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Versions: (draft-asati-bmwg-reset) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 RFC 6201

Benchmarking Methodology WG                                 Rajiv Asati
Internet Draft                                                    Cisco
Updates: 1242, 2544 (if approved)                      Carlos Pignataro
Intended status: Informational                                    Cisco
Expires: June 2011                                    Fernando Calabria
                                                                  Cisco
                                                           Cesar Olvera
                                                            Consulintel

                                                      December 20, 2010

                      Device Reset Characterization
                         draft-ietf-bmwg-reset-06




Abstract

   An operational forwarding device may need to be re-started
   (automatically or manually) for a variety of reasons, an event that
   we call a "reset" in this document. Since there may be an
   interruption in the forwarding operation during a reset, it is
   useful to know how long a device takes to resume the forwarding
   operation.

   This document specifies a methodology for characterizing reset (and
   reset time) during benchmarking of forwarding devices, and provides
   clarity and consistency in reset test procedures beyond what's
   specified in RFC2544. It therefore updates RFC2544. This document
   also defines the benchmarking term "Reset Time" and only in this
   updates RFC1242.



Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that
   other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-
   Drafts.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six
   months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents




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   at any time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as
   reference material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
        http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt

   The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on June 20, 2011.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2010 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
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   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
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   document must include Simplified BSD License text as described in
   Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without
   warranty as described in the Simplified BSD License.























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Table of Contents


   1. Key Words to Reflect Requirements..............................4
   2. Introduction...................................................4
      2.1. Scope.....................................................4
      2.2. Reset Time................................................5
      2.3. Reset Time Measurement Methods............................6
      2.4. Reporting Format..........................................7
   3. Test Requirements..............................................8
   4. Reset Test.....................................................9
      4.1. Hardware Reset Test......................................10
         4.1.1. Routing Processor (RP) / Routing Engine Reset.......10
            4.1.1.1. RP Reset for a single-RP device (REQUIRED).....11
            4.1.1.2. RP Switchover for a multiple-RP device (OPTIONAL)
            ........................................................11
         4.1.2. Line Card (LC) Removal and Insertion (REQUIRED).....13
      4.2. Software Reset Test......................................14
         4.2.1. Operating System (OS) Reset (REQUIRED)..............14
         4.2.2. Process Reset (OPTIONAL)............................15
      4.3. Power Interruption Test..................................16
         4.3.1. Power Interruption (REQUIRED).......................16
   5. Security Considerations.......................................17
   6. IANA Considerations...........................................17
   7. Acknowledgments...............................................17
   8. References....................................................19
      8.1. Normative References.....................................19
      8.2. Informative References...................................19
   Authors' Addresses...............................................20



















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1. Key Words to Reflect Requirements

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in BCP 14, RFC 2119
   [RFC2119].  RFC 2119 defines the use of these key words to help make
   the intent of standards track documents as clear as possible.  While
   this document uses these keywords, this document is not a standards
   track document.



2. Introduction

   An operational forwarding device (or one of its components) may need
   to be re-started for a variety of reasons, an event that we call a
   "reset" in this document. Since there may be an interruption in the
   forwarding operation during a reset, it is useful to know how long a
   device takes to resume the forwarding operation. In other words, it
   is desired to know the duration of the recovery time following the
   reset (reset time, see Section 2.2).

   However, the answer to this question is no longer simple and
   straight-forward as the modern forwarding devices employ many
   hardware advancements (distributed forwarding, etc.) and software
   advancements (graceful restart, etc.) that influence the recovery
   time after the reset.



2.1. Scope

   This document specifies a methodology for characterizing reset (and
   reset time) during benchmarking of forwarding devices, and provides
   clarity and consistency in reset procedures beyond what is specified
   in [RFC2544]. Software upgrades involve additional benchmarking
   complexities and are outside the scope of this document.

   These procedures may be used by other benchmarking documents such as
   [RFC2544], [RFC5180], [RFC5695], etc., and is expected that other
   protocol-specific benchmarking documents would reference this
   document for reset recovery time characterization. Specific Routing
   Information Base (RIB) and Forwarding Information Base (FIB) scaling
   considerations are outside the scope of this document and can be
   quite complex to characterize. However, other documents can
   characterize specific dynamic protocols scaling and interactions and
   leverage and augment the reset tests defined in this document.



