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Versions: (draft-lee-ccamp-rsvp-te-exclude-route) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 RFC 4874

Network Working Group                                            CY. Lee
Internet-Draft                            A. Farrel (Old Dog Consulting)
Expires: February 26, 2006                       S. De Cnodder (Alcatel)
                                                         August 26, 2005


                 Exclude Routes - Extension to RSVP-TE
             draft-ietf-ccamp-rsvp-te-exclude-route-05.txt

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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2005).

Abstract

   The RSVP-TE specification, "RSVP-TE: Extensions to RSVP for LSP
   Tunnels" (RFC 3209) and GMPLS extensions to RSVP-TE, "Generalized
   Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) Signaling Resource ReserVation
   Protocol-Traffic Engineering (RSVP-TE) Extensions" (RFC 3473) allow
   abstract nodes and resources to be explicitly included in a path
   setup, but not to be explicitly excluded.

   In some networks where precise explicit paths are not computed at the
   head end it may be useful to specify and signal abstract nodes and
   resources that are to be explicitly excluded from routes. These

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   exclusions may apply to the whole path, or to parts of a path between
   two abstract nodes specified in an explicit path. How Shared Risk
   Link Groups (SLRGs) can be excluded is also specified in this
   document.

   This document specifies ways to communicate route exclusions during
   path setup using RSVP-TE.

Requirements notation

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].






































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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     1.1   Scope of Exclude Routes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     1.2   Relationship to MPLS TE MIB  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   2.  Shared Risk Link Groups  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     2.1   SRLG ERO Subobject . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   3.  Exclude Route List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     3.1   Exclude Route Object (XRO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
       3.1.1   IPv4 prefix Subobject  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
       3.1.2   IPv6 Prefix Subobject  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
       3.1.3   Unnumbered Interface ID Subobject  . . . . . . . . . . 11
       3.1.4   Autonomous System Number Subobject . . . . . . . . . . 12
       3.1.5   SRLG Subobject . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     3.2   Processing Rules for the Exclude Route Object (XRO)  . . . 12
   4.  Explicit Exclusion Route . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     4.1   Explicit Exclusion Route Subobject (EXRS)  . . . . . . . . 14
     4.2   Processing Rules for the Explicit Exclusion Route           6
           Subobject (EXRS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
   5.  Processing of XRO together with EXRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
   6.  Minimum compliance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
   7.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
   8.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
     8.1   New RSVP-TE Class Numbers  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
     8.2   New ERO Subobject Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
     8.3   New ERO and XRO Subobject Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
     8.4   New Error Codes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
   9.   Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
   10.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
     10.1  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
     10.2  Informational References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
   11.  Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
   Apendix A. Aplications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21


















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1.  Introduction

   The RSVP-TE specification [RFC3209] and GMPLS extensions [RFC3473]
   allow abstract nodes and resources to be explicitly included in a
   path setup, using the Explicit Route Object (ERO).

   In some systems it may be useful to specify and signal abstract nodes
   and resources that are to be explicitly excluded from routes. This
   may be because loose hops or abstract nodes need to be prevented from
   selecting a route through a specific resource. This is a special
   case of distributed path calculation in the network.

   Two types of exclusions are required:

   1. Exclusion of certain abstract nodes or resources on the whole
      path. This set of abstract nodes is referred to as the Exclude
      Route list.

   2. Exclusion of certain abstract nodes or resources between a
      specific pair of abstract nodes present in an ERO. Such specific
      exclusions are referred to as Explicit Exclusion Route.

   To convey these constructs within the signaling protocol, a new RSVP
   object and a new ERO subobject are introduced respectively.

   - A new RSVP-TE object is introduced to convey the Exclude Route
     list. This object is the Exclude Route Object (XRO).

   - The second type of exclusion is achieved through a modification to
     the existing ERO. A new ERO subobject type the Explicit Exclusion
     Route Subobject (EXRS) is introduced to indicate an exclusion
     between a pair of included abstract nodes.

   The knowledge of SRLGs, as defined in [INTERAS-REQ], may be used to
   compute diverse paths that can be used for protection. In systems
   where it is useful to signal exclusions, it may be useful to signal
   SRLGs to indicate groups of resources that should be excluded on the
   whole path or between two abstract nodes specified in an explicit
   path.

   This document introduces an ERO subobject to indicate an SRLG to be
   signaled in either of the two exclusion methods described above and
   this document does not assume or preclude any other usage for this
   subobject. This subobject might also be appropriate for use within
   Explicit Routes or Record Routes, but this is outside the scope of
   this document.





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1.1  Scope of Exclude Routes

   This document does not preclude a route exclusion from listing
   arbitrary nodes or network elements to avoid. The intent is,
   however, to indicate only the minimal number of subobjects to be
   avoided. For instance it may be necessary to signal only the  SRLGs
   (or Shared Risk Groups) to avoid.

