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Network Working Group                                        S. Poretsky
Internet-Draft                                      Allot Communications
Intended status: Informational                                 B. Imhoff
Expires: August 13, 2011                                Juniper Networks
                                                           K. Michielsen
                                                           Cisco Systems
                                                       February 16, 2011


Terminology for Benchmarking Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence
               draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-term-23

Abstract

   This document describes the terminology for benchmarking link-state
   Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) route convergence.  The terminology
   is to be used for benchmarking IGP convergence time through
   externally observable (black box) data plane measurements.  The
   terminology can be applied to any link-state IGP, such as
   Intermediate System to Intermediate System (IS-IS) and Open Shortest
   Path First (OSPF).

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on August 13, 2011.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2011 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents



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   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction and Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   2.  Existing Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   3.  Term Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     3.1.  Convergence Types  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
       3.1.1.  Route Convergence  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
       3.1.2.  Full Convergence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     3.2.  Instants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
       3.2.1.  Traffic Start Instant  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
       3.2.2.  Convergence Event Instant  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
       3.2.3.  Convergence Recovery Instant . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
       3.2.4.  First Route Convergence Instant  . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     3.3.  Transitions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
       3.3.1.  Convergence Event Transition . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
       3.3.2.  Convergence Recovery Transition  . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     3.4.  Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
       3.4.1.  Local Interface  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
       3.4.2.  Remote Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
       3.4.3.  Preferred Egress Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
       3.4.4.  Next-Best Egress Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     3.5.  Benchmarking Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
       3.5.1.  Rate-Derived Method  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
       3.5.2.  Loss-Derived Method  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
       3.5.3.  Route-Specific Loss-Derived Method . . . . . . . . . . 14
     3.6.  Benchmarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
       3.6.1.  Full Convergence Time  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
       3.6.2.  First Route Convergence Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
       3.6.3.  Route-Specific Convergence Time  . . . . . . . . . . . 17
       3.6.4.  Loss-Derived Convergence Time  . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
       3.6.5.  Route Loss of Connectivity Period  . . . . . . . . . . 19
       3.6.6.  Loss-Derived Loss of Connectivity Period . . . . . . . 20
     3.7.  Measurement Terms  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
       3.7.1.  Convergence Event  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
       3.7.2.  Convergence Packet Loss  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
       3.7.3.  Connectivity Packet Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
       3.7.4.  Packet Sampling Interval . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
       3.7.5.  Sustained Convergence Validation Time  . . . . . . . . 23
       3.7.6.  Forwarding Delay Threshold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
     3.8.  Miscellaneous Terms  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
       3.8.1.  Impaired Packet  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
   4.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
   5.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
   6.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
   7.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26





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1.  Introduction and Scope

   This document is a companion to [Po11m] which the methodology to be
   used for benchmarking link-state Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP)
   Convergence by observing the data plane.  The purpose of this
   document is to introduce new terms required to complete execution of
   the Link-State IGP Data Plane Route Convergence methodology [Po11m].

   IGP convergence time is measured by observing the dataplane through
   the Device Under Test (DUT) at the Tester.  The methodology and
   terminology to be used for benchmarking IGP Convergence can be
   applied to IPv4 and IPv6 traffic and link-state IGPs such as
   Intermediate System to Intermediate System (IS-IS) [Ca90][Ho08], Open
   Shortest Path First (OSPF) [Mo98][Co08], and others.


2.  Existing Definitions

   This document uses existing terminology defined in other IETF
   documents.  Examples include, but are not limited to:

       Throughput                       [Ref.[Br91], section 3.17]
       Offered Load                     [Ref.[Ma98], section 3.5.2]
       Forwarding Rate                  [Ref.[Ma98], section 3.6.1]
       Device Under Test (DUT)          [Ref.[Ma98], section 3.1.1]
       System Under Test (SUT)          [Ref.[Ma98], section 3.1.2]
       Out-of-Order Packet              [Ref.[Po06], section 3.3.4]
       Duplicate Packet                 [Ref.[Po06], section 3.3.5]
       Stream                           [Ref.[Po06], section 3.3.2]
       Forwarding Delay                 [Ref.[Po06], section 3.2.4]
       IP Packet Delay Variation (IPDV) [Ref.[De02], section 1.2]
       Loss Period                      [Ref.[Ko02], section 4]

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in BCP 14, RFC 2119
   [Br97].  RFC 2119 defines the use of these key words to help make the
   intent of standards track documents as clear as possible.  While this
   document uses these keywords, this document is not a standards track
   document.


3.  Term Definitions

3.1.  Convergence Types






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3.1.1.  Route Convergence

   Definition:

   The process of updating all components of the router, including the
   Routing Information Base (RIB) and Forwarding Information Base (FIB),
   along with software and hardware tables, with the most recent route
   change(s) such that forwarding for a route entry is successful on the
   Next-Best Egress Interface [Section 3.4.4].