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   This document updates Section 26.6 of [RFC2544], and defines the
   benchmarking term "Reset Time" updating [RFC1242].

   This document focuses only on the reset criterion of benchmarking,
   and presumes that it would be beneficial to [RFC5180], [RFC5695],
   and other IETF Benchmarking Methodology Working Group (BMWG)
   efforts.



2.2. Reset Time

   Definition

     Reset Time is the total time when a device is determined to be out
     of operation, and includes the time to perform the reset and the
     time to recover from it.

   Discussion

     During a period of time after a reset or power up, network devices
     may not accept and forward frames.  The duration of this period of
     forwarding unavailability can be useful in evaluating devices.  In
     addition, some network devices require some form of reset when
     specific setup variables are modified.  If the reset period were
     long it might discourage network managers from modifying these
     variables on production networks.

     The events characterized in this document are entire reset events.
     That is, the recovery period measured includes the time to perform
     the reset and the time to recover from it. Some reset events will
     be atomic (such as pressing a reset button) while others (such as
     power cycling) may comprise multiple actions with a recognized
     interval between them. In both cases, the duration considered is
     from the start of the event until full recovery of forwarding
     after the completion of the reset events.

   Measurement units

     Time in milliseconds, providing sufficient resolution to
     distinguish between different trials and different
     implementations. See Section 2.4.

   Issues

     There are various types of Reset: Hardware resets, software
     resets, and power interruption. See Section 4.



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   See Also

     This definition updates [RFC1242].



2.3. Reset Time Measurement Methods

   The 'reset time' is the time during which the traffic forwarding is
   temporarily interrupted following a reset event. Strictly speaking,
   this is the time over which one or more frames are lost. This
   definition is similar to that of 'Loss of connectivity period'
   defined in [IGPConv] section 4.

   There are two accepted methods to measure the 'reset time':

     1. Frame-Loss Method - This method requires test tool capability
        to monitor the number of lost frames. In this method, the
        offered stream rate (frames per second) must be known. The
        reset time is calculated per the below equation:



                                  Frames_lost (packets)
            Reset_time = -------------------------------------
                           Offered_rate (packets per second)



     2. Time-Stamp Method - This method requires test tool capability
         to timestamp each frame. In this method, the test tool
         timestamps each transmitted frame and monitors the received
         frame's timestamp. During the test, the test tool would record
         the timestamp (Timestamp A) of the frame that was last
         received prior to the reset interruption and the timestamp
         (Timestamp B) of the first frame after the interruption
         stopped. The difference between Timestamp B and Timestamp A is
         the reset time.

   The tester / operator MAY use either method for reset time
   measurement depending on the test tool capability. However, the
   Frame-loss method SHOULD be used if the test tool is capable of (a)
   counting the number of lost frames per stream, and (b) transmitting
   test frame despite the physical link status, whereas Time-stamp
   method SHOULD be used if the test tool is capable of (a) time-
   stamping each frame, (b) monitoring received frame's timestamp, and
   (c) transmitting frames only if the physical link status is UP. That



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   is, specific test tool capabilities may dictate which method to use.
   If the test tool supports both methods based on its capabilities,
   the tester / operator SHOULD use the one that provides more
   accuracy.



2.4. Reporting Format

   All reset results are reported in a simple statement including the
   frame loss (if measured) and reset times.

   For each test case, it is RECOMMENDED that the following parameters
   be reported in these units:

         Parameter                Units or Examples

      -----------------------------------------------------------------

         Throughput               Frames per second and bits per
                                  second

         Loss (average)           Frames

         Reset Time (average)     Milliseconds

         Number of trials         Integer count

         Protocol                 IPv4, IPv6, MPLS, etc.

         Frame Size               Octets

         Port Media               Ethernet, GigE (Gigabit Ethernet),
                                  POS (Packet over SONET), etc.

         Port Speed               10 Gbps, 1 Gbps, 100 Mbps, etc.

         Interface Encap.         Ethernet, Ethernet VLAN,
                                  PPP, HDLC, etc.

