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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 RFC 6003

    Network Working Group                                 D. Papadimitriou
    Internet Draft                                          Alcatel-Lucent
    Intended status: Standards Track                        April 15, 2009
    Expires: October 14, 2009
    
    
    
                          Ethernet Traffic Parameters
    
                draft-ietf-ccamp-ethernet-traffic-parameters-08.txt
    
    
    
    Status of this Memo
    
       This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with the
       provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
    
       Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
       Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that
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       Drafts.
    
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       and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
       time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
       material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
    
       The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
       http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt.
    
       The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
       http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.
    
    Abstract
    
       This document describes the Metro Ethernet Forum (MEF) - specific
       Ethernet Traffic Parameters as described in MEF10.1 when using
       Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) Resource
       ReSerVation Protocol - Traffic Engineering (RSVP-TE) signaling.
    
    1. Introduction
    
       Per [RFC3471], Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS)
       allows the inclusion of technology specific parameters in signaling.
       Ethernet SENDER_TSPEC and FLOWSPEC specific objects are introduced in
       this document that describe Metro Ethernet Forum (MEF) Ethernet
       traffic parameters as specified in [MEF10.1].
    
    
    
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       These traffic parameters MUST be used when the L2SC value is
       specified in the LSP Switching Type field of a Generalized Label
       Request (see [RFC3471]) and the LSP encoding type is Ethernet. For
       example:
    
       o For Ethernet Private Line (EPL) services [MEF6], these traffic
         parameters are applicable non-discriminately to each EVC crossing a
         given port.
    
       o For Ethernet Virtual Private Line (EVPL) services [MEF6], these
         traffic parameters are applicable per Ethernet Virtual Connection
         (EVC) with single or multiple Class of Service (CoS), independent
         of its associated (set of) VLAN ID (VID).
    
         Association between EVC and VIDs is detailed in [MEF10.1]. The
         format and encoding of the (set of) VIDs is documented in a
         companion document [GMPLS-ESVCS].
    
       This does not prevent broader usage for Ethernet LSP of the traffic
       parameters specified in this document.
    
    2. Conventions used in this document
    
       The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
       "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED",  "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
       document are to be interpreted as described in RFC-2119 [RFC2119].
    
       Moreover, the reader is assumed to be familiar with the terminology
       [MEF10.1] as well as [RFC3471] and [RFC3473].
    
    3. Overview
    
       The Ethernet SENDER_TSPEC/FLOWSPEC object includes the Ethernet link
       type (switching granularity) of the requested LSP, and the MTU value
       for the LSP.
    
       The Bandwidth Profile defines the set of traffic parameters
       applicable to a sequence of Service Frames, referred to as bandwidth
       profile parameters:
    
       o Committed Rate: indicates the rate at which traffic commits to be
         sent to the Ethernet LSP. The Committed Rate is described in terms
         of the CIR (Committed Information Rate) and CBS (Committed Burst
         Size) traffic parameters.
    
         o CIR is defined as the average rate (in bytes per unit of time) up
           to which the network is committed to transfer frames and meets
    
    
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           its performance objectives.
    
         o CBS defines a limit on the maximum number of information units
           (e.g., bytes) available for a burst of frames sent at the
           interface speed to remain CIR-conformant.
    
       o Excess Rate: indicates the extent by which the traffic sent on an
         Ethernet LSP exceeds the committed rate. The Excess Rate is
         described in terms of the EIR (Excess Information Rate) and EBS
         (Excess Burst Size) traffic parameters.
    
         o EIR is defined as the average rate (in bytes per unit of time),
           in excess of the CIR, up to which the network may transfer frames
           without any performance objectives.
    
         o EBS defines a limit on the maximum number of information unit
           (e.g., bytes) available for a burst of frames sent at the
           interface speed to remain EIR-conformant.
    
       o Color mode (CM): indicates whether the "color-aware" or "color-
         blind" property is employed by the bandwidth profile.
    
       o Coupling flag (CF): allows the choice between two modes of
         operations of the rate enforcement algorithm.
    
    4. Ethernet SENDER_TSPEC Object
    
       The Ethernet SENDER_TSPEC object (Class-Num = 12, Class-Type = TBA by
       IANA, with recommended value 6) has the following format:
    
           0                   1                   2                   3
           0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
          +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
          |            Length             | Class-Num (12)|   C-Type (6)  |
          +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
          |     Switching Granularity     |              MTU              |
          +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
          |                                                               |
          ~                              TLVs                             ~
          |                                                               |
          +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    
       Switching Granularity (SG): 16 bits
    
          This field indicates the type of link that comprises the requested
          Ethernet LSP.
    
