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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 RFC 3981

Network Working Group                                          A. Newton
Internet-Draft                                            VeriSign, Inc.
Expires: January 11, 2005                                        M. Sanz
                                                                DENIC eG
                                                           July 13, 2004


 IRIS - The Internet Registry Information Service (IRIS) Core Protocol
                     draft-ietf-crisp-iris-core-07

Status of this Memo

   By submitting this Internet-Draft, I certify that any applicable
   patent or other IPR claims of which I am aware have been disclosed,
   and any of which I become aware will be disclosed, in accordance with
   RFC 3668.

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on January 11, 2005.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2004).  All Rights Reserved.

Abstract

   This document describes an application layer client-server protocol
   for a framework of representing the query and result operations of
   the information services of Internet registries.  Specified in XML,
   the protocol defines generic query and result operations and a
   mechanism for extending these operations for specific registry
   service needs.





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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     1.1   Use of XML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     1.2   General Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     1.3   Framework Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     1.4   Definitions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     1.5   Further Reading  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   2.  Document Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   3.  Protocol Identification  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   4.  Exchange Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     4.1   Request Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     4.2   Response Format  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     4.3   Extension Framework  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
       4.3.1   Derived Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
       4.3.2   Registry Type Identifier Requirements  . . . . . . . . 12
       4.3.3   Entity Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
       4.3.4   Names of Entities  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
       4.3.5   References to Entities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
       4.3.6   Temporary Entities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
       4.3.7   <result> Derived Elements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
       4.3.8   <control> and <reaction> Elements  . . . . . . . . . . 18
     4.4   Relay Bags . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
   5.  Database Serialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
   6.  Formal XML Syntax  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
   7.  The IRIS URI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
     7.1   URI Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
     7.2   Transport Specific Schemes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
     7.3   URI Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
       7.3.1   Registry Dependent Resolution  . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
       7.3.2   Direct Resolution  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
       7.3.3   Transport and Service Location . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
     7.4   IRIS URI Examples  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
   8.  Checklists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
     8.1   Registry Definition Checklist  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
     8.2   Transport Mapping Checklist  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
   9.  Internationalization Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
   10.   IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
   11.   Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
   12.   References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
   12.1  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
   12.2  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
       Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
   A.  S-NAPTR and IRIS Uses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
     A.1   An Examples of S-NAPTR with IRIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
     A.2   Using S-NAPTR for Cohabitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
   B.  IRIS Design Philosophy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
     B.1   The Basic Premise  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56



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     B.2   The Lure of a Universal Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
     B.3   Server Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
     B.4   Lookups, Searches, and Entity Classes  . . . . . . . . . . 58
     B.5   Entities References, Search Continuations, and Scope . . . 58
   C.  Acknowledgments  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
       Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . 60













































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1.  Introduction

   The specification outlined in this document is based on the
   functional requirements described in CRISP [17].

1.1  Use of XML

   This document describes the specification for the Internet Registry
   Information Service (IRIS), an XML text protocol with the purpose of
   describing the query types and result types of various registry
   information services.  IRIS is specified using the Extensible Markup
   Language (XML) 1.0 as described in [2], XML Schema notation as
   described in [4] and [5], and XML Namespaces as described in [3].

1.2  General Concepts

   Each kind of Internet registry is identified by a registry type.  The
   identifier for a registry type is a Uniform Resource Name (URN) used
   within the XML instances to identify the XML schema formally
   describing the set of queries, results, and entity classes allowed
   within that type of registry.

   The structure of these URNs makes no assumptions or restrictions on
   the type of registries they identify.  Therefore, IRIS may support
   multiple registry types of disparate or similar nature; it is only a
   matter of definition.  For instance, a single registry type may be
   defined for domain name registries while multiple registry types may
   be defined for the various IP address registries.

   A registry information server may handle queries and serve results
   for multiple registry types.  Each registry type that a particular
   registry operator serves is a registry service instance.

   IRIS and the XML schema formally describing IRIS do not specify any
   registry, registry identifier, or knowledge of a particular service
   instance or set of instances.  IRIS is a specification for a
   framework with which these registries can be defined, used, and in
   some cases interoperate.  The framework merely specifies the elements
   for registry identification and the elements which must be used to
   derive queries and results.

   This framework allows a registry type to define its own structure for
   naming, entities, queries, etc.  through the use of XML namespaces
   and XML schemas (hence, a registry type MUST be identified by the
   same URI that identifies its XML namespace).  In order to be
   compliant, a registry type's specification must extend from this
   framework.




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   The framework does define certain structures that can be common to
   all registry types, such as references to entities, search
   continuations, entity classes, and more.  A registry type may declare
   its own definitions for all of these, or it may mix its derived
   definitions with the base definitions.

   IRIS defines two types of referrals, an entity reference and a search
   continuation.  An entity reference indicates specific knowledge about
   an individual entity, and a search continuation allows for
   distributed searches.  Both referrals may span differing registry
   types and instances.  No assumptions or specifications are made about
   roots, bases, or meshes of entities.

1.3  Framework Layers

   The IRIS framework can conceptually be thought of as having three
   layers.

                            -----------------------------
         Registry-Specific  |domain | address  | etc... |
                            -----------------------------
           Common-Registry  |          IRIS             |
                            -----------------------------
     Application-Transport  | beep  | iris-lwz | etc... |
                            -----------------------------
    In this figure, "beep" refers to the Blocks Extensible Exchange
   Protocol (BEEP) (see [20]) and "iris-lwz" refers to a theoritical UDP
   binding using compression.

   The differing layers have the following responsibilities:
      Registry-Specific :: Defines queries, results, and entity classes
      of a specific type of registry.  Each specific type of registry is
      identified by a URN.
      Common-Registry :: Defines base operations and semantics common to
      all registry types such as search sets, result sets, referrals,
      etc.  It also defines the syntaxes for talking about specific
      registry types.
      Application-Transport :: Defines the mechanisms for
      authentication, message passing, connection and session
      management, etc.  It also defines the URI syntax specific to the
      application-transport mechanism.

1.4  Definitions

   For clarity, the following definitions are supplied:
   o  registry type - A registry serving a specific function, such as a
      domain registry or an address registry.  Each type of registry is
      assigned a URN.



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   o  registry schema - The definition for a registry type specifying
      the queries, results, and entity classes.
   o  authority - A reference to the server or set of servers containing
      information.
   o  resolution method - The technique used to locate an authority.
   o  entity class - A group of entities with a common type or common
      set of characteristics.
   o  entity name - The identifier used to refer to a single entity
      within an entity class.
   o  entity reference - A pointer to an entity composed of an
      authority, an optional resolution method, a registry type, an
      entity class, and an entity name.  One type of entity reference is
      the IRIS URI (defined in Section 7).

   The terms "derivative", "derive", and "derivation" are used with the
   same meaning for deriving one type of element from another as
   specified in XML_SS [5].

1.5  Further Reading

   Appendix B contains text answering the question, "Why IRIS?"

   This document describes the structure at the core of IRIS.  The
   following documents describe the other aspects of IRIS relevant to
   CRISP [17]: iris-beep [1], and iris-dreg [18].


























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2.  Document Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC2119 [8].














































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3.  Protocol Identification

   The root element of all request XML instances MUST be <request>.  The
   root element of all response XML instances MUST be <response>.  These
   elements identify the start of the IRIS elements, the XML namespace
   used as the identifier for IRIS, and optionally the location of the
   schema.  These elements and the associated closing tag MUST be
   applied to all requests and responses sent by both clients and
   servers.

   The use of the schema location attribute, 'xsi:schemaLocation', is
   OPTIONAL with respect to this specification, and IRIS implementations
   MAY resolve it to retrieve the schema or they MAY use a locally
   cached version of the schema.

   Versioning of the IRIS protocol is the responsibility of the
   application-transport layer but MUST be associated with the XML
   namespace [3] URI representing IRIS.  A change in this URI indicates
   a change of the underlying schema and therefore a new version of the
   protocol (and vice versa).































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4.  Exchange Description

   This section describes the request and response exchanges of the
   protocol.  The descriptions contained within this section refer to
   XML elements and attributes and their relation to the exchange of
   data within the protocol.  These descriptions also contain
   specifications outside the scope of the formal XML syntax.
   Therefore, this section will use terms defined by RFC 2119 [8] to
   describe the specification outside the scope of the formal XML
   syntax.  While reading this section, please reference Section 6 for
   needed details on the formal XML syntax.

4.1  Request Format

   A <request> element contains an optional <control> element and a set
   of <searchSet> elements.

   The <searchSet> elements enables a client to query a particular
   registry type using the URN identifying the registry type.  This can
   be found in one of its two children: <lookupEntity> and <query>.

   The <lookupEntity> element describes the lookup of an entity in a
   specific registry.  This element has three attributes:
   'registryType', 'entityClass', and 'entityName'.  The 'registryType'
   attribute contains the registry identifier for the registry type in
   which the lookup operation is to take place.  The 'entityClass'
   attribute contains the token identifying the index for which the
   lookup operation is to take place, and the 'entityName' attribute
   contains the name of the entity to lookup.