   It is envisaged that most of the conventional inclusion subobjects
   are specified in the signaled ERO only for the area where they are
   pertinent. The number of subobjects to be avoided, specified in the
   signaled XRO may be constant throughout the whole path setup, or the
   subobjects to be avoided may be removed from the XRO as they become
   irrelevant in the subsequent hops of the path setup.

   For example, consider an LSP that traverses multiple computation
   domains. A computation domain may be an area in the administrative
   or IGP sense, or may be an arbitrary division of the network for
   active management and path computational purposes. Let the primary
   path be (Ingress, A1, A2, AB1, B1, B2, BC1, C1, C2, Egress) where:

   - Xn denotes a node in domain X, and

   - XYn denotes a node on the border of domain X and domain Y.

   Note that Ingress is a node in domain A, and Egress is a node in
   domain C. This is shown in Figure 1 where the domains correspond with
   areas.

           area A               area B              area C
    <-------------------> <----------------> <------------------>

   Ingress-----A1----A2----AB1----B1----B2----BC1----C1----C2----Egress
   ^  \                / | \              / | \                /
   |   \              /  |  \            /  |  \              /
   |    A3----------A4--AB2--B3--------B4--BC2--C3----------C4
   |                     ^                  ^
   |                     |                  |
   |                     |                  |
   |                     |              ERO: (C3-strict, C4-strict,
   |                     |                    Egress-strict)
   |                     |              XRO: Not needed
   |                     |
   |               ERO: (B3-strict, B4-strict, BC2-strict, Egress-loose)
   |               XRO: (BC1, C1, C2)
   |
   ERO: (A3-strict, A4-strict, AB2-strict, Egress-loose)
   XRO: (AB1, B1, B2, BC1, C1, C2, Egress)

           Figure 1 : Domains Corresponding to IGP Areas

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   Consider the establishment of a node-diverse protection path in the
   example above. The protection path must avoid all nodes on the
   primary path. The exclusions for area A are handled during
   Constrained Shortest Path First (CSPF) computation at Ingress, so the
   ERO and XRO signaled at Ingress could be (A3-strict, A4-strict, AB2-
   strict, Egress-loose) and (AB1, B1, B2, BC1, C1, C2) respectively.
   At AB2 the ERO and XRO could be (B3-strict, B4-strict, BC2-strict,
   Egress-loose) and (BC1, C1, C2) respectively. At BC2 the ERO could
   be (C3-strict, C4-strict, Egress-strict) and an XRO is not needed
   from BC2 onwards.

   In general, consideration SHOULD be given (as with explicit route) to
   the size of signaled data and the impact on the signaling protocol.

1.2  Relationship to MPLS TE MIB

   [RFC3812] defines managed objects for managing and modeling MPLS-
   based traffic engineering. Included in [RFC3812] is a means to
   configure explicit routes for use on specific LSPs. This
   configuration allows the exclusion of certain resources.

   In systems where the full explicit path is not computed at the
   ingress (or at a path computation site for use at the ingress) it may
   be necessary to signal those exclusions. This document offers a
   means of doing this signaling.

2.  Shared Risk Link Groups

   The identifier of a SRLG is defined as a 32 bit quantity in [GMPLS-
   RTG]. An SRLG ERO subobject is introduced such that it can be used
   in the exclusion methods as described in the following sections.
   This document does not assume or preclude any other usage for this
   subobject. This subobject might also be appropriate for use within
   Explicit Routes or Record Routes, but this is outside the scope of
   this document.

2.1  SRLG ERO Subobject

   The format of the ERO and its subobjects are defined in [RFC3209].
   The new SRLG subobject is defined by this document as follows.

        0                   1                   2                   3
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1

       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |L|    Type     |     Length    |       SRLG Id (4 bytes)       |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |      SRLG Id (continued)      |           Reserved            |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


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      L

         The L bit is an attribute of the subobject. The L bit is set
         if the subobject represents a loose hop in the explicit route.
         If the bit is not set, the subobject represents a strict hop in
         the explicit route.

         For exclusions (as used by XRO and EXRS defined in this
         document), the L bit SHOULD be set to zero and ignored.

      Type

         The type of the subobject [TBD by IANA].

      Length

         The Length contains the total length of the subobject in bytes,
         including the Type and Length fields. The Length is always 8.

      SRLG Id

         The 32 bit identifier of the SRLG.

      Reserved

         This field is reserved. It MUST be set to zero on transmission
         and MUST be ignored on receipt.

3.  Exclude Route List

   The exclude route identifies a list of abstract nodes that should not
   be traversed along the path of the LSP being established. It is
   RECOMMENDED to limit size of the exlude route list to a value local
   to the node originating the exclude route list.

3.1  Exclude Route Object (XRO)

   Abstract nodes to be excluded from the path are specified via the
   EXCLUDE_ROUTE object (XRO). The Exclude Route Class value is [TBD].

