance>
               <sa:exclusive>false</sa:exclusive>
                  <state>terminated</state>
                   <local>
                       <target uri="sip:bob@ua2.example.com">
                       </target>
                      </local>
           </dialog>
   </dialog-info>


11.7.  Appearance Pickup

   In this scenario, Bob has an established dialog with Carol created
   using the call flows of Figure 1 or Figure 2.  Bob then places Carol
   on hold.  Alice receives a notification of this and renders this on
   Alice's UI.  Alice subsequently picks up the held call and has a
   established session with Carol.  Finally, Carol hangs up.  Alice must
   PUBLISH F32 to indicate that the INVITE F38 will be an attempt to



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   pickup the dialog between Carol and Bob, and hence may use the same
   appearance number.  This example also shows Secure SIP (sips) being
   used.

   Carol        Proxy           Alice     Appearance Agent         Bob
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |<================= Both way RTP established ===================>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |<------------------------------(hold) INVITE F22<|
   |<- INVITE F23<|               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |>F24 200 OK ->|               |              |                  |
   |              |>F25 200 OK ------------------------------------>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |<--------------------------------------- ACK F26<|
   |<---- ACK F27<|               |              |                  |
   |              |< - - - - - - - - - - - - - ->|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |<- NOTIFY F28<|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |>F29 200 OK ->|                  |
   |              |               |              |>F30 NOTIFY ----->|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<----- 200 OK F31<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |  Alice decides to pick up the call              |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |>F32 PUBLISH->|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |<- 200 OK F33<|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |<- NOTIFY F34<|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |>F35 200 OK ->|                  |
   |              |               |              |>F36 NOTIFY ----->|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<----- 200 OK F37<|
   |              |<-- INVITE F38<|              |                  |
   |<- INVITE F39<|(w/ Replaces)  |              |                  |
   |( w/ Replaces)|               |              |                  |
   |>F40 200 OK ->|               |              |                  |
   |              |>F41 200 OK -->|              |                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |< - - - - - - - - - - - - - ->|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |>F42 NOTIFY ----->|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<----- 200 OK F43<|



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   |              |               |<- NOTIFY F44<|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |>F45 200 OK ->|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |<----- ACK F46<|              |                  |
   |<---- ACK F47<|               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |<= Both way RTP established =>|              |                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |>F48 BYE ---->|               |              |                  |
   |              |>F49 BYE --------------------------------------->|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |<------------------------------------ OK 200 F50<|
   |<- 200 OK F51<|               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |< - - - - - - - - - - - - - ->|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |<- NOTIFY F52<|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |>F53 200 OK ->|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |>F54 NOTIFY ----->|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<----- 200 OK F55<|

   Figure 7.


   F28 Appearance ----> Alice

   NOTIFY sips:alice@ua1.example.com SIP/2.0
   From: <sips:HelpDesk@example.com>;tag=151702541050937
   To: <sips:alice@example.com>;tag=18433323-C3D237CE
   Call-ID: 1e361d2f-a9f51109-bafe31d4
   CSeq: 12 NOTIFY
   Via: SIP/2.0/TLS appearanceagent.example.com
    ;branch=z9hG4bK1403
   Max-Forwards: 70
   Content-Type: application/dialog-info+xml
   Event: dialog;shared
   Subscription-State: active;expires=1800
   Contact: <sips:appearanceagent.example.com>
   Content-Length: ...

   <?xml version="1.0"?>
   <dialog-info xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:dialog-info"
                xmlns:sa="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:sa-dialog-info"
                version="10"



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                state="partial"
                entity="sips:HelpDesk@example.com">
      <dialog id="id3d4f9c83"
            call-id="f3b3cbd0-a2c5775e-5df9f8d5"
            local-tag="15A3DE7C-9283203B"
            remote-tag="65a98f7c-1dd2-11b2-88c6-b0316298f7c"
            direction="initiator">
            <sa:appearance>1</sa:appearance>
            <sa:exclusive>false</sa:exclusive>
            <state>active</state>
            <local>
              <target uri="sips:bob@ua2.example.com">
                <param pname="+sip.rendering" pval="no"/>
              </target>
            </local>
            <remote>
              <identity>sips:carol@example.com</identity>
              <target uri="sips:carol@ua3.example.com" />
            </remote>
       </dialog>
   </dialog-info>


   F32 Alice ----> Appearance Agent

   PUBLISH sips:HelpDesk@example.com SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/TLS ua2.example.com;branch=z9hG4bKa5d6cf61F5FBC05A
   From: <sips:HelpDesk@example.com>;tag=44150CC6-A7B7919D
   To: <sips:alice@example.com>;tag=428765950880801
   CSeq: 11 PUBLISH
   Call-ID: 87837Fkw87asfds
   Contact: <sips:alice@ua2.example.com>
   Event: dialog;shared
   Max-Forwards: 70
   Content-Type: application/dialog-info+xml
   Content-Length: ...