   Discussion:

   In general IGP convergence does not necessarily result in a change in
   forwarding.  But the test cases in [Po11m] are specified such that
   the IGP convergence results in a change of egress interface for the
   measurement dataplane traffic.  Due to this property of the test case
   specifications, Route Convergence can be observed externally by the
   rerouting of the measurement dataplane traffic to the Next-best
   Egress Interface [Section 3.4.4].

   Measurement Units: N/A

   See Also:

   Next-Best Egress Interface, Full Convergence

3.1.2.  Full Convergence

   Definition:

   Route Convergence for all routes in the Forwarding Information Base
   (FIB).

   Discussion:

   In general IGP convergence does not necessarily result in a change in
   forwarding.  But the test cases in [Po11m] are specified such that
   the IGP convergence results in a change of egress interface for the
   measurement dataplane traffic.  Due to this property of the test
   cases specifications, Full Convergence can be observed externally by
   the rerouting of the measurement dataplane traffic to the Next-best
   Egress Interface [Section 3.4.4].

   Measurement Units: N/A

   See Also:

   Next-Best Egress Interface, Route Convergence



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3.2.  Instants

3.2.1.  Traffic Start Instant

   Definition:

   The time instant the Tester sends out the first data packet to the
   Device Under Test (DUT).

   Discussion:

   If using the Loss-Derived Method [Section 3.5.2] or the Route-
   Specific Loss-Derived Method [Section 3.5.3] to benchmark IGP
   convergence time, and the applied Convergence Event [Section 3.7.1]
   does not cause instantaneous traffic loss for all routes at the
   Convergence Event Instant [Section 3.2.2] then the Tester SHOULD
   collect a timestamp on the Traffic Start Instant in order to measure
   the period of time between the Traffic Start Instant and Convergence
   Event Instant.

   Measurement Units:

   seconds (and fractions), reported with resolution sufficient to
   distinguish between different instants

   See Also:

   Loss-Derived Method, Route-Specific Loss-Derived Method, Convergence
   Event, Convergence Event Instant

3.2.2.  Convergence Event Instant

   Definition:

   The time instant that a Convergence Event [Section 3.7.1] occurs.

   Discussion:

   If the Convergence Event [Section 3.7.1] causes instantaneous traffic
   loss on the Preferred Egress Interface [Section 3.4.3], the
   Convergence Event Instant is observable from the data plane as the
   instant that no more packets are received on the Preferred Egress
   Interface.

   The Tester SHOULD collect a timestamp on the Convergence Event
   Instant if it the Convergence Event does not cause instantaneous
   traffic loss on the Preferred Egress Interface [Section 3.4.3].




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   Measurement Units:

   seconds (and fractions), reported with resolution sufficient to
   distinguish between different instants

   See Also:

   Convergence Event, Preferred Egress Interface

3.2.3.  Convergence Recovery Instant

   Definition:

   The time instant that Full Convergence [Section 3.1.2] has completed.

   Discussion:

   The Full Convergence completed state MUST be maintained for an
   interval of duration equal to the Sustained Convergence Validation
   Time [Section 3.7.5] in order to validate the Convergence Recovery
   Instant.

   The Convergence Recovery Instant is observable from the data plane as
   the instant the Device Under Test (DUT) forwards traffic to all
   destinations over the Next-Best Egress Interface [Section 3.4.4]
   without impairments.

   Measurement Units:

   seconds (and fractions), reported with resolution sufficient to
   distinguish between different instants

   See Also:

   Sustained Convergence Validation Time, Full Convergence, Next-Best
   Egress Interface

3.2.4.  First Route Convergence Instant

   Definition:

   The time instant the first route entry completes Route Convergence
   [Section 3.1.1]

   Discussion:

   Any route may be the first to complete Route Convergence.  The First
   Route Convergence Instant is observable from the data plane as the



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   instant that the first packet that is not an Impaired Packet
   [Section 3.8.1] is received from the Next-Best Egress Interface
   [Section 3.4.4] or, for the test cases with Equal Cost Multi-Path
   (ECMP) or Parallel Links, the instant that the Forwarding Rate on the
   Next-Best Egress Interface [Section 3.4.4] starts to increase.

   Measurement Units:

   seconds (and fractions), reported with resolution sufficient to
   distinguish between different instants

   See Also:

   Route Convergence, Impaired Packet, Next-Best Egress Interface

3.3.  Transitions

3.3.1.  Convergence Event Transition

   Definition:

   A time interval following a Convergence Event [Section 3.7.1] in
   which Forwarding Rate on the Preferred Egress Interface
   [Section 3.4.3] gradually reduces to zero.

   Discussion:

   The Forwarding Rate during a Convergence Event Transition may or may
   not decrease linearly.

   The Forwarding Rate observed on the Device Under Test (DUT) egress
   interface(s) may or may not decrease to zero.

   The Offered Load, the number of routes, and the Packet Sampling
   Interval [Section 3.7.4] influence the observations of the
   Convergence Event Transition using the Rate-Derived Method
   [Section 3.5.1].