   For mixed protocol environments, frames SHOULD be distributed
   between all the different protocols. The distribution MAY
   approximate the network conditions of deployment. In all cases the
   details of the mixed protocol distribution MUST be included in the
   reporting.





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   Additionally, the DUT (Device Under Test) / SUT (System Under Test)
   and test bed provisioning, port and Line Card arrangement,
   configuration, and deployed methodologies that may influence the
   overall reset time MUST be listed. (Refer to the additional factors
   listed in Section 3).

   The reporting of results MUST regard repeatability considerations
   from Section 4 of [RFC2544]. It is RECOMMENDED to perform multiple
   trials and report average results.



3. Test Requirements

   Tests SHOULD first be performed such that the forwarding state re-
   establishment is independent from an external source (i.e., using
   static address resolution, routing and forwarding configuration, and
   not dynamic protocols). However tests MAY subsequently be performed
   using dynamic protocols that the forwarding state depends on (e.g.,
   dynamic Interior Gateway Protocols (IGP), ARP, PPP Control
   Protocols, etc.) The considerations in this Section apply.

   In order to provide consistence and fairness while benchmarking a
   set of different DUTs, the Network tester / operator MUST (a) use
   identical control and data plane information during testing, (b)
   document & report any factors that may influence the overall time
   after reset / convergence.

   Some of these factors include:

     1.  Type of reset - Hardware (line-card crash, etc.) vs. Software
         (protocol reset, process crash, etc.) or even complete power
         failures

     2.  Manual vs. Automatic reset

     3.  Scheduled vs. non-scheduled reset

     4.  Local vs. Remote reset

     5.  Scale - Number of line cards present vs. in-use

     6.  Scale - Number of physical and logical interfaces

     7.  Scale - Number of routing protocol instances



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     8.  Scale - Number of Routing Table entries

     9.  Scale - Number of Route Processors available

     10. Performance - Redundancy strategy deployed for route
         processors and line cards

     11. Performance - Interface encapsulation as well as achievable
         Throughput [RFC2544]

     12. Any other internal or external factor that may influence reset
         time after a hardware or software reset

   The reset time is one of the key characterization results reported
   after each test run. While the reset time during a reset test event
   may be zero, there may still be effects on traffic, such as
   transient delay variation or increased latency. However, that is not
   covered and deemed outside the scope of this document. In this case,
   only "no loss" is reported.



4. Reset Test

   This section contains the description of the tests that are related
   to the characterization of the time needed for DUTs (Device Under
   Test) / SUTs (System Under Test) to recover from a reset. There are
   three types of reset considered in this document:

     1. Hardware resets

     2. Software resets

     3. Power interruption

   Different types of reset have potentially different impact on the
   forwarding behavior of the device. As an example, a software reset
   (of a routing process) might not result in forwarding interruption,
   whereas a hardware reset (of a line card) most likely will.

   Section 4.1 describes various hardware resets, whereas Section 4.2
   describes various software resets. Additionally, Section 4.3
   describes power interruption tests. These sections define and
   characterize these resets.






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   Additionally, since device specific implementations may vary for
   hardware and software type resets, it is desirable to classify each
   test case as "REQUIRED" or "OPTIONAL".



4.1. Hardware Reset Test

   A test designed to characterize the time it takes a DUT to recover
   from the hardware reset.

   A "hardware reset" generally involves the re-initialization of one
   or more physical components in the DUT, but not the entire DUT.

   A hardware reset is executed by the operator for example by physical
   removal of a hardware component, by pressing on a "reset" button for
   the component, or could even be triggered from the command line
   interface.

   Reset procedures that do not require the physical removal and
   insertion of a hardware component are RECOMMENDED. These include
   using the Command Line Interface (CLI) or a physical switch or
   button. If such procedures cannot be performed (e.g., for lack of
   platform support, or because the corresponding Test Case calls for
   them), human operation time SHOULD be minimized across different
   platforms and Test Cases as much as possible, and variation in human
   operator time SHOULD also be minimized across different vendors
   products as much as practical, by having the same person perform the
   operation, and by practicing the operation. Additionally, the time
   between removal and insertion SHOULD be recorded and reported.