   <?xml version="1.0"?>
   <dialog-info xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:dialog-info"
                xmlns:sa="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:sa-dialog-info"
                version="10"
                state="full"
                entity="sips:HelpDesk@example.com">
      <dialog id="id3d4f9c83"
          call-id="3d57cd17-47deb849-dca8b6c6"
                         local-tag="8C4183CB-BCEAB710" >
            <sa:appearance>1</sa:appearance>
            <sa:exclusive>false</sa:exclusive>



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            <sa:replaced-dialog
              call-id="f3b3cbd0-a2c5775e-5df9f8d5"
              from-tag="15A3DE7C-9283203B"
              to-tag="65a98f7c-1dd2-11b2-88c6-b03162323164+65a98f7c" />
            <state>trying</state>
            <local>
              <target uri="sips:alice@ua1.example.com">
                <param pname="+sip.rendering" pval="yes"/>
              </target>
            </local>
            <remote>
                <target uri="sips:carol@ua3.example.com" />
            </remote>
       </dialog>
   </dialog-info>


   F38 Alice ----> Proxy

   INVITE sips:carol@example.com SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/TLS ua1.example.com;branch=z9hG4bK4ea695b5B376A60C
   From: <sips:HelpDesk@example.com>;tag=8C4183CB-BCEAB710
   To: <sips:carol@example.com:5075>
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   Call-ID: 3d57cd17-47deb849-dca8b6c6
   Contact: <sips:alice@ua1.example.com>
   <all-one-line>
   Replaces: f3b3cbd0-a2c5775e-5df9f8d5;to-tag=65a98f7c
   -1dd2-11b2-88c6-b03162323164+65a98f7c;from-tag=15A3DE7C-9283203B
   </all-one-line>
   Max-Forwards: 70
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: 223

   v=0
   o=- 1102980497 1102980497 IN IP4 ua1.example.com
   s=IP SIP UA
   c=IN IP4 ua1.example.com
   t=0 0
   a=sendrecv
   m=audio 2238 RTP/AVP 0 8 101
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
   a=rtpmap:8 PCMA/8000
   a=rtpmap:101 telephone-event/8000







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11.8.  Calls between UAs within the Group

   In this scenario, Bob calls Alice who is also in the Appearance
   group.  Only one appearance number is used for this dialog.  This
   example also shows the use of the 'exclusive' tag to indicate that
   other UAs in the group can not join or take this dialog.

   Carol        Proxy           Alice     Appearance Agent         Bob
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |<--------------------  INVITE (to Alice's UA) F1<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |< - - - - - - - - - - - - - ->|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |<-- NOTIFY F2<|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |>F3 200 OK -->|                  |
   |              |               |              |>F4 NOTIFY ------>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<------ 200 OK F5<|
   |              |>F6 INVITE --->|              |                  |
   |              | (appearance=1)|              |                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |<------ 180 F7<|              |                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |>F8 180  --------------------------------------->|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |< - - - - - - - - - - - - - ->|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |<-- NOTIFY F9<|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |>F10 200 OK ->|                  |
   |              |               |              |>F11 NOTIFY ----->|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<----- 200 OK F12<|
   |              |<-- 200 OK F13<|              |                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |>F14 200 OK ------------------------------------>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |<--------------------------------------- ACK F15<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |>F16 ACK ----->|              |                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |<======= RTP established =======>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |< - - - - - - - - - - - - - ->|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |<- NOTIFY F17<|                  |



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   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |>F18 200 OK ->|                  |
   |              |               |              |>F19 NOTIFY ----->|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<----- 200 OK F24<|
   |              |               |              |                  |

   Figure 8.


   F19 Appearance Agent ----> Bob

   NOTIFY sip:bob@ua1.example.com SIP/2.0
   From: <sip:HelpDesk@example.com>;tag=497585728578386
   To: <sip:bob@example.com>;tag=633618CF-B9C2EDA4
   Call-ID: a7d559db-d6d7dcad-311c9e3a
   CSeq: 7 NOTIFY
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP appearanceagent.example.com
    ;branch=z9hG4bK1711759878512309
   Max-Forwards: 70
   Content-Type: application/dialog-info+xml
   Event: dialog;shared
   Subscription-State: active;expires=1500
   Contact: <sip:appearanceagent.example.com>
   Content-Length: ...