    
    
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          The permitted Ethernet Link Type values are:
    
             Value   Switching Granularity
             -----   ---------------------
               0     Provided in signaling. See [GMPLS-ESVCS]
               1     Ethernet Port (for port-based service)
               2     Ethernet Frame (for EVC-based service)
             255     Reserved value
    
          Values 0 through 239, and 255 are assigned by IANA via IETF
          Standards Track RFC Action. Value 255 is reserved by the present
          document.
    
          Values 240 through 254 are reserved for vendor specific usage.
    
          Values 256 through 65535 are not to be assigned at this time.
          Before any assignments can be made in this range, there
          MUST be a Standards Track RFC that specifies IANA Considerations
          that covers the range being assigned.
    
       MTU: 16 bits
    
          This is a two-octet value indicating the MTU in octets.
    
          The MTU field MUST NOT take a value smaller than 46 bytes for
          Ethernet v2 and 38 bytes for IEEE 802.3.
    
       TLV (Type-Length-Value):
    
          The Ethernet SENDER_TSPEC object MUST include at least one TLV
          and MAY include more than one TLV.
    
          Each TLV MUST have the following format:
    
           0                   1                   2                   3
           0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
          +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
          |              Type             |             Length            |
          +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
          |                                                               |
          ~                             Value                             ~
          |                                                               |
          +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    
          Type: 16 bits
    
             Defined values are:
    
    
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             Type     Length   Format            Description
             ------------------------------------------------------
               0       TBD     Reserved          Reserved value
               1       TBD     Reserved          Reserved value
               2        24     see Section 3.1   Ethernet Bandwidth
                                                 Profile [MEF10.1]
               3         8     [GMPLS-ESVCS]     Layer 2 Control
                                                 Processing (L2CP)
             255       TBD     Reserved          Reserved value
    
             Values 0 through 239, and 255 are assigned by IANA via IETF
             Standards Track RFC Action. Values 0 and 255 are reserved by
             the present document.
    
             Values 240 through 254 are reserved for vendor specific
             usage.
    
             Values 256 through 65535 are not to be assigned at this
             time. Before any assignments can be made in this range, there
             MUST be a Standards Track RFC that specifies IANA
             Considerations that covers the range being assigned.
    
           Length: 16 bits
    
             Indicates the length in bytes of the whole TLV including the
             Type and Length fields. A value field whose length is not a
             multiple of four MUST be zero-padded (with trailing zeros)
             so that the TLV is four-octet aligned.
    
    4.1. Ethernet Bandwidth Profile TLV
    
       The Type 2 TLV specifies the Ethernet Bandwidth Profile. It defines
       an upper bound on the volume of the expected service frames belonging
       to a particular Ethernet service instance. The Ethernet SENDER_TSPEC
       object MAY include more than one Ethernet Bandwidth Profile TLV.
    
       The Type 2 TLV has the following format:
    
           0                   1                   2                   3
           0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
          +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
          |    Profile    |     Index     |            Reserved           |
          +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
          |                             CIR                               |
          +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
          |                             CBS                               |
    
    
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          +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
          |                             EIR                               |
          +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
          |                             EBS                               |
          +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    
       Profile: 8 bits (this field is to be registered by IANA)
    
          This field is defined as a vector of binary flags. The following
          flags are defined:
    
             Flag 1 (bit 0): coupling flag (CF)
             Flag 2 (bit 1): color mode (CM)
    
          Where bit 0 is the low order bit. Other flags are reserved, they
          SHOULD be set to zero when sent, and SHOULD be ignored when
          received.
    
          A flag is set to value 1 to indicate that the corresponding
          metering is requested.
    
          The Flag 1 allows the choice between two modes of operations of
          the rate enforcement algorithm.
    
          The Flag 2 indicates whether the color-aware or color-blind
          property is employed by the bandwidth profile. When Flag 2 is
          set to value 0 (1), the bandwidth profile algorithm is said to
          be in color blind (color aware) mode.
    