   Measurement Units: seconds (and fractions)

   See Also:

   Convergence Event, Preferred Egress Interface, Packet Sampling
   Interva, Rate-Derived Method







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3.3.2.  Convergence Recovery Transition

   Definition:

   A time interval following the First Route Convergence Instant
   [Section 3.4.4] in which Forwarding Rate on the Device Under Test
   (DUT) egress interface(s) gradually increases to equal the Offered
   Load.

   Discussion:

   The Forwarding Rate observed during a Convergence Recovery Transition
   may or may not increase linearly.

   The Offered Load, the number of routes, and the Packet Sampling
   Interval [Section 3.7.4] influence the observations of the
   Convergence Recovery Transition using the Rate-Derived Method
   [Section 3.5.1].

   Measurement Units: seconds (and fractions)

   See Also:

   First Route Convergence Instant, Packet Sampling Interva, Rate-
   Derived Method

3.4.  Interfaces

3.4.1.  Local Interface

   Definition:

   An interface on the Device Under Test (DUT).

   Discussion:

   A failure of a Local Interface indicates that the failure occurred
   directly on the Device Under Test (DUT).

   Measurement Units: N/A

   See Also: Remote Interface

3.4.2.  Remote Interface

   Definition:

   An interface on a neighboring router that is not directly connected



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   to any interface on the Device Under Test (DUT).

   Discussion:

   A failure of a Remote Interface indicates that the failure occurred
   on a neighbor router's interface that is not directly connected to
   the Device Under Test (DUT).

   Measurement Units: N/A

   See Also: Local Interface

3.4.3.  Preferred Egress Interface

   Definition:

   The outbound interface from the Device Under Test (DUT) for traffic
   routed to the preferred next-hop.

   Discussion:

   The Preferred Egress Interface is the egress interface prior to a
   Convergence Event [Section 3.7.1].

   Measurement Units: N/A

   See Also: Convergence Event, Next-Best Egress Interface

3.4.4.  Next-Best Egress Interface

   Definition:

   The outbound interface or set of outbound interfaces in an Equal Cost
   Multipath (ECMP) set or parallel link set of the Device Under Test
   (DUT) for traffic routed to the second-best next-hop.

   Discussion:

   The Next-Best Egress Interface becomes the egress interface after a
   Convergence Event [Section 3.4.4].

   For the test cases in [Po11m] using test topologies with an ECMP set
   or parallel link set, the term Preferred Egress Interface refers to
   all members of the link set.

   Measurement Units: N/A

   See Also: Convergence Event, Preferred Egress Interface



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3.5.  Benchmarking Methods

3.5.1.  Rate-Derived Method

   Definition:

   The method to calculate convergence time benchmarks from observing
   Forwarding Rate each Packet Sampling Interval [Section 3.7.4].

   Discussion:

   Figure 1 shows an example of the Forwarding Rate change in time
   during convergence as observed when using the Rate-Derived Method.

           ^         Traffic                      Convergence
      Fwd  |         Start                        Recovery
      Rate |         Instant                      Instant
           | Offered  ^                             ^
           | Load --> ----------\                   /-----------
           |                     \                 /<--- Convergence
           |                      \     Packet    /      Recovery
           |       Convergence --->\     Loss    /       Transition
           |       Event            \           /
           |       Transition        \---------/ <-- Max Packet Loss
           |
           +--------------------------------------------------------->
                           ^                   ^                 time
                      Convergence         First Route
                      Event Instant       Convergence Instant

                 Figure 1: Rate-Derived Convergence Graph



   To enable collecting statistics of Out-of-Order Packets per flow (See
   [Th00], Section 3) the Offered Load SHOULD consist of multiple
   Streams [Po06] and each Stream SHOULD consist of a single flow .  If
   sending multiple Streams, the measured traffic statistics for all
   Streams MUST be added together.

   The destination addresses for the Offered Load MUST be distributed
   such that all routes or a statistically representative subset of all
   routes are matched and each of these routes is offered an equal share
   of the Offered Load.  It is RECOMMENDED to send traffic to all
   routes, but a statistically representative subset of all routes can
   be used if required.

   At least one packet per route for all routes matched in the Offered



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   Load MUST be offered to the DUT within each Packet Sampling Interval.
   For maximum accuracy the value for the Packet Sampling Interval
   SHOULD be as small as possible, but the presence of IP Packet Delay
   Variation (IPDV) [De02] may enforce using a larger Packet Sampling
   Interval.

   The Offered Load, IPDV, the number of routes, and the Packet Sampling
   Interval influence the observations for the Rate-Derived Method.  It
   may be difficult to identify the different convergence time instants
   in the Rate-Derived Convergence Graph.  For example, it is possible
   that a Convergence Event causes the Forwarding Rate to drop to zero,
   while this may not be observed in the Forwarding Rate measurements if
   the Packet Sampling Interval is too large.