   The <query> element is abstract and may not legally appear in an XML
   instance.  It provides the base type to be used by registry schemas
   to define derived query types.  This derivation mechanism is
   described in Section 4.3.

   Each <searchSet> may also contain a <bag> element.  When this element
   appears as a child of <searchSet>, it MUST NOT contain the 'id'
   attribute.  For a description of the <bag> element, see Section 4.4.

   The <control> element may contain one child element of any XML
   namespace.  This child element allows a client to signal to a server
   the desire for special states or processing.  An example of one such
   <control> child element may be found in Section 4.3.8.

4.2  Response Format

   The <response> element contains an optional <reaction> element, a set
   of <resultSet> elements, and an optional <bags> element.



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   The <resultSet> elements are responses to a <searchSet> request.  The
   contents of this element contain an <answer> element, an optional
   <additional> element, and error elements if applicable.

   The children of the <answer> element are of the following types:
   o  <result> is an abstract element and may not be legally placed in
      an XML instance.  It provides the base type to be used by registry
      schemas to define derived result types.  This derivation mechanism
      is described in Section 4.3.
   o  <entity> is an element specifying an entity reference.  See
      Section 4.3.5.
   o  The <searchContinuation> element specifies a query referral.  Its
      one child is any element derived from <query> (See Section 4.3.1).
      To direct the query to a referent server, <searchContinuation> has
      a mandatory 'authority' attribute and an optional 'resolution'
      attribute.  The <searchContinuation> element may also contain a
      'bagRef' attribute.  For a description of the 'bagRef' attribute,
      see Section 4.4.

   When following entity references and search continuations, clients
   SHOULD only follow an <entity> or <searchContinuation> response once.
   Failure to do so may result in the client process getting stuck in a
   never-ending query loop commonly known as a referral loop.

   The <additional> element only contains <result> elements, as
   described above.  This element is provided to allow a server to
   indicate to a client results that were not specifically queried but
   are related to the queried results, thus allowing the client the
   ability to properly display this distinction to a user.  The
   <additional> element use is optional.

   The following elements, representing error conditions, may be
   returned:
   o  <insufficientResources> - the corresponding query requires
      resources unobtainable by the server.
   o  <invalidName> - a name given in a query is not syntactically
      correct.
   o  <invalidSearch> - parameters of the corresponding query are not
      semantically meaningful.
   o  <queryNotSupported> - the corresponding query is not supported by
      this server.
   o  <limitExceeded> - the corresponding query requires more resources
      than allowed.
   o  <nameNotFound> - the name given in a query does not match a known
      entity.
   o  <permissionDenied> - the authentication given does not allow
      access to a specific result entry.




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   o  <bagUnrecognized> - the contents of a bag were unrecognized.  See
      Section 4.4.
   o  <bagUnacceptable> - the contents of a bag were not and never will
      be acceptable.  See Section 4.4.
   o  <bagRefused> - the contents of a bag were not acceptable at this
      time.  See Section 4.4.
   o  A derivative of <genericCode>, as described in Section 4.3.

   The <resultSet> section is divided up into the <answer> and
   <additional> sections in order to allow easier processing and
   navigation of the results by a client.  Servers MUST return the
   direct answers to queries in the <answer> element, and MAY return
   results in the <additional> element for which a reference has been
   made to in the <answer> element.  Results in the <additional> element
   MUST have been referenced in the <answer> either as direct children
   of the <answer> element or as a deeper descendant of the <answer>
   element.

   This serves two purposes.  First, it may eliminate a requery by the
   client for references contained in the <answer> element.  Second, it
   distinguishes between results that are a direct result of a query and
   those that would have been returned had the client followed the
   appropriate referrals, thus giving clients a hint as to how to
   process or display the returned results.  For instance, clients
   constructing complex displays using tree navigation widgets will know
   that results in the <answer> element should all be directly beneath
   the root node of the tree, while results in the <additional> element
   are to be leaf nodes of those produced from the <answer> element.

   A <reaction> element (child of <response>) is a response to a
   <control> element, and provide a means for a server to advise a
   client of the affect of a <control> element.

   The <bags> element (child of <response>) is optional.  It contains
   <bag> elements, and the contents of each <bag> element is one element
   in any XML namespace.  Each <bag> element has an 'id' attribute,
   which is referenced by the 'bagRef' attribute of entity references
   (<entity>) and search continuations (<searchContinuation>).  See
   Section 4.4.

4.3  Extension Framework

   Because the IRIS schema defines only one query type, no registry
   structure, and only two stand-alone result types, it is of limited
   use by itself.  Extension of IRIS is accomplished through the use a
   base IRIS schema, as defined in XML_SD [4] and XML_SS [5], and
   extension of it by schemas constructed on top of IRIS.




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4.3.1  Derived Elements

   The XML Schema definition of IRIS requires schemas of registry types
   to derive element types from base types in the IRIS definition.  The
   registry schemas MUST derive elements for definition of typed queries
   and results.

   While the IRIS schema definition does not prohibit the derivation of
   any elements, registry schemas SHOULD restrict the derivations to the
   following types:
   o  <query> - as defined this element contains no content and has no
      valid attributes.  It is abstract and therefore only derivatives
      of it appear in XML instances.  Registry schemas derive from this
      element to define the queries allowed.
   o  <result> - as defined this element contains no content and has
      five valid attributes: 'authority', 'resolution' (optional),
      'registryType', 'entityClass' 'entityName', and
      'temporaryReference' (optional, see Section 4.3.6).  It is
      abstract and therefore only derivatives of it appear in XML
      instances.  Registry schemas derive from this element to define
      results that may be returned from a query.
   o  <genericCode> - as defined, this element is an instance of
      <codeType>.  It contains the optional elements <explanation> and
      <language> to further describe the nature of the error.
   o  <entity> - identifies a reference to an entity.  Registry schemas
      SHOULD use elements derived from <entity>, but MAY use <entity>
      directly.  The advantage of deriving from <entity> vs.  using it
      directly is the chance to define the name of the element and to
      use that name descriptively, for instance, as the role which the
      entity plays with respect to another entity.  See Section 4.3.5.
   o  <seeAlso> - indicates a reference to an entity that has indirect
      association with a parent element representing an entity.  This
      element is derived from the <entity> (Section 4.3.5) element.
      Registry schemas MAY derive from this element or MAY use it
      directly.

4.3.2  Registry Type Identifier Requirements

   The identifier for a registry type and the XML namespace identifier
   used by the XML Schema describing the registry MUST be the same.
   These identifiers MUST be restricted to a URN [7] registered in the
   'ns' class of the IANA registry governed by XML_URN [9].  These
   identifiers are case insensitive.

   This is a restriction on XML_NS [3], which specifies an XML namespace
   identifier is any valid URI [6].

   These identifiers MAY be abbreviated to the part following the class



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   component and its separator of the URN.  For example, the full URN
   "urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:dreg1" may be abbreviated to "dreg1".

   This abbreviation MUST NOT be used inside of XML instances in use
   with IRIS where XML Schema [4] specifies the use of a URI for schema
   identification or where XML_NS [3] specifies the use of a URI for XML
   namespace identification.

4.3.3  Entity Classes

   Entity classes are provided in IRIS to help avoid collisions with
   entity names within any given registry type.  Their specification in
   queries also allows server implementations to quickly narrow search
   or lookup scopes to a single index.

   For instance, the entity name "192.0.2.0" might refer to separate
   entities in the "name-server" and "network" classes.  The entity
   "192.0.2.0" in the "name-server" class may refer to the name server
   host that is also multi-homed by address 192.0.2.255 and known in DNS
   as "ns.example.com", whereas the entity "192.0.2.0" in the "network"
   class may refer to the network 192.0.2/30.

   IRIS defines two default entity classes of "local" and "iris" which
   MUST NOT be redefined.  These entity classes MUST be valid in all
   registry types.

   The "local" class is reserved for entities defined locally by a
   server operator and does not denote any particular type of entity.  A
   lookup in this entity class MAY result in an entity reference or
   search continuation.  For example, "iris:dreg1//example.com/local/
   myhosts" may result in a search continuation yielding the nameservers
   for example.com.

   The "iris" class is reserved for entities specific to a particular
   service instance.  It MUST contain the following entity names (see
   Section 4.3.4:
   o  "id" which yields a result of <serviceIdentification> (see Section
      4.3.7.1).
   o  "limits" which yields a result of <limits> (see Section 4.3.7.2 ).
   This entity class MAY contain other locally defined entities as well.

   The names of entity classes in a registry schema are of type token
   defined by XML_SD [4].  Their case sensitivity MUST be defined by the
   definition of the registry type.  In general, they SHOULD be case
   insensitive.






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4.3.4  Names of Entities

   The names of entities in a registry schema are of type token defined
   by XML_SD [4].

