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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 RFC 4340

Internet Engineering Task Force
INTERNET-DRAFT                                              Eddie Kohler
draft-ietf-dccp-spec-04.txt                                 Mark Handley
                                                             Sally Floyd
                                                                    ICIR
                                                         Jitendra Padhye
                                                      Microsoft Research
                                                            30 June 2003
                                                  Expires: December 2003


              Datagram Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP)



Status of this Document

    This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
    all provisions of Section 10 of [RFC 2026].  Internet-Drafts are
    working documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its
    areas, and its working groups.  Note that other groups may also
    distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts.

    Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six
    months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents
    at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
    material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

    The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
    http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt

    The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
    http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html

                                Abstract


     This document specifies the Datagram Congestion Control
     Protocol (DCCP), which implements a congestion-controlled,
     unreliable flow of datagrams suitable for use by applications
     such as streaming media.







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     TO BE DELETED BY THE RFC EDITOR UPON PUBLICATION:

     Changes since draft-ietf-dccp-spec-03.txt:

     * Specify how the Loss Window is arranged.

     * Ignored can contain multiple bytes of option data.

     * Refine the tables in Section 8.5.1, on Ack Vector
     Consistency.

     * CC mechanisms must treat Data Dropped like ECN Marked unless
     otherwise specified.

     * PMTU discovery is more mandatory.

     * Clarifications in response to reviewer comments.

     Changes since draft-ietf-dccp-spec-02.txt:

     * Identification options include the Acknowledgement Number in
     their hash.

     * Added an additional condition to accepting a packet with an
     invalid Sequence Number: the Acknowledgement Number must be
     valid, as well as the Identification options.

     * Explicitly allow Connection Nonces to be negotiated in other
     ways than the Connection Nonce feature.

     * Bad Moves are ignored, not reset, to avoid leaking
     information to attackers.

     Changes since draft-ietf-dccp-spec-01.txt:

     * Revise definition of when packets are reported as received,
     due to ECN Nonce verification problems with the previous
     definition and options.

     * Replace Receive Buffer Drops with Data Dropped.

     * Remove Data Discarded in favor of Data Dropped with Drop
     State 0.

     * Remove Buffer Closed in favor of Data Dropped with Drop
     State 4.

     * Add Initial Sequence Number setting guidelines.



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     * Add sections on retransmission of Requests, and a table to
     the state diagram.

     * Made the 4-bit Reserved field in the DCCP generic header
     available for use by CCIDs.

     * Refine description of CCID 1.

     * Add Middlebox Considerations.

     * Change Identification option to allow middleboxes to change
     port numbers, DCCP options, and/or packet data without
     disrupting the connection.

     * Specify that Ignored should be sent only on packets with
     Acknowledgement Numbers.

     * Add Aggression Penalty Reset Reason.

     * Add Payload Checksum option.

     * Add Elapsed Time option (formerly specific to CCID 3).

     * Timestamp Echo option can omit Elapsed Time, or provide a
     two-byte Elapsed Time value. Elapsed Time is measured in
     tenths of milliseconds, not microseconds.

     * Clean up DCCP-Move and feature-negotiation options
     discussions.

     * Confirm(Connection Nonce) sends no data.

     * Ack Vector implementation supports ECN Nonce Echo.

     * Add CSlen and Partial Checksumming Design Motivation.

     * Clarify that Ack Vectors may be sent even if Use Ack Vector
     is false.













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                           Table of Contents


     1. Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     2. Design Rationale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     3. Concepts and Terminology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
      3.1. Anatomy of a DCCP Connection . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
      3.2. Congestion Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
      3.3. Connection Initiation and Termination. . . . . . . .   9
      3.4. Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     4. DCCP Packets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
      4.1. Examples of DCCP Congestion Control. . . . . . . . .  12
       4.1.1. DCCP with TCP-like Congestion Control . . . . . .  12
       4.1.2. DCCP with TFRC Congestion Control . . . . . . . .  14
     5. Packet Formats. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
      5.1. Generic Packet Header. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
      5.2. Sequence Number Validity . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
      5.3. DCCP State Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
      5.4. DCCP-Request Packet Format . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
      5.5. DCCP-Response Packet Format. . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
      5.6. DCCP-Data, DCCP-Ack, and DCCP-DataAck Packet
      Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
      5.7. DCCP-CloseReq and DCCP-Close Packet Format . . . . .  26
      5.8. DCCP-Reset Packet Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
      5.9. DCCP-Move Packet Format. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
     6. Options and Features. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  30
      6.1. Padding Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  31
      6.2. Ignored Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  31
      6.3. Feature Negotiation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  32
       6.3.1. Feature Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  33
       6.3.2. Change Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  33
       6.3.3. Prefer Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
       6.3.4. Confirm Option. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
       6.3.5. Example Negotiations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  35
       6.3.6. Unknown Features. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  35
       6.3.7. State Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  36
      6.4. Identification Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  39
       6.4.1. Identification Regime Feature . . . . . . . . . .  39
       6.4.2. Connection Nonce Feature. . . . . . . . . . . . .  40
       6.4.3. Identification Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  40
       6.4.4. Challenge Option. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  42
      6.5. Init Cookie Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  43
      6.6. Timestamp Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  43
      6.7. Elapsed Time Option. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  43
      6.8. Timestamp Echo Option. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  44
      6.9. Loss Window Feature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  45
     7. Congestion Control IDs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  46
      7.1. Unspecified Sender-Based Congestion Control. . . . .  47



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      7.2. TCP-like Congestion Control. . . . . . . . . . . . .  48
      7.3. TFRC Congestion Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  48
      7.4. CCID-Specific Options and Features . . . . . . . . .  48
     8. Acknowledgements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  49
      8.1. Acks of Acks and Unidirectional Connections. . . . .  50
      8.2. Ack Piggybacking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  51
      8.3. Ack Ratio Feature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  52
      8.4. Use Ack Vector Feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  52
      8.5. Ack Vector Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  53
       8.5.1. Ack Vector Consistency. . . . . . . . . . . . . .  55
       8.5.2. Ack Vector Coverage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  56
      8.6. Slow Receiver Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  57
      8.7. Data Dropped Option. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  58
      8.8. Payload Checksum Option. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  60
     9. Explicit Congestion Notification. . . . . . . . . . . .  61
      9.1. ECN Capable Feature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  62
      9.2. ECN Nonces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  62
      9.3. Other Aggression Penalties . . . . . . . . . . . . .  63
     10. Multihoming and Mobility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  64
      10.1. Mobility Capable Feature. . . . . . . . . . . . . .  64
      10.2. Security. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  64
      10.3. Congestion Control State. . . . . . . . . . . . . .  65
      10.4. Loss During Transition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  65
     11. Maximum Transfer Unit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  66
     12. Middlebox Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  67
     13. Abstract API . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  68
     14. Multiplexing Issues. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  68
     15. DCCP and RTP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  69
     16. Security Considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  70
     17. IANA Considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  71
     18. Design Motivation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  71
      18.1. CSlen and Partial Checksumming. . . . . . . . . . .  71
     19. Thanks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  73
     20. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  73
     21. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  74
     22. Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  75
     23. Appendix: Ack Vector Implementation Notes. . . . . . .  75
      23.1. New Packets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  77
      23.2. Sending Acknowledgements. . . . . . . . . . . . . .  78
      23.3. Clearing State. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  79
      23.4. Processing Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . .  80










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1.  Introduction

    This document specifies the Datagram Congestion Control Protocol
    (DCCP).  DCCP provides the following features:

    o An unreliable flow of datagrams, with acknowledgements.

    o A reliable handshake for connection setup and teardown.

    o Reliable negotiation of options, including negotiation of a
      suitable congestion control mechanism.

    o Mechanisms allowing a server to avoid holding any state for
      unacknowledged connection attempts or already-finished
      connections.

    o Optional mechanisms that tell the sender, with high reliability,
      which packets reached the receiver, and whether those packets were
      ECN marked, corrupted, or dropped in the receive buffer.

    o Congestion control incorporating Explicit Congestion Notification
      (ECN) and the ECN Nonce, as per [RFC 3168] and [ECN NONCE].

    o Path MTU discovery, as per [RFC 1191].

    DCCP is intended for applications that require the flow-based
    semantics of TCP, but which do not want TCP's in-order delivery and
    reliability semantics, or which would like different congestion
    control dynamics than TCP.  Similarly, DCCP is intended for
    applications that do not require features of SCTP [RFC 2960] such as
    sequenced delivery within multiple streams.

    Applications that could make use of DCCP include those with timing
    constraints on the delivery of data such that reliable in-order
    delivery, when combined with congestion control, is likely to result
    in some information arriving at the receiver after it is no longer
    of use.  Such applications might include streaming media and
    Internet telephony.

    To date most such applications have used either TCP, with the
    problems described above, or used UDP and implemented their own
    congestion control mechanisms (or no congestion control at all). The
    purpose of DCCP is to provide a standard way to implement congestion
    control and congestion control negotiation for such applications.
    One of the motivations for DCCP is to enable the use of ECN, along
    with conformant end-to-end congestion control, for applications that
    would otherwise be using UDP.  In addition, DCCP implements reliable
    connection setup, teardown, and feature negotiation.



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    A DCCP connection contains acknowledgement traffic as well as data
    traffic.  Acknowledgements inform a sender whether its packets
    arrived, and whether they were ECN marked. Acks are transmitted as
    reliably as the congestion control mechanism in use requires,
    possibly completely reliably.

    Previous drafts of this specification called the protocol DCP, or
    Datagram Control Protocol. The name was changed to make the acronym
    sound less like "TCP".

2.  Design Rationale

    DCCP is intended to be used by applications that currently use UDP
    without end-to-end congestion control.  The desire is for many
    applications to have little reason not to use DCCP instead of UDP,
    once DCCP is deployed.  Thus, DCCP was designed to have as little
    overhead as possible, in terms both of the size of the packet header
    and in terms of the state and CPU overhead required at the end
    hosts.

    This desire for minimal overhead results in the design decision to
    include only the minimal necessary functionality in DCCP,  leaving
    other functionality, such as FEC or semi-reliability, to be layered
    on top of DCCP as desired.  The desire for minimal overhead is also
    one of the reasons to propose DCCP instead of just proposing an
    unreliable version of SCTP for applications currently using UDP.

    A second motivation behind the design of DCCP is to allow
    applications to choose an alternative to the current TCP-style
    congestion control that halves the congestion window in response to
    a congestion indication.  DCCP lets applications choose between
    several forms of congestion control.  One choice, TCP-like
    congestion control, halves the congestion window in response to a
    packet drop or mark, as in TCP.  A second alternative, TFRC (TCP-
    Friendly Rate Control, a form of equation-based congestion control),
    minimizes abrupt changes in the sending rate while maintaining
    longer-term fairness with TCP.