       Index: 8 bits
    
          The index field is used to reference bandwidth allocated for a
          given traffic class in case a multiple-class LSP is being
          requested. The index field value MUST correspond to at least one
          of the index values included in the CLASSTYPE object [RFC4124] or
          EXTENDED_CLASSTYPE object [MCOS].
    
          A given index value j can be associated to at most N Class-Type
          values CTi (i =< N) of the extended Class-Type object. This
          applies in case a set of one or more CTi maps a single (shared) BW
          profile. An example of value setting consists then in assigning
          an arbitrary value comprised within the range [0x08,0xF8[
          associated to a set of CTi, the values in the range [0xF8,0xFF]
          being selected for reserved sets. This allows mapping to one of
          248 pre-defined CTi sets.
    
          A given index value j can be associated to a single CTi (1:1
    
    
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          correspondence). In this case, the index value setting consists
          then in assigning the 3 LSB of the index field itself to the CTi
          value itself (comprised in the range [0x00,0x07]). This applies in
          case a single CTi maps a single (dedicated) BW profile or multiple
          (dedicated) BW profiles. In the former case (single BW profile),
          the Ethernet SENDER_TSPEC object includes a single Ethernet
          Bandwidth Profile TLV. In the second case, the Ethernet
          SENDER_TSPEC includes a set of more than one Ethernet Bandwidth
          Profile TLVs (whose respective Index value is associated to a
          single CTi value).
    
          Note that the current specification allow for combining shared and
          dedicated BW profiles to the same LSP. That is, an Ethernet
          SENDER_TSPEC object MAY include multiple Ethernet Bandwidth
          Profile TLVs whose respective index can be associated on a 1:1
          basis to a single CTi or to a set of multiple CTi.
    
          For each subobject of the extended Class-Type object [MCOS]:
             o Each CTi value SHOULD correspond 1:1 to MEF CE VLAN-CoS
             o The BW requested per CTi field MAY be used for bandwidth
               accounting purposes.
    
          By default, the value of the Index field MUST be set to 0.
    
       Reserved: 16 bits
    
          These bits SHOULD be set to zero when sent and MUST be ignored
          when received.
    
       CIR (Committed Information Rate): 32 bits
    
          The value of the CIR is in units of bytes per second. The CIR is
          encoded as a 32-bit IEEE single-precision floating-point number
          (see [RFC4506]).
    
          The CIR value MUST be greater than or equal to 0.
    
       CBS (Committed Burst Size): 32 bits
    
          The value of the CBS is in units of bytes. The CBS is encoded
          as a 32-bit IEEE single-precision floating-point number (see
          [RFC4506]).
    
          When CIR is strictly greater than 0 (CIR > 0), the CBS MUST be
          greater than or equal to the maximum frame size.
    
       EIR (Excess Information Rate): 32 bits
    
    
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          The value of the EIR is in units of bytes per second. The EIR
          is encoded as a 32-bit IEEE single-precision floating-point
          number (see [RFC4506]).
    
          The EIR value MUST be greater than or equal to 0.
    
       EBS (Excess Burst Size): 32 bits
    
          The value of the EBS is in units of bytes. The EBS is encoded
          as a 32-bit IEEE single-precision floating-point number (see
          [RFC4506]).
    
          When EIR is strictly greater than 0 (EIR > 0), the EBS MUST be
          greater than or equal to the maximum frame size.
    
    5. Ethernet FLOWSPEC Object
    
       The Ethernet FLOWSPEC object (Class-Num = 12, Class-Type = TBA by
       IANA, with recommended value 6) has the same format as the Ethernet
       SENDER_TSPEC object.
    
    6. Ethernet ADSPEC Object
    
       There is no ADSPEC object associated with the Ethernet SENDER_TSPEC
       object.
    
       Either the ADSPEC object is omitted or an IntServ ADSPEC with the
       Default General Characterization Parameters and Guaranteed Service
       fragment is used, see [RFC2210].
    
    7. Processing
    
       The Ethernet SENDER_TSPEC object carries the traffic specification
       generated by the RSVP session sender. The Ethernet SENDER_TSPEC
       object SHOULD be forwarded and delivered unchanged to both
       intermediate and egress nodes.
    
       The Ethernet FLOWSPEC object carries reservation request information
       generated by receivers. As with any FLOWSPEC object, Ethernet
       FLOWSPEC object flows upstream toward the ingress node.
    