   <?xml version="1.0"?>
   <dialog-info xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:dialog-info"
                xmlns:sa="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:sa-dialog-info"
                version="10"
                state="partial"
                entity="sip:HelpDesk@example.com">
      <dialog id="3xdsd4f9c83"
              call-id="b3cbd0-ad2c5775e-5df9f8d5"
                 local-tag="34322kdfr234f"
              remote-tag="3153DE7C-928203B"
              direction="initiator">
            <sa:exclusive>true</sa:exclusive>
            <sa:appearance>1</sa:appearance>
            <state>confirmed</state>
            <local>
              <target uri="sip:bob@ua2.example.com">
              </target>
            </local>
            <remote>
              <identity>sip:HelpDesk@example.com</identity>
              <target uri="sip:alice@ua1.example.com" />
            </remote>



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       </dialog>

       <dialog id="4839589"
              call-id="b3cbd0-ad2c5775e-5df9f8d5"
              local-tag="3153DE7C-928203B"
                 remote-tag="34322kdfr234f"
              direction="responder">
            <sa:exclusive>true</sa:exclusive>
            <sa:appearance>1</sa:appearance>
            <state>confirmed</state>
            <local>
               <target uri="sip:alice@ua1.example.com" />
            </local>
            <remote>
              <identity>sip:HelpDesk@example.com</identity>
              <target uri="sip:bob@ua2.example.com" />
            </remote>
       </dialog>

   </dialog-info>

11.9.  Consultation Hold with Appearances

   In this scenario, Bob has a call with Carol.  Bob makes a
   consultation call to Alice by putting Carol on hold and calling
   Alice.  Bob's UA chooses not to have an appearance number for the
   call to Alice since it is treating it as part of the call to Carol.
   He indicates this in the PUBLISH F32 which contains the 'shared'
   Event header field parameter but no <appearance> element.  The
   PUBLISH is sent before the INVITE to Alice to ensure no appearance
   number is assigned by the Appearance Agent.  Finally, Bob hangs up
   with Alice and resumes the call with Carol.  Dialog notifications of
   the consultation call are not shown, as they are not used.

   Note that if Carol hangs up while Bob is consulting with Alice, Bob
   can decide if he wants to reuse the appearance number used with Carol
   for the call with Alice.  If not, Bob publishes the termination of
   the dialog with Carol and the Appearance Agent will re-allocate the
   appearance.  If he wants to keep the appearance, Bob will publish the
   termination of the dialog with Carol and also publish the appearance
   with the dialog with Alice.  This will result in Bob keeping the
   appearance number until he reports the dialog with Alice terminated.

   Note that the call flow would be similar if Bob called a music on
   hold server instead of Alice to implement a music on hold service as
   described in [I-D.worley-service-example].

   Carol        Proxy           Alice     Appearance Agent         Bob



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   |              |               |              |                  |
   |<================= Both way RTP established ===================>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |<------------------------------(hold) INVITE F22<|
   |<- INVITE F23<|               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |>F24 200 OK ->|               |              |                  |
   |              |>F25 200 OK ------------------------------------>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |<--------------------------------------- ACK F26<|
   |<---- ACK F27<|               |              |                  |
   |              |< - - - - - - - - - - - - - ->|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |<- NOTIFY F28<|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |>F29 200 OK ->|                  |
   |              |               |              |>F30 NOTIFY ----->|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<----- 200 OK F31<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |  Bob makes a consultation call to Alice         |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<---- PUBLISH F32<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |>F33 200 OK ----->|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |<------------------------------------ INVITE F34<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |>F35 INVITE -->|              |                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |<-- 200 OK F36<|              |                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |>F37 200 OK ------------------------------------>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |<--------------------------------------- ACK F38<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |>F39 ACK ----->|              |                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |<======= RTP established =======>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |            Bob hangs up with Alice              |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |<--------------------------------------- BYE F40<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |>F41 BYE ----->|              |                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |<-- 200 OK F42<|              |                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |



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   |              |>F43 200 OK ------------------------------------>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |<----------------------------(unhold) INVITE F44<|
   |<- INVITE F45<|               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |>F46 200 OK ->|               |              |                  |
   |              |>F47 200 OK ------------------------------------>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |<--------------------------------------- ACK F48<|
   |<---- ACK F49<|               |              |                  |
   |              |< - - - - - - - - - - - - - ->|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |<- NOTIFY F50<|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |>F51 200 OK ->|                  |
   |              |               |              |>F52 NOTIFY ----->|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<----- 200 OK F53<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |<================= Both way RTP established ===================>|
   |              |               |              |                  |

   Figure 9.

   F32 Bob ----> Appearance Agent

   PUBLISH sip:HelpDesk@example.com SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ua2.example.com;branch=z9hG4bKa5d6cf61F5FBC05A
   From: <sip:bob@example.com>;tag=44150CC6-A7B7919D
   To: <sip:HelpDesk@example.com>;tag=428765950880801
   CSeq: 11 PUBLISH
   Call-ID: 44fwF144-F12893K38424
   Contact: <sip:bob@ua2.example.com>
   Event: dialog;shared
   Max-Forwards: 70
   Content-Type: application/dialog-info+xml
   Content-Length: ...