    In proposing a new transport protocol, it is necessary to justify
    the design decision not to require the use of the Congestion
    Manager, as well as the design decision to add a new transport
    protocol to the current family of UDP, TCP, and SCTP.  The
    Congestion Manager [RFC3124] allows multiple concurrent streams
    between the same sender and receiver to share congestion control.
    However, the current Congestion Manager can only be used by
    applications that have their own end-to-end feedback about packet
    losses, and this is not the case for many of the applications
    currently using UDP.  In addition, the current Congestion Manager



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    does not lend itself to the use of forms of TFRC where the state
    about past packet drops or marks is maintained at the receiver
    rather than at the sender.  While DCCP should be able to make use of
    CM where desired by the application, we do not see any benefit in
    making the deployment of DCCP contingent on the deployment of CM
    itself.

3.  Concepts and Terminology

    The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
    "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED",  "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in
    this document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC 2119].

    All multi-byte numerical quantities in DCCP, such as Sequence
    Numbers and arguments to options, are transmitted in network byte
    order (most significant byte first).

3.1.  Anatomy of a DCCP Connection

    Each DCCP connection runs between two endpoints, which we often name
    DCCP A and DCCP B. Data may pass over the connection in either or
    both directions.  The DCCP connection between DCCP A and DCCP B
    consists of four sets of packets, as follows:

    (1) Data packets from DCCP A to DCCP B.

    (2) Acknowledgements from DCCP B to DCCP A.

    (3) Data packets from DCCP B to DCCP A.

    (4) Acknowledgements from DCCP A to DCCP B.

    We use the following terms to refer to subsets and endpoints of a
    DCCP connection.

    Subflows
        A subflow consists of either data or acknowledgement packets,
        sent in one direction. Each of the four sets of packets above is
        a subflow. (Subflows may overlap to some extent, since
        acknowledgements may be piggybacked on data packets.)

    Sequences
        A sequence consists of all packets sent in one direction,
        regardless of whether they are data or acknowledgements. The
        sets 1+4 and 2+3, above, are sequences. Each packet on a
        sequence has a different sequence number.





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    Half-connections
        A half-connection consists of the data packets sent in one
        direction, plus the corresponding acknowledgements. The sets 1+2
        and 3+4, above, are half-connections. Half-connections are named
        after the direction of data flow, so the A-to-B half-connection
        contains the data packets from A to B and the acknowledgements
        from B to A.

    HC-Sender and HC-Receiver
        In the context of a single half-connection, the HC-Sender is the
        endpoint sending data, while the HC-Receiver is the endpoint
        sending acknowledgements. For example, in the A-to-B half-
        connection, DCCP A is the HC-Sender and DCCP B is the HC-
        Receiver.

3.2.  Congestion Control

    Each half-connection is managed by a congestion control mechanism.
    The endpoints negotiate these mechanisms at connection setup; the
    mechanisms for the two half-connections need not be the same.

    Conformant congestion control mechanisms correspond to single-byte
    congestion control identifiers, or CCIDs. The CCID for a half-
    connection describes how the HC-Sender limits data packet rates; how
    it maintains necessary parameters, such as congestion windows; how
    the HC-Receiver sends congestion feedback via acknowledgements; and
    how it manages the acknowledgement rate. Section 7 introduces the
    currently allocated CCIDs, which are defined in separate profile
    documents.

3.3.  Connection Initiation and Termination

    Every DCCP connection is actively initiated by one DCCP, which
    connects to a DCCP socket in the passive listening state. We refer
    to the active endpoint as "the client" and the passive endpoint as
    "the server". Most of the DCCP specification is indifferent to
    whether a DCCP is client or server. However, only the server may
    generate a DCCP-CloseReq packet. (A DCCP-CloseReq packet forces the
    receiving DCCP to close the connection and maintain connection state
    for a reasonable time, allowing old packets to clear the network.)
    This means that the client cannot force the server to maintain
    connection state after the connection is closed.

    DCCP does not support TCP-style simultaneous open. In particular, a
    host MUST NOT respond to a DCCP-Request packet with a DCCP-Response
    packet unless the destination port specified in the DCCP-Request
    corresponds to a local socket opened for listening.  This preserves
    the invariant that every connection has one client and one server.



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    DCCP shuts down both half-connections as a unit; it has no states
    analogous to TCP's FINWAIT and CLOSEWAIT states, where one TCP
    "half-connection" is closed and the other remains open.  However,
    DCCP implementations SHOULD allow applications to declare that they
    are no longer interested in receiving data. This would allow DCCP
    implementations to streamline state for certain half-connections.
    See Section 8.7, on the Data Dropped option---and particularly its
    Drop State 4---for more information.

3.4.  Features

    DCCP uses a generic mechanism to negotiate connection properties,
    such as the CCIDs active on the two half-connections. These
    properties are called features. (We reserve the term "option" for a
    collection of bytes in some DCCP header.) Each feature type, such as
    "CCID", corresponds to two independent features, one per half-
    connection. For instance, there are two CCIDs per connection. The
    endpoint in charge of a particular feature is called its feature
    location.

    The Change, Prefer, and Confirm options negotiate feature values.
    Change is sent to a feature location, asking it to change its value
    for the feature. The feature location may respond with Prefer, which
    asks the other endpoint to Change again with different values, or it
    may change the feature value and acknowledge the request with
    Confirm. Retransmissions make feature negotiation reliable. Section
    6.3 describes these options further.

4.  DCCP Packets

    DCCP has nine different packet types:

    o DCCP-Request

    o DCCP-Response

    o DCCP-Data

    o DCCP-Ack

    o DCCP-DataAck

    o DCCP-CloseReq

    o DCCP-Close

    o DCCP-Reset




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    o DCCP-Move

    Only the first eight types commonly occur. The DCCP-Move packet is
    used to support multihoming and mobility.

    The progress of a typical DCCP connection is as follows. (This
    description is informative, not normative.)

    (1) The client sends the server a DCCP-Request packet specifying the
        client and server ports, the service being requested, and any
        features being negotiated, including the CCID that the client
        would like the server to use. The client may optionally
        piggyback some data on the DCCP-Request packet---an application-
        level request, say---which the server may ignore.

    (2) The server sends the client a DCCP-Response packet indicating
        that it is willing to communicate with the client. The response
        indicates any features and options that the server agrees to,
        begins or continues other feature negotiations if desired, and
        optionally includes an Init Cookie that wraps up all this
        information and which must be returned by the client for the
        connection to complete.

    (3) The client sends the server a DCCP-Ack packet that acknowledges
        the DCCP-Response packet. This acknowledges the server's initial
        sequence number and returns the Init Cookie if there was one in
        the DCCP-Response. It may also continue feature negotiation.

    (4) Next comes zero or more DCCP-Ack exchanges as required to
        finalize feature negotiation. The client may piggyback an
        application-level request on its final ack, producing a DCCP-
        DataAck packet.

    (5) The server and client then exchange DCCP-Data packets, DCCP-Ack
        packets acknowledging that data, and, optionally, DCCP-DataAck
        packets containing piggybacked data and acknowledgements. If the
        client has no data to send, then the server will send DCCP-Data
        and DCCP-DataAck packets, while the client will send DCCP-Acks
        exclusively.

    (6) The server sends a DCCP-CloseReq packet requesting a close.

    (7) The client sends a DCCP-Close packet acknowledging the close.

    (8) The server sends a DCCP-Reset packet whose Reason field is set
        to "Closed", and clears its connection state.  In DCCP, unlike
        TCP, Resets are part of normal connection termination; see
        Section 5.8.



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    (9) The client receives the DCCP-Reset packet and holds state for a
        reasonable interval of time to allow any remaining packets to
        clear the network.

    An alternative connection closedown sequence is initiated by the
    client:

    (6) The client sends a DCCP-Close packet closing the connection.

    (7) The server sends a DCCP-Reset packet with Reason field set to
        "Closed" and clears its connection state.

    (8) The client receives the DCCP-Reset packet and holds state for a
        reasonable interval of time to allow any remaining packets to
        clear the network.

    This arrangement of setup and teardown handshakes permits the server
    to decline to hold any state until the handshake with the client has
    completed, and ensures that the client must hold the Time-Wait state
    at connection closedown.

4.1.  Examples of DCCP Congestion Control

    Before giving the detailed specifications of DCCP, we present two
    more detailed examples showing DCCP congestion control in operation.
    Again, these examples are informative, not normative.

4.1.1.  DCCP with TCP-like Congestion Control

    The first example is of a connection where both half-connections use
    TCP-like Congestion Control, specified by CCID 2 [CCID 2 PROFILE].
    In this example, the client sends an application-level request to
    the server, and the server responds with a stream of data packets.
    This example is of a connection using ECN.

    (1) The client sends the DCCP-Request, which includes a Change
        option asking the server to use CCID 2 for the server's data
        packets, and a Prefer option informing the server that the
        client would like to use CCID 2 for the its data packets.

    (2) The server sends a DCCP-Response, including a Confirm option
        indicating that the server agrees to use CCID 2 for its data
        packets, and a Change option indicating that the server agrees
        to the client's suggestion of CCID 2 for the client's data
        packets.

    (3) The client responds with a DCCP-DataAck acknowledging the
        server's initial sequence number, and including a Confirm option



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        finalizing the negotiation of the client-to-server CCID, and an
        application-level request for data.  We will not discuss the
        client-to-server half-connection further in this example.

    (4) The server sends DCCP-Data packets, where the number of packets
        sent is governed by a congestion window, as in TCP.  The details
        of the congestion window are defined in the profile for CCID 2,
        which is a separate document [CCID 2 PROFILE]. The server also
        sends Ack Ratio feature options specifying the number of server
        data packets to be covered by an Ack packet from the client.

        Each DCCP-Data packet is sent as ECN-Capable, with either the
        ECT(0) or the ECT(1) codepoint set, as described in [ECN NONCE].


    (5) The client sends a DCCP-Ack packet acknowledging the data
        packets for every Ack Ratio data packets transmitted by the
        server.  Each DCCP-Ack packet uses a sequence number and
        contains an Ack Vector, as defined in Section 8 on
        Acknowledgements. These packets also include Confirm options
        answering any Ack Ratio requests from the server.

        The DCCP-Acks are also sent as ECN-Capable, with either ECT(0)
        or ECT(1). The client's Ack Vector echoes the accumulated ECN
        Nonce for the server's packets.

    (6) The server must occasionally acknowledge the client's
        acknowledgements, so the client can clean its acknowledgement
        state. It can do so by sending separate DCCP-Acks as allowed by
        CCID 2, or by piggybacking acknowledgement information on its
        data packets with the DCCP-DataAck packet type. The
        acknowledgement information may contain detailed Ack Vectors,
        like the client's acknowledgements; but if the client is sending
        nothing but acknowledgements, the server's acks-of-acks can be
        more lightweight. See Section 8.1 for more information.

        Like the server's DCCP-Data packets, the server's DCCP-DataAck
        and DCCP-Ack packets are sent as ECN-Capable.

    (7) The server continues sending DCCP-Data packets as controlled by
        the congestion window.  Upon receiving DCCP-Ack packets, the
        server examines the Ack Vector to learn about marked or dropped
        data packets, and adjusts its congestion window accordingly, as
        described in [CCID 2 PROFILE]. Because this is unreliable
        transfer, the server does not retransmit dropped packets.

    (8) Because DCCP-Ack packets use sequence numbers, the server has
        direct information about the fraction of loss or marked DCCP-Ack



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        packets.  [CCID 2 PROFILE] defines how the server modifies the
        client's Ack Ratio in response to any congestion on the
        acknowledgement stream.