       Intermediate and egress nodes MUST verify that the node itself and
       the interfaces on which the LSP will be established can support the
       requested Switching Granularity, MTU and values included in sub-
       object TLVs. If the requested value(s) can not be supported, the
       receiver node MUST generate a PathErr message with the error code
    
    
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       "Traffic Control Error" and the error value "Service unsupported"
       (see [RFC2205]).
    
       In addition, if the MTU field is received with a value smaller than
       the minimum transfer unit size of the Ethernet frame (e.g. 46 bytes
       for Ethernet v2, 38 bytes for IEEE 802.3), the node MUST generate a
       PathErr message with the error code "Traffic Control Error" and the
       error value "Bad Tspec value" (see [RFC2205]).
    
       Error processing of the Extended Class-Type object follows rules
       defined in [MCOS]. Moreover, an LSR receiving a Path message with the
       Extended Class-Type object, which recognizes the object and the
       particular Class-Type but does detect a mismatch in the index values,
       MUST send a PathErr message towards the sender with the error code
       "Extended Class-Type Error" and the error value "Class-Type mismatch"
       (see [RFC2205]).
    
    8. Security Considerations
    
       This document introduces no new security considerations to either
       [RFC3473].
    
       GMPLS security is described in section 11 of [RFC3471] and refers to
       [RFC3209] for RSVP-TE. Further details of MPLS-TE and GMPLS security
       can be found in [MPLS-SEC].
    
    9. IANA Considerations
    
       IANA maintain registries and sub-registries for RSVP-TE as used by
       GMPLS. IANA is requested to make allocations from these registries as
       set out in the following sections.
    
    9.1. RSVP Objects Class Types
    
       This document introduces two new Class Types for existing RSVP
       objects. IANA is requested to make allocations from the "Resource
       ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP) Parameters" registry using the "Class
       Names, Class Numbers, and Class Types" sub-registry.
    
       Class Number  Class Name                            Reference
       ------------  -----------------------               ---------
       9             FLOWSPEC                              [RFC2205]
    
                     Class Type (C-Type):
    
                     6   Ethernet SENDER_TSPEC             [This.I-D]
    
    
    
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       Class Number  Class Name                            Reference
       ------------  -----------------------               ---------
       12            SENDER_TSPEC                          [RFC2205]
    
                     Class Type (C-Type):
    
                     6   Ethernet SENDER_TSPEC             [This.I-D]
    
    9.2. Ethernet Switching Granularities
    
       IANA maintains a registry of GMPLS parameters called "Generalized
       Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) Signaling Parameters". IANA is
       requested to create a new sub-registry called "Ethernet Switching
       Granularities" to contain the values that may be carried in the
       Switching Granularity field of the Ethernet SENDER_TSPEC object.
    
       Values shall be assigned as follows:
    
       000-239,255  Assigned by IANA via IETF Standards Track RFC action.
       240-254     Reserved for Vendor Specific Usage
       256-65535    Not assigned at this point in time.
    
       Values 256 through 65535 are not to be assigned at this time. Before
       any assignments can be made in this range, there MUST be a Standards
       Track RFC that specifies IANA Considerations that covers the range
       being assigned.
    
       Initial entries in this sub-registry are as follows:
    
       Value   Switching Granularity                      Reference
       -----   --------------------------------------     ----------
         0     Provided in signaling.                     [GMPLS-ESVCS]
         1     Ethernet Port (for port-based service)     [This.I-D]
         2     Ethernet Frame (for EVC-based service)     [This.I-D]
       255     Reserved Value                             [This.I-D]
    
    9.3. Ethernet Sender TSpec TLVs
    
       IANA maintains a registry of GMPLS parameters called "Generalized
       Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) Signaling Parameters". IANA is
       requested to create a new sub-registry called "Ethernet SENDER_TSPEC
       TLVs" to contain the TLV type values for TLVs carried in the Ethernet
       SENDER_TSPEC object.
    
       Values shall be assigned as follows:
    
       000-239,255  Assigned by IANA via IETF Standards Track RFC action.
    
    
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       240-254     Reserved for Vendor Specific Usage
       256-65535    Not assigned at this point in time.
    
       Values 256 through 65535 are not to be assigned at this time. Before
       any assignments can be made in this range, there MUST be a Standards
       Track RFC that specifies IANA Considerations that covers the range
       being assigned.
    