   Currently one C_Type is defined, Type 1 Exclude Route. The
   EXCLUDE_ROUTE object has the following format:









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        Class = TBD by IANA, C_Type = 1

        0                   1                   2                   3
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1

       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                                                               |
       //                        (Subobjects)                         //
       |                                                               |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

     The contents of an EXCLUDE_ROUTE object are a series of variable-
     length data items called subobjects. This specification adapts ERO
     subojbects as defined in [RFC3209], [RFC3473], and [RFC3477] for
     use in route exclusions. The SRLG ERO subobject as defined in
     Section 2 of this document and its processing within ERO have not
     been defined before. The SRLG ERO subobject is defined here for use
     with route exclusions.

     The following subobject types are supported.

        Type           Subobject
        -------------+-------------------------------
        1              IPv4 prefix
        2              IPv6 prefix
        4              Unnumbered Interface ID

        32             Autonomous system number
        TBD by IANA    SRLG

   The defined values for Type above are specified in [RFC3209] and in
   this document.

   The concept of loose or strict hops has no meaning in route
   exclusion. The L bit, defined for ERO subobjects in [RFC3209], is
   reused here to indicate that an abstract node MUST be avoided (value
   0) or SHOULD be avoided (value 1).

   Subobjects 1, 2, and 4 refer to an interface or a set of interfaces.
   An Attribute octet is introduced in these subobjects to indicate the
   attribute (e.g. interface, node, SRLG) associated with the interfaces
   that should be excluded from the path. For instance, the attribute
   node allows a whole node to be excluded from the path by specifying
   an interface of that node in the XRO subobject, in contrast to the
   attribute interface, which allows a specific interface (or multiple
   interfaces) to be excluded from the path without excluding the whole
   nodes. The attribute SRLG allows all SRLGs associated with an
   interface to be excluded from the path.



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3.1.1  IPv4 prefix Subobject

        0                   1                   2                   3
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1

       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |L|    Type     |     Length    | IPv4 address (4 bytes)        |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       | IPv4 address (continued)      | Prefix Length |   Attribute   |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      L

         0 indicates that the attribute specified MUST be excluded

         1 indicates that the attribute specified SHOULD be avoided

      Attribute

        Interface attribute values

          0 indicates that the interface or set of interfaces
          associated with the IPv4 prefix should be excluded or avoided
          node

        Node attribute value

          1 indicates that the node or set of nodes associated with
          the IPv4 prefix should be excluded or avoided

        SRLG attribute values

          2 indicates that all the SRLGs associated with the IPv4
          prefix should be excluded or avoided

      The rest of the fields are as defined in [RFC3209].















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3.1.2  IPv6 Prefix Subobject

       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1

      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |L|    Type     |     Length    | IPv6 address (16 bytes)       |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      | IPv6 address (continued)                                      |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      | IPv6 address (continued)                                      |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      | IPv6 address (continued)                                      |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      | IPv6 address (continued)      | Prefix Length |   Attribute   |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      L

         0 indicates that the attribute specified MUST be excluded

         1 indicates that the attribute specified SHOULD be avoided

      Attribute

        Interface attribute value

          0 indicates that the interface or set of interfaces associated
          with the IPv6 prefix should be excluded or avoided

        Node attribute value

          1 indicates that the node or set of nodes associated with
          the IPv6 prefix should be excluded or avoided

        SRLG attribute value

          2 indicates that all the SRLG associated with the IPv6
         prefix should be excluded or avoided

      The rest of the fields are as defined in [RFC3209].










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3.1.3  Unnumbered Interface ID Subobject

       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1

      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |L|    Type     |     Length    |    Reserved   |  Attribute    |
      | |             |               |(must be zero) |               |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                        TE Router ID                           |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                     Interface ID (32 bits)                    |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      L

         0 indicates that the attribute specified MUST be excluded

         1 indicates that the attribute specified SHOULD be avoided

      Attribute

        Interface attribute value

          0 indicates that the Interface ID specified should be
          excluded or avoided

        Node attribute value

          1 indicates that the node with the Router ID should be
          excluded or avoided (this can be achieved using IPv4/v6
          subobject as well, but is included here because it may be
          convenient to use information from subobjects of an RRO
          as defined in [RFC3477], in specifying the exclusions).

        SRLG attribute value

          2 indicates that all the SRLGs associated with the
          interface should be excluded or avoided

      Reserved

         This field is reserved. It MUST be set to zero on transmission
         and MUST be ignored on receipt.

   The rest of the fields are as defined in [RFC3477].





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3.1.4  Autonomous System Number Subobject

   The meaning of the L bit is as follows:

      0 indicates that the abstract node specified MUST be excluded

      1 indicates that the abstract node specified SHOULD be avoided

   The rest of the fields are as defined in [RFC3209]. There is no
   Attribute octet defined.

3.1.5  SRLG Subobject

   The meaning of the L bit is as follows:

      0 indicates that the SRLG specified MUST be excluded

      1 indicates that the SRLG specified SHOULD be avoided

   The Attribute octet is not present. The rest of the fields are as
   defined in the "SRLG ERO Subobject" section of this document.

3.2  Processing Rules for the Exclude Route Object (XRO)

   The exclude route list is encoded as a series of subobjects con-
   tained in an EXCLUDE_ROUTE object. Each subobject identifies an
   abstract node in the exclude route list.