    (9) The server estimates round-trip times and calculates a TimeOut
        (TO) value much as the RTO (Retransmit Timeout) is calculated in
        TCP.  Again, the specification for this is in [CCID 2 PROFILE].
        The TO is used to determine when a new DCCP-Data packet can be
        transmitted when the server has been limited by the congestion
        window and no feedback has been received from the client.

    (10)
        The DCCP-CloseReq, DCCP-Close, and DCCP-Reset packets to close
        the connection are as in the example above.

4.1.2.  DCCP with TFRC Congestion Control

    This example is of a connection where both half-connections use TFRC
    Congestion Control, specified by CCID 3 [CCID 3 PROFILE].

    (1) The DCCP-Request and DCCP-Response packets specifying the use of
        CCID 3 and the initial DCCP-DataAck packet are similar to those
        in the CCID 2 example above.

    (2) The server sends DCCP-Data packets, where the number of packets
        sent is governed by an allowed transmit rate, as in TFRC.  The
        details of the allowed transmit rate are defined in the profile
        for CCID 3, which is a separate document [CCID 3 PROFILE]. Each
        DCCP-Data packet has a sequence number and a window counter
        value.

        Some of these data packets are DCCP-DataAck packets
        acknowledging packets from the client, but for simplicity we
        will not discuss the half-connection of data from the client to
        the server in this example.

        The use of ECN follows TCP-like Congestion Control, above, and
        is described further in [CCID 3 PROFILE].

    (3) The receiver sends DCCP-Ack packets at least once per round-trip
        time acknowledging the data packets, unless the server is
        sending at a rate of less than one packet per RTT, as specified
        by [CCID 3 PROFILE]. These acknowledgements may be piggybacked
        on data packets, producing DCCP-DataAck packets.  Each DCCP-Ack
        packet uses a sequence number and identifies the most recent
        packet received from the server.  Each DCCP-Ack packet includes
        feedback about the loss event rate calculated by the client, as
        specified by [CCID 3 PROFILE].



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    (4) The server continues sending DCCP-Data packets as controlled by
        the allowed transmit rate.  Upon receiving DCCP-Ack packets, the
        server updates its allowed transmit rate as specified by [CCID 3
        PROFILE].

    (5) The server estimates round-trip times and calculates a TimeOut
        (TO) value much as the RTO (Retransmit Timeout) is calculated in
        TCP.  Again, the specification for this is in [CCID 3 PROFILE].

    (6) The DCCP-CloseReq, DCCP-Close, and DCCP-Reset packets to close
        the connection are as in the examples above.

5.  Packet Formats

5.1.  Generic Packet Header

    All DCCP packets begin with a generic DCCP packet header:

     0                   1                   2                   3
     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |          Source Port          |           Dest Port           |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    | Type  | CCval |              Sequence Number                  |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |  Data Offset  | # NDP | Cslen |           Checksum            |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


    Source and Destination Ports: 16 bits each
        These fields identify the connection, similar to the
        corresponding fields in TCP and UDP. The Source Port represents
        the relevant port on the endpoint that sent this packet, the
        Destination Port the relevant port on the other endpoint.

    Type: 4 bits
        The type field specifies the type of the DCCP message.  The
        following values are defined:

        0   DCCP-Request packet.

        1   DCCP-Response packet.

        2   DCCP-Data packet.

        3   DCCP-Ack packet.





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        4   DCCP-DataAck packet.

        5   DCCP-CloseReq packet.

        6   DCCP-Close packet.

        7   DCCP-Reset packet.

        8   DCCP-Move packet.

    CCval: 4 bits
        This field is reserved for use by the sending CCID. In
        particular, the A-to-B CCID's sender, which is active at DCCP A,
        MAY send information to the receiver at DCCP B by encoding that
        information in CCval. DCCP proper MUST ignore the field. If the
        relevant CCID does not specify its value, it SHOULD be set to
        zero.

    Sequence Number: 24 bits
        The sequence number field is initialized by a DCCP-Request or
        DCCP-Response packet, and increases by one (modulo 16777216)
        with every packet sent. The receiver uses this information to
        determine whether packet losses have occurred. Even packets
        containing no data update the sequence number.  Sequence numbers
        also provide some protection against old and malicious packets;
        see Section 5.2 on sequence number validity.

        Very-high-rate DCCPs may need protection against wrapped
        sequence numbers.  For example, a 10 Gb/s flow of 1500-byte DCCP
        packets will send 2^24 packets in about 20 seconds. This is a
        long time, in terms of likely round-trip times that could
        possibly achieve such a sustained rate, but it is not without
        risk. DCCP's current congestion control mechanisms are designed
        for congestion windows (or equivalents) of at most a few hundred
        thousand packets, leaving at least 32 RTTs before sequence
        numbers wrap. We leave the design of protection against wrapped
        sequence numbers for the future, when DCCP's congestion control
        mechanisms can handle larger congestion windows.

        The two subflows' initial sequence numbers are set by the first
        DCCP-Request and DCCP-Response packets sent, and SHOULD be
        chosen as for TCP. In particular, initial sequence number choice
        MUST include a random or pseudorandom component to make it
        harder for attackers to complete sequence number attacks [RFC
        1948]. The initial sequence number chosen for a given connection
        identifier (source address and port plus destination address and
        port) SHOULD increase over time, as TCP suggests [RFC 793], to
        prevent inappropriate delivery of old packets.



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    Data Offset: 8 bits
        The offset from the start of the DCCP header to the beginning of
        the packet's payload, measured in 32-bit words.

    Number of Non-Data Packets (# NDP): 4 bits
        DCCP sets this field to the number of non-data packets it has
        sent so far on its sequence, modulo 16. A non-data packet is
        simply any packet not containing user data; DCCP-Ack, DCCP-
        Close, DCCP-CloseReq, and DCCP-Reset are always non-data
        packets, while DCCP-Request, DCCP-Response, and DCCP-Move might
        or might not be. When sending a non-data packet, DCCP increments
        the # NDP counter before storing its value in the packet header.

        This field can help the receiving DCCP decide whether a lost
        packet contained any user data. (An application may want to know
        when it has lost data. DCCP could report every packet loss as a
        potential data loss, but that would cause false loss reports
        when non-data packets were lost.) For example, say that packet
        10 had # NDP set to 5; packet 11 was lost; and packet 12 had #
        NDP set to 5. Then the receiving DCCP could deduce that packet
        11 contained data, since # NDP did not change. Likewise, if #
        NDP had gone up to 6 (and packet 12 contained user data), then
        packet 11 must not have contained any data.

    # NDP can overflow, causing ambiguities. For example, if 16 packets
    are dropped in a row but # NDP does not change, the receiver will
    not be able to tell whether or not any of the lost packets contained
    data. DCCP proper does not depend on # NDP's value in any
    significant way.

    Checksum Length (Cslen): 4 bits
        The checksum length field specifies what parts of the packet are
        covered by the checksum field. The checksum always covers at
        least the DCCP header, DCCP options, and a pseudoheader taken
        from the network-layer header (described under Checksum below).
        If the checksum length field is zero, that is all the checksum
        covers. If the field is 15, the checksum covers the packet's
        payload as well, possibly with 8 bits of zero padding on the
        right to pad the payload to an even number of bytes. Values
        between 1 and 14, inclusive, indicate that the checksum covers
        the DCCP header, DCCP options, the pseudoheader, and that number
        of initial 32-bit words of the packet's payload, padded on the
        right with zeros as necessary.

        Values other than 15 specify that corruption is acceptable in
        some or all of the DCCP packet's payload. In fact, DCCP cannot
        even detect corruption there, unless the Payload Checksum option
        is used (Section 8.8). The meaning of values other than 0 and 15



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        should be considered experimental.

        Section 18.1 further discusses the motivation of, and issues
        related to, partial checksums.  The checksum length field was
        inspired by UDP-Lite [UDP-LITE].

    Checksum: 16 bits
        DCCP uses the TCP/IP checksum algorithm. The checksum field
        equals the 16 bit one's complement of the one's complement sum
        of all 16 bit words in the DCCP header, DCCP options, a
        pseudoheader taken from the network-layer header, and, depending
        on the value of the checksum length field, some or all of the
        payload. When calculating the checksum, the checksum field
        itself is treated as 0. If a packet contains an odd number of
        header and text bytes to be checksummed, 8 zero bits are added
        on the right to form a 16 bit word for checksum purposes. The
        pad byte is not transmitted as part of the packet.

        The pseudoheader is calculated as for TCP. For IPv4, it is 96
        bits long, and consists of the IPv4 source and destination
        addresses, the IP protocol number for DCCP (padded on the left
        with 8 zero bits), and the DCCP length as a 16-bit quantity (the
        length of the DCCP header with options, plus the length of any
        data); see Section 3.1 of [RFC 793]. For IPv6, it is 320 bits
        long, and consists of the IPv6 source and destination addresses,
        the DCCP length as a 32-bit quantity, and the IP protocol number
        for DCCP (padded on the left with 24 zero bits); see Section 8.1
        of [RFC 2460].

        Packets with invalid checksums MUST be ignored. In particular,
        their options MUST NOT be processed.

5.2.  Sequence Number Validity

    DCCP endpoints SHOULD ignore packets with invalid sequence numbers,
    which may arise if the network delivers a very old packet or an
    attacker attempts to hijack a connection. TCP solves this problem
    with its window. In DCCP, however, sequence numbers change with each
    packet sent, even pure acknowledgements. Thus, a loss event that
    dropped many consecutive packets could cause two DCCPs to get out of
    sync relative to any window.

    DCCP uses Loss Window and Identification mechanisms to determine
    whether a given packet's sequence number is valid. Each HC-Sender
    gives the corresponding HC-Receiver a loss window width W; see
    Section 6.9. W defaults to 1000, but a proper value should reflect
    how many packets the sender expects to be in flight.  One good
    guideline is to set it to about 3 or 4 times the maximum number of



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    packets the sender expects to send in a round-trip time. Only the
    sender can anticipate this number. (Its value may not be available
    at connection initiation, when the round-trip time is unknown, but
    the sender can always send updates as the connection progresses.)
    Too-small values increase the risk of the endpoints getting out sync
    after bursts of loss; too-large values increase the risk of
    connection hijacking. The Identification mechanism is used to get
    back into sync when more than W consecutive packets are lost.

    The HC-Receiver sets up a loss window of W consecutive sequence
    numbers containing GSN, the Greatest Sequence Number it has received
    on any valid packet from the sender. ("Consecutive" and "greatest"
    are measured in circular sequence space.) One-third of the loss
    window, rounded down, is placed at and before the GSN, with two-
    thirds after the GSN.  Sequence numbers outside this loss window are
    invalid. Packets with invalid sequence numbers are themselves
    invalid, unless both of the following conditions are true:

    (1) No valid packet has been received recently (for instance, within
        at least one round-trip time), AND

    (2) The packet includes a correct Identification or Challenge option
        (see Section 6.4.3), and a valid Acknowledgement Number (meaning
        the Acknowledgement Number is within the corresponding Loss
        Window).