   Names of entities SHOULD be unique within an instance of any
   particular entity class within a registry.  Two entities SHOULD NOT
   have the same name, but a single entity MAY be known by multiple
   names.  In situations where a single name may result in two entities,
   the registry schema SHOULD make allowances by defining result types
   that contain entity references to both entities (i.e.  "example.com"
   can refer to both the domain example.com and the host example.com).
   However, this type of conflict SHOULD generally be avoided by the
   proper use of entity classes.

   The case sensitivity of entity names is dependent on the entity class
   in which they reside.  The definition of a registry type MUST specify
   the case sensitivity for entity names.  A registry type MAY define
   the entity names of differing entity classes to have different case
   sensitivity.

4.3.5  References to Entities

   The element <entity> allows references to entities in result sets,
   either as a direct child of <resultSet> or within a more complex
   structure that derives from <result>.  The <entity> element is
   defined by 'entityType'.  Registry schemas SHOULD define elements
   derived from <entity> when referencing entities but may use the
   <entity> element directly.  Deriving a new element allows a registry
   schema to use the name of the new element as a role signifying the
   relationship the referenced entity has with the referrer.  A
   derivative of <entity> MUST NOT be used as a substitute when the
   <entity> element is declared (such as in the <answer> section of the
   <resultSet>).

   The <entity> element (and elements of type 'entityType') can have
   child elements of <displayName> with an optional 'language'
   attribute.  These are provided so that servers may provide to clients
   a more human friendly meaning to the entity reference.  This is often
   useful to users navigating referral structures.

   The <entity> element (and its derivations) have the following
   attributes:
   o  'authority', 'resolution' (optional), 'registryType',
      'entityClass', and 'entityName' - these attributes specify where
      the entity may be found.
   o  'temporaryReference' - this attribute is optional.  See Section
      4.3.6.



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   o  'referentType' - this attribute contains the expected type of the
      entity being referenced and may contain the word "ANY" or a
      qualified XML name.  Unlike the other attributes of <entity>, this
      attributed is qualified and declared in the IRIS XML namespace.
      Therefore it will also be qualified with the prefix associated
      with the IRIS XML namespace (e.g.  'iris:referentType').  This
      allows clients to recognize entity references using an element
      derived from <entity>.
   o  'bagRef' - this attribute is optional.  If present, this attribute
      must contain an XML identifier to a <bag> element in the <bags>
      section of the result set.  For a description of the 'bagRef'
      attribute, see Section 4.4.

4.3.6  Temporary Entities

   There may exist instances where an entity reference needs to be
   temporary.  As an example, a particular type of result may only have
   one unique key.  If that key contained semantic meaning that may not
   be exposed to all users, a synthetic key will need to be substituted.

   As an additional example, there may be times when data in the data
   store is not normalized in the same manner as that expressed by the
   registry schema.  In the registry schema, objects of type A may
   reference objects of type B.  But in the data store, objects of type
   A may contain objects of type B.  Again, a synthetic key will need to
   be temporarily produced.

   To support such use cases, results and entity references can be
   declared temporary by using the 'temporaryReference' attribute.  This
   attribute is of type boolean [4] and has a default value of "false".
   It is optional for <result> derivatives and elements of type
   'entityType'.

   When this attribute is used, the entity reference data (i.e.,
   'entityClass', 'entityName', etc.) is only valid within the response
   in which it appears and may not be consistent with subsequent
   responses.  A server MUST include the referent of any temporary
   entity reference in the <additional> section of the same <resultSet>

4.3.7  <result> Derived Elements

   The base IRIS framework does contain three elements directly derived
   from the <result> element for use by any registry type.

4.3.7.1  <serviceIdentification>

   An example of an <serviceIdentification> result:




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   <serviceIdentification
     authority="example.com" registryType="dreg1"
     entityClass="iris"
     entityName="id" >
     <authorities>
       <authority> example.com </authority>
       <authority> example.net </authority>
       <authority> example.org </authority>
     </authorities>
     <operatorName>
       Ineternet Assigned Numbers Authority
     </operatorName>
     <eMail>
       iana@iana.org
     </eMail>
   </serviceIdentification>

   The <serviceIdentification> element is provided to allow IRIS clients
   the ability to reference IRIS service instances.  It contains the
   following elements:
   o  <authorities> - This element contains one or more <authority>
      elements.  Each <authority> element contains a URI authority
      component for which the server has results.  While a server MAY
      only return a partial list of its authority areas depending on
      operator policy, it MUST return the authority for which the client
      has requested.
   o  <operatorName> - This element contains the name of the operator of
      the server.
   o  <eMail> - These optional elements contain email addresses of the
      operator of the service instance.
   o  <phone> - These optional elements contain phone numbers of the
      operator of the service instance.
   o  <seeAlso> - See Section 4.3.1 for its definition.

4.3.7.2  <limits>

   An example of a <limits> result:














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   <limits
     authority="example.com" registryType="dreg1"
     entityClass="iris" entityName="limits">
     <totalQueries>
       <perHour>2</perHour>
       <perDay>15</perDay>
     </totalQueries>
     <totalResults>
       <perHour>25</perHour>
       <perDay>200</perDay>
     </totalResults>
     <totalSessions>
       <perHour>2</perHour>
       <perDay>15</perDay>
     </totalSessions>
   </limits>

   The <limits> element provides a mechanism to allow a server to inform
   a client of the limits it may encounter from over use of the service.
   The contents describe the service limitations to a client at the
   current level of access.  The contents of this element are as
   follows:
   o  <totalQueries> - This element describes the total number of
      queries that the server will accept.  The children of this element
      indicate this number per a unit of time.  The children are
      <perSecond>, <perMinute>, <perHour>, and <perDay>.  Each child
      MUST only appear once as a child of <totalQueries>, but more than
      one child MAY be present.  For example, a server could indicate
      that it will accept 15 queries a minute but only 60 queries a day.
   o  <totalResults> - This element describes the total number of
      results that the server will send to a client.  The children of
      this element indicate this number per unit of time in the same
      manner as <totalQueries>.
   o  <totalSessions> - This element describes the total number of
      sessions that the server will accept from a client.  The children
      of this element indicate this number per unit of time in the same
      manner as <totalQueries>.  The definition of a session is defined
      the by application transport layer.
   o  <otherRestrictions> - This element describes other restrictions
      that may only be expressible outside of the structured syntax of
      the other child elements of <limits>.  This element may have
      optional <description> child elements, each with a mandatory
      'language' attribute.
   o  <seeAlso> - These elements are provided to reference other
      entities, such as a <simpleEntity> (Section 4.3.7.3) describing a
      published policy.  See <seeAlso> (Section 4.3.1).

   All of these child elements are optional, and a server may express



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   that it has no limits by using a <limits> element with no content
   (e.g.  <limits authority=...  />).

4.3.7.3  <simpleEntity>

   An example of a <simpleEntity> result:

   <simpleEntity
     authority="example.com" registryType="dreg1"
     entityClass="local"
     entityName="notice" >
     <property name="legal" language="en">
       Example.com is reserved according to RFC 2606.
     </property>
   </simpleEntity>

   The <simpleEntity> element is provided so that service operators may
   make simple additions to other entities without the need for deriving
   entirely new registry types.  Its definition allows service operators
   to reference it from other entities (using, for instance, a <seeAlso>
   element).  The <simpleEntity> is meant to represent name and value
   pairs of strings, allowing each pair to be associated with a specific
   language qualifier, and optional URI pointing to more information.

   Clients may easily display such information as a two-column table.
   Uses needing binary data or richer data structures are out of scope
   for this element.  When such usage scenarios arise, it is likely that
   a client will need specific knowledge for handling such data thus
   calling into question the need for a new registry type.

4.3.8  <control> and <reaction> Elements

   The <control> (Section 4.1) and <reaction> (Section 4.2) elements
   allow the client to request from the server special states for the
   processing of queries.  The intent of these elements is to allow
   extensibility so that some jurisdictions may adopt policies for query
   processing without requiring re-versioning of IRIS or any registry
   type.

   This document defines one control, <onlyCheckPermissions> and its
   requisite reaction, <standardReaction>, for compliance with CRISP
   [17].

   When a client sends an <onlyCheckPermissions> control, it is asking
   the server to only check to see if adequate permissions are available
   to execute the queries in the associated request.  A server MUST
   respond to this control with a <standardReaction> element.




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   The <standardReaction> element provides a server with a standard
   means to respond to controls (it may be used by other controls, but
   that is left to their definition).  It contains four children:
   o  <controlAccepted> - the processing or state needed by the control
      has been accepted.
   o  <controlDenied> - the processing or state needed by the control
      has been denied (a transient failure).
   o  <controlDisabled> - the processing or state needed by the control
      cannot be activated (a permanent failure).
   o  <controlUnrecognized> - the control is not recognized (a permanent
      failure).
   If <onlyCheckPermissions> is rejected, then the server MUST return
   all appropriate result sets (i.e.  for every search set in the
   request), but all result sets MUST be empty of results and MUST
   contain no errors (a reaction is not part of a result set and is
   therefore not a result set error).  This control applies to all
   search sets or none at all, therefore a server MUST issue a rejection
   if <onlyCheckPermissions> cannot be accepted for all search sets in a
   request.