   Each abstract node may be a precisely specified IP address belonging
   to a node, or an IP address with prefix identifying interfaces of a
   group of nodes, or an Autonomous System.

   The Explicit Route and routing processing is unchanged from the
   description in [RFC3209] with the following additions:

   1. When a Path message is received at a node, the node MUST check
      that it is not a member of any of the abstract nodes in the XRO
      if it is present in the Path message. If the node is a member of
      any of the abstract nodes in the XRO with the L-flag set to
      "exclude", it SHOULD return a PathErr with the error code
      "Routing Problem" and error value of "Local node in Exclude
      Route". If there are SRLGs in the XRO, the node SHOULD check
      that the resources the node uses are not part of any SRLG with
      the L-flag set to "exclude" that is specified in the XRO. If it
      is, it SHOULD return a PathErr with error code "Routing Problem"
      and error value of "Local node in Exclude Route".

   2. Each subobject MUST be consistent. If a subobject is not con-
      sistent then the node SHOULDreturn a PathErr with error code
      "Routing Problem" and error value "Inconsistent Subobject". An

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      example of an inconsistent subobject is an IPv4 Prefix subobject
      containing the IP address of a node and the attribute field is
      set to "interface" or "SRLG".

   3. The subobjects in the ERO and XRO MUST NOT contradict each other.
      If a Path message is received that contains contradicting ERO and
      XRO subobjects, then:

      - subobjects in the XRO with the L flag not set (zero) MUST take
        precedence over the subobjects in the ERO - that is, a
        mandatory exclusion expressed in the XRO MUST be honored and
        an implementation MUST reject such a Path message. This means
        that a PathErr with error code "Routing Problem" and error
        value of "Route blocked by Exclude Route" is returned.

      - subobjects in the XRO with the L flag set do not take
        precedence over ERO subobjects - that is, an implementation
        MAY choose to reject a Path message because of such a
        contradiction, but MAY continue and set up the LSP (ignoring
        the XRO subobjects contradicting the ERO subobjects).

   4. When choosing a next hop or expanding an explicit route to
      include additional subobjects, a node:

      a. MUST NOT introduce an explicit node or an abstract node that
         equals or is a member of any abstract node that is specified
         in the Exclude Route Object with the L-flag set to "exclude".
         The number of introduced explicit nodes or abstract nodes
         with the L flag set to "avoid", which indicate that it is not
         mandatory to be excluded but that it is less preferred,
         SHOULD be minimised in the computed path.

      b. MUST NOT introduce links, nodes or resources identified by
         the SRLG Id specified in the SRLG subobjects(s). The number
         of introduced SLRGs with the L flag set to "avoid" SHOULD be
         minimised.

      If these rules preclude further forwarding of the Path message,
      the node SHOULD return a PathErr with the error code "Routing
      Problem" and error value of "Route blocked by Exclude Route".

      Note that the subobjects in the XRO is an unordered list of
      subobjects.

   The XRO Class-Num is of the form 11bbbbbb so that nodes which do not
   support the XRO, forward it uninspected and do not apply the
   extensions to ERO processing described above. This approach is
   chosen to allow route exclusion to traverse parts of the network that
   are not capable of parsing or handling the new function. Note that
   Record Route may be used to allow computing nodes to observe

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   violations of route exclusion and attempt to re-route the LSP
   accordingly.

   If a node supports the XRO, but not a particular subobject or part of
   that subobject, then that particular subobject is ignored. Examples
   of a part of a subobject that can be supported are: (1) only prefix
   32 of the IPv4 prefix subobject could be supported, or (2) a
   particular subobject is supported but not the particular attribute
   field.

   When a node forwards a Path message, it can do the following three
   operations related to XRO besides the processing rules mentioned
   above:

   1. If no XRO was present, an XRO may be included.

   2. If an XRO was present, it may remove the XRO if it is sure that
      the next nodes do not need this information anymore. An example
      is where a node can expand the ERO to a full strict path towards
      the destination. See Figure 1 where BC2 is removing the XRO from
      the Path message.

   3. If an XRO was present, the content of the XRO can be modified.
      Subobjects can be added or removed. See Figure 1 for an example
      where AB2 is stripping off some subobjects.

   In any case, a node MUST NOT introduce any explicit or abstract node
   in the XRO (irrespective of the value of the L flag) that it also has
   introduced in the ERO.

4.  Explicit Exclusion Route

   The Explicit Exclusion Route defines abstract nodes or resources
   (such as links, unnumbered interfaces or labels) that must not or
   should not be used on the path between two inclusive abstract nodes
   or resources in the explicit route.

4.1  Explicit Exclusion Route Subobject (EXRS)

   A new ERO subobject type is defined. The Explicit Exclusion Route
   Subobject (EXRS) has type [TBD by IANA]. Although the EXRS is an ERO
   subobject and the XRO is reusing the ERO subobject, an EXRS MUST NOT
   be present in an XRO. An EXRS is an ERO subobject, which contains
   one or more subobjects in its own, called EXRS subobjects.