    The receiving DCCP SHOULD ignore invalid packets. In particular, it
    SHOULD NOT pass any enclosed data to the application, update its
    congestion control or feature state, or close the connection.
    However, the receiving DCCP MAY send a DCCP-Ack packet to the
    sender, as allowed by the congestion control mechanism in use. This
    packet SHOULD acknowledge the last received valid sequence number
    and contain a Challenge option (Section 6.4.4). The other DCCP will
    send an Identification option to resync.

    A DCCP endpoint MAY implement rate limits to reduce the likelihood
    of denial-of-service attack. In particular, it MAY ignore all
    packets with bad sequence numbers---even those containing
    Identification or Challenge options---for some amount of time, on
    the order of one round-trip time, after receiving a packet with an
    invalid Identification or Challenge option; and it MAY rate-limit
    the Challenge options it sends.

5.3.  DCCP State Diagram

    In this section we present a DCCP state diagram showing how a DCCP
    connection should progress, and the proper responses for packets or
    timeout events in various connection states. The state diagram is



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    illustrative; the text should be considered definitive.


                    +----------------------------------+
                    | Figure omitted from text version |
                    +----------------------------------+


    All receive events on the diagram represent receipt of valid
    packets. For example, receiving a Reset with a bad Acknowledgement
    Number SHOULD NOT cause DCCP to transition to the Time-Wait state.
    DCCP implementations MAY send Acks as described above, or "Invalid
    Packet" Resets, in response to invalid packets; any such responses
    SHOULD be rate-limited.

    Otherwise-valid packets without explicit transitions in the state
    diagram SHOULD be treated according to the table below. Particular
    actions are "OK", meaning the packet MUST be processed according to
    this document; "Rst", meaning the receiver SHOULD either ignore the
    packet or respond with a (rate-limited) Reset; and "-", meaning the
    packet SHOULD be ignored.  Entries may take the form "Old/New",
    where "Old" applies to old packets and "New" to new packets (whose
    sequence numbers are greater than the largest sequence number seen
    so far).

                                     Data/Ack/
                                     DataAck/
    State          Request  Response Move     CloseReq Close    Reset
    -------------  -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- --------
    CLOSED          Rst      Rst      Rst      Rst      Rst       OK
    LISTEN          OK       Rst      Rst(1)   Rst      Rst       OK
    REQUEST         Rst      OK       Rst      Rst      Rst       OK
    RESPOND         -/OK     Rst      Rst/OK   Rst      OK        OK
    OPEN (server)   -/Rst    Rst      OK       Rst      OK        OK
    OPEN (client)   Rst      -/Rst    OK       OK       OK        OK
    SERVER-CLOSE    -/Rst    Rst      OK       Rst      OK        OK
    CLIENT-CLOSE    Rst      -/Rst    OK       OK       OK        OK
    TIME-WAIT       Rst      Rst      Rst      Rst      Rst       OK


    The table respecifies some transitions listed in the state
    diagram---for instance, those for receiving packets in the TIME-WAIT
    state. In these cases, prefer the action listed in the diagram. For
    example, in the TIME-WAIT case, prefer sending rate-limited Resets
    when valid packets are received; the table would allow ignoring
    them. However, either action would be acceptable.





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    A DCCP endpoint that implements the Init Cookie option (Section 6.5)
    may change the Reset action marked (1). Init Cookie lets the server
    package all state for a requested connection into a DCCP option that
    the client will echo. A server with Init Cookie need not implement
    the RESPOND state.  Instead, it may reply to each DCCP-Request
    packet with a DCCP-Response containing an Init Cookie. When a DCCP-
    Data, Ack, or DataAck packet carrying a valid Init Cookie arrives
    from the client, the server will move directly from LISTEN to OPEN.
    Like TCP SYN cookies [SYNCOOKIES], Init Cookies let servers avoid
    keeping any state for clients whose addresses have not been
    verified.

    A DCCP endpoint in the CLOSED or LISTEN state may not have a proper
    sequence number available to send a Reset. In these cases, it MUST
    set Sequence Number to zero.

    The Open state does not signify that a DCCP connection is ready for
    data transfer. In particular, incomplete feature negotiations might
    prevent data transfer. Feature negotiation takes place in parallel
    with the state transitions on this diagram.

    Only the server may take the transition from the OPEN state to the
    SERVER-CLOSE state. (The server is the DCCP endpoint that began in
    the LISTEN state.) Similarly, only the client must transition to
    CLIENT-CLOSE after receiving a CloseReq packet.

5.4.  DCCP-Request Packet Format

    A DCCP connection is initiated by sending a DCCP-Request packet. The
    format of a DCCP request packet is:

     0                   1                   2                   3
     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    /                 Generic DCCP Header (12 bytes)                /
    /                   with Type=0 (DCCP-Request)                  /
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                         Service Name                          |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                     Options                   /   [padding]   |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                             data                              |
    |                              ...                              |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


    Service Name: 32 bits
        The Service Name field describes the service to which the sender



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        is trying to connect. Service Names are 32-bit numbers allocated
        by IANA; they are meant to correspond to application services
        and protocols, such as FTP and HTTP, and are not intended to be
        DCCP-specific. With Service Names, stateful middleboxes, such as
        firewalls, can identify the application running on a nonstandard
        port (assuming the DCCP header has not been encrypted). A
        Service Name of zero is a wildcard, matching any service. The
        host operating system MAY force every DCCP socket, both actively
        and passively opened, to specify a nonzero Service Name.
        Connection requests MUST fail if the Destination Port on the
        receiver has a different Service Name from that given in the
        packet, and both Service Names are nonzero. In this case, the
        receiver will respond with a DCCP-Reset packet (with Reason set
        to "Bad Service Name"). A server or stateful middlebox MAY also
        send a "Bad Service Name" DCCP-Reset in response to packets with
        Service Name value 0.

    Options
        DCCP-Request packets will usually include a "Change(Connection
        Nonce)" option, to inform the server of the client's connection
        nonce; see Section 6.4.

    The client MAY send new DCCP-Request packets if no response is
    received after some timeout. Each retransmission MUST increment the
    Sequence Number, and possibly # NDP, by one. The retransmission
    strategy SHOULD be similar to that for retransmitting TCP SYNs.

    A client MAY decide to give up after some number of DCCP-Requests.
    If so, it MAY send a DCCP-Reset packet to the server, to clean up
    state in case one or more of the Requests actually arrived. The
    DCCP-Reset SHOULD have Reason set to "Closed".

5.5.  DCCP-Response Packet Format

    In the second phase of the three-way handshake, the server sends a
    DCCP-Response message to the client.  In this phase, a server will
    often specify the options it would like to use, either from among
    those the client requested, or in addition to those. Among these
    options is the congestion control mechanism the server expects to
    use.











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     0                   1                   2                   3
     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    /                 Generic DCCP Header (12 bytes)                /
    /                  with Type=1 (DCCP-Response)                  /
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |   Reserved    |           Acknowledgement Number              |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                     Options                   /   [padding]   |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                             data                              |
    |                              ...                              |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


    Acknowledgement Number: 24 bits
        The Acknowledgement Number field, which appears in several
        packet types, acknowledges the greatest valid sequence number
        received so far on this connection. ("Greatest" is, of course,
        measured in circular sequence space.) In the case of a DCCP-
        Response packet, the acknowledgement number field will equal the
        sequence number from the DCCP-Request. Acknowledgement numbers
        make no attempt to provide precise information about which
        packets have arrived; options such as the Ack Vector do this.

        The Acknowledgement Number MUST correspond to a "received"
        packet, where a packet is classified as "received" if and only
        if its options were processed by the receiving DCCP. (This
        means, for example, that received packets' header checksums must
        have been valid.) Even "received" packets may have their
        payloads dropped, due to receive buffer overflow or payload
        corruption, for instance. The receiver will send Data Dropped
        options when this happens (see Section 8.7); the sender will
        reduce its sending rate or congestion window as appropriate.
        This issue is discussed further in Sections 8.5 and 8.7.

    Reserved: 8 bits
        The version of DCCP specified here SHOULD set this field to all
        zeroes on generated packets, and ignore its value on received
        packets.

    Options
        The Data Dropped and Init Cookie options are particularly useful
        for DCCP-Response packets (Sections 8.7 and 6.5). In addition,
        DCCP-Response, or early DCCP-Data or DCCP-Ack packets, may
        include "Confirm(Connection Nonce)" and "Change(Connection
        Nonce)" options, to negotiate connection nonces (Section 6.4),
        as well as options to negotiate CCIDs and other relevant



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        features.

    The receiver MAY respond to a DCCP-Request packet with a DCCP-Reset
    packet to refuse the connection. Relevant Reset Reasons for refusing
    a connection include "Connection Refused", when the DCCP-Request's
    Destination Port did not correspond to a DCCP port open for
    listening; "Bad Service Name", when the DCCP-Request's Service Name
    did not correspond to the service name registered with the
    Destination Port; and "Too Busy", when the server is currently too
    busy to respond to requests. The server SHOULD limit the rate at
    which it generates these resets.

    The receiver SHOULD NOT retransmit DCCP-Response packets; the sender
    will retransmit the DCCP-Request if necessary. (Note that the
    "retransmitted" DCCP-Request will have, at least, a different
    sequence number from the "original" DCCP-Request; the receiver can
    thus distinguish true retransmissions from network duplicates.) The
    responder will detect that the retransmitted DCCP-Request applies to
    an existing connection because of its Source and Destination Ports.
    Every valid DCCP-Request received MUST elicit a new DCCP-Response,
    unless the responder can guarantee that the requestor has received
    at least one Response already. (For instance, if the responder has
    received a valid DCCP-Data or DCCP-Ack packet from the requestor,
    then it knows the newly received Request is old, and SHOULD be
    ignored.) Each new DCCP-Response MUST increment the responder's
    Sequence Number, and possibly # NDP, by one.

    The responder SHOULD NOT accept any data accompanying a
    retransmitted DCCP-Request. In particular, the DCCP-Response sent in
    reply to a retransmitted DCCP-Request with data SHOULD contain a
    Data Dropped option, in which the retransmitted DCCP-Request is
    reported as "data dropped due to protocol constraints" (Drop State
    0). The original DCCP-Request SHOULD also be reported in the Data
    Dropped option, either in a Normal Block (if the responder accepted
    the data, or there was no data), or in a Drop State 0 Drop Block (if
    the responder refused the data the first time as well).

5.6.  DCCP-Data, DCCP-Ack, and DCCP-DataAck Packet Formats

    The payload of a DCCP connection is sent in DCCP-Data and DCCP-
    DataAck packets, while DCCP-Ack packets are used for
    acknowledgements when there is no payload to be sent. DCCP-Data
    packets look like this:








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     0                   1                   2                   3
     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    /                 Generic DCCP Header (12 bytes)                /
    /                    with Type=2 (DCCP-Data)                    /
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                     Options                   /   [padding]   |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                             data                              |
    |                              ...                              |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


    DCCP-Ack packets dispense with the data, but contain an
    acknowledgement number:

     0                   1                   2                   3
     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    /                 Generic DCCP Header (12 bytes)                /
    /                    with Type=3 (DCCP-Ack)                     /
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |   Reserved    |           Acknowledgement Number              |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                     Options                   /   [padding]   |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


    DCCP-DataAck packets contain both data and an acknowledgement
    number: acknowledgement information is piggybacked on a data packet.