   IPDV causes fluctuations in the number of received packets during
   each Packet Sampling Interval.  To account for the presence of IPDV
   in determining if a convergence instant has been reached, Forwarding
   Delay SHOULD be observed during each Packet Sampling Interval.  The
   minimum and maximum number of packets expected in a Packet Sampling
   Interval in presence of IPDV can be calculated with Equation 1.

   number of packets expected in a Packet Sampling Interval
     in presence of IP Packet Delay Variation
       = expected number of packets without IP Packet Delay Variation
         +/-( (maxDelay - minDelay) * Offered Load)
   with minDelay and maxDelay the minimum resp. maximum Forwarding Delay
     of packets received during the Packet Sampling Interval

                                Equation 1

   To determine if a convergence instant has been reached the number of
   packets received in a Packet Sampling Interval is compared with the
   range of expected number of packets calculated in Equation 1.

   If packets are going over multiple ECMP members and one or more of
   the members has failed then the number of received packets during
   each Packet Sampling Interval may vary, even excluding presence of
   IPDV.  To prevent fluctuation of the number of received packets
   during each Packet Sampling Interval for this reason, the Packet
   Sampling Interval duration SHOULD be a whole multiple of the time
   between two consecutive packets sent to the same destination.

   Metrics measured at the Packet Sampling Interval MUST include
   Forwarding Rate and Impaired Packet count.

   To measure convergence time benchmarks for Convergence Events
   [Section 3.7.1] that do not cause instantaneous traffic loss for all
   routes at the Convergence Event Instant, the Tester SHOULD collect a



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   timestamp of the Convergence Event Instant [Section 3.2.2] and the
   Tester SHOULD observe Forwarding Rate separately on the Next-Best
   Egress Interface.

   Since the Rate-Derived Method does not distinguish between individual
   traffic destinations, it SHOULD NOT be used for any route specific
   measurements.  Therefor Rate-Derived Method SHOULD NOT be used to
   benchmark Route Loss of Connectivity Period [Section 3.6.5].

   Measurement Units: N/A

   See Also:

   Packet Sampling Interval, Convergence Event, Convergence Event
   Instant, Next-Best Egress Interface, Route Loss of Connectivity
   Period

3.5.2.  Loss-Derived Method

   Definition:

   The method to calculate the Loss-Derived Convergence Time
   [Section 3.6.4] and Loss-Derived Loss of Connectivity Period
   [Section 3.6.6] benchmarks from the amount of Impaired Packets
   [Section 3.8.1].

   Discussion:

   To enable collecting statistics of Out-of-Order Packets per flow (See
   [Th00], Section 3) the Offered Load SHOULD consist of multiple
   Streams [Po06] and each Stream SHOULD consist of a single flow .  If
   sending multiple Streams, the measured traffic statistics for all
   Streams MUST be added together.

   The destination addresses for the Offered Load MUST be distributed
   such that all routes or a statistically representative subset of all
   routes are matched and each of these routes is offered an equal share
   of the Offered Load.  It is RECOMMENDED to send traffic to all
   routes, but a statistically representative subset of all routes can
   be used if required.

   Loss-Derived Method SHOULD always be combined with Rate-Derived
   Method in order to observe Full Convergence completion.  The total
   amount of Convergence Packet Loss is collected after Full Convergence
   completion.

   To measure convergence time and loss of connectivity benchmarks for
   Convergence Events that cause instantaneous traffic loss for all



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   routes at the Convergence Event Instant, the Tester SHOULD observe
   Impaired Packet count on all DUT egress interfaces (see Connectivity
   Packet Loss [Section 3.7.3]).

   To measure convergence time benchmarks for Convergence Events that do
   not cause instantaneous traffic loss for all routes at the
   Convergence Event Instant, the Tester SHOULD collect timestamps of
   the Start Traffic Instant and of the Convergence Event Instant, and
   the Tester SHOULD observe Impaired Packet count separately on the
   Next-Best Egress Interface (See Convergence Packet Loss
   [Section 3.7.2]).

   Since Loss-Derived Method does not distinguish between traffic
   destinations and the Impaired Packet statistics are only collected
   after Full Convergence completion, this method can only be used to
   measure average values over all routes.  For these reasons Loss-
   Derived Method can only be used to benchmark Loss-Derived Convergence
   Time [Section 3.6.4] and Loss-Derived Loss of Connectivity Period
   [Section 3.6.6].

   Note that the Loss-Derived Method measures an average over all
   routes, including the routes that may not be impacted by the
   Convergence Event, such as routes via non-impacted members of ECMP or
   parallel links.

   Measurement Units: N/A

   See Also:

   Loss-Derived Convergence Time, Loss-Derived Loss of Connectivity
   Period, Connectivity Packet Loss, Convergence Packet Loss

3.5.3.  Route-Specific Loss-Derived Method

   Definition:

   The method to calculate the Route-Specific Convergence Time
   [Section 3.6.3] benchmark from the amount of Impaired Packets
   [Section 3.8.1] during convergence for a specific route entry.