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   The format of the EXRS is as follows:

       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1

      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |L|    Type     |     Length    |           Reserved            |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                                                               |
      //                one or more EXRS subobjects                  //
      |                                                               |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      L

         It MUST be set to zero on transmission and MUST be ignored on
         receipt. [Note: The L bit in an EXRS subobject is as defined
         for the XRO subobjects]

      Type

         The type of the subobject, i.e. EXRS [TBD by IANA]

      Reserved

         This field is reserved. It MUST be set to zero on transmission
         and MUST be ignored on receipt.

      EXRS subobjects

         An EXRS subobject indicates the abstract node or resource to be
         excluded. The format of an EXRS subobject is exactly the same
         as the format of a subobject in the XRO. An EXRS may include
         all subobjects defined in this document for the XRO.

   Thus, an EXRS for an IP hop may look as follows:

       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1

      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |L|    Type     |     Length    |           Reserved            |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |L|    Type     |     Length    | IPv4 address (4 bytes)        |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      | IPv4 address (continued)      | Prefix Length |   Attribute   |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+




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4.2  Processing Rules for the Explicit Exclusion Route Subobject (EXRS)

   Each EXRS may carry multiple exclusions. The exclusion is encoded
   exactly as for XRO subobjects and prefixed by an additional Type and
   Length.

   The scope of the exclusion is the step between the previous ERO
   subobject that identifies an abstract node, and the subsequent ERO
   subobject that identifies an abstract node. The processing rules of
   the EXRS are the same as the processing rule of the XRO within this
   scope. Multiple exclusions may be present between any pair of
   abstract nodes.

   Exclusions may indicate explicit nodes, abstract nodes or Autonomous
   Systems that must not be traversed on the path to the next abstract
   node indicated in the ERO.

   Exclusions may also indicate resources (such as unnumbered
   interfaces, link ids, labels) that must not be used on the path to
   the next abstract node indicated in the ERO.

   SRLGs may also be indicated for exclusion from the path to the next
   abstract node in the ERO by the inclusion of an EXRS containing an
   SRLG subobject. If the L-bit in the SRLG subobject is zero, the
   resources (nodes, links, etc.) identified by the SRLG MUST NOT be
   used on the path to the next abstract node indicated in the ERO. If
   the L-bit is set, the resources identified by the SRLG SHOULD be
   avoided.

   If a node is called upon to process an EXRS and does not support
   handling of exclusions it will behave as described in [RFC3209] when
   an unrecognized ERO subobject is encountered. This means that this
   node will return a PathErr with error code "Routing Error" and error
   value "Bad Explicit Route Object" with the EXPLICIT_ROUTE object
   inlcuded, truncated (on the left) to the offending EXRS.

   If the presence of EXRS precludes further forwarding of the Path
   message, the node SHOULD return a PathErr with the error code
   "Routing Problem" and error value "Route blocked by Exclude Route".

5.  Processing of XRO together with EXRS

   When an LSR performs ERO expansion and finds both the XRO in the Path
   message and EXRS in the ERO, it MUST exclude all the SRLGs, nodes,
   links and resources listed in both places. Where some elements
   appears in both lists it MUST be handled according to the stricter
   exclusion request - that is, if one list says that an SRLG, node,
   link or resource must be excluded and the other says only that it
   should be avoided then the element MUST be excluded.

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6.  Minimum compliance

   An implementation MUST be at least compliant with the following:

   1. The XRO MUST be supported with the following restrictions:

      - The IPv4 Prefix subobject MUST be supported with a prefix
        length of 32, and an attribute value of "interface" and
        "node". Other prefix values and attribute values MAY be
        supported.

      - The IPv6 Prefix subobject MUST be supported with a prefix
        length of 128, and an attribute value of "interface" and
        "node". Other prefix values and attribute values MAY be
        supported.

   2. The EXRS MAY be supported. If supported, the same restrictions
      as for the XRO apply.

   3. If XRO or EXRS are supported, the implementation MUST be
      compliant with the processing rules of the supported, not
      supported, or partially supported subobjects as specified within
      this document.

7.  Security Considerations

   The new exclude route object poses no security exposures over and
   above [RFC3209] and [RFC3473]. Note that any security concerns that
   exist with Explicit Routes should be considered with regard to route
   exclusions.

8.  IANA Considerations

   It might be considered that an alternative approach would be to
   assign one of the bits of the ERO sub-object type field (perhaps the
   top bit) to identify that a sub-object is intended for inclusion
   rather than exclusion. However, [RFC3209] states that the type field
   (seven bits) should be assigned as 0 - 63 through IETF consensus
   action, 64 - 95 as first come first served, and 96 - 127 are reserved
   for private use. It would not be acceptable to disrupt existing
   implementations so the only option would be to split the IETF
   consensus range leaving only 32 sub-object types. It is felt that
   that would be an unacceptably small number for future expansion of
   the protocol.