     0                   1                   2                   3
     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    /                 Generic DCCP Header (12 bytes)                /
    /                  with Type=4 (DCCP-DataAck)                   /
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |   Reserved    |           Acknowledgement Number              |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                     Options                   /   [padding]   |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                             data                              |
    |                              ...                              |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


    DCCP-Ack and DCCP-DataAck packets often include additional
    acknowledgement options, such as Ack Vector, as required by the



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    congestion control mechanism in use.

    DCCP A sends DCCP-Data and DCCP-DataAck packets to DCCP B due to
    application events on host A. These packets are congestion-
    controlled by the CCID for the A-to-B half-connection. In contrast,
    DCCP-Ack packets sent by DCCP A are controlled by the CCID for the
    B-to-A half-connection. Generally, DCCP A will piggyback
    acknowledgement information on data packets when acceptable,
    creating DCCP-DataAck packets. DCCP-Ack packets are used when there
    is no data to send from DCCP A to DCCP B, or when the link from A to
    B is so congested that sending data would be inappropriate.

    Section 8, below, describes acknowledgements in DCCP.

    A DCCP-Data or DCCP-DataAck packet may contain no data bytes if the
    application sends a zero-length datagram.


5.7.  DCCP-CloseReq and DCCP-Close Packet Format

    The DCCP-CloseReq and DCCP-Close packets have the same format.
    However, only the server can send a DCCP-CloseReq packet. Either
    client or server may send a DCCP-Close packet. The receiver of a
    valid DCCP-Close packet SHOULD respond with a DCCP-Reset packet,
    with Reason set to "Closed"; the endpoint that originally sent the
    DCCP-Close will hold Time-Wait state. The receiver of a valid DCCP-
    CloseReq packet SHOULD respond with a DCCP-Close packet; that
    receiving endpoint will expect to hold Time-Wait state after later
    receiving a DCCP-Reset. See the state diagram in 5.3 for more
    information.


     0                   1                   2                   3
     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    /                 Generic DCCP Header (12 bytes)                /
    /           with Type=5 or 6 (DCCP-Close or CloseReq)           /
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |   Reserved    |           Acknowledgement Number              |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                     Options                   /   [padding]   |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+









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5.8.  DCCP-Reset Packet Format

    DCCP-Reset packets unconditionally shut down a connection. Every
    normal connection ends with a DCCP-Reset, but resets may be sent for
    other reasons, including bad port numbers, bad option behavior,
    incorrect ECN Nonce Echoes, and so forth. The reason for a reset is
    represented by an eight-bit number, the Reason field, and 24 bits of
    additional data.  The endpoint that receives a valid DCCP-Reset
    packet will hold Time-Wait state for the connection.

     0                   1                   2                   3
     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    /                 Generic DCCP Header (12 bytes)                /
    /                   with Type=7 (DCCP-Reset)                    /
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |   Reserved    |           Acknowledgement Number              |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |    Reason     |    Data 1     |    Data 2     |    Data 3     |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                     Options                   /   [padding]   |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


    Reason: 8 bits
        The Reason field represents the reason that the sender reset the
        DCCP connection.

    Data 1, Data 2, and Data 3: 8 bits each
        The Data fields provide additional information about why the
        sender reset the DCCP connection. The meanings of these fields
        depend on the value of Reason.

    The following Reasons are currently defined. The "Data" columns
    describe what the Data fields should contain for a given Reason. In
    those columns, N/A means the Data field SHOULD be set to 0 by the
    sender of the DCCP-Reset, and ignored by its receiver.














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                                                               Section
         Reason  Name                   Data 1 Data 2 Data 3  Reference
         ------  ----                   ------ ------ ------  ---------
            0    Unspecified             N/A    N/A    N/A
            1    Closed                  N/A    N/A    N/A      4
            2    Invalid Packet         packet  N/A    N/A      5.3
                                         type
            3    Option Error           option  option data
                                        number   (if any)
            4    Feature Error         feature  feature data
                                        number   (if any)
            5    Connection Refused      N/A    N/A    N/A      5.5
            6    Bad Service Name        N/A    N/A    N/A      5.4
            7    Too Busy                N/A    N/A    N/A      5.5
            8    Bad Init Cookie         N/A    N/A    N/A      6.5
           10    Unanswered Challenge    N/A    N/A    N/A      6.4.4
           11    Fruitless Negotiation feature  feature data    6.3.7
                                        number   (optional)
           12    Aggression Penalty      N/A    N/A    N/A      9.2


    A DCCP-Reset packet finishes off every terminated DCCP connection,
    whether clean (due to application close and usual connection
    termination; Reset Reason "Closed") or unclean. This differs from
    TCP, which has two distinct termination mechanisms, FIN and RST.
    Some responses to connection close must be the same, whether or not
    the connection terminated cleanly: for instance, the endpoint that
    receives a valid DCCP-Reset should hold Time-Wait state for the
    connection. Processors that must distinguish between clean and
    unclean termination can examine the Reset Reason.

5.9.  DCCP-Move Packet Format

    The DCCP-Move packet type is part of DCCP's support for multihoming
    and mobility, which is described further in Section 10. DCCP A sends
    a DCCP-Move packet to DCCP B after changing its address and/or port
    number. The DCCP-Move packet requests that DCCP B start sending
    packets to the new address and port number. The old address and port
    are stored explicitly in the DCCP-Move header; the new address and
    port come from the packet's network header and generic DCCP header.
    The old address's type is indicated explicitly by an Old Address
    Family field. The Sequence Number and Acknowledgement Number fields
    and a mandatory Identification option provide some protection
    against hijacked connections. See Section 10 for more on security
    and DCCP's mobility support.






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     0                   1                   2                   3
     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    /                 Generic DCCP Header (12 bytes)                /
    /                    with Type=8 (DCCP-Move)                    /
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |   Reserved    |           Acknowledgement Number              |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |      Old Address Family       |           Old Port            |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    /                          Old Address                          /
    /                                               /   [padding]   /
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |        Options, including Identification      /   [padding]   |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                             data                              |
    |                              ...                              |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


    Old Address Family: 16 bits
        The Old Address Family field indicates the address family
        formerly used for this connection, and takes values from the
        Address Family Numbers registry administered by IANA. Particular
        values include 1 for IPv4 and 2 for IPv6.  An endpoint MUST
        discard DCCP-Move packets with unrecognized Old Address Family
        values.

    Old Port: 16 bits
        The former port number used by DCCP A's endpoint.

    Old Address: at least 32 bits
        The former address used by DCCP A's endpoint, padded on the
        right to a multiple of 32 bits. The form and size of the address
        are determined by the Old Address Family field. For instance, if
        Old Address Family is 1, then Old Address contains an IPv4
        address and takes 32 bits; if it is 2, then Old Address contains
        an IPv6 address and takes 128 bits.

    Options
        Every DCCP-Move packet MUST include a valid Identification
        option (see Section 6.4).

    DCCP B SHOULD ignore the DCCP-Move if any of the following
    conditions holds:

    (1) Neither the Old Address/Old Port combination nor the network
        address/Source Port combination refers to a currently active



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        DCCP connection.

    (2) The Identification option is not present or invalid.

    (3) DCCP B does not support mobility, or its Mobility Capable
        feature is off.

    DCCP B SHOULD NOT respond to such invalid Moves with DCCP-Reset
    packets, since any such resets would leak information about the
    connection, such as the current sequence number, to a possibly
    malicious host.  After receiving such an invalid DCCP-Move, DCCP B
    MAY ignore subsequent DCCP-Move packets, valid or not, for a short
    period of time, such as one second or one round-trip time. This
    protects DCCP B against denial-of-service attacks from floods of
    invalid DCCP-Moves.

    DCCP B SHOULD acknowledge valid DCCP-Move packets with DCCP-Ack or
    DCCP-DataAck packets. If DCCP B accepts the move, it MUST send this
    acknowledgement to the packet's network source address and DCCP
    Source Port; if it rejects the move, which it MAY do for any reason,
    it MUST send this acknowledgement to the Old Address and Old Port.
    The moving endpoint, DCCP A, can determine whether or not its move
    was accepted by checking the acknowledgement's destination address
    and Port.

    If the acknowledgement is lost, DCCP A might resend the DCCP-Move
    packet (using a new sequence number). DCCP B will detect this case
    because the network source address and Source Port correspond to a
    valid connection, for which the Sequence Number and Acknowledgement
    Number fields are valid; the Identification option is valid for that
    connection; and the Old Address and Old Port no longer refer to a
    valid DCCP connection.  It SHOULD respond by sending another
    acknowledgement, as allowed by the congestion control mechanism in
    use.

    We note that DCCP mobility, as provided by DCCP-Move, may not be
    useful in the context of IPv6, with its mandatory support for Mobile
    IP.


6.  Options and Features

    All DCCP packets may contain options, which occupy space at the end
    of the DCCP header and are a multiple of 8 bits in length. All
    options are always included in the checksum. An option may begin on
    any byte boundary.





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    The first byte of an option is the option type. Options with types 0
    through 31 are single-byte options. Other options are followed by a
    byte indicating the option's length. This length value includes the
    two bytes of option-type and option-length as well as any option-
    data bytes, and MUST therefore be greater than or equal to two.

    The following options are currently defined:

                  Option                           Section
          Type    Length     Meaning               Reference
          ----    ------     -------               ---------
            0        1       Padding                 6.1
            2        1       Slow Receiver           8.6
           32     variable   Ignored                 6.2
           33     variable   Change                  6.3
           34     variable   Prefer                  6.3
           35     variable   Confirm                 6.3
           36     variable   Init Cookie             6.5
           37     variable   Ack Vector [Nonce 0]    8.5
           38     variable   Ack Vector [Nonce 1]    8.5
           39     variable   Data Dropped            8.7
           40        6       Timestamp               6.6
           41       6-10     Timestamp Echo          6.8
           42     variable   Identification          6.4.3
           44     variable   Challenge               6.4.4
           45        4       Payload Checksum        8.8
           46       4-6      Elapsed Time            6.7
         128-255  variable   CCID-specific options   7.4


6.1.  Padding Option

    The padding option, with type 0, is a single byte option used to pad
    between or after options. It either ensures the payload begins on a
    32-bit boundary (as required), or ensures alignment of following
    options (not mandatory).

    +--------+
    |00000000|
    +--------+
      Type=0


6.2.  Ignored Option

    The Ignored option, with type 32, signals that a DCCP did not
    understand some option. This can happen, for example, when a
    conventional DCCP converses with an extended DCCP. Each Ignored



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    option has one or more bytes of data. The first byte contains the
    offending option type; the second and subsequent, if present,
    contains the first byte of the offending option's data. If the
    offending option had no data, the Ignored option MAY still supply
    two bytes of data, with the second byte set to 0. If the offending
    option had data, the Ignored option MUST include at least one byte
    of that data.