   <?xml version="1.0"?>
   <dialog-info xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:dialog-info"
                xmlns:sa="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:sa-dialog-info"
                version="10"
                state="full"
                entity="sip:HelpDesk@example.com">
      <dialog id="id3d4f9c83"
              call-id="b3cbd0-ad2c5775e-5df9f8d5"
              local-tag="3153DE7C-928203B"
              direction="initiator">



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            <sa:exclusive>true</sa:exclusive>
            <state>trying</state>
            <local>
              <target uri="sip:bob@ua2.example.com">
              </target>
            </local>
            <remote>
              <identity>sip:HelpDesk@example.com</identity>
              <target uri="sip:alice@ua1.example.com" />
            </remote>
       </dialog>
   </dialog-info>

11.10.  Joining or Bridging an Appearance

   In this call flow, a call answered by Bob is joined by Alice or
   "bridged".  The Join header field is used by Alice to request this
   bridging.  If Bob did not support media mixing, Bob could obtain
   conferencing resources as described in [RFC4579].

   Carol    Forking Proxy Appearance Agent  Alice      Bob
     |            |             |             |         |
     |<=============Both way RTP established===========>|
     |            |             |             |         |
     |            |             |< PUBLISH F22|         |
     |            |             |             |         |
     |            |             |>F23 200 OK >|         |
     |            |             |             |         |
     |            |<---- INVITE (w/ Join) F24<|         |
     |            |             |             |         |
     |            |>F25 INVITE (w/Join)---------------->|
     |            |             |             |         |
     |            |<---- OK 200 Contact:Bob;isfocus F26<|
     |            |             |             |         |
     |            |< - - - - - >|             |         |
     |            |             |             |         |
     |            |             |>F27 NOTIFY >|         |
     |            |             |             |         |
     |            |             |< 200 OK F28<|         |
     |            |             |             |         |
     |            |             |>F29 NOTIFY ---------->|
     |            |             |             |         |
     |            |             |<F30 200 OK ----------<|
     |            |             |             |         |
     |            |>F31 200 OK Contact:B----->|         |
     |            |             |             |         |
     |            |<----------------- ACK F32<|         |
     |            |             |             |         |



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     |            |>ACK F33---------------------------->|
     |            |             |             |         |
     |            |<-----INVITE Contact:Bob;isfocus F34<|
     |<-INVITE F35|             |             |         |
     |            |             |             |         |
     |>F26 200 -->|             |             |         |
     |            |>F37 200 OK ------------------------>|
     |            |             |             |         |
     |            |<--------------------------- ACK F38<|
     |<--- ACK F39|             |             |         |
     |            |             |             |<==RTP==>|
     |<=============Both way RTP established===========>|
     |            |             |             |         |
     |            |< - - - - - >|             |         |
     |            |             |             |         |
     |            |             |>F40 NOTIFY >|         |
     |            |             |             |         |
     |            |             |< 200 OK F41<|         |
     |            |             |             |         |
     |            |             |>F42 NOTIFY ---------->|
     |            |             |             |         |
     |            |             |<F43 200 OK ----------<|
     |            |             |             |         |

   Figure 10.

   F22 Alice ----> Appearance Agent

   PUBLISH sip:HelpDesk@example.com SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ua2.example.com;branch=z9hG4bKa5d6cf61F5FBC05A
   From: <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=44150CC6-A7B7919D
   To: <sip:HelpDesk@example.com>;tag=428765950880801
   CSeq: 11 PUBLISH
   Call-ID: 87837Fkw87asfds
   Contact: <sip:alice@ua2.example.com>
   Event: dialog;shared
   Max-Forwards: 70
   Content-Type: application/dialog-info+xml
   Content-Length: ...

   <?xml version="1.0"?>
   <dialog-info xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:dialog-info"
                xmlns:sa="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:sa-dialog-info"
                version="10"
                state="full"
                entity="sip:HelpDesk@example.com:5060">
      <dialog id="id3d4f9c83"
          call-id="dc95da63-60db1abd-d5a74b48"



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          local-tag="605AD957-1F6305C2" >
            <sa:appearance>1</sa:appearance>
            <sa:exclusive>false</sa:exclusive>
            <sa:joined-dialog
              call-id="14-1541707345"
              from-tag="44BAD75D-E3128D42"
              to-tag="d3b06488-1dd1-11b2-88c5-b03162323164+d3e48f4c" />
            <state>trying</state>
            <local>
              <target uri="sip:alice@ua1.example.com">
              </target>
            </local>
            <remote>
                <target uri="sip:bob@example.com" />
            </remote>
       </dialog>
   </dialog-info>


   F24 Alice ----> Proxy

   INVITE sip:bob@ua.example.com SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ua1.example.com;branch=z9hG4bKcc9d727c2C29BE31
   From: <sip:HelpDesk@example.com>;tag=605AD957-1F6305C2
   To: <sip:bob@ua.example.com>
   CSeq: 2 INVITE
   Call-ID: dc95da63-60db1abd-d5a74b48
   Contact: <sip:alice@ua1.example.com>
   <all-one-line>
   Join: 14-1541707345;to-tag=d3b06488-1dd1-11b2-88c5
   -b03162323164+d3e48f4c;from-tag=44BAD75D-E3128D42
   </all-one-line>
   Max-Forwards: 70
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: 223

   v=0
   o=- 1103061265 1103061265 IN IP4 ua1.example.com
   s=IP SIP UA
   c=IN IP4 ua1.example.com
   t=0 0
   a=sendrecv
   m=audio 2236 RTP/AVP 0 8 101
   a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
   a=rtpmap:8 PCMA/8000
   a=rtpmap:101 telephone-event/8000