   An example of an IRIS XML exchange using these elements:

   C: <?xml version="1.0"?>
   C: <request xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:iris1"
   C:   xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" >
   C:
   C:   <control>
   C:     <onlyCheckPermissions />
   C:   </control>
   C:
   C:   <searchSet>
   C:
   C:     <lookupEntity
   C:       registryType="dreg1"
   C:       entityClass="local"
   C:       entityName="AUP" />
   C:
   C:   </searchSet>
   C:
   C: </request>

   S: <?xml version="1.0"?>
   S: <response xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:iris1"
   S:           xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" >
   S:
   S:   <reaction>
   S:     <standardReaction>
   S:       <controlAccepted />



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   S:     </standardReaction>
   S:   </reaction>
   S:
   S:   <resultSet>
   S:     <answer>
   S:
   S:       <simpleEntity
   S:         authority="example.com" registryType="dreg1"
   S:         entityClass="local" entityName="AUP" >
   S:         <property name="legal" language="en">
   S:           It is illegal to use information from this service
   S:           for the purposes of sending unsolicited bulk email.
   S:         </property>
   S:       </simpleEntity>
   S:
   S:     </answer>
   S:   </resultSet>
   S:
   S: </response>


4.4  Relay Bags

   IRIS employs the use of bags to allow a server to relay information
   to a referent server via the client.  These bags are generated by the
   queried server, passed to the client as opaque data, and then passed
   to the referent server for processing.  The contents of the bags are
   not defined by IRIS, and the client MUST NOT make any assumptions
   about the contents of a bag when relaying it from one server to
   another.

   When a server returns a result set to a client, the <response>
   element may contain a <bags> child element.  This child element
   contains one or more <bag> elements.  Each of these MUST contain an
   'id' attribute containing the XML data type ID.  Entity references
   and search continuations that need to specify a bag to be used when
   they are followed MUST have a 'bagRef' attribute containing the XML
   data type IDREF.  See Section 4.2.  This allows the response to only
   specify a bag once but allows each entity reference or search
   continuation (in all result sets) to have a distinct bag as needed.

   When following an entity reference or search continuation that
   specifies the use of a bag, the client MUST include the referenced
   bag in the search set as a child of the <searchSet> element.  See
   Section 4.1.

   See Section 4.2 for the list of errors a server may return to a
   client when a bag is received.  A server MUST NOT ignore a bag when



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   it is received.  In case that a bag cannot be recognized or accepted,
   one of the errors from Section 4.2 MUST be returned.

   An example of an IRIS XML exchange using these elements:

   C: <?xml version="1.0"?>
   C: <request xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:iris1"
   C:   xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" >
   C:
   C:   <searchSet>
   C:
   C:     <bag>
   C:       <simpleBag xmlns="http://example.com/">
   C:         XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
   C:       </simpleBag>
   C:     </bag>
   C:
   C:     <lookupEntity
   C:       registryType="dreg1"
   C:       entityClass="local"
   C:       entityName="AUP" />
   C:
   C:   </searchSet>
   C:
   C: </request>

   S: <?xml version="1.0"?>
   S: <response xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:iris1"
   S:           xmlns:iris="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:iris1"
   S:           xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" >
   S:
   S:   <resultSet>
   S:     <answer>
   S:
   S:       <entity authority="example.com" bagRef="x1"
   S:         registryType="dreg1"
   S:         entityClass="local" entityName="AUP"
   S:         iris:referentType="ANY" >
   S:         <displayName language="en">
   S:           Acceptable Usage Policy
   S:         </displayName>
   S:       </entity>
   S:
   S:     </answer>
   S:   </resultSet>
   S:
   S:   <bags>
   S:



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   S:     <bag id="x1">
   S:       <simpleBag xmlns="http://example.com/">
   S:         AAAAB3NzaC1yc2EAAAABIwAAAIEA0ddD+W3Agl0Lel98G1r77fZ
   S:       </simpleBag>
   S:     </bag>
   S:
   S:   </bags>
   S: </response>











































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5.  Database Serialization

   This section describes a method for serializing IRIS registry
   entities.  The descriptions contained within this section refer to
   XML elements and attributes and their relation to this serialization
   process.  These descriptions also contain specifications outside the
   scope of the formal XML syntax.  Therefore, this section will use
   terms defined by RFC 2119 [8] to describe the specification outside
   the scope of the formal XML syntax.  While reading this section,
   please reference Section 6 for needed details on the formal XML
   syntax.

   A database of IRIS entities can be serialized to file storage with
   XML [2] using the IRIS defined <serialization> element.  This element
   contains <result> element derivatives, and <serializedReferral>
   elements.

   Derivatives of the <result> element are entities.  Servers loading
   these entities MUST place the entity in the entity class specified by
   the elements 'registryType', 'entityClass', and 'entityName'
   attributes and any entity class which the entity may apply according
   to explicitly defined children of that element.  For instance, if a
   registry type has two entity classes of "foo" and "bar" and a
   <result> derivative has the attributes entityClass="foo" and
   entityName="one" and a child element <bar>two</bar>, the server is to
   enter that entity into the entity class "foo" as the name "one" and
   into the entity class "bar" as the name "two".

   Servers loading entities as serialized derivatives of the <result>
   element MAY translate the authority attribute.  Servers will likely
   need to do this if the authority for the entity has changed.

   <serializedReferral> elements allow the serialization of explicit
   entity references and search continuations.  This element has a child
   <source> element, containing the 'authority', 'resolution'
   (optional), 'registryType', 'entityClass', and 'entityName'
   attributes.  The attributes of this element are to be used to signify
   the entity which can be referenced to yield this referral.

   As mentioned above, there may be times when a server needs to
   translate the authority attribute of a loaded entity.
   Implementations must also beware of this need for referrals.  During
   deserialization, servers MUST change the authority attribute of a
   referral (either <entity> or elements derived from <entity> or
   <source> child of <serializedReferral>) to contain a valid authority
   of the server if the serialized attribute is empty.  During
   serialization, servers and their related processes MUST leave the
   authority attribute empty for referrals in which the referent is an



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   entity for which the server answers queries.

   The following is an example of serialized IRIS.


   <iris:serialization
     xmlns:iris="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:iris1"
     xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:iris1"
     xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance">

     <serviceIdentification
       authority="iana.org" registryType="dreg1"
       entityClass="iris"
       entityName="id" >
       <authorities>
         <authority> iana.org </authority>
       </authorities>
       <operatorName>
         Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
       </operatorName>
       <eMail>
         dbarton@iana.org
       </eMail>
       <seeAlso
         iris:referentType="iris:simpleEntity"
         authority="iana.org" registryType="dreg1"
         entityClass="local"
         entityName="notice">
         <displayName language="en">
           Legal Notice
         </displayName>
       </seeAlso>
     </serviceIdentification>

     <serializedReferral>
       <source
         authority="example.com" registryType="dreg1"
         entityClass="iris"
         entityName="id"/>
       <entity
         iris:referentType="iris:serviceIdentification"
         authority="iana.org" registryType="dreg1"
         entityClass="iris" entityName="id"/>
     </serializedReferral>

     <simpleEntity
       authority="iana.org" registryType="dreg1"
       entityClass="local"



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       entityName="notice" >
       <property name="legal" language="en">
         Please use the net wisely!
       </property>
     </simpleEntity>

   </iris:serialization>












































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6.  Formal XML Syntax

   IRIS is specified in XML Schema notation.  The formal syntax
   presented here is a complete schema representation of IRIS suitable
   for automated validation of IRIS XML instances.


   <?xml version="1.0"?>
   <schema xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
           xmlns:iris="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:iris1"
           targetNamespace="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:iris1"
           elementFormDefault="qualified" >

     <annotation>
       <documentation>
         Internet Registry Information Service (IRIS) Schema v1
       </documentation>
     </annotation>

     <!-- ========================================= -->
     <!--                                           -->
     <!-- The Transactions                          -->
     <!--                                           -->
     <!-- ========================================= -->

     <element name="request">
       <complexType>
         <sequence>
           <element
             name="control"
             type="iris:controlType"
             minOccurs="0"
             maxOccurs="1" />
           <element
             name="searchSet"
             type="iris:searchSetType"
             minOccurs="1"
             maxOccurs="unbounded" />
         </sequence>
       </complexType>
     </element>

     <element name="response">
       <complexType>
         <sequence>
           <element
             name="reaction"
             type="iris:reactionType"



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             minOccurs="0"
             maxOccurs="1" />
           <element
             name="resultSet"
             type="iris:resultSetType"
             minOccurs="1"
             maxOccurs="unbounded" />
           <element
             name="bags"
             type="iris:bagsType"
             minOccurs="0"
             maxOccurs="1" />
         </sequence>
       </complexType>
     </element>

     <!-- ========================================= -->
     <!--                                           -->
     <!-- Search Sets and Result Sets               -->
     <!--                                           -->
     <!-- ========================================= -->