    Ignored options SHOULD be sent only on packets that contain
    Acknowledgement Numbers (that is, DCCP-Reponse, DCCP-Ack, DCCP-
    DataAck, DCCP-Close, DCCP-CloseReq, DCCP-Reset, and DCCP-Move), and
    SHOULD concern options sent on the packet acknowledged by the
    Acknowledgement Number.

    +--------+--------+--------+
    |00100000|00000011|Opt Type|
    +--------+--------+--------+
     Type=32  Length=3

    +--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+
    |00100000| Length |Opt Type|  Opt Data ...
    +--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+
     Type=32


6.3.  Feature Negotiation

    DCCP contains a mechanism for reliably negotiating features, notably
    the congestion control mechanism in use on each half-connection. The
    motivation is to implement reliable feature negotiation once, so
    that different options need not reinvent that wheel.

    Three options, Change, Prefer, and Confirm, implement feature
    negotiation.  Change is sent to a feature's location, asking it to
    change the feature's value. The feature location may respond with
    Prefer, which asks the other endpoint to Change again with different
    values, or it may change the feature value and acknowledge the
    request with Confirm.

    Feature values MUST NOT change apart from feature negotiation, and
    enforced retransmissions make feature negotiation reliable. This
    ensures that both endpoints eventually agree on every feature's
    value.

    Some features are non-negotiable, meaning that the feature location
    MUST set its value to whatever the other endpoint requests. For non-
    negotiable features, the feature location MUST respond to Change
    options with Confirm; Prefer is not useful. These features use the



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    feature framework simply to achieve reliability.

    Negotiations for multiple features may take place simultaneously.
    For instance, a packet may contain multiple Change options that
    refer to different features.

    Feature negotiation generally takes place using packet types that
    carry no user data, such as DCCP-Ack, particularly when the relevant
    feature may affect how data will be treated.

6.3.1.  Feature Numbers

    The first data byte of every Change, Prefer, or Confirm option is a
    feature number, defining the type of feature being negotiated. The
    remainder of the data gives one or more values for the feature, and
    is interpreted according to the feature. The current set of feature
    numbers is as follows:

                                                  Section
          Number  Meaning                  Neg.?  Reference
          ------  -------                  -----  ---------
            1     Congestion Control (CC)    Y      7
            2     ECN Capable                Y      9.1
            3     Ack Ratio                  N      8.3
            4     Use Ack Vector             Y      8.4
            5     Mobility Capable           Y      10.1
            6     Loss Window                N      6.9
            7     Connection Nonce           N      6.4.2
            8     Identification Regime      Y      6.4.1
         128-255  CCID-Specific Features     ?      7.4


    The "Neg[otiable]?" column is "Y" for normal features and "N" for
    non-negotiable features.

6.3.2.  Change Option

    DCCP A sends a Change option to DCCP B to ask it to change the value
    of some feature located at DCCP B. DCCP B SHOULD respond to a Change
    option for a known feature with either Prefer or Confirm.  In
    special circumstances, such as a Change option whose value is
    inappropriate for the listed feature number or a negotiation that
    seems to be going on forever, DCCP B MAY respond instead by ignoring
    the Change (with or without sending an Ignored option), or by
    resetting the connection with Reason set to "Fruitless Negotiation"
    or "Feature Error".  DCCP A SHOULD retransmit the Change option
    until it receives some relevant response---by sending at least one
    option per round-trip time, for instance, or by adding the Change



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    option to every Kth packet.  DCCP A will generate a Change option in
    response to a valid Prefer option; it may also generate a Change
    option due to some application event.

    +--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------
    |00100001| Length |Feature#| Value or Values ...
    +--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------
     Type=33


6.3.3.  Prefer Option

    DCCP A sends a Prefer option to DCCP B to ask it to choose another
    value for some feature located at DCCP B. DCCP B SHOULD respond to a
    valid Prefer option with a Change; other possible responses include
    ignoring the option, sending an Ignored option, or resetting the
    connection, as described above.  DCCP A SHOULD retransmit the Prefer
    option until it receives some relevant response, using the same
    guidelines as Change. DCCP A may generate a Prefer option in
    response to some Change option, or in response to some application
    event.  Prefer options are not useful for non-negotiable features.

    +--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------
    |00100010| Length |Feature#| Value or Values ...
    +--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------
     Type=34


6.3.4.  Confirm Option

    DCCP A sends a Confirm option to DCCP B to inform it that a Change
    option for some feature located at DCCP A has been accepted.
    Generally the Confirm option will include the feature's accepted
    value. For some special features, such as Connection Nonce, a
    Confirm option contains no data; these features are identified
    explicitly.  DCCP A MUST generate Confirm options only in response
    to valid Change options. DCCP A SHOULD NOT retransmit Confirm
    options: DCCP B will retransmit the relevant Changes as necessary.
    The receipt of a valid Confirm option ends the negotiation over a
    feature's value.

    +--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------
    |00100011| Length |Feature#| Value ...
    +--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------
     Type=35






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6.3.5.  Example Negotiations

    This section demonstrates several negotiations of the congestion
    control feature for the A-to-B half-connection. (This feature is
    located at DCCP A.) In this sequence of packets, DCCP A is happy
    with DCCP B's suggestion of CC mechanism 2:

         B > A    Change(CC, 2)
         A > B    Confirm(CC, 2)


    Here, A and B jointly settle on CC mechanism 5:

         B > A    Change(CC, 3, 4)
         A > B    Prefer(CC, 1, 2, 5)
         B > A    Change(CC, 5)
         A > B    Confirm(CC, 5)


    In this sequence, A refuses to use CC mechanism 5. If this sequence
    continued, one or the other endpoint would eventually abort the
    connection via a DCCP-Reset packet with Reason set to "Fruitless
    Negotiation":

         B > A    Change(CC, 3, 4, 5)
         A > B    Prefer(CC, 1, 2)
         B > A    Change(CC, 5)
         A > B    Prefer(CC, 1, 2)


    Here, A elicits agreement from B that it is satisfied with
    congestion control mechanism 2:

         A > B    Prefer(CC, 1, 2)
         B > A    Change(CC, 2)
         A > B    Confirm(CC, 2)


6.3.6.  Unknown Features

    If a DCCP receives a Change or Prefer option referring to a feature
    number it does not understand, it MUST respond with an Ignored
    option.  This informs the remote DCCP that the local DCCP does not
    implement the feature. No other action need be taken. (Ignored may
    also indicate that the DCCP endpoint could not respond to a CCID-
    specific feature request because the CCID was in flux; see Section
    7.4.)




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6.3.7.  State Diagram

    These state diagrams present the legal transitions in a DCCP feature
    negotiation. They define DCCP's states and transitions with respect
    to the negotiation of a single feature it understands. There are two
    diagrams, corresponding to the two endpoints: the feature location
    DCCP A, and what we call the "feature requester", DCCP B.

    Transitions between states are triggered by receiving a packet
    ("RECV") or by an application event ("APP"). Received packets are
    further distinguished by any options relevant to the feature being
    negotiated. "RECV -" means the packet contained no relevant option.
    "RECV Chg" denotes a Change option, "RECV Pr" a Prefer option, and
    "RECV Cfm" a Confirm option. The data contained in an option is
    given in parentheses when necessary. The "SEND" action indicates
    which option the DCCP will send next. Finally, the "SET-VALUE"
    action causes the DCCP to change its value for the relevant feature.

    "SEND" does not force DCCP to immediately generate a packet; rather,
    it says which feature option SHOULD be sent on the next packet
    generated. A DCCP MAY choose to generate a packet, such as a DCCP-
    Ack, in response to some "SEND" action, rather than piggyback on
    another packet. (In some cases, this may be required---if adding an
    option would bump a packet over the PMTU, for instance.)  However,
    it MUST NOT generate a packet if doing so would violate the
    congestion control mechanism in use.

    The requester, DCCP B, has four states: Known, Unknown, Failed, and
    Changing.  Similarly, the feature location, DCCP A, has four states:
    Known, Unknown, Failed, and Confirming. In both cases, Known denotes
    a state where the DCCP knows the feature's current value, and
    believes that the other DCCP agrees.  Changing and Confirming denote
    states where the DCCPs are in the process of negotiating a new value
    for the feature. The Unknown state can occur only at connection
    setup time. It denotes a state where the DCCP does not know any
    value for the feature, and has not yet entered a negotiation to
    determine its value. Finally, the Failed state represents a state
    where the other DCCP does not implement the feature under
    negotiation.

    Retransmissions of Change and Prefer options happen on the "RECV -"
    arcs from the Changing and Confirming states.

    A DCCP may start in either the Unknown or Known state, depending on
    the feature in question. In particular, some features have a well-
    known value for new connections, in which case the DCCPs begin the
    connection in the Known states.




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                    REQUESTER STATE DIAGRAM (DCCP B)

                        +-----------+
                        |  Unknown  |
                        +-----------+
      +----------+            |                    +-----------+
      |          |RECV -      |RECV -/Pr | APP     |           |RECV Pr/Cfm
      V          |SEND -      |SEND Chg            V           |SEND Chg
+-----------+    |            |             +------------+     |
|           |----+            +------------>|            |-----+
|   Known   |------------------------------>|  Changing  |
|           |        RECV Pr | APP          |            |-----+
+-----------+          SEND Chg             +------------+     |RECV -
      ^                                          | | ^         |SEND -/Chg
      |                                          | | |         |
      +------------------------------------------+ | +---------+
                       RECV Cfm(O)                 |          +----------+
                       SEND -                      +--------->|  Failed  |
                       SET-VALUE O                  RECV Ign  +----------+
                                                    SEND -































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                  FEATURE LOCATION STATE DIAGRAM (DCCP A)
(O represents any feature value acceptable to DCCP A; X is not acceptable.)


        RECV Chg(O)
        SEND Cfm(O)                   RECV -  |  APP
        SET-VALUE O     +-----------+ SEND Pr(O)
   +--------------------|  Unknown  |------------+
   |                    +-----------+            |
   |     +-------+            |                  | +-----------+
   |     |       |RECV -      |RECV Chg(X)       | |           |RECV Chg(X)
   V     V       |SEND -      |SEND Pr(O)        V V           |SEND Pr(O)
+-----------+    |            |             +------------+     |  (need not be
|           |----+            +------------>|            |-----+   the same O)
|   Known   |------------------------------>| Confirming |
|           |----+     RECV Chg  |  APP     |            |-----+
+-----------+    |        SEND Pr(O)        +------------+     |RECV -
   ^     ^       |                               | | ^         |SEND -/Pr(O)
   |     |       |RECV Chg(O)                    | | |         |
   |     |       |SEND Cfm(O)                    | | +---------+
   |     |       |SET-VALUE O                    | |
   |     +-------+                               | |         +----------+
   +---------------------------------------------+ +-------->|  Failed  |
                  RECV Chg(O)                       RECV Ign +----------+
                  SEND Cfm(O)                       SEND -
                  SET-VALUE O


    This specification allows several choices of action in certain
    states. The implementation will generally use feature-specific
    information to decide how to respond. For example, DCCP A in the
    Known state may respond to a Change option with either Confirm or
    Prefer. If DCCP A is willing to set the feature to the value
    specified by Change, it will generally send Confirm; but if it would
    like to negotiate further, it will send Prefer.