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11.11.  Appearance Allocation - Loss of Appearance

   Bob reserves an appearance with a PUBLISH, sends an INVITE to Carol,
   then becomes unreachable.  When he fails to refresh his publication
   to the appearance agent, the Appearance Agent declares the dialog
   terminated and frees up the appearance using NOTIFYs F14 and F16.
   After retransmitting the NOTIFY to Bob (in not shown messages F17,
   F18, etc.), the subscription is terminated.

   Carol        Proxy           Alice     Appearance Agent         Bob
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<----- PUBLISH F1<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |>F2 200 OK ------>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |<-- NOTIFY F3<|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |>F4 200 OK -->|                  |
   |              |               |              |------- NOTIFY F5>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<F6 200 OK ------<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |<------------------------------------- INVITE F7<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |>F8 100 Trying --------------------------------->|
   |<-- INVITE F9<|               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<---- PUBLISH F10<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |>F11 200 OK ----->|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |>F12 180  --->|               |              |                  |
   |              |>F13 180 Ringing ------------------------------->|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              | Bob goes offline |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               | Appearance selection times out  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |<- NOTIFY F14<|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |>F15 200 OK ->|                  |
   |              |               |              |------ NOTIFY F16>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |   NOTIFY is retransmitted       |

   Figure 11.






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11.12.  Appearance Seizure Contention Race Condition

   Bob and Alice both try to reserve appearance 2 by publishing at the
   same time.  The Appearance Agent allocates the appearance to Bob by
   sending a 200 OK and denies it to Alice by sending a 400 (Bad
   Request) response.  After the NOTIFY F5, Alice learns that Bob is
   using appearance 2.  Alice then attempts to reserve appearance 3 by
   publishing, which is then accepted.











































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   Carol        Proxy           Alice     Appearance Agent         Bob
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<----- PUBLISH F1<|
   |              |               |              |        (appearance=2)
   |              |               |>F2 PUBLISH ->|                  |
   |              |               |     (appearance=2)              |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |>F3 200 OK ------>|
   |              |               |<---- F4 400 <|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |<-- NOTIFY F5<|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |>F6 200 OK -->|                  |
   |              |               |              |------- NOTIFY F7>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<F8 200 OK ------<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |<------------------------------------- INVITE F9<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |>F10 100 Trying -------------------------------->|
   |<- INVITE F11<|               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<---- PUBLISH F12<|
   |              |               |              |        (appearance=2)
   |              |               |              |>F13 200 OK ----->|
   |              |               |>F14 PUBLISH->|                  |
   |              |               |     (appearance=3)              |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |<--- F15 200 <|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |<- NOTIFY F16<|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
                  |               |>F17 200 OK ->|                  |
   Dave           |               |              |------ NOTIFY F18>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<F19 200 OK -----<|
   |              |<-- INVITE F20<|              |                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |>F21 100 ----->|              |                  |
   |<- INVITE F22<|               |              |                  |

   Figure 12.


11.13.  Appearance Agent Subscription to UAs

   In this scenario, the Appearance Agent does not have any way of
   knowing Bob's dialog state information, except through Bob. This
   could be because the Appearance Agent is not part of a B2BUA, or



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   perhaps Bob is remotely registering.  When Bob registers, the
   Appearance Agent receives a registration event package notification
   from the registrar.  The Appearance Agent then SUBSCRIBEs to Bob's
   dialog event state using Event:dialog in the SUBSCRIBE.  Whenever
   Bob's dialog state changes, Bob's UA sends a NOTIFY to the Appearance
   Agent which then notifies the other other UAs in the group.

   Carol        Proxy           Alice     Appearance Agent         Bob
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |<----------------------------------- REGISTER F1<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |>F2 200 OK ------------------------------------->|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |>F3 NOTIFY ------------------>|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |<------------------ 200 OK F4<|                  |
   |              |               |              |---- SUBSCRIBE F5>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<F6 200 OK ------<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<------ NOTIFY F7<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |>F8 200 OK ------>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<--- SUBSCRIBE F9<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |>F10 200 OK ----->|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |------ NOTIFY F11>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<F12 200 OK -----<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |<------------------------------------ INVITE F13<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |>F14 100 Trying -------------------------------->|
   |<- INVITE F15<|               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<----- NOTIFY F16<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |>F17 200 OK ----->|
   |              |               |<- NOTIFY F18<|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |>F19 200 OK ->|                  |
   |              |               |              |------ NOTIFY F20>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<F21 200 OK -----<|
   |>F22 180  --->|               |              |                  |
   |              |>F23 180 Ringing ------------------------------->|
   |              |               |              |                  |