     <complexType
       name="searchSetType" >
       <sequence>
         <element
           name="bag"
           type="iris:bagType"
           minOccurs="0"
           maxOccurs="1" />
         <choice>
           <element
             name="lookupEntity"
             type="iris:lookupEntityType" />
           <element
             ref="iris:query" />
         </choice>
       </sequence>
     </complexType>

     <complexType
       name="resultSetType" >
       <sequence>
         <element
           name="answer"
           minOccurs="1"
           maxOccurs="1">
           <complexType>



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             <sequence>
               <element
                 ref="iris:result"
                 minOccurs="0"
                 maxOccurs="unbounded" />
               <element
                 ref="iris:entity"
                 minOccurs="0"
                 maxOccurs="unbounded" />
               <element
                 ref="iris:searchContinuation"
                 minOccurs="0"
                 maxOccurs="unbounded" />
             </sequence>
           </complexType>
         </element>
         <element
           name="additional"
           minOccurs="0"
           maxOccurs="1">
           <complexType>
             <sequence>
               <element
                 ref="iris:result"
                 minOccurs="1"
                 maxOccurs="unbounded" />
             </sequence>
           </complexType>
         </element>
         <choice
           minOccurs="0"
           maxOccurs="1" >
           <element
             name="insufficientResources"
             type="iris:codeType" />
           <element
             name="invalidName"
             type="iris:codeType" />
           <element
             name="invalidSearch"
             type="iris:codeType" />
           <element
             name="queryNotSupported"
             type="iris:codeType" />
           <element
             name="limitExceeded"
             type="iris:codeType" />
           <element



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             name="nameNotFound"
             type="iris:codeType" />
           <element
             name="permissionDenied"
             type="iris:codeType" />
           <element
             name="bagUnrecognized"
             type="iris:codeType" />
           <element
             name="bagUnacceptable"
             type="iris:codeType" />
           <element
             name="bagRefused"
             type="iris:codeType" />
           <element
             ref="iris:genericCode"/>
         </choice>
       </sequence>
     </complexType>

     <!-- ========================================= -->
     <!--                                           -->
     <!-- Controls and Reactions                    -->
     <!--                                           -->
     <!-- ========================================= -->

     <complexType
       name="controlType">
       <sequence>
         <any
           namespace="##any"
           processContents="skip"
           minOccurs="1"
           maxOccurs="1" />
       </sequence>
     </complexType>

     <complexType
       name="reactionType">
       <sequence>
         <any
           namespace="##any"
           processContents="skip"
           minOccurs="1"
           maxOccurs="1" />
       </sequence>
     </complexType>




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     <!-- ========================================= -->
     <!--                                           -->
     <!-- Queries and Lookups                       -->
     <!--                                           -->
     <!-- ========================================= -->

     <complexType
       name="queryType" />

     <element
       name="query"
       type="iris:queryType"
       abstract="true" />

     <complexType
       name="lookupEntityType" >
       <attribute
         name="registryType"
         type="anyURI"
         use="required" />
       <attribute
         name="entityClass"
         type="token"
         use="required" />
       <attribute
         name="entityName"
         type="token"
         use="required" />
     </complexType>

     <!-- ========================================= -->
     <!--                                           -->
     <!-- Results                                   -->
     <!--                                           -->
     <!-- ========================================= -->

     <complexType
       name="resultType">
       <attribute
         name="authority"
         use="required"
         type="token" />
       <attribute
         name="resolution"
         type="token" />
       <attribute
         name="registryType"
         use="required"



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         type="anyURI" />
       <attribute
         name="entityClass"
         use="required"
         type="token" />
       <attribute
         name="entityName"
         use="required"
         type="token" />
       <attribute
         name="temporaryReference"
         default="false"
         type="boolean" />
     </complexType>

     <element
       name="result"
       type="iris:resultType"
       abstract="true" />

     <!-- ========================================= -->
     <!--                                           -->
     <!-- Errors                                    -->
     <!--                                           -->
     <!-- ========================================= -->

     <complexType
       name="codeType">
       <sequence
         minOccurs="0"
         maxOccurs="unbounded">
         <element
           name="explanation">
           <complexType>
             <simpleContent>
               <extension
                 base="string">
                 <attribute
                   use="required"
                   name="language"
                   type="language" />
               </extension>
             </simpleContent>
           </complexType>
         </element>
       </sequence>
     </complexType>




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     <element
       name="genericCode"
       type="iris:codeType"
       abstract="true" />

     <!-- ========================================= -->
     <!--                                           -->
     <!-- Entity References and                     -->
     <!-- Search Continuations                      -->
     <!--                                           -->
     <!-- ========================================= -->

     <complexType
       name="entityType">
       <sequence>
         <element
           name="displayName"
           minOccurs="0"
           maxOccurs="unbounded">
           <complexType>
             <simpleContent>
               <extension
                 base="string">
                 <attribute
                   name="language"
                   use="required"
                   type="language" />
               </extension>
             </simpleContent>
           </complexType>
         </element>
       </sequence>
       <attribute
         name="authority"
         use="required"
         type="token" />
       <attribute
         name="resolution"
         type="token" />
       <attribute
         name="registryType"
         use="required"
         type="anyURI" />
       <attribute
         name="entityClass"
         use="required"
         type="token" />
       <attribute



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         name="entityName"
         use="required"
         type="token" />
       <attribute
         name="referentType"
         use="required"
         form="qualified"
         type="iris:referentTypeType" />
       <attribute
         name="temporaryReference"
         default="false"
         type="boolean" />
       <attribute
         name="bagRef"
         type="IDREF" />
     </complexType>

     <element
       name="entity"
       type="iris:entityType" />

     <simpleType
       name="referentTypeType">
       <union
         memberTypes="QName iris:anyLiteralType" />
     </simpleType>

     <simpleType
       name="anyLiteralType">
       <restriction
         base="string">
         <enumeration
           value="ANY" />
       </restriction>
     </simpleType>

     <complexType
       name="searchContinuationType">
       <sequence>
         <element ref="iris:query" />
       </sequence>
       <attribute
         name="bagRef"
         type="IDREF" />
       <attribute
         name="authority"
         type="token"
         use="required" />



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       <attribute
         name="resolution"
         type="token" />
     </complexType>

     <element
       name="searchContinuation"
       type="iris:searchContinuationType" />

     <!-- ========================================= -->
     <!--                                           -->
     <!-- Bags                                      -->
     <!--                                           -->
     <!-- ========================================= -->

     <complexType
       name="bagsType">
       <sequence>
         <element
           name="bag"
           minOccurs="1"
           maxOccurs="unbounded">
           <complexType>
             <complexContent>
               <extension
                 base="iris:bagType">
                 <attribute
                   use="required"
                   name="id"
                   type="ID" />
               </extension>
             </complexContent>
           </complexType>
         </element>
       </sequence>
     </complexType>

     <complexType
       name="bagType">
       <sequence>
         <any
           namespace="##any"
           processContents="skip"
           minOccurs="1"
           maxOccurs="1" />
       </sequence>
     </complexType>




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     <!-- ========================================= -->
     <!--                                           -->
     <!-- Derived Results for use with all          -->
     <!-- registry types.                           -->
     <!--                                           -->
     <!-- ========================================= -->

     <!--                                           -->
     <!-- See Also                                  -->
     <!--                                           -->

     <element
       name="seeAlso"
       type="iris:entityType" />

     <!--                                           -->
     <!-- Service Identification                    -->
     <!--                                           -->

     <complexType
       name="serviceIdentificationType">
       <complexContent>
         <extension
           base="iris:resultType">
           <sequence>
             <element
               name="authorities"
               minOccurs="1"
               maxOccurs="1">
               <complexType>
                 <sequence>
                   <element
                     name="authority"
                     type="token"
                     minOccurs="1"
                     maxOccurs="unbounded" />
                 </sequence>
               </complexType>
             </element>
             <element
               name="operatorName"
               type="string"
               minOccurs="0"
               maxOccurs="1" />
             <element
               name="eMail"
               type="string"
               minOccurs="0"



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               maxOccurs="unbounded" />
             <element
               name="phone"
               type="string"
               minOccurs="0"
               maxOccurs="unbounded" />
             <element
               ref="iris:seeAlso"
               minOccurs="0"
               maxOccurs="unbounded" />
           </sequence>
         </extension>
       </complexContent>
     </complexType>

     <element
       name="serviceIdentification"
       type="iris:serviceIdentificationType"
       substitutionGroup="iris:result" />

     <!--                                           -->
     <!-- Limits                                    -->
     <!--                                           -->

     <complexType
       name="limitsType">
       <complexContent>
         <extension
           base="iris:resultType">
           <sequence>
             <element
               name="totalQueries"
               minOccurs="0"
               maxOccurs="1" >
               <complexType>
                 <group
                   ref="iris:timeLimitsGroup"
                   minOccurs="1"
                   maxOccurs="4" />
               </complexType>
             </element>
             <element
               name="totalResults"
               minOccurs="0"
               maxOccurs="1" >
               <complexType>
                 <group
                   ref="iris:timeLimitsGroup"