   Discussion:

   To benchmark Route-Specific Convergence Time, the Tester provides an
   Offered Load that consists of multiple Streams [Po06].  Each Stream
   has a single destination address matching a different route entry,
   for all routes or a statistically representative subset of all
   routes.  Each Stream SHOULD consist of a single flow (See [Th00],
   Section 3).  Convergence Packet Loss is measured for each Stream



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   separately.

   Route-Specific Loss-Derived Method SHOULD always be combined with
   Rate-Derived Method in order to observe Full Convergence completion.
   The total amount of Convergence Packet Loss [Section 3.7.2] for each
   Stream is collected after Full Convergence completion.

   Route-Specific Loss-Derived Method is the RECOMMENDED method to
   measure convergence time benchmarks.

   To measure convergence time and loss of connectivity benchmarks for
   Convergence Events that cause instantaneous traffic loss for all
   routes at the Convergence Event Instant, the Tester SHOULD observe
   Impaired Packet count on all DUT egress interfaces (see Connectivity
   Packet Loss [Section 3.7.3]).

   To measure convergence time benchmarks for Convergence Events that do
   not cause instantaneous traffic loss for all routes at the
   Convergence Event Instant, the Tester SHOULD collect timestamps of
   the Start Traffic Instant and of the Convergence Event Instant, and
   the Tester SHOULD observe packet loss separately on the Next-Best
   Egress Interface (See Convergence Packet Loss [Section 3.7.2]).

   Since Route-Specific Loss-Derived Method uses traffic streams to
   individual routes, it observes Impaired Packet count as it would be
   experienced by a network user.  For this reason Route-Specific Loss-
   Derived Method is RECOMMENDED to measure Route-Specific Convergence
   Time benchmarks and Route Loss of Connectivity Period benchmarks.

   Measurement Units: N/A

   See Also:

   Route-Specific Convergence Time, Route Loss of Connectivity Period,
   Connectivity Packet Loss, Convergence Packet Loss

3.6.  Benchmarks

3.6.1.  Full Convergence Time

   Definition:

   The time duration of the period between the Convergence Event Instant
   and the Convergence Recovery Instant as observed using the Rate-
   Derived Method.

   Discussion:




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   Using the Rate-Derived Method, Full Convergence Time can be
   calculated as the time difference between the Convergence Event
   Instant and the Convergence Recovery Instant, as shown in Equation 2.

        Full Convergence Time =
            Convergence Recovery Instant - Convergence Event Instant

                                Equation 2

   The Convergence Event Instant can be derived from the Forwarding Rate
   observation or from a timestamp collected by the Tester.

   For the test cases described in [Po11m], it is expected that Full
   Convergence Time equals the maximum Route-Specific Convergence Time
   when benchmarking all routes in FIB using the Route-Specific Loss-
   Derived Method.

   It is not possible to measure Full Convergence Time using the Loss-
   Derived Method.

   Measurement Units: seconds (and fractions)

   See Also:

   Full Convergence, Rate-Derived Method, Route-Specific Loss-Derived
   Method, Convergence Event Instant, Convergence Recovery Instant

3.6.2.  First Route Convergence Time

   Definition:

   The duration of the period between the Convergence Event Instant and
   the First Route Convergence Instant as observed using the Rate-
   Derived Method.

   Discussion:

   Using the Rate-Derived Method, First Route Convergence Time can be
   calculated as the time difference between the Convergence Event
   Instant and the First Route Convergence Instant, as shown with
   Equation 3.

      First Route Convergence Time =
          First Route Convergence Instant - Convergence Event Instant

                                Equation 3

   The Convergence Event Instant can be derived from the Forwarding Rate



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   observation or from a timestamp collected by the Tester.

   For the test cases described in [Po11m], it is expected that First
   Route Convergence Time equals the minimum Route-Specific Convergence
   Time when benchmarking all routes in FIB using the Route-Specific
   Loss-Derived Method.

   It is not possible to measure First Route Convergence Time using the
   Loss-Derived Method.

   Measurement Units: seconds (and fractions)

   See Also:

   Rate-Derived Method, Route-Specific Loss-Derived Method, Convergence
   Event Instant, First Route Convergence Instant

3.6.3.  Route-Specific Convergence Time

   Definition:

   The amount of time it takes for Route Convergence to be completed for
   a specific route, as calculated from the amount of Impaired Packets
   [Section 3.8.1] during convergence for a single route entry.

   Discussion:

   Route-Specific Convergence Time can only be measured using the Route-
   Specific Loss-Derived Method.

   If the applied Convergence Event causes instantaneous traffic loss
   for all routes at the Convergence Event Instant, Connectivity Packet
   Loss should be observed.  Connectivity Packet Loss is the combined
   Impaired Packet count observed on Preferred Egress Interface and
   Next-Best Egress Interface.  When benchmarking Route-Specific
   Convergence Time, Connectivity Packet Loss is measured and Equation 4
   is applied for each measured route.  The calculation is equal to
   Equation 8 in Section 3.6.5.