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   |              |               |              |<----- NOTIFY F24<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |>F25 200 OK ----->|
   |              |               |<- NOTIFY F26<|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |>F27 200 OK ->|                  |
   |              |               |              |------ NOTIFY F28>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<F29 200 OK -----<|
   |>F30 200 OK ->|               |              |                  |
   |              |>F31 200 OK ------------------------------------>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<----- NOTIFY F32<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |>F33 200 OK ----->|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |<--------------------------------------- ACK F34<|
   |<---- ACK F35<|               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |<================= Both way RTP established ===================>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |<- NOTIFY F36<|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |>F37 200 OK ->|                  |
   |              |               |              |------ NOTIFY F38>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<F39 200 OK -----<|
   |              |               |              |                  |

   Figure 13.


11.14.  Appearance Pickup Race Condition Failure

   In this scenario, Bob has an established dialog with Carol created
   using the call flows of Figure 1 or Figure 2.  Bob then places Carol
   on hold.  Alice receives a notification of this and renders this on
   Alice's UI.  Alice attempts to pick up the call but Carol hangs up
   before the pickup can complete.  Alice cancels the pickup attempt
   with the PUBLISH F48.  Note that the call flow for a failed Join
   would be almost identical.

   Carol        Proxy           Alice     Appearance Agent         Bob
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |<================= Both way RTP established ===================>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |<------------------------------(hold) INVITE F22<|
   |<- INVITE F23<|               |              |                  |



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   |              |               |              |                  |
   |>F24 200 OK ->|               |              |                  |
   |              |>F25 200 OK ------------------------------------>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |<--------------------------------------- ACK F26<|
   |<---- ACK F27<|               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |< - - - - - - - - - - - - - ->|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |<- NOTIFY F28<|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |>F29 200 OK ->|                  |
   |              |               |              |>F30 NOTIFY ----->|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<----- 200 OK F31<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |  Alice decides to pick up the call              |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |>F32 PUBLISH->|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |<- 200 OK F33<|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |<- NOTIFY F34<|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |>F35 200 OK ->|                  |
   |              |               |              |>F36 NOTIFY ----->|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<----- 200 OK F37<|
   |>F38 BYE ---->|               |              |                  |
   |              |>F39 BYE --------------------------------------->|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |<------------------------------------ OK 200 F40<|
   |<- 200 OK F41<|               |              |                  |
   |              |<-- INVITE F42<|              |                  |
   |<- INVITE F43<|(w/ Replaces)  |              |                  |
   |( w/ Replaces)|               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |>F44 481 ---->|               |              |                  |
   |              |>F45 481 ----->|              |                  |
   |<---- ACK F46<|               |              |                  |
   |              |<----- ACK F47<|              |                  |
   |              |               |>F48 PUBLISH->|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |<- 200 OK F49<|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |<- NOTIFY F50<|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |>F51 200 OK ->|                  |



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   |              |               |              |>F52 NOTIFY ----->|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<----- 200 OK F53<|

   Figure 14.

   F48 Alice ----> Appearance Agent

   PUBLISH sip:HelpDesk@example.com SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ua2.example.com;branch=z9hG4bKa5d6cf61F5FBC05A
   From: <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=44150CC6-A7B7919D
   To: <sip:HelpDesk@example.com>;tag=428765950880801
   CSeq: 11 PUBLISH
   Call-ID: 87837Fkw87asfds
   Contact: <sip:alice@ua2.example.com>
   Event: dialog;shared
   Max-Forwards: 70
   Content-Type: application/dialog-info+xml
   Content-Length: ...

   <?xml version="1.0"?>
   <dialog-info xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:dialog-info"
                xmlns:sa="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:sa-dialog-info"
                version="10"
                state="full"
                entity="sip:HelpDesk@example.com">
      <dialog id="id3d4f9c83"
          call-id="dc95da63-60db1abd-d5a74b48"
          local-tag="605AD957-1F6305C2" >
            <sa:appearance>1</sa:appearance>
            <sa:exclusive>false</sa:exclusive>
            <sa:replaced-dialog
              call-id="14-1541707345"
              from-tag="44BAD75D-E3128D42"
              to-tag="d3b06488-1dd1-11b2-88c5-b03162323164+d3e48f4c" />
            <state>terminated</state>
            <local>
              <target uri="sip:alice@ua1.example.com">
              </target>
            </local>
            <remote>
                <target uri="sip:carol@ua3.example.com" />
            </remote>
       </dialog>
   </dialog-info>






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11.15.  Appearance Seizure Incoming/Outgoing Contention Race Condition

   Alice tries to seize appearance 2 at the same time appearance 2 is
   allocated to an incoming call.  The Appearance Agent resolves the
   conflict by sending a 400 (Bad Request) to Alice.  After the NOTIFY
   F6, Alice learns that the incoming call is using appearance 2.  Alice
   republishes for appearance 3, which is accepted.  Note that this
   example shows the INVITE being received before the NOTIFY from the
   Appearance Agent.