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                   minOccurs="1"
                   maxOccurs="4" />
               </complexType>
             </element>
             <element
               name="totalSessions"
               minOccurs="0"
               maxOccurs="1" >
               <complexType>
                 <group
                   ref="iris:timeLimitsGroup"
                   minOccurs="1"
                   maxOccurs="4" />
               </complexType>
             </element>
             <element
               name="otherRestrictions"
               minOccurs="0"
               maxOccurs="1">
               <complexType>
                 <sequence>
                   <element
                     name="description"
                     minOccurs="0"
                     maxOccurs="unbounded">
                     <complexType>
                       <simpleContent>
                         <extension
                           base="string">
                           <attribute
                             name="language"
                             type="language"
                             use="required" />
                         </extension>
                       </simpleContent>
                     </complexType>
                   </element>
                 </sequence>
               </complexType>
             </element>
             <element
               ref="iris:seeAlso"
               minOccurs="0"
               maxOccurs="unbounded" />
           </sequence>
         </extension>
       </complexContent>
     </complexType>



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     <element
       name="limits"
       type="iris:limitsType"
       substitutionGroup="iris:result" />

     <group
       name="timeLimitsGroup">
       <choice>
         <element
           name="perSecond"
           type="nonNegativeInteger" />
         <element
           name="perMinute"
           type="nonNegativeInteger" />
         <element
           name="perHour"
           type="nonNegativeInteger" />
         <element
           name="perDay"
           type="nonNegativeInteger" />
       </choice>
     </group>

     <!--                                           -->
     <!-- Simple Entity                             -->
     <!--                                           -->

     <complexType
       name="simpleEntityType">
       <complexContent>
         <extension
           base="iris:resultType">
           <sequence>
             <element
               name="property"
               minOccurs="1"
               maxOccurs="unbounded">
               <complexType>
                 <simpleContent>
                   <extension
                     base="string">
                     <attribute
                       name="name"
                       type="string"
                       use="required" />
                     <attribute
                       name="language"
                       type="language"



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                       use="required" />
                     <attribute
                       name="uri"
                       type="anyURI" />
                   </extension>
                 </simpleContent>
               </complexType>
             </element>
           </sequence>
         </extension>
       </complexContent>
     </complexType>

     <element
       name="simpleEntity"
       type="iris:simpleEntityType"
       substitutionGroup="iris:result" />

     <!-- ========================================= -->
     <!--                                           -->
     <!-- Derived Controls and Reactions            -->
     <!--                                           -->
     <!-- ========================================= -->

     <!--                                           -->
     <!-- Only Check Permissions                    -->
     <!--                                           -->

     <element
       name="onlyCheckPermissions" >
       <complexType />
     </element>

     <!--                                           -->
     <!-- Standard Reaction                         -->
     <!--                                           -->

     <element
       name="standardReaction" >
       <complexType>
         <choice>
           <element
             name="controlAccepted">
             <complexType/>
           </element>
           <element
             name="controlDenied">
             <complexType/>



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           </element>
           <element
             name="controlDisabled">
             <complexType/>
           </element>
           <element
             name="controlUnrecognized">
             <complexType/>
           </element>
         </choice>
       </complexType>
     </element>

     <!-- ========================================= -->
     <!--                                           -->
     <!-- Serialization                             -->
     <!--                                           -->
     <!-- ========================================= -->

     <complexType
       name="serializedReferralType">
       <sequence>
         <element name="source">
           <complexType>
             <attribute
               name="authority"
               use="required"
               type="token" />
             <attribute
               name="resolution"
               type="token" />
             <attribute
               name="registryType"
               type="anyURI"
               use="required" />
             <attribute
               name="entityClass"
               type="token"
               use="required" />
             <attribute
               name="entityName"
               type="token"
               use="required" />
           </complexType>
         </element>
         <choice>
           <element
             ref="iris:searchContinuation" />



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           <element
             ref="iris:entity" />
         </choice>
       </sequence>
     </complexType>

     <element
       name="serialization">
       <complexType>
         <choice
           minOccurs="1"
           maxOccurs="unbounded">
           <element
             ref="iris:result" />
           <element
             name="serializedReferral"
             type="iris:serializedReferralType" />
         </choice>
       </complexType>
     </element>

   </schema>

                                Figure 8



























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7.  The IRIS URI

   The IRIS URI has a very rigid structure but is flexible in how it may
   be used.  Its structure is rigid in that all IRIS URIs have the same
   fields and all look similar to users.

   They are flexible because they allow different methods to be employed
   to find servers and they allow the use of multiple transports (with
   BEEP being the default).

7.1  URI Definition

   An IRIS URI [6] has the following general syntax.

   iris:<registry>/<resolution>/<authority>/<class>/<name>

   The full ABNF [11] with certain values included from RFC 2396 [6] and
   RFC 2732 [15] follows.


     iris-uri           = scheme ":" registry-urn "/"
                          [ resolution-method ] "/" authority
                          [ "/" entity-class "/" entity-name ]
     scheme             = "iris"
     authority          = // as specified by RFC2396
     registry-urn       = // as specified by IRIS
     resolution-method  = *(unreserved | escaped)
     entity-class       = *(unreserved | escaped)
     entity-name        = *(unreserved | escaped)
     unreserved         = // as specified by RFC2396
     escaped            = // as specified by RFC2396

   An IRIS URI MUST NOT be a relative URI.  The resolution method,
   entity class and entity name MUST be of the UTF-8 [12] character set
   encoded with "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" as specified by
   URL_ENC [14].

   When the entity-class and entity-name components are not specified,
   the defaults "iris" and "id" MUST be implied.  For example,
   "iris:dreg1//com" is to be interpreted "iris:dreg1//com/iris/id".

   When the resolution-method is not specified, the default is the
   direct resolution method described in Section 7.3.2.

7.2  Transport Specific Schemes

   The "iris" scheme name is not application transport specific.  The
   URI resolution process MAY determine the application transport.  An



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   example of such a process is the direct resolution (Section 7.3.2)
   process, which uses the steps outlined in Section 7.3.3 to determine
   the application transport.

   A mapping between an application transport and IRIS MAY define a
   scheme name signifying its use with the semantics of the IRIS URI.

   The rules for determining which application transport to use are:

   o  If an application transport specific scheme name is present, the
      application transport it signifies SHOULD be used if possible.
   o  If a client has a preferred transport and the resolution process
      allows for its use, the client MAY use that application transport.
   o  Otherwise, the default application transport as specified by
      IRIS-BEEP [1] MUST be used.

7.3  URI Resolution

7.3.1  Registry Dependent Resolution

   Interpretation and resolution of the authority component of an IRIS
   URI may be altered with the specification of a resolution-method in
   the URI.  If no resolution-method component is specified in the URI,
   the default is the direct resolution method (see Section 7.3.2).

   Alternate resolution methods MAY be specified by registry types.  The
   identifiers for these methods MUST conform to the ABNF in Section
   7.1.

7.3.2  Direct Resolution

   In the direct resolution process, the authority component of an IRIS
   URI may only contain a domain name, a domain name accompanied by a
   port number, an IP address, or an IP address accompanied by a port
   number.  The authority component of the scheme indicates the server
   or set of servers authoritatively responsible for a domain according
   to records in DNS (Section 7.3.3) if a domain is specified or
   indicates the specific server to be queried if an IP address is
   specified.

   The rules for resolution are:

   o  If the authority component is a domain name accompanied by a port
      number as specified by RFC 2396, the domain name is converted to
      an IP address via an A or AAAA record to the DNS.
   o  If the authority component is a domain name by itself, the
      service/transport location (Section 7.3.3) process is used.  If
      this process produces no results, then the DNS is queried for the



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      A or AAAA RRs corresponding to the domain name and the port number
      used is the well-known port of the transport used according to
      Section 7.2.
   o  If the authority component is an IP address, then the DNS is not
      queried, and the IP address is used directly.  If the port number
      is present, it is used directly; otherwise, the port number used
      is the well-known port of the transport used according to Section
      7.2.

   The use of an IPv6 address in the authority component MUST conform to
   RFC 2732 [15].

7.3.3  Transport and Service Location

   The direct resolution method (Section 7.3.2) uses the profiled use of
   the NAPTR and SRV resource records as defined in S-NAPTR [10] to
   determine both the location of a set of servers for a given service
   and the set of possible transports that may be used.  It is
   RECOMMENDED that any resolution method not making explicit use of the
   direct resolution process should use S-NAPTR [10] in whatever process
   it does define.

   S-NAPTR [10] requires an application service label.  The direct
   resolution method (Section 7.3.2) uses the abbreviated form the
   registry URN as the application service label.  Other resolution
   methods MAY specify other application service labels.

   See Appendix A for example uses of S-NAPTR.