    DCCP B retransmits Change options, and DCCP A retransmits Prefer
    options, until receiving a relevant response. However, they need not
    retransmit the option on every packet, as shown by the "RECV - /
    SEND -" transitions in the Changing and Confirming states.

    These state diagrams guarantee safety, but not liveness. Namely, no
    unexpected or erroneous options will be sent, but option negotiation
    might not terminate. For example, the following infinite negotiation
    is legal according to this specification.






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    A > B    Prefer(1)
    B > A    Change(2)
    A > B    Prefer(1)
    B > A    Change(2)...


    Implementations MAY choose to enforce a maximum length on any
    negotiation---for example, by resetting the connection when any
    negotiation lasts more than some maximum time. The DCCP-Reset Reason
    "Fruitless Negotiation" SHOULD be used to signal that a connection
    was aborted because of a negotiation that took too long.

    In the Changing and Confirming states, the value of the
    corresponding feature is in flux. DCCP MAY change its behavior in
    these states---for example, by refusing to send data until
    reentering a Known state.

6.4.  Identification Options

    The Identification options provide a way for DCCP endpoints to
    confirm each others' identities, even after changes of address
    (Section 10) or long bursts of loss that get the endpoints out of
    sync (Section 5.2). Again, DCCP as specified here does not provide
    cryptographic security guarantees, and attackers that can see every
    packet are still capable of manipulating DCCP connections
    inappropriately, but the Identification options make it more
    difficult for some kinds of attacks to succeed.

    The Identification option is used to prove an endpoint's identity,
    while a Challenge option elicits an Identification from the other
    endpoint. An Identification Regime determines how the
    Identifications are calculated. In the default MD5 Regime, the
    calculation involves an MD5 hash over packet data and two Connection
    Nonces, either exchanged at the beginning of the connection or
    implicitly agreed upon.

6.4.1.  Identification Regime Feature

    Identification Regime has feature number 8. The ID Regime feature
    located at DCCP B specifies the algorithm that DCCP A will use for
    its Identification options. Each endpoint must keep track of both
    its ID regime and, via the ID Regime feature, the regime used by the
    other endpoint.

    The value of ID Regime is a two-byte number, so a valid Confirm(ID
    Regime) option takes exactly four bytes. Change or Prefer options
    MAY list multiple ID Regimes in descending order of preference.  ID
    Regime defaults to 0, the MD5 Regime. Applications preferring



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    different security guarantees, particularly around mobility issues,
    may prefer to implement another identification algorithm and assign
    it a different ID Regime value.

    The ID Regime feature is negotiable, so an endpoint can request that
    the other endpoint use a particular ID Regime, or one of a set of
    Regimes, by sending a Prefer option. If the endpoints cannot agree
    on mutually acceptable ID Regimes, the connection SHOULD be reset
    due to "Fruitless Negotiation".

6.4.2.  Connection Nonce Feature

    Connection Nonce has feature number 7. The Connection Nonce feature
    located at DCCP B is the value of DCCP A's connection nonce. Each
    endpoint SHOULD keep track of both its nonce and the other
    endpoint's nonce. Connection Nonces are used by Identification
    Regime 0.

    The Connection Nonce feature takes arbitrary values of at least 4
    bytes long. A Change(Connection Nonce) option therefore takes at
    least 6 bytes. Confirm(Connection Nonce) options MUST NOT contain
    the relevant value, so a Confirm(Connection Nonce) option takes
    exactly 2 bytes.

    Connection Nonce defaults to a random 8-byte string. To prevent
    spoofing, this string MUST NOT have any trivially predictable value.
    For example, it MUST NOT be set deterministically to zero, and it
    SHOULD change on every connection.  DCCP endpoints MAY, however,
    exchange Connection Nonces via some mechanism other than the
    plaintext, snoopable Connection Nonce option.

    This feature is non-negotiable.

6.4.3.  Identification Option

    The Identification option serves as confirmation that a packet was
    sent by an endpoint involved in the initiation of the DCCP
    connection. It is permitted in any DCCP packet, but it might not be
    useful until the endpoints have exchanged security information such
    as connection nonces. The option takes the following form:

    +--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------
    |00101010| Length |  Identification Data ...
    +--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------
     Type=42






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    The particular data included in an Identification option sent by
    DCCP A depends on the ID Regime in force for the A-to-B sequence,
    which is the value of the ID Regime feature located at DCCP B. The
    remainder of this section describes ID Regime 0, the default MD5
    Regime.

    The Identification data provided for the MD5 Regime consists of a
    16-byte MD5 digest of: the second and fourth 32-bit words in the
    generic DCCP header, including the Sequence and Acknowledgement
    Numbers; the value of the sender's Connection Nonce; and the value
    of the other endpoint's Connection Nonce, in that order. The total
    length of the option is therefore 18 bytes, and the option may only
    be provided on packets that contain Acknowledgement Numbers, such as
    DCCP-Ack.  Inclusion of the two Connection Nonces ensures that
    attackers cannot fake an Identification Option, unless they snooped
    on the beginning of the connection when nonces are exchanged.  (No
    mechanism protects against snoopers who know Connection Nonces,
    since DCCP as specified here does not provide strong cryptographic
    security guarantees; see Section 16.) Inclusion of the Sequence and
    Acknowledgement Numbers protects against replay attacks within the
    connection.

    To check an Identification option's value, the receiver simply
    calculates the MD5 digest itself and compares that against the
    option data. The MD5 calculation can be expensive, so an attacker
    could conceivably disable a DCCP endpoint by sending it a flood of
    invalid packets with bad Identification options. Rate limits
    described in Sections 5.2 and 10 mitigate this issue. The receiver
    MAY ignore an Identification option if it occurs on a packet that
    would otherwise be considered valid.

    Example C code for constructing the option's value before
    transmitting a packet follows.


















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        unsigned char *packet_data;
        int packet_length;
        int id_option_offset; /* offset of option in packet_data */

        const unsigned char *my_nonce, *other_nonce;
        int my_nonce_length, other_nonce_length;

        MD5_CTX md5_context;

        MD5_Init(&md5_context);
        MD5_Update(&md5_context, packet_data + 4, 4);
        MD5_Update(&md5_context, packet_data + 12, 4);
        MD5_Update(&md5_context, my_nonce, my_nonce_length);
        MD5_Update(&md5_context, other_nonce, other_nonce_length);
        packet_data[id_option_offset] = 42;   /* option value */
        packet_data[id_option_offset+1] = 18; /* option length */
        MD5_Final(packet_data + id_option_offset + 2, &md5_context);


6.4.4.  Challenge Option

    This option informs the receiving DCCP that one of its packets was
    ignored, and that succeeding packets will be ignored until the
    endpoint sends a correct Identification option. The receiving DCCP
    SHOULD include an Identification option on the next packet it sends.
    The option takes the following form:

    +--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------
    |00101100| Length |  Identification Data ...
    +--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------
     Type=44


    The Identification Data on a packet sent by DCCP B is the same as
    that for an Identification option sent by DCCP B.  The receiver
    SHOULD ignore a Challenge option, and the packet the Challenge
    option contains, if the Identification Data is incorrect. The
    purpose of this mechanism is to prevent denial-of-service attacks
    where an attacker could cause the receiver to send many packets with
    expensive-to-compute Identification options, since the receiver MAY
    ignore Challenge options for some time after receiving an invalid
    Challenge.

    If, after several Challenge options, a DCCP is unable to elicit a
    valid Identification from its partner, it MAY reset the connection
    with Reason "Unanswered Challenge".





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6.5.  Init Cookie Option

    This option is permitted in DCCP-Response, DCCP-Data, and DCCP-
    DataAck messages. The option MAY be returned by the server in a
    DCCP-Response.  If so, then the client MUST echo the same Init
    Cookie option in its ensuing DCCP-Data or DCCP-DataAck message. The
    server SHOULD respond to an invalid Init Cookie option by resetting
    the connection with Reason set to "Bad Init Cookie".

    The purpose of this option is to allow a DCCP server to avoid having
    to hold any state until the three-way connection setup handshake has
    completed.  The server wraps up the service name, server port, and
    any options it cares about from both the DCCP-Request and DCCP-
    Response in an opaque cookie.  Typically the cookie will be
    encrypted using a secret known only to the server and include a
    cryptographic checksum or magic value so that correct decryption can
    be verified.  When the server receives the cookie back in the
    response, it can decrypt the cookie and instantiate all the state it
    avoided keeping.

    The precise implementation of the Init Cookie does not need to be
    specified here; since Init Cookies are opaque to the client, there
    are no interoperability concerns.

    +--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------
    |00100100| Length |         Init Cookie Value   ...
    +--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------
     Type=36


6.6.  Timestamp Option

    This option is permitted in any DCCP packet. The length of the
    option is 6 bytes.

    +--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+
    |00101000|00000110|          Timestamp Value          |
    +--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+
     Type=40  Length=6

    The four bytes of option data carry the timestamp of this packet in
    some undetermined form. A DCCP receiving a Timestamp option SHOULD
    respond with a Timestamp Echo option on the next packet it sends.

6.7.  Elapsed Time Option

    This option is permitted in any DCCP packet that contains an
    Acknowledgement Number. It indicates how much time, in milliseconds,



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    has elapsed since the packet being acknowledged---the packet with
    the given Acknowledgement Number---was received. The option may take
    4 or 6 bytes, depending on how large Elapsed Time is.

    +--------+--------+--------+--------+
    |00101110|00000100|   Elapsed Time  |
    +--------+--------+--------+--------+
     Type=46    Len=4

    +--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+
    |00101110|00000110|            Elapsed Time           |
    +--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+
     Type=46    Len=6

    The option data, Elapsed Time, represents an estimated upper bound
    on the amount of time elapsed since the packet being acknowledged
    was received, with units of tenths of milliseconds. If Elapsed Time
    is less than a second, the first, more parsimonious form of the
    option SHOULD be used.  Elapsed Times of more than 6.5535 seconds
    MUST be sent using the second form of the option. DCCP endpoints
    MUST NOT report Elapsed Times that are significantly larger than the
    true elapsed times.

    Elapsed Time is measured in tenths of milliseconds as a compromise
    between two conflicting goals: first, to provide enough granularity
    to reduce aliasing noise when measuring elapsed time over fast LANs;
    and second, to allow most reasonable elapsed times to fit into two
    bytes of data.

    Elapsed Time may help correct round-trip time estimates when the gap
    between receiving a packet and acknowledging that packet may be
    long---in CCID 3, for example, where acknowledgements are sent
    infrequently.

6.8.  Timestamp Echo Option

    This option is permitted in any DCCP packet, as long as at least one
    packet carrying the Timestamp option has been received. Generally, a
    DCCP endpoint should send one Timestamp Echo option for each
    Timestamp option it receives; and it should send that option as soon
    as is convenient. The length of the option is between 6 and 10
    bytes, depending on whether Elapsed Time is included and how large
    it is.