   Route-Specific Convergence Time =
      Connectivity Packet Loss for specific route/Offered Load per route

                                Equation 4

   If the applied Convergence Event does not cause instantaneous traffic
   loss for all routes at the Convergence Event Instant, then the Tester
   SHOULD collect timestamps of the Traffic Start Instant and of the
   Convergence Event Instant, and the Tester SHOULD observe Convergence



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   Packet Loss separately on the Next-Best Egress Interface.  When
   benchmarking Route-Specific Convergence Time, Convergence Packet Loss
   is measured and Equation 5 is applied for each measured route.

   Route-Specific Convergence Time =
       Convergence Packet Loss for specific route/Offered Load per route
       - (Convergence Event Instant - Traffic Start Instant)

                                Equation 5

   The Route-Specific Convergence Time benchmarks enable minimum,
   maximum, average, and median convergence time measurements to be
   reported by comparing the results for the different route entries.
   It also enables benchmarking of convergence time when configuring a
   priority value for route entry(ies).  Since multiple Route-Specific
   Convergence Times can be measured it is possible to have an array of
   results.  The format for reporting Route-Specific Convergence Time is
   provided in [Po11m].

   Measurement Units: seconds (and fractions)

   See Also:

   Route-Specific Loss-Derived Method, Convergence Event, Convergence
   Event Instant, Convergence Packet Loss, Connectivity Packet Loss,
   Route Convergence

3.6.4.  Loss-Derived Convergence Time

   Definition:

   The average Route Convergence time for all routes in the Forwarding
   Information Base (FIB), as calculated from the amount of Impaired
   Packets [Section 3.8.1] during convergence.

   Discussion:

   Loss-Derived Convergence Time is measured using the Loss-Derived
   Method.

   If the applied Convergence Event causes instantaneous traffic loss
   for all routes at the Convergence Event Instant, Connectivity Packet
   Loss [Section 3.7.3] should be observed.  Connectivity Packet Loss is
   the combined Impaired Packet count observed on Preferred Egress
   Interface and Next-Best Egress Interface.  When benchmarking Loss-
   Derived Convergence Time, Connectivity Packet Loss is measured and
   Equation 6 is applied.




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                 Loss-Derived Convergence Time =
                     Connectivity Packet Loss/Offered Load

                                Equation 6

   If the applied Convergence Event does not cause instantaneous traffic
   loss for all routes at the Convergence Event Instant, then the Tester
   SHOULD collect timestamps of the Start Traffic Instant and of the
   Convergence Event Instant and the Tester SHOULD observe Convergence
   Packet Loss [Section 3.7.2] separately on the Next-Best Egress
   Interface.  When benchmarking Loss-Derived Convergence Time,
   Convergence Packet Loss is measured and Equation 7 is applied.

         Loss-Derived Convergence Time =
             Convergence Packet Loss/Offered Load
             - (Convergence Event Instant - Traffic Start Instant)

                                Equation 7

   Measurement Units: seconds (and fractions)

   See Also:

   Convergence Packet Loss, Connectivity Packet Loss, Route Convergence,
   Loss-Derived Method

3.6.5.  Route Loss of Connectivity Period

   Definition:

   The time duration of packet impairments for a specific route entry
   following a Convergence Event until Full Convergence completion, as
   observed using the Route-Specific Loss-Derived Method.

   Discussion:

   In general the Route Loss of Connectivity Period is not equal to the
   Route-Specific Convergence Time.  If the DUT continues to forward
   traffic to the Preferred Egress Interface after the Convergence Event
   is applied then the Route Loss of Connectivity Period will be smaller
   than the Route-Specific Convergence Time.  This is also specifically
   the case after reversing a failure event.

   The Route Loss of Connectivity Period may be equal to the Route-
   Specific Convergence Time if, as a characteristic of the Convergence
   Event, traffic for all routes starts dropping instantaneously on the
   Convergence Event Instant.  See discussion in [Po11m].




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   For the test cases described in [Po11m] the Route Loss of
   Connectivity Period is expected to be a single Loss Period [Ko02].

   When benchmarking Route Loss of Connectivity Period, Connectivity
   Packet Loss is measured for each route and Equation 8 is applied for
   each measured route entry.  The calculation is equal to Equation 4 in
   Section 3.6.3.

   Route Loss of Connectivity Period =
      Connectivity Packet Loss for specific route/Offered Load per route

                                Equation 8

   Route Loss of Connectivity Period SHOULD be measured using Route-
   Specific Loss-Derived Method.

   Measurement Units: seconds (and fractions)

   See Also:

   Route-Specific Convergence Time, Route-Specific Loss-Derived Method,
   Connectivity Packet Loss

3.6.6.  Loss-Derived Loss of Connectivity Period

   Definition:

   The average time duration of packet impairments for all routes
   following a Convergence Event until Full Convergence completion, as
   observed using the Loss-Derived Method.