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8.1  New RSVP-TE Class Numbers

   One new class number is required for Exclude Route object (XRO)
   defined in section "Exclude Route Object (XRO)".

   EXCLUDE_ROUTE
   Class-Num of type 11bbbbbb
   Suggested value 232
   Defined CType: 1 (Exclude Route)

   Subobjects 1, 2, 4 and 32 as for Explicit Route Object.
   Additional SRLG subobject as requested in "New ERO and XRO
   Subobject Type"

8.2  New ERO Subobject Type

   The Explicit Exclusion Route subobject (EXRS) is defined in section
   "Explicit Exclusion Route Subobject (EXRS)". This subobject may be
   present in the Explicit Route Object, but not in the Route Record
   Object, nor in the new Exclude Route Object.

   Suggested value 33

8.3  New ERO and XRO Subobject Type

   The SRLG subobject is defined in section "SRLG ERO Subobject". This
   subobject may be present in the Exclude Route Object or in the
   Explicit Route Object, but not in the Route Record Object.

   Suggested value 34

8.4  New Error Codes

   New error values are needed for the error code 'Routing Problem'
   (24).

     Unsupported Exclude Route Subobject Type Suggested value 64
     Inconsistent Subobject                   Suggested value 65
     Local Node in Exclude Route              Suggested value 66
     Route Blocked by Exclude Route           Suggested value 67

9.  Acknowledgments

   This document reuses text from [RFC3209] for the description of
   EXCLUDE_ROUTE.

   The authors would like to express their thanks to Lou Berger, Steffen
   Brockmann, Igor Bryskin, Dimitri Papadimitriou, Cristel Pelsser, and
   Richard Rabbat for their considered opinions on this draft. Also
   thanks to Yakov Rekhter for reminding us about SRLGs!

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10.  References

10.1  Normative References

   [GMPLS-RTG]
              Kompella, K. and Y. Rekhter, "Routing Extensions in
              Support of Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching",
              draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-routing, work in progress.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC3209]  Awduche, D., Berger, L., Gan, D., Li, T., Srinivasan, V.,
              and G. Swallow, "RSVP-TE: Extensions to RSVP for LSP
              Tunnels", RFC 3209, December 2001.

   [RFC3473]  Berger, L., "Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching
              (GMPLS) Signaling Resource ReserVation Protocol-Traffic
              Engineering (RSVP-TE) Extensions", RFC 3473, January 2003.

   [RFC3477]  Kompella, K. and Y. Rekhter, "Signalling Unnumbered Links
              in Resource ReSerVation Protocol - Traffic Engineering
              (RSVP-TE)", RFC 3477, January 2003.

10.2  Informational References

   [CRANKBACK]
              Farrel, A., Satyanarayana, A., Iwata, A., Ash, G., and S.
              Marshall-Unitt, "Crankback Signaling Extensions for MPLS
              Signaling", draft-ietf-ccamp-crankback, work in progress.

   [INTERAS]  De Cnodder, S. and C. Pelsser, "Protection for inter-AS
              MPLS tunnels", draft-decnodder-ccamp-interas-protection,
              work in progress.

   [INTERAS-REQ]
              Zhang, R. and JP. Vasseur, "MPLS Inter-AS Traffic
              Engineering requirements",
              draft-ietf-tewg-interas-mpls-te-req, work in progress.

   [MPLS-BUNDLE]
              Kompella, K., Rekhter, Y., and L. Berger, "Link Bundling
              in MPLS Traffic Engineering", draft-ietf-mpls-bundle, work
              in progress.

   [OVERLAY]  Swallow, G., Drake, J., Ishimatsu, H., and Y. Rekhter,
              "GMPLS UNI: RSVP Support for the Overlay Model",
              draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-overlay, work in progress.



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   [RFC3630]  Katz, D., Kompella, K., and D. Yeung, "Traffic Engineering
              (TE) Extensions to OSPF Version 2", RFC 3630,
              September 2003.

   [RFC3784]  Smit, H. and T. Li, "Intermediate System to Intermediate
              System (IS-IS) Extensions for Traffic Engineering (TE)",
              RFC 3784, June 2004.

   [RFC3812]  Srinivasan, C., Viswanathan, A., and T. Nadeau,
              "Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) Traffic Engineering
              (TE) Management Information Base (MIB)", RFC 3812,
              June 2004.

11.  Authors' Addresses

   Cheng-Yin Lee
   Email: leecy@sympatico.ca

   Adrian Farrel
   Old Dog Consulting
   Phone: +44 (0) 1978 860944
   Email: adrian@olddog.co.uk

   Stefaan De Cnodder
   Alcatel
   Francis Wellesplein 1
   B-2018 Antwerp
   Belgium
   Phone: +32 3 240 85 15
   Email: stefaan.de_cnodder@alcatel.be





















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Appendix A.  Applications

   This section describes some applications that can make use of the
   XRO. The intention is to show that the XRO is not an application
   specific object, but that it can be used for multiple purposes. In a
   few examples, other solutions might be possible for that particular
   case but the intention is to show that a single object can be used
   for all the examples, hence making the XRO a rather generic object
   without having to define a solution and new objects for each new
   application.