   Carol        Proxy           Alice     Appearance Agent         Bob
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |>-- INVITE F1>|               |              |                  |
   |              |< - - - - - - - - - - - - - ->|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |>F2 PUBLISH ->|                  |
   |              |               |     (appearance=2)              |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |>F3 INVITE (appearance=2) ---------------------->|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |>F4 INVITE     |              |                  |
   |              |(appearance=2)>|              |                  |
   |              |               |<---- F5 400 <|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |<-- NOTIFY F6<|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |>F7 200 OK -->|                  |
   |              |               |              |------- NOTIFY F8>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<F9 200 OK ------<|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |>F10 PUBLISH->|                  |
   |              |               |     (appearance=3)              |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |< F11 200 OK <|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |<- NOTIFY F12<|                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
                  |               |>F13 200 OK ->|                  |
   Dave           |               |              |------ NOTIFY F14>|
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |               |              |<F15 200 OK -----<|
   |              |<-- INVITE F16<|              |                  |
   |              |               |              |                  |
   |              |>F17 100 ----->|              |                  |
   |<- INVITE F18<|               |              |                  |

   Figure 15.



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12.  Security Considerations

   Since multiple line appearance features are implemented using
   semantics provided by SIP [RFC3261], the SIP Event Package for Dialog
   State [RFC4235], and the SIP Event Framework
   [I-D.ietf-sipcore-rfc3265bis] and [RFC3903], security considerations
   in these documents apply to this document as well.

   To provide confidentiality, NOTIFY or PUBLISH message bodies that
   provide the dialog state information and the dialog identifiers MAY
   be encrypted end-to-end using the standard mechanisms such as S/MIME
   described in [RFC3261].  Alternatively, sending the NOTIFY and
   PUBLISH requests over TLS also provides confidentiality, although on
   a hop-by-hop basis.  All SUBSCRIBES and PUBLISHES between the UAs and
   the Appearance Agent MUST be authenticated.  Without proper
   authentication and confidentiality, a third party could learn
   information about dialogs associated with a AOR and could try to use
   this information to hijack or manipulate those dialogs using SIP call
   control primitives.

   This feature relies on standard SIP call control primitives such as
   Replaces and Join.  Proper access controls on their use MUST be used
   so that only members of the appearance group can use these
   mechanisms.  All INVITEs with Replaces or Join header fields MUST
   only be accepted if the peer requesting dialog replacement or joining
   has been properly authenticated using a standard SIP mechanism (such
   as Digest or S/MIME), and authorized to request a replacement.
   Otherwise, a third party could disrupt or hijack existing dialogs in
   the appearance group.

   For an emergency call, a UA MUST NOT wait for a confirmed seizure of
   an appearance before sending an INVITE.  Waiting for confirmation
   could inadvertently delay or block the emergency call, which by its
   nature needs to be placed as expeditiously as possible.  Instead, a
   emergency call MUST proceed regardless of the status of the PUBLISH
   transaction.


13.  IANA Considerations

   This section registers the SIP Event header field parameter 'shared',
   the SIP Alert-Info header field parameter 'appearance' and the XML
   namespace extensions to the SIP Dialog Package.

13.1.  SIP Event Header Field Parameter: shared

   This document defines the 'shared' header field parameter to the
   Event header field in the "SIP Header Field Parameters and Parameter



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   Values" registry defined by [RFC3968].

                                                  Predefined
 Header Field                  Parameter Name      Values     Reference
 ----------------------------  ------------------  ---------- ---------
 Event                         shared               No       [RFC-to-be]

13.2.  SIP Alert-Info Header Field Parameter: appearance

   This document defines the 'appearance' parameter to the Alert-Info
   header in the "SIP Header Field Parameters and Parameter Values"
   registry defined by [RFC3968].

                                                   Predefined
  Header Field                  Parameter Name     Values     Reference
  ----------------------        ---------------    ---------  ---------
  Alert-Info                    appearance         No        [RFC-to-be]


































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13.3.  URN Sub-Namespace Registration: sa-dialog-info


      This section registers a new XML namespace per the procedures
   in [RFC3688].

      URI: urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:sa-dialog-info.

      Registrant Contact: IETF BLISS working group, <bliss@ietf.org>,
      Alan Johnston <alan.b.johnston@gmail.com>

      XML:

      BEGIN
       <?xml version="1.0"?>
       <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML Basic 1.0//EN"
                 "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml-basic/xhtml-basic10.dtd">
       <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
       <head>
         <meta http-equiv="content-type"
            content="text/html;charset=iso-8859-1"/>
         <title>Shared Appearance Dialog Information Namespace</title>
       </head>
       <body>
        <h1>Namespace for Shared Appearance Dialog Information</h1>
        <h2>urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:sa-dialog-info</h2>
        <p>See <a href="ftp://ftp.rfc-editor.org/in-notes/rfcXXXX.txt">
           RFCXXXX</a>.</p>
       </body>
       </html>
      END

13.4.  XML Schema Registration

      This section registers an XML schema per the procedures in
    [RFC3688].