   For routers that do not contain separate Routing Processor and Line
   Card modules, the hardware reset tests are not performed since they
   are not relevant; instead, the power interruption tests MUST be
   performed (see Section 4.3) in these cases.



4.1.1. Routing Processor (RP) / Routing Engine Reset

   The Routing Processor (RP) is the DUT module that is primarily
   concerned with Control Plane functions.








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4.1.1.1. RP Reset for a single-RP device (REQUIRED)

   Objective

     To characterize time needed for a DUT to recover from a Route
     processor hardware reset in a single RP environment.

   Procedure

     First, ensure that the RP is in a permanent state to which it will
     return to after the reset, by performing some or all of the
     following operational tasks: save the current DUT configuration,
     specify boot parameters, ensure the appropriate software files are
     available, or perform additional Operating System or hardware
     related task.

     Second, ensure that the DUT is able to forward the traffic for at
     least 15 seconds before any test activities are performed. The
     traffic should use the minimum frame size possible on the media
     used in the testing and rate should be sufficient for the DUT to
     attain the maximum forwarding throughput. This enables a finer
     granularity in the reset time measurement.

     Third, perform the Route Processor (RP) hardware reset at this
     point. This entails for example physically removing the RP to
     later re-insert it, or triggering a hardware reset by other means
     (e.g., command line interface, physical switch, etc.)

     Finally, the characterization is completed by recording the frame
     loss or time stamps (as reported by the test tool) and calculating
     the reset time (as defined in Section 2.3).

   Reporting format

     The reporting format is defined in Section 2.4.



4.1.1.2. RP Switchover for a multiple-RP device (OPTIONAL)

   Objective

     To characterize time needed for "secondary" Route Processor
     (sometimes referred to as "backup" RP) of a DUT to become active
     after a "primary" (or "active") Route Processor hardware reset.
     This process is often referred to as "RP Switchover". The
     characterization in this test should be done for the default DUT



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     behavior as well as a DUT's non-default configuration that
     minimizes frame loss, if exists.

   Procedure

     This test characterizes "RP Switchover". Many implementations
     allow for optimized switchover capabilities that minimize the
     downtime during the actual switchover. This test consists of two
     sub-cases from a switchover characteristics standpoint: First, a
     default behavior (with no switchover-specific configurations); and
     potentially second, a non-default behavior with switchover
     configuration to minimize frame loss. Therefore, the procedures
     hereby described are executed twice, and reported separately.

     First, ensure that the RPs are in a permanent state such that the
     secondary will be activated to the same state as the active is, by
     performing some or all of the following operational tasks: save
     the current DUT configuration, specify boot parameters, ensure the
     appropriate software files are available, or perform additional
     Operating System or hardware related task.

     Second, ensure that the DUT is able to forward the traffic for at
     least 15 seconds before any test activities are performed. The
     traffic should use the minimum frame size possible on the media
     used in the testing and rate should be sufficient for the DUT to
     attain the maximum forwarding throughput. This enables a finer
     granularity in the reset time measurement.

     Third, perform the primary Route Processor (RP) hardware reset at
     this point. This entails for example physically removing the RP,
     or triggering a hardware reset by other means (e.g., command line
     interface, physical switch, etc.) It is up to the operator to
     decide if the primary RP needs to be re-inserted after a grace
     period or not.

     Finally, the characterization is completed by recording the frame
     loss or time stamps (as reported by the test tool) and calculating
     the reset time (as defined in Section 2.3).

   Reporting format

     The reset results are potentially reported twice, one for the
     default switchover behavior (i.e., the DUT without any switchover-
     specific enhanced configuration) and the other for the switchover-
     specific behavior if it exists (i.e., the DUT configured for
     optimized switchover capabilities that minimize the downtime
     during the actual switchover).



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     The reporting format is defined in Section 2.4, and also includes
     any specific redundancy scheme in place.



4.1.2. Line Card (LC) Removal and Insertion (REQUIRED)

   The Line Card (LC) is the DUT component that is responsible with
   packet forwarding.

   Objective

     To characterize time needed for a DUT to recover from a Line Card
     removal and insertion event.