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    +--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+
    |00101001|00000110|           Timestamp Echo          |
    +--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+
     Type=41    Len=6

    +--------+--------+------- ... -------+--------+--------+
    |00101001|00001000|  Timestamp Echo   |   Elapsed Time  |
    +--------+--------+------- ... -------+--------+--------+
     Type=41    Len=8       (4 bytes)

    +--------+--------+------- ... -------+------- ... -------+
    |00101001|00001010|  Timestamp Echo   |    Elapsed Time   |
    +--------+--------+------- ... -------+------- ... -------+
     Type=41   Len=10       (4 bytes)           (4 bytes)

    The first four bytes of option data, Timestamp Echo, carry a
    Timestamp Value taken from a preceding received Timestamp option.
    Usually, this will be the last packet that was received---the packet
    indicated by the Acknowledgement Number, if any---but it might be a
    preceding packet.

    The Elapsed Time field is similar to the value stored in the Elapsed
    Time option. If present, it indicates the amount of time elapsed
    since receiving the packet whose timestamp is being echoed. This
    time MUST be in tenths of milliseconds. Elapsed Time is meant to
    help the Timestamp sender separate the network round-trip time from
    the Timestamp receiver's processing time. This may be particularly
    important for CCIDs where acknowledgements are sent infrequently, so
    that there might be considerable delay between receiving a Timestamp
    option and sending the corresponding Timestamp Echo. A missing
    Elapsed Time field is equivalent to an Elapsed Time of zero. The
    smallest version of the option SHOULD be used that can hold the
    relevant Elapsed Time value.

6.9.  Loss Window Feature

    Loss Window has feature number 6. The Loss Window feature located at
    DCCP B is the width of the window DCCP B uses to determine whether
    packets from DCCP A are valid. Packets outside this window will be
    dropped by DCCP B as old duplicates or spoofing attempts; see
    Section 5.2 for more information. DCCP A sends a "Change(Loss
    Window, W)" option to DCCP B to set DCCP B's Loss Window to W.

    The Loss Window feature takes 3-byte integer values, like DCCP
    sequence numbers. Change and Confirm options for Loss Window are
    therefore 6 bytes long.





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    Loss Window defaults to 1000 for new connections. The Loss Window
    value is the total width of the loss window. The receiver positions
    the loss window asymmetrically around GSN, the greatest sequence
    number seen, with one-third of the loss window width (rounded down)
    reserved for GSN and older sequence numbers and two-thirds reserved
    for newer sequence numbers, as follows:

      invalid |        valid sequence numbers       | invalid
    <---------|============+========================|---------->
         GSN -|GSN + 1 -  GSN                  GSN +|GSN + 1 +
    floor(W/3)|floor(W/3)                 ceil(2W/3)|ceil(2W/3)


    This feature is non-negotiable.

7.  Congestion Control IDs

    Each congestion control mechanism supported by DCCP is assigned a
    congestion control identifier, or CCID: a number from 0 to 255.
    During connection setup, and optionally thereafter, the endpoints
    negotiate their congestion control mechanisms by negotiating the
    values for their Congestion Control features. Congestion Control has
    feature number 1. The feature located at DCCP A is the CCID in use
    for the A-to-B half-connection. DCCP B sends an "Change(CC, K)"
    option to DCCP A to ask A to use CCID K for its data packets.

    The data byte of Congestion Control feature negotiation options form
    a list of acceptable CCIDs, sorted in descending order of priority.
    For example, the option "Change(CC 1, 2, 3)" asks the sender to use
    CCID 1, although CCIDs 2 and 3 are also acceptable. (This
    corresponds to the bytes "33, 6, 1, 1, 2, 3": Change option (33),
    option length (6), feature ID (1), CCIDs (1, 2, 3).) Similarly,
    "Confirm(CC 1, 2, 3)" tells the receiver that the sender is using
    CCID 1, but that CCIDs 2 or 3 might also be acceptable.

    The CCIDs defined by this document are:

         CCID   Meaning
         ----   -------
           0    Reserved
           1    Unspecified Sender-Based Congestion Control
           2    TCP-like Congestion Control
           3    TFRC Congestion Control


    A new connection starts with CCID 2 for both DCCPs. If this is
    unacceptable for a DCCP endpoint, that endpoint's Congestion Control
    feature will start in the Unknown state, and the endpoint will send



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    "Prefer(CC)" options on its first packets. A DCCP endpoint MUST NOT
    send data when its Congestion Control feature is in the Unknown
    state, with the possible exception of the data included on a DCCP-
    Request. It MUST also limit the rate at which it sends unsolicited
    DCCP-Ack packets until its Congestion Control feature is known.
    (This does not affect acknowledgements on the other half-connection,
    which are controlled by the other endpoint's Congestion Control
    feature; see Section 8.1.)

    All CCIDs standardized for use with DCCP will correspond to
    congestion control mechanisms previously standardized by the IETF.
    We expect that for quite some time, all such mechanisms will be TCP-
    friendly, but TCP-friendliness is not an explicit DCCP requirement.

    A DCCP implementation intended for general use---in a general-
    purpose operating system kernel, for example---SHOULD implement at
    least CCIDs 1 and 2. The intent is to make these CCIDs broadly
    available for interoperability, although any given application might
    disallow their use via the feature negotiation process.

7.1.  Unspecified Sender-Based Congestion Control

    CCID 1 denotes an unspecified sender-based congestion control
    mechanism.  Separate features negotiate the corresponding congestion
    acknowledgement options---for example, Ack Vector.  This provides a
    limited, controlled form of interoperability for new IETF-approved
    CCIDs.

    Implementors MUST NOT use CCID 1 in production environments as a
    proxy for congestion control mechanisms that have not entered the
    IETF standards process. We intend that any production use of CCID 1
    would have to be explicitly approved first by the IETF. Middleboxes
    MAY choose to treat the use of CCID 1 as experimental or
    unacceptable.

    For example, say that CCID 98, a new sender-based congestion control
    mechanism using Ack Vector for acknowledgements, has entered the
    IETF standards process, and the IETF has approved the use of CCID 1
    as a backup for CCID 98. Now, DCCP A, which understands and would
    like to use CCID 98, is trying to communicate with DCCP B, which
    doesn't yet know about CCID 98.  DCCP A can simply negotiate use of
    CCID 1 and, separately, negotiate Use Ack Vector. DCCP B will
    provide the feedback DCCP A requires for CCID 98, namely Ack Vector,
    without needing to understand the congestion control mechanism in
    use.

    CCID 1 has no sender implementation; it is exclusively meaningful at
    the receiver to support forward compatibility. The sender always



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    uses a specific congestion control mechanism whose CCID is not 1.
    However, the code implementing a CCID that requires only generic
    feedback, such as Ack Vector, MAY add CCID 1 to the list of
    acceptable CCIDs sent to the receiver (following the actual CCID),
    facilitating communication with receivers that do not understand the
    actual CCID.

    Any CCID feature negotiation in which the sender proposes the use of
    CCID 1 without any other CCID is considered erroneous, and SHOULD
    result in connection reset, with Reason set to "Fruitless
    Negotiation".

    DCCP implementations MAY provide APIs that allow applications to
    suggest preferred CCIDs for sending and receiving data. Any such API
    MUST NOT allow sending applications to suggest CCID 1; again, CCID 1
    will be suggested when appropriate by the code implementing the
    preferred CCID. In contrast, APIs SHOULD let applications allow or
    prevent the use of CCID 1 for receiving.

7.2.  TCP-like Congestion Control

    CCID 2 denotes Additive Increase, Multiplicative Decrease (AIMD)
    congestion control with behavior modelled directly on TCP, including
    congestion window, slow start, timeouts, and so forth. CCID 2 is
    further described in [CCID 2 PROFILE].

7.3.  TFRC Congestion Control

    CCID 3 denotes TCP-Friendly Rate Control, an equation-based rate-
    controlled congestion control mechanism. CCID 3 is further described
    in [CCID 3 PROFILE].

7.4.  CCID-Specific Options and Features

    Option and feature numbers 128 through 255 are available for CCID-
    specific use. CCIDs may often need new option types---for
    communicating acknowledgement or rate information, for example.
    CCID-specific option types let them create options at will without
    polluting the global option space. Option 128 might have different
    meanings on a half-connection using CCID 4 and a half-connection
    using CCID 8. CCID-specific options and features will never conflict
    with global options introduced by later versions of this
    specification.

    Any packet may contain information meant for either half-connection,
    so CCID-specific option and feature numbers explicitly signal the
    half-connection to which they apply. Option numbers 128 through 191
    are for options sent from the HC-Sender to the HC-Receiver; option



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    numbers 192 through 255 are for options sent from the HC-Receiver to
    the HC-Sender. Similarly, feature numbers 128 through 191 are for
    features located at the HC-Sender; feature numbers 192 through 255
    are for features located at the HC-Receiver. (Change options for a
    feature are sent to the feature location; Prefer and Confirm options
    are sent from the feature location. Thus, Change(128) options are
    sent by the HC-Receiver by definition, while Change(192) options are
    sent by the HC-Sender.)

    For example, consider a DCCP connection where the A-to-B half-
    connection uses CCID 4 and the B-to-A half-connection uses CCID 5.
    Here is how a sampling of CCID-specific options and features are
    assigned to half-connections:

                                    Relevant    Relevant
         Packet  Option             Half-conn.  CCID
         ------  ------             ----------  ----
         A > B   128                  A-to-B     4
         A > B   192                  B-to-A     5
         A > B   Change(128, ...)     B-to-A     5
         A > B   Prefer(128, ...)     A-to-B     4
         A > B   Confirm(128, ...)    A-to-B     4
         A > B   Change(192, ...)     A-to-B     4
         A > B   Prefer(192, ...)     B-to-A     5
         A > B   Confirm(192, ...)    B-to-A     5

         B > A   128                  B-to-A     5
         B > A   192                  A-to-B     4
         B > A   Change(128, ...)     A-to-B     4
         B > A   Prefer(128, ...)     B-to-A     5
         B > A   Confirm(128, ...)    B-to-A     5
         B > A   Change(192, ...)     B-to-A     5
         B > A   Prefer(192, ...)     A-to-B     4
         B > A   Confirm(192, ...)    A-to-B     4


    CCID-specific options and features have no clear meaning when the
    relevant CCID is in flux. A DCCP SHOULD respond to CCID-specific
    options and features with Ignored options during those times.

8.  Acknowledgements

    Congestion control requires receivers to transmit information about
    packet losses and ECN marks to senders. DCCP receivers MUST report
    all congestion they see, as defined by the relevant CCID profile.
    Each CCID says when acknowledgements should be sent, what options
    they must use, how they should be congestion controlled, and so on.




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    Most acknowledgements use DCCP options. For example, on a half-
    connection with CCID 2 (TCP-like), the receiver reports
    acknowledgement information using the Ack Vector option. This
    section describes common acknowledgement options and shows how acks
    using those options will commonly work. Full descriptions of the
    acknowledgement mechanisms used for each CCID are laid out in the
    CCID profile specifications.

    Acknowledgement options, such as Ack Vector, generally depend on the
    DCCP Acknowledgement Number, and are thus only allowed on packet
    types that carry that number (all packets except DCCP-Request and
    DCCP-Data). However, detailed acknowledgement options