   Discussion:

   In general the Loss-Derived Loss of Connectivity Period is not equal
   to the Loss-Derived Convergence Time.  If the DUT continues to
   forward traffic to the Preferred Egress Interface after the
   Convergence Event is applied then the Loss-Derived Loss of
   Connectivity Period will be smaller than the Loss-Derived Convergence
   Time.  This is also specifically the case after reversing a failure
   event.

   The Loss-Derived Loss of Connectivity Period may be equal to the
   Loss-Derived Convergence Time if, as a characteristic of the
   Convergence Event, traffic for all routes starts dropping
   instantaneously on the Convergence Event Instant.  See discussion in
   [Po11m].

   For the test cases described in [Po11m] each route's Route Loss of



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   Connectivity Period is expected to be a single Loss Period [Ko02].

   When benchmarking Loss-Derived Loss of Connectivity Period,
   Connectivity Packet Loss is measured for all routes and Equation 9 is
   applied.  The calculation is equal to Equation 6 in Section 3.6.4.

          Loss-Derived Loss of Connectivity Period =
             Connectivity Packet Loss for all routes/Offered Load

                                Equation 9

   Loss-Derived Loss of Connectivity Period SHOULD be measured using
   Loss-Derived Method.

   Measurement Units: seconds (and fractions)

   See Also:

   Loss-Derived Convergence Time, Loss-Derived Method, Connectivity
   Packet Loss

3.7.  Measurement Terms

3.7.1.  Convergence Event

   Definition:

   The occurrence of an event in the network that will result in a
   change in the egress interface of the Device Under Test (DUT) for
   routed packets.

   Discussion:

   All test cases in [Po11m] are defined such that a Convergence Event
   results in a change of egress interface of the DUT.  Local or remote
   triggers that cause a route calculation which does not result in a
   change in forwarding are not considered.

   Measurement Units: N/A

   See Also: Convergence Event Instant

3.7.2.  Convergence Packet Loss

   Definition:

   The number of Impaired Packets [Section 3.8.1] as observed on the
   Next-Best Egress Interface of the DUT during convergence.



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   Discussion:

   An Impaired Packet is considered as a lost packet.

   Measurement Units: number of packets

   See Also:

   Connectivity Packet Loss

3.7.3.  Connectivity Packet Loss

   Definition:

   The number of Impaired Packets observed on all DUT egress interfaces
   during convergence.

   Discussion:

   An Impaired Packet is considered as a lost packet.  Connectivity
   Packet Loss is equal to Convergence Packet Loss if the Convergence
   Event causes instantaneous traffic loss for all egress interfaces of
   the DUT except for the Next-Best Egress Interface.

   Measurement Units: number of packets

   See Also:

   Convergence Packet Loss

3.7.4.  Packet Sampling Interval

   Definition:

   The interval at which the Tester (test equipment) polls to make
   measurements for arriving packets.

   Discussion:

   At least one packet per route for all routes matched in the Offered
   Load MUST be offered to the DUT within the Packet Sampling Interval.
   Metrics measured at the Packet Sampling Interval MUST include
   Forwarding Rate and received packets.

   Packet Sampling Interval can influence the convergence graph as
   observed with the Rate-Derived Method.  This is particularly true
   when implementations complete Full Convergence in less time than the
   Packet Sampling Interval.  The Convergence Event Instant and First



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   Route Convergence Instant may not be easily identifiable and the
   Rate-Derived Method may produce a larger than actual convergence
   time.

   Using a small Packet Sampling Interval in the presence of IPDV [De02]
   may cause fluctuations of the Forwarding Rate observation and can
   prevent correct observation of the different convergence time
   instants.

   The value of the Packet Sampling Interval only contributes to the
   measurement accuracy of the Rate-Derived Method.  For maximum
   accuracy the value for the Packet Sampling Interval SHOULD be as
   small as possible, but the presence of IPDV may enforce using a
   larger Packet Sampling Interval.

   Measurement Units: seconds (and fractions)

   See Also: Rate-Derived Method

3.7.5.  Sustained Convergence Validation Time

   Definition:

   The amount of time for which the completion of Full Convergence is
   maintained without additional Impaired Packets being observed.

   Discussion:

   The purpose of the Sustained Convergence Validation Time is to
   produce convergence benchmarks protected against fluctuation in
   Forwarding Rate after the completion of Full Convergence is observed.
   The RECOMMENDED Sustained Convergence Validation Time to be used is
   the time to send 5 consecutive packets to each destination with a
   minimum of 5 seconds.  The Benchmarking Methodology Working Group
   (BMWG) selected 5 seconds based upon [Br99] which recommends waiting
   2 seconds for residual frames to arrive (this is the Forwarding Delay
   Threshold for the last packet sent) and 5 seconds for DUT
   restabilization.