   Procedure

     For this test, the Line Card that is being hardware-reset MUST be
     on the forwarding path and all destinations MUST be directly
     connected.

     First, complete some or all of the following operational tasks:
     save the current DUT configuration, specify boot parameters,
     ensure the appropriate software files are available, or perform
     additional Operating System or hardware related task.

     Second, ensure that the DUT is able to forward the traffic for at
     least 15 seconds before any test activities are performed. The
     traffic should use the minimum frame size possible on the media
     used in the testing and rate should be sufficient for the DUT to
     attain the maximum forwarding throughput. This enables a finer
     granularity in the reset time measurement.

     Third, perform the Line Card (LC) hardware reset at this point.
     This entails for example physically removing the LC to later re-
     insert it, or triggering a hardware reset by other means (e.g.,
     CLI, physical switch, etc.).

     Finally, the characterization is completed by recording the frame
     loss or time stamps (as reported by the test tool) and calculating
     the reset time (as defined in Section 2.3).

   Reporting Format

     The reporting format is defined in Section 2.4.





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4.2. Software Reset Test

   To characterize time needed for a DUT to recover from the software
   reset.

   In contrast to a "hardware reset", a "software reset" involves only
   the re-initialization of the execution, data structures, and partial
   state within the software running on the DUT module(s).

   A software reset is initiated for example from the DUT's CLI.



4.2.1. Operating System (OS) Reset (REQUIRED)

   Objective

     To characterize time needed for a DUT to recover from an Operating
     System (OS) software reset.

   Procedure

     First, complete some or all of the following operational tasks:
     save the current DUT configuration, specify software boot
     parameters, ensure the appropriate software files are available,
     or perform additional Operating System task.

     Second, ensure that the DUT is able to forward the traffic for at
     least 15 seconds before any test activities are performed. The
     traffic should use the minimum frame size possible on the media
     used in the testing and rate should be sufficient for the DUT to
     attain the maximum forwarding throughput. This enables a finer
     granularity in the reset time measurement.

     Third, trigger an Operating System re-initialization in the DUT,
     by operational means such as use of the DUT's CLI or other
     management interface.

     Finally, the characterization is completed by recording the frame
     loss or time stamps (as reported by the test tool) and calculating
     the reset time (as defined in Section 2.3).

   Reporting format

     The reporting format is defined in Section 2.4.





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4.2.2. Process Reset (OPTIONAL)

   Objective

     To characterize time needed for a DUT to recover from a software
     process reset.

     Such time period may depend upon the number and types of process
     running in the DUT and which ones are tested. Different
     implementations of forwarding devices include various common
     processes. A process reset should be performed only in the
     processes most relevant to the tester and most impactful to
     forwarding.

   Procedure

     First, complete some or all of the following operational tasks:
     save the current DUT configuration, specify software parameters or
     environmental variables, or perform additional Operating System
     task.

     Second, ensure that the DUT is able to forward the traffic for at
     least 15 seconds before any test activities are performed. The
     traffic should use the minimum frame size possible on the media
     used in the testing and rate should be sufficient for the DUT to
     attain the maximum forwarding throughput. This enables a finer
     granularity in the reset time measurement.

     Third, trigger a process reset for each process running in the DUT
     and considered for testing from a management interface (e.g., by
     means of the CLI, etc.)

     Finally, the characterization is completed by recording the frame
     loss or time stamps (as reported by the test tool) and calculating
     the reset time (as defined in Section 2.3).

   Reporting format

     The reporting format is defined in Section 2.4, and is used for
     each process running in the DUT and tested. Given the
     implementation nature of this test, details of the actual process
     tested should be included along with the statement.








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4.3. Power Interruption Test

   "Power interruption" refers to the complete loss of power on the
   DUT. It can be viewed as a special case of a hardware reset,
   triggered by the loss of the power supply to the DUT or its
   components, and is characterized by the re-initialization of all
   hardware and software in the DUT.



4.3.1. Power Interruption (REQUIRED)

   Objective

     To characterize time needed for a DUT to recover from a complete
     loss of electric power or complete power interruption. This test
     simulates a complete power failure or outage, and should be
     indicative of the DUT/SUTs behavior during such event.