      URI: urn:ietf:params:xml:schesa:sa-dialog-info.

      Registrant Contact: IETF BLISS working group, <bliss@ietf.org>,
       Alan Johnston <alan.b.johnston@gmail.com>

      The XML for this schema can be found in Section 6.








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14.  Acknowledgements

   The following individuals were part of the shared appearance Design
   team and have provided input and text to the document (in
   alphabetical order):

   Martin Dolly, Andrew Hutton, Raj Jain, Fernando Lombardo, Derek
   MacDonald, Bill Mitchell, Michael Procter, Theo Zourzouvillys.

   Thanks to Chris Boulton for helping with the XML schema.

   Much of the material has been drawn from previous work by Mohsen
   Soroushnejad, Venkatesh Venkataramanan, Paul Pepper and Anil Kumar,
   who in turn received assistance from:

   Kent Fritz, John Weald, and Sunil Veluvali of Sylantro Systems, Steve
   Towlson, and Michael Procter of Citel Technologies, Rob Harder and
   Hong Chen of Polycom Inc, John Elwell, J D Smith of Siemens
   Communications, Dale R. Worley of Pingtel, Graeme Dollar of Yahoo
   Inc.

   Also thanks to Geoff Devine, Paul Kyzivat, Jerry Yin, John Elwell,
   Dan York, Spenser Dawkins, Martin Dolly, and Brett Tate for their
   comments.

   Thanks to Carolyn Beeton, Francois Audet, Andy Hutton, Tim Ross, Raji
   Chinnappa, and Harsh Mendiratta for their detailed review of the
   document.


15.  References

15.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC3261]  Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Camarillo, G., Johnston,
              A., Peterson, J., Sparks, R., Handley, M., and E.
              Schooler, "SIP: Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 3261,
              June 2002.

   [RFC5234]  Crocker, D. and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax
              Specifications: ABNF", STD 68, RFC 5234, January 2008.

   [RFC3515]  Sparks, R., "The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Refer
              Method", RFC 3515, April 2003.




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   [I-D.ietf-sipcore-rfc3265bis]
              Roach, A., "SIP-Specific Event Notification",
              draft-ietf-sipcore-rfc3265bis-09 (work in progress),
              April 2012.

   [RFC3903]  Niemi, A., "Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Extension
              for Event State Publication", RFC 3903, October 2004.

   [RFC3891]  Mahy, R., Biggs, B., and R. Dean, "The Session Initiation
              Protocol (SIP) "Replaces" Header", RFC 3891,
              September 2004.

   [RFC4235]  Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., and R. Mahy, "An INVITE-
              Initiated Dialog Event Package for the Session Initiation
              Protocol (SIP)", RFC 4235, November 2005.

   [RFC3911]  Mahy, R. and D. Petrie, "The Session Initiation Protocol
              (SIP) "Join" Header", RFC 3911, October 2004.

   [RFC3840]  Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., and P. Kyzivat,
              "Indicating User Agent Capabilities in the Session
              Initiation Protocol (SIP)", RFC 3840, August 2004.

   [RFC3688]  Mealling, M., "The IETF XML Registry", BCP 81, RFC 3688,
              January 2004.

   [I-D.ietf-salud-alert-info-urns]
              Liess, L., Jesske, R., Johnston, A., Worley, D., and P.
              Kyzivat, "Alert-Info URNs for the Session Initiation
              Protocol (SIP)", draft-ietf-salud-alert-info-urns-07 (work
              in progress), October 2012.

15.2.  Informative References

   [RFC5359]  Johnston, A., Sparks, R., Cunningham, C., Donovan, S., and
              K. Summers, "Session Initiation Protocol Service
              Examples", BCP 144, RFC 5359, October 2008.

   [RFC4579]  Johnston, A. and O. Levin, "Session Initiation Protocol
              (SIP) Call Control - Conferencing for User Agents",
              BCP 119, RFC 4579, August 2006.

   [RFC3680]  Rosenberg, J., "A Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Event
              Package for Registrations", RFC 3680, March 2004.

   [I-D.worley-service-example]
              Worley, D., "Session Initiation Protocol Service Example
              -- Music on Hold", draft-worley-service-example-10 (work



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              in progress), August 2012.


Authors' Addresses

   Alan Johnston (editor)
   Avaya
   St. Louis, MO  63124

   Email: alan.b.johnston@gmail.com


   Mohsen Soroushnejad
   Sylantro Systems Corp

   Email: msoroush@gmail.com


   Venkatesh Venkataramanan
   Sylantro Systems Corp

   Email: vvenkatar@gmail.com





























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