A.1  Inter-area LSP protection

   One method to establish an inter-area LSP is where the ingress router
   selects an ABR, and then the ingress router computes a path towards
   this selected ABR such that the configured constraints of the LSP are
   fulfilled. In the example of figure A.1, an LSP has to be
   established from node A in area 1 to node C in area 2. If no loose
   hops are con- figured, then the computed ERO at A could looks as
   follows: (A1- strict, A2-strict, ABR1-strict, C-loose). When the
   Path message arrives at ABR1, then the ERO is (ABR1-strict, C-loose)
   and it can be expanded by ABR1 to (B1-strict, ABR3-strict, C-loose).
   Similar, at ABR3 the received ERO is (ABR3-strict, C-loose) and it
   can be expanded to (C1-strict, C2-strict, C-strict). If also a
   backup LSP has to be established, then A takes another ABR (ABR2 in
   this case) and computes a path towards this ABR that fulfills the
   constraints of the LSP and such that is disjoint from the path of the
   primary LSP. The ERO generated by A looks as follows for this
   example: (A3-strict, A4-strict, ABR2-strict, C-loose).

   In order to let ABR2 expand the ERO, it also needs to know the path
   of the primary LSP to expand the ERO such that it is disjoint from
   the path of the primary LSP. Therefore, A also includes an XRO that
   at least contains (ABR1, B1, ABR3, C1, C2). Based on these con-
   straints, ABR2 can expand the ERO such that it is disjoint from the
   primary LSP. In this example, the ERO computed by ABR2 would be (B2-
   strict, ABR4-strict, C-loose), and the XRO generated by B contains at
   least (ABR3, C1, C2). The latter information is needed to let ABR4
   to expand the ERO such that the path is disjoint from the primary LSP
   in area 2.











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            Area 1           Area 0          Area 2
       <---------------><--------------><--------------->

       +---A1---A2----ABR1-----B1-----ABR3----C1---C2---+
       |        |              |              |         |
       |        |              |              |         |
       A        |              |              |         C
       |        |              |              |         |
       |        |              |              |         |
       +---A3---A4----ABR2-----B2-----ABR4----C3---C4---+

                 Figure A.1: Inter-area LSPs

   In this example, a node performing the path computation, first
   selects an ABR and then it computes a strict path towards this ABR.
   For the backup LSP, all nodes of the primary LSP in the next areas
   has to be put in the XRO (with the exception of the destination node
   if node protection and no link protection is required). When an ABR
   computes the next path segment, i.e. the path over the next area, it
   may remove the nodes from the XRO that are located in that area with
   the exception of the ABR where the primary LSP is exiting the area.
   The latter information is still required because when the selected
   ABR (ABR4 in this example) further expands the ERO, it has to exclude
   the ABR on which the primary is entering that area (ABR3 in this
   example). This means that when ABR2 generates an XRO, it may remove
   the nodes in area 0 from the XRO but not ABR3. Note that not doing
   this would not harm in this example because there is no path from
   ABR4 to C via ABR3 in area2. If there is a link between ABR4- ABR3
   and ABR3-C, then it is required to have ABR3 in the XRO gen- erated
   by ABR2.

   Discussion on the length of the XRO: when link or node protection is
   requested, the length of the XRO is bounded by the length of the RRO
   of the primary LSP. It can be made shorter by removing nodes by the
   ingress node and the ABRs. In the example above, the RRO of the pri-
   mary LSP contains 8 subobjects, while the maximum XRO length can be
   bounded by 6 subobjects (nodes A1 and A2 do not have to be in the
   XRO. For SRLG protection, the XRO has to list all SRLGs that are
   crossed by the primary LSP.

A.2  Inter-AS LSP protection

   When an inter-AS LSP is established, which has to be protected by a
   backup LSP to provide link or node protection, the same method as for
   the inter-area LSP case can be used. The difference is when the
   backup LSP is not following the same AS-path as the primary LSP
   because then the XRO should always contain the full path of the pri-
   mary LSP. In case the backup LSP is following the same AS-path (but
   with different ASBRs - at least in case of node protection), it is

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   similar to the inter-area case: ASBRs expanding the ERO over the next
   AS may remove the XRO subobjects located in that AS. Note that this
   can only be done by ingress ASBRs (the ASBR where the LSP is entering
   the AS).

   Discussion on the length of the XRO: the XRO is bounded by the length
   of the RRO of the primary LSP.

   Suppose that SRLG protection is required, and the ASs crossed by the
   main LSP use a consistent way of allocating SRLG-ids to the links
   (i.e. the ASs use a single SRLG space). In this case, the SRLG-ids
   of each link used by the main LSP can be recorded by means of the
   RRO, which are then used by the XRO. If the SRLG-ids are only
   meaningfull local to the AS, putting SRLG-ids in the XRO crossing
   many ASs makes no sense. More details on the method of providing
   SRLG protection for inter-AS LSPs can be found in [INTERAS].
   Basically, the link IP address of the inter-AS link used by the
   primary LSP is put into the XRO of the Path message of the detour LSP
   or bypass tunnel. The ASBR where the detour LSP or bypass tunnel is
   entering the AS can translate this into the list of SRLG-ids known to
   the local AS.

   Discussion on the length of the XRO: the XRO only contains 1
   subobject, which contains the IP address of the inter-AS link
   traversed by the primary LSP (assuming that the primary LSP and
   detour LSP or bypass tunnel are leaving the AS in the same area, and
   they are also entering the next AS in the same area).

A.3  Protection in the GMPLS overlay model

   When an edge-node wants to establish an LSP towards another edge-node
   over an optical core network as described in [OVERLAY] (see figure
   A.2), the XRO can be used for multiple purposes.


















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     Overlay                                                  Overlay
     Network        +--------------------------------+        Network
   +----------+     |                                |     +----------+
   |   +----+ |     |  +-----+   +-----+   +-----+   |     | +----+   |
   |   |    | |     |  |     |   |     |   |     |   |     | |    |   |
   | --+ EN1+-+-----+--+ CN1 +---+ CN2 +---+ CN3 +---+-----+-+ EN3+-- |
   |   |    | |  +--+--+     |   |     |   |     +---+--+  | |    |   |
   |   +----+ |  |  |  +--+--+   +--+--+   +--+--+   |  |  | +----+   |
   |          |  |  |     |         |         |      |  |  |          |
   +----------+  |  |     |         |         |      |  |  +----------+
                 |  |     |         |         |      |  |
   +----------+  |  |     |         |         |      |  |  +----------+
   |          |  |  |  +--+--+      |      +--+--+   |  |  |          |
   |   +----+ |  |  |  |     |      +------+     |   |  |  | +----+   |
   |   |    +-+--+  |  | CN4 +-------------+ CN5 |   |  +--+-+    |   |
   | --+ EN2+-+-----+--+     |             |     +---+-----+-+ EN4+-- |
   |   |    | |     |  +-----+             +-----+   |     | |    |   |
   |   +----+ |     |                                |     | +----+   |
   |          |     +--------------------------------+     |          |
   +----------+                 Core Network               +----------+

        Overlay                                                 Overlay
        Network                                                 Network

    Legend:
         EN- Edge Node
         CN- Core Node

                           Figure A.2

   A first application is where an edge-node wants to establish multiple
   LSPs towards the same destination edge-node, and these LSPs need to
   have as few or no SRLGs in common. In this case EN1 could establish
   an LSP towards EN3 and then it can establish a second LSP listing all
   links used by the first LSP with the indication to avoid the SRLGs of
   these links. This information can be used by CN1 to compute a path
   for the second LSP. If the core network consists of multiple areas,
   then the SRLG-ids have to be listed in the XRO. The same example
   applies to nodes and links.

   Another application is where the edge-node wants to set up a backup
   LSP that is also protecting the links between the edge-nodes and
   core-nodes. For instance, when EN2 establishes an LSP to EN4, it
   sends a Path message to CN4, which computes a path towards EN4 over
   for instance CN5. When EN2 gets back the RRO of that LSP, it can
   sig- nal a new LSP to CN1 with EN4 as destination and the XRO
   computed based on the RRO of the first LSP. Based on this
   information, CN1 can compute a path that has the requested diversity
   properties (e.g, a path going over CN2, CN3 and then to EN4).

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   It is clear that in these examples, the core-node may not edit the
   RRO in a Resv message such that it includes only the subobjects from
   the egress core-node through the egress edge-node.

A.4  LSP protection inside a single area

   The XRO can also be used inside a single area. Take for instance a
   network where the TE extensions of the IGPs as described in [RFC3630]
   and [RFC3784] are not used, and hence each node has to select a next-
   hop and possibly crankback [CRANKBACK] has to be used when there is
   no viable next-hop. In this case, when signaling a backup LSP, the
   XRO can be put in the Path message to exclude the links, nodes or
   SRLGs of the primary LSP. An alternative to provide this
   functionality would be to indicate in the Path message of the backup
   LSP, the primary LSP together with an indication which type of
   protection is required. This latter solution would work for link and
   node protec- tion, but not for SRLG protection.

   When link or node protection is requested, the XRO is of the same
   length as the RRO of the primary LSP. For SRLG protection, the XRO
   has to list all SRLGs that are crossed by the primary LSP. Note that
   for SRLG protection, the link IP address to reference the SRLGs of
   that link cannot be used since the TE extensions of the IGPs are not
   used in this example. Hence, a node cannot translate any link IP
   address located in that area to its SRLGs.


























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Intellectual Property Statement

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Disclaimer of Validity

   This document and the information contained herein are provided on an
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   ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED,
   INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE
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Copyright Statement

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2005). This document is subject
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Acknowledgment

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