       Initial entries in this sub-registry are as follows:
    
       Type     Description                        Reference
       -----    --------------------------------   ---------
         0      Reserved Value                     [This.I-D]
         1      Reserved Value                     [This.I-D]
         2      Ethernet Bandwidth Profile         [This.I-D]
         3      Layer 2 Control Processing (L2CP)  [This.I-D]
       255      Reserved Value                     [This.I-D]
    
    9.4. Ethernet Bandwidth Profiles
    
       IANA maintains a registry of GMPLS parameters called "Generalized
       Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) Signaling Parameters". IANA is
       requested to create a new sub-registry called "Ethernet Bandwidth
       Profiles" to contain bit flags carried in the Ethernet Bandwidth
       Profile TLV of the Ethernet SENDER_TSPEC object.
    
       Bits are to be allocated by IETF Standards Track RFC action. Bits are
       numbered from bit 0 as the low order bit.
    
       Bit   Hex   Description                   Reference
       ---   ----  --------------------------    -------------
        0    0x01 Coupling flag (CF)            [This.I-D]
        1    0x02 Color mode (CM)               [This.I-D]
    
    10. Acknowledgments
    
       Many thanks to Adrian Farrel for his comments. Lou Berger provided
       the input on control traffic processing.
    
    11. References
    
    11.1. Normative References
    
       [GMPLS-ESVCS]  Berger, L., et al., "Generalized MPLS (GMPLS) Support
                      For Metro Ethernet Forum and G.8011 Ethernet
                      Services", draft-berger-ccamp-gmpls-ether-svcs, work
                      in progress.
    
    
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       [RFC2205]  Braden, R., Zhang, L., Berson, S., Herzog, S., and S.
                  Jamin, "Resource ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP) --
                  Version 1 Functional Specification", RFC 2205,
                  September 1997.
    
       [RFC2210]  Wroclawski, J., "The Use of RSVP with IETF Integrated
                  Services", RFC 2210, September 1997.
    
       [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
                  Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
    
       [RFC3209]  Awduche, D., Berger, L., Gan, D., Li, T., Srinivasan,
                  V., and G. Swallow, "RSVP-TE: Extensions to RSVP for
                  LSP Tunnels", RFC 3209, December 2001.
    
       [RFC3471]  Berger, L., "Generalized Multi-Protocol Label
                                                                Switching
                  (GMPLS) Signaling Functional Description", RFC 3471,
                  January 2003.
    
       [RFC3473]  Berger, L., "Generalized Multi-Protocol Label
                  Switching (GMPLS) Signaling Resource ReserVation
                  Protocol-Traffic Engineering (RSVP-TE) Extensions", RFC
                  3473, January 2003.
    
       [RFC4124]  Le Faucheur et al, "Protocol extensions for support of
                  Diff-Serv-aware MPLS Traffic Engineering", RFC4124.
    
       [RFC4506]  Eisler, M., Ed. "XDR: External Data Representation
                  Standard", RFC 4506, STD 67, May 2006.
    
    11.2. Informative References
    
       [MEF10.1]  The MEF Technical Specification, "Ethernet Services
                  Attributes Phase 2", MEF 10.1, November 2006.
    
       [MEF6]     The Metro Ethernet Forum, "Ethernet Services Definitions
                   - Phase I", MEF 6, June 2004.
    
       [MEF11]    The Metro Ethernet Forum, "User Network Interface (UNI)
                   Requirements and Framework", MEF 11, November 2004.
    
       [MCOS]     Minei, I., et al., "Extensions for Differentiated
                  Services-aware Traffic Engineered LSPs", draft-minei-
                  diffserv-te-multi-class, work in progress.
    
    
    
    
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       [MPLS-SEC]  Fang, L. et al., "Security Framework for MPLS and GMPLS
                   Networks", draft-ietf-mpls-mpls-and-gmpls-security-
                   framework, work in progress.
    
    Author's Addresses
    
       Dimitri Papadimitriou
       Alcatel-Lucent Bell
       Copernicuslaan 50
       B-2018 Antwerpen, Belgium
       Phone: +32 3 2408491
       E-mail: dimitri.papadimitriou@alcatel-lucent.be
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
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    Full Copyright Statement
    
    
       Copyright (c) 2009 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
       document authors.  All rights reserved.
    
       This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
       Provisions Relating to IETF Documents in effect on the date of
       publication of this document (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info).
    
       Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your
       rights and restrictions with respect to this document.
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
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