   Measurement Units: seconds (and fractions)

   See Also:

   Full Convergence, Convergence Recovery Instant







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3.7.6.  Forwarding Delay Threshold

   Definition:

   The maximum waiting time threshold used to distinguish between
   packets with very long delay and lost packets that will never arrive.

   Discussion:

   Applying a Forwarding Delay Threshold allows to consider packets with
   a too large Forwarding Delay as being lost, as is required for some
   applications (e.g. voice, video, etc.).  The Forwarding Delay
   Threshold is a parameter of the methodology, and it MUST be reported.
   [Br99] recommends waiting 2 seconds for residual frames to arrive.

   Measurement Units: seconds (and fractions)

   See Also:

   Convergence Packet Loss, Connectivity Packet Loss

3.8.  Miscellaneous Terms

3.8.1.  Impaired Packet

   Definition:

   A packet that experienced at least one of the following impairments:
   loss, excessive Forwarding Delay, corruption, duplication,
   reordering.

   Discussion:

   A lost packet, a packet with a Forwarding Delay exceeding the
   Forwarding Delay Threshold, a corrupted packet, a Duplicate Packet
   [Po06], and an Out-of-Order Packet [Po06] are Impaired Packets.

   Packet ordering is observed for each individual flow (See [Th00],
   Section 3) of the Offered Load.

   Measurement Units: N/A

   See Also: Forwarding Delay Threshold


4.  Security Considerations

   Benchmarking activities as described in this memo are limited to



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   technology characterization using controlled stimuli in a laboratory
   environment, with dedicated address space and the constraints
   specified in the sections above.

   The benchmarking network topology will be an independent test setup
   and MUST NOT be connected to devices that may forward the test
   traffic into a production network, or misroute traffic to the test
   management network.

   Further, benchmarking is performed on a "black-box" basis, relying
   solely on measurements observable external to the DUT/SUT.

   Special capabilities SHOULD NOT exist in the DUT/SUT specifically for
   benchmarking purposes.  Any implications for network security arising
   from the DUT/SUT SHOULD be identical in the lab and in production
   networks.


5.  IANA Considerations

   This document requires no IANA considerations.


6.  Acknowledgements

   Thanks to Sue Hares, Al Morton, Kevin Dubray, Ron Bonica, David Ward,
   Peter De Vriendt, Anuj Dewagan, Adrian Farrel, Stewart Bryant,
   Francis Dupont, and the Benchmarking Methodology Working Group for
   their contributions to this work.


7.  Normative References

   [Br91]   Bradner, S., "Benchmarking terminology for network
            interconnection devices", RFC 1242, July 1991.

   [Br97]   Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
            Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [Br99]   Bradner, S. and J. McQuaid, "Benchmarking Methodology for
            Network Interconnect Devices", RFC 2544, March 1999.

   [Ca90]   Callon, R., "Use of OSI IS-IS for routing in TCP/IP and dual
            environments", RFC 1195, December 1990.

   [Co08]   Coltun, R., Ferguson, D., Moy, J., and A. Lindem, "OSPF for
            IPv6", RFC 5340, July 2008.




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   [De02]   Demichelis, C. and P. Chimento, "IP Packet Delay Variation
            Metric for IP Performance Metrics (IPPM)", RFC 3393,
            November 2002.

   [Ho08]   Hopps, C., "Routing IPv6 with IS-IS", RFC 5308,
            October 2008.

   [Ko02]   Koodli, R. and R. Ravikanth, "One-way Loss Pattern Sample
            Metrics", RFC 3357, August 2002.

   [Ma98]   Mandeville, R., "Benchmarking Terminology for LAN Switching
            Devices", RFC 2285, February 1998.

   [Mo98]   Moy, J., "OSPF Version 2", STD 54, RFC 2328, April 1998.

   [Po06]   Poretsky, S., Perser, J., Erramilli, S., and S. Khurana,
            "Terminology for Benchmarking Network-layer Traffic Control
            Mechanisms", RFC 4689, October 2006.

   [Po11m]  Poretsky, S., Imhoff, B., and K. Michielsen, "Benchmarking
            Methodology for Link-State IGP Data Plane Route
            Convergence", draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-meth-23
            (work in progress), January 2011.

   [Th00]   Thaler, D. and C. Hopps, "Multipath Issues in Unicast and
            Multicast Next-Hop Selection", RFC 2991, November 2000.


Authors' Addresses

   Scott Poretsky
   Allot Communications
   67 South Bedford Street, Suite 400
   Burlington, MA  01803
   USA

   Phone: + 1 508 309 2179
   Email: sporetsky@allot.com













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   Brent Imhoff
   Juniper Networks
   1194 North Mathilda Ave
   Sunnyvale, CA  94089
   USA

   Phone: + 1 314 378 2571
   Email: bimhoff@planetspork.com


   Kris Michielsen
   Cisco Systems
   6A De Kleetlaan
   Diegem, BRABANT  1831
   Belgium

   Email: kmichiel@cisco.com


































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