   Procedure

     First, ensure that the entire DUT is at a permanent state to which
     it will return to after the power interruption, by performing some
     or all of the following operational tasks: save the current DUT
     configuration, specify boot parameters, ensure the appropriate
     software files are available, or perform additional Operating
     System or hardware related task.

     Second, ensure that the DUT is able to forward the traffic for at
     least 15 seconds before any test activities are performed. The
     traffic should use the minimum frame size possible on the media
     used in the testing and rate should be sufficient for the DUT to
     attain the maximum forwarding throughput. This enables a finer
     granularity in the reset time measurement.

     Third, interrupt the power (AC or DC) that feeds the corresponding
     DUTs power supplies at this point. This entails for example
     physically removing the power supplies in the DUT to later re-
     insert them, or simply disconnecting or switching off their power
     feeds (AC or DC as applicable). The actual power interruption
     should last at least 15 seconds.

     Finally, the characterization is completed by recording the frame
     loss or time stamps (as reported by the test tool) and calculating
     the reset time (as defined in Section 2.3).





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     For easier comparison with other testing, the 15 seconds are
     removed from the reported reset time.

   Reporting format

     The reporting format is defined in Section 2.4.



5. Security Considerations

   Benchmarking activities, as described in this memo, are limited to
   technology characterization using controlled stimuli in a laboratory
   environment, with dedicated address space and the constraints
   specified in the sections above.

   The benchmarking network topology will be an independent test setup
   and MUST NOT be connected to devices that may forward the test
   traffic into a production network or misroute traffic to the test
   management network.

   Furthermore, benchmarking is performed on a "black-box" basis,
   relying solely on measurements observable external to the DUT/SUT.

   Special capabilities SHOULD NOT exist in the DUT/SUT specifically
   for benchmarking purposes.  Any implications for network security
   arising from the DUT/SUT SHOULD be identical in the lab and in
   production networks.

   There are no specific security considerations within the scope of
   this document.



6. IANA Considerations

   There is no IANA consideration for this document.



7. Acknowledgments

   The authors would like to thank Ron Bonica, who motivated us to
   write this document. The authors would also like to thank Al Morton,
   Andrew Yourtchenko, David Newman, John E. Dawson, Timmons C. Player,
   Jan Novak, Steve Maxwell, Ilya Varlashkin, and Sarah Banks for
   providing thorough review, useful suggestions, and valuable input.



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   This document was prepared using 2-Word-v2.0.template.dot.

















































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8. References

    8.1. Normative References

   [RFC1242] Bradner, S., "Benchmarking terminology for network
             interconnection devices", RFC 1242, July 1991.

   [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
             Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC2544] Bradner, S. and McQuaid, J., "Benchmarking Methodology for
             Network Interconnect Devices", RFC 2544, March 1999.



    8.2. Informative References

   [IGPConv] Poretsky, S., Imhoff, B., and K. Michielsen, "Benchmarking
             Methodology for Link-State IGP Data Plane Route
             Convergence", draft-ietf-bmwg-igp-dataplane-conv-meth-21
             (work in progress), May 2010.

   [RFC5180] Popoviciu, C., et al, "IPv6 Benchmarking Methodology for
             Network Interconnect Devices", RFC 5180, May 2008.

   [RFC5695] Akhter, A., Asati, R., and C. Pignataro, "MPLS Forwarding
             Benchmarking Methodology for IP Flows", RFC 5695, November
             2009.






















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Internet-Draft          Reset Characterization            December 2010

Authors' Addresses

   Rajiv Asati
   Cisco Systems
   7025-6 Kit Creek Road
   RTP, NC 27709
   USA

   Email: rajiva@cisco.com


   Carlos Pignataro
   Cisco Systems
   7200-12 Kit Creek Road
   RTP, NC 27709
   USA

   Email: cpignata@cisco.com


   Fernando Calabria
   Cisco Systems
   7200-12 Kit Creek Road
   RTP, NC 27709
   USA

   Email: fcalabri@cisco.com


   Cesar Olvera
   Consulintel
   Joaquin Turina, 2
   Pozuelo de Alarcon, Madrid, E-28224
   Spain

   Email: cesar.olvera@consulintel.es














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