7.4  IRIS URI Examples

   Here are some examples of IRIS URIs and their meaning:

   o  iris:dreg1//example.com/domain/example.com
      *  Finds a server authoritative for "example.com" according to the
         rules of direct resolution (Section 7.3.2).
      *  The server is asked for "example.com" in the "domain" index, or
         entity class, of the "dreg1" registry.
   o  iris:dreg1//example.com
      *  Finds a server authoritative for "example.com" according to the
         rules of direct resolution (Section 7.3.2).
      *  The server is asked for "id" in the "iris" index, or entity
         class, of the "dreg1" registry.
   o  iris:dreg1//com/domain/example.com
      *  Finds a server authoritative for "com" according to the rules
         of direct-resolution (Section 7.3.2).
      *  The server is asked for "example.com" in the "domain" index, or
         entity class, of the "dreg1" registry.



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   o  iris:dreg1//192.0.2.1:44/domain/example.com
      *  Following the rules of direct-resolution (Section 7.3.2), the
         server at IP address 192.0.2.1 on port 44 is queried using
         BEEP.
      *  The server is asked for "example.com" in the "domain" index, or
         entity class, of the "dreg1" registry.
   o  iris.lwz:dreg1//192.0.2.1:44/domain/example.com
      *  Following the rules of direct-resolution (Section 7.3.2), the
         server at IP address 192.0.2.1 on port 44 is queried using a
         lightweight application transport.
      *  The server is asked for "example.com" in the "domain" index, or
         entity class, of the "dreg1" registry.
   o  iris.beep:dreg1//com/domain/example.com
      *  Finds a server authoritative for "com" according to the rules
         of direct-resolution (Section 7.3.2).
      *  Uses the BEEP application transport.
      *  The server is asked for "example.com" in the "domain" index, or
         entity class, of the "dreg1" registry.
   o  iris:dreg1/bottom/example.com/domain/example.com
      *  Finds a server authoritative for "example.com" according to the
         rules of the resolution method 'bottom' defined by the registry
         type urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:dreg1.
      *  The application transport used is determined by the 'bottom'
         resolution method.
      *  The server is asked for "example.com" in the "domain" index, or
         entity class, of the "dreg1" registry.
   o  iris.beep:dreg1/bottom/example.com/domain/example.com
      *  Finds a server authoritative for "example.com" according to the
         rules of the resolution method 'bottom' defined by the registry
         type urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:dreg1.
      *  Uses the BEEP application transport.
      *  The server is asked for "example.com" in the "domain" index, or
         entity class, of the "dreg1" registry.


















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8.  Checklists

8.1  Registry Definition Checklist

   Specifications of registry types MUST include the following explicit
   definitions:
   o  Formal XML syntax deriving from the IRIS XML.
   o  An identifying registry URN.
   o  Any registry specific resolution methods.
   o  A registration of the abbreviated registry URN as an application
      service label for compliance with S-NAPTR [10].  Note, this is a
      different IANA registry than the registry type URN IANA registry.
   o  A list of well-known entity classes.
   o  A statement regarding the case sensitivity of the names in each
      entity class.

8.2  Transport Mapping Checklist

   Specifications of transport mappings MUST include the following
   explicit definitions:
   o  A URI scheme name specific to the transport.
   o  An application protocol label for compliance with S-NAPTR [10].
      See Section 7.3.3.  Note, this is a different IANA registry than
      the URI scheme name IANA registry, however, it is RECOMMENDED that
      they be the same string of characters.
   o  The set of allowable character set encodings for the exchange of
      XML (see Section 9).
   o  The set of security mechanisms.























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9.  Internationalization Considerations

   IRIS is represented in XML.  XML processors are obliged to recognize
   both UTF-8 and UTF-16 [12] encodings.  XML provides for mechanisms to
   identify and use other character encodings by means of the "encoding"
   attribute in the <xml> declaration.  Absence of this attribute or a
   byte order mark (BOM) means a default of UTF-8 [13] encoding.  Thus,
   for compatibility reasons, and per RFC 2277 [16], use of UTF-8 [13]
   is RECOMMENDED with IRIS.

   The complete list of character set encoding identifiers is maintained
   by IANA at [21].

   The application-transport layer MUST define a common set of character
   set encodings to be understood by both client and server.

   Localization of internationalized strings may require additional
   information by the client.  Entity definitions SHOULD use the
   "language" type defined by XML_SD [4] to aid clients in the
   localization process.  See Section 4.3.7.3 as an example.































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10.  IANA Considerations

   This document makes use of a proposed XML namespace and schema
   registry specified in XML_URN [9].  Accordingly, the following
   registration information is provided for the IANA:
   o  URN/URI:
      *  urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:iris1
   o  Contact:
      *  Andrew Newton <andy@hxr.us>
      *  Marcos Sanz <sanz@denic.de>
   o  XML:
      *  The XML Schema specified in Section 6







































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11.  Security Considerations

   The IRIS XML layer provides no authentication or privacy facilities
   of its own.  It relies on the application-transport layer for all of
   these abilities.  Application-transports should explicitly define
   their security mechanisms (see Section 8.2).

   Referral IRIS registry results may contain entity lookups and search
   continuations which result in a client query operation against
   another registry service.  Clients SHOULD NOT use authentication
   credentials and mechanisms subject to replay attacks for the purpose
   of conducting subsequent entity lookups and search continuations.







































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12.  References

12.1  Normative References

   [1]   Newton, A. and M. Sanz, "Using the Internet Registry
         Information Service (IRIS) over the Blocks Extensible Exchange
         Protocol (BEEP)", draft-ietf-crisp-iris-beep-05 (work in
         progress), January 2004.

   [2]   World Wide Web Consortium, "Extensible Markup Language (XML)
         1.0", W3C XML, February 1998,
         <http://www.w3.org/TR/1998/REC-xml-19980210>.

   [3]   World Wide Web Consortium, "Namespaces in XML", W3C XML
         Namespaces, January 1999,
         <http://www.w3.org/TR/1999/REC-xml-names-19990114>.

   [4]   World Wide Web Consortium, "XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes", W3C
         XML Schema, October 2000,
         <http://www.w3.org/TR/2001/REC-xmlschema-2-20010502/>.

   [5]   World Wide Web Consortium, "XML Schema Part 1: Structures", W3C
         XML Schema, October 2000,
         <http://www.w3.org/TR/2001/REC-xmlschema-1-20010502/>.

   [6]   Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R. and L. Masinter, "Uniform
         Resource Identifiers (URI): Generic Syntax", RFC 2396, August
         1998.

   [7]   Moats, R., "URN Syntax", RFC 2141, May 1997.

   [8]   Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
         Levels", RFC 2119, BCP 14, March 1997.

   [9]   Mealling, M., "The IETF XML Registry", RFC 3688, BCP 81,
         January 2004.

   [10]  Daigle, L. and A. Newton, "Domain-based Application Service
         Location Using SRV RRs and the Dynamic  Delegation Discovery
         Service (DDDS)", draft-daigle-napstr-03 (work in progress),
         November 2002.

   [11]  Crocker, D. and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax
         Specifications: ABNF", RFC 2234, November 1997.

   [12]  The Unicode Consortium, "The Unicode Standard, Version 3", ISBN
         0-201-61633-5, 2000, <The Unicode Standard, Version 3>.




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   [13]  Yergeau, F., "UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO 10646", STD
         63, RFC 3629, November 2003.

   [14]  Berners-Lee, T. and D. Connolly, "Hypertext Markup Language -
         2.0", RFC 1866, November 1995.

   [15]  Hinden, R., Carpenter, B. and L. Masinter, "Format for Literal
         IPv6 Addresses in URL's", RFC 2732, December 1999.

   [16]  Alvestrand, H., "IETF Policy on Character Sets and Languages",
         BCP 18, RFC 2277, January 1998.

12.2  Informative References

   [17]  Newton, A., "Cross Registry Internet Service Protocol (CRISP)
         Requirements", RFC 3707, February 2004.

   [18]  Newton, A. and M. Sanz, "IRIS Domain Registry Schema",
         draft-ietf-crisp-iris-dreg-05 (work in progress), October 2002.

   [19]  Harrenstien, K., Stahl, M. and E. Feinler, "NICNAME/WHOIS", RFC
         954, October 1985.

   [20]  Rose, M., "The Blocks Extensible Exchange  Protocol Core", RFC
         3080, March 2001.


























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URIs

   [21]  <http://www.iana.org/assignments/character-sets>


Authors' Addresses

   Andrew L. Newton
   VeriSign, Inc.
   21345 Ridgetop Circle
   Sterling, VA  20166
   USA

   Phone: +1 703 948 3382
   EMail: anewton@verisignlabs.com; andy@hxr.us
   URI:   http://www.verisignlabs.com/


   Marcos Sanz
   DENIC eG
   Wiesenhuettenplatz 26
   D-60329 Frankfurt
   Germany

   EMail: sanz@denic.de
   URI:   http://www.denic.de/

























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Appendix A.  S-NAPTR and IRIS Uses

A.1  An Examples of S-NAPTR with IRIS

   This section shows an example use of S-NAPTR [10] by IRIS.  In this
   example, there are two registry types: REGA and REGB.  There are also
   two IRIS application transports: iris-a and iris-b.  Given this, the
   use of S-NAPTR offers the following:
   1.  A means to allow an operator to split out the set of servers
       running REGA from the set of servers running REGB.  This is to
       say, the operator is able to split out the set of servers serving
       up data for REGA from the set of servers serving up data for
       REGB.
   2.  A means to allow an operator to specify which set of servers are
       running iris-a from the set of servers running iris-b.  This is
       to say, the operator is able to split out the set of servers
       running protocol iris-a serving REGA and REGB data from the set
       of servers running protocol iris-b serving REGA and REGB data.
   3.  A means to allow an operator to specify which set of the servers
       to operate and which set of the above servers to delegate to
       another operator.

   To implement the first feature, the operator deploys the following in
   their DNS zone:

   example.com.
   ;;        order  pref  flags service                 re replacement
   IN NAPTR  100    10    ""    "REGA:iris-a:iris-b"    "" rega.example.com
   IN NAPTR  100    10    ""    "REGB:iris-a:iris-b"    "" regb.example.com

   To implement the second feature, the operator then adds the following
   in their DNS zone:



















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   rega.example.com.
   ;;        order  pref  flags  service        re  replacement
   IN NAPTR  100    10    "s"    "REGA:iris-a"  ""  _iris-a._udp.example.com
   regb.example.com.
   IN NAPTR  100    10    "s"    "REGA:iris-b"  ""  _iris-b._tcp.example.com

   _iris-a._udp.example.com.
   ;;        pref  weight port  target
   IN SRV    10    0      34    big-a.example.com.
   IN SRV    20    0      34    small-a.example.com.

   _iris-b._tcp.example.com.
   ;;        pref  weight port  target
   IN SRV    10    0      34    big-b.example.com.
   IN SRV    20    0      34    small-b.example.com.

   Finally, an operator may decide to operate the REGA services while
   delegating the REGB services to somebody else.  Here is how that is
   done:

   example.com.
   ;;       order pref flags service              re replacement
   IN NAPTR 100   10   ""    "REGA:iris-a:iris-b" "" rega.example.com
   IN NAPTR 100   10   ""    "REGB:iris-a:iris-b" "" somebodyelse.com

   Or the operator may decide to operate REGB services under the iris-a
   protocol/transport while delegating the REGB services under the
   iris-b protocol/transport to somebody else.

   example.com.
   ;;       order pref flags service       re replacement
   IN NAPTR 100   10   ""    "REGB:iris-a:iris-b" "" regb.example.com
   IN NAPTR 100   10   "s"   "REGB:iris-a" "" _iris-a._udp.example.com
   IN NAPTR 100   10   "s"   "REGB:iris-b" "" _iris-b._tcp.somebodyelse.com

   _iris-a._udp.example.com.
   ;;        pref  weight port  target
   IN SRV    10    0      34    big-a.example.com.
   IN SRV    20    0      34    small-a.example.com.

   Note that while this last example is possible, it is probably not
   advisable because of the operational issues involved in synchronizing
   the data between example.com and somebodyelse.com.  It is provided
   here as an example of what is possible.

A.2  Using S-NAPTR for Cohabitation

   Given the examples in Appendix A.1, the use of S-NAPTR could be part



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   of a transition strategy for cohabitation of protocols solving the
   problems of CRISP [17].

   For example, the type of data for domain information could be given
   the application service label of "DREG1".  Given this, the service
   field of an S-NAPTR compliant NAPTR record could read:
      "DREG1:whois:iris-beep"
   This service field conveys that domain data, as defined by CRISP, is
   available both via the iris-beep protocol and the whois protocol.
   The whois application protocol label refers to RFC 954 [19].









































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Appendix B.  IRIS Design Philosophy

   Beyond the concrete arguments that could be placed behind a
   thoughtful analysis of the bits flying across the ether, there are
   other abstract reasons for the development of IRIS.  This section
   attempts an explanation.

B.1  The Basic Premise

   IRIS has been designed as a directory service for public-facing
   registries of Internet resources.  The basic premise is this:
   o  A client should be able to look up any single piece of data from
      any type of registry.  This look up should involve a
      straight-forward and consistent definition for finding the
      registry and entail a hit to a single data index in the registry.
   o  Anything more, such as searches up and down the DNS tree to find
      the registry, searches across multiple indexes in a registry,
      etc..., requires a client with special knowledge of the data
      relationships contained within a registry.

   Therefore IRIS does the following:
   o  It does specify the basic schema language used by all registries
      to specify their schemas.
   o  It does provide the basic framework for a registry to make a
      reference to an entity in another type of registry.

   And, therefore, IRIS does not do the following:
   o  It does not specify a common query language across all types of
      registries.  A common query language imposed across multiple types
      of registries usually results in the disabling of certain
      functions by a server operator in order to meet acceptable levels
      of performance.  What this leaves is a common query language that
      does not commonly work.
   o  It does not impose any relationship between sets of data in any
      type of registry, such as specifying a tree.  There are many types
      of Internet resources, and they do not all share the same style of
      relationship with their contained sets of data.  An imposition of
      a common relationship when it is not a natural fit is often a
      concern and not a benefit.

B.2  The Lure of a Universal Client

   The design premise of IRIS signifies that for directory services
   there is no such thing as a universal client (or that if there is
   one, it is commonly called the "web browser").

   For IRIS, the closest thing to a universal client is one that may
   "look up" data and may be able to display the data in a rudimentary



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   fashion.  For a client to be able to "search" data or display it in a
   truly user-friendly manner, it must have specific knowledge about the
   type of data it is retrieving.

   Attempts to outfit a universal client with a common query language
   are also not very useful.  A common query language may be applied to
   a specific problem domain, requiring a user to have expertise in both
   the common query language and the problem domain.  In the end, the
   outcome is usually the development of a client specific to the
   problem domain but saddled with translation of the user's desires and
   the lowest common denominator aspect of the query language.

B.3  Server Considerations

   As mentioned above, IRIS was designed for the directory service needs
   of public-facing registries.  In this light, there are certain
   aspects of more generalized directory services that are a hindrance
   in an environment that does not have the same control and safety
   considerations of a managed network.

   For instance, a common query language can provide great flexibility
   to both the power user and the abusive user.  An abusive user could
   easily submit a query across multiple indexes with partial values.
   Such a query would have no other utility than to cause denial of
   service to other users.  To combat this, a service operator must
   restrict the types of queries that cause harm to overall performance,
   and this act obsoletes the benefit of a common query language.

   Another consideration for server performance is the lack of a
   required data relationship.  Because sets of data often have
   differing relationships, a one-size-fits-all approach does not fit
   well with all types of registries.  In addition, public-facing
   services tend to have service level requirements that cannot
   reasonably be met by transforming complete data stores from a native
   format to that of a format enforcing an artificial set of
   relationships.

   To combat these issues, operators of public-facing services tend to
   create their own custom query parsers and back-end data stores.  But
   doing so brings into question the use of a generalized directory
   service.

   Finally, IRIS is built upon a set of standard technological layers.
   This allows service operators the ability to switch in and out
   components to meet the needs of their particular environment.






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B.4  Lookups, Searches, and Entity Classes

   IRIS supports both look ups and searches.  Conceptually, the
   difference between the two is as follows:
      A "look up" is a single query with a discrete value on a single
      index.
      Anything more, such as a partial value queries, queries across
      multiple indexes, or multiple queries to a single index, is a
      "search".

   Lookups are accomplished through the use of the defined query
   <lookupEntity>.  This query specifies a discrete name, called the
   entity name, to be queried in a single index, called the entity
   class.  Therefore, implementations may consider a type of registry to
   be composed of multiple indexes, one for each defined entity class.

   There are no standard searches in IRIS.  Each type of registry
   defines its own set of searches.

B.5  Entities References, Search Continuations, and Scope

   Due to its importance in client behavior and the side effects such
   behavior may have on servers, IRIS makes a clear distinction between
   entity references (<entity>) and search continuations
   (<searchContinuation>).  It is not an add-on, but a fundamental core
   of the protocol.

   The distinction is very important to a client:
      "Go look over there and you will find what you seek."
      "Go look over there and you may find what you seek, or you may
      find some other stuff, or you may find nothing."

   Finally, because IRIS makes no assumptions and places no requirements
   on the relationship of data in a registry, this also extends to data
   of the same registry type spread across multiple authority areas.
   This means that IRIS makes no requirements with regard to scope of
   entity references or search continuations.  The definition of scope
   is strictly a function of need by the type of registry and the
   allowances given a service operator by that type of registry.












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Appendix C.  Acknowledgments

   The terminology used in this document to describe namespaces and
   namespaces of namespaces is now much clearer thanks to the skillful
   debating tactics of Leslie Daigle.  Previously, it was much more
   confusing.  In addition, Leslie has provided great insight into the
   details of URIs, URNs, and NAPTR/SRV resource records.

   Many other technical complexities were proved to be unnecessary by
   David Blacka and have been removed.  And his IRIS implementation has
   helped smooth out the rougher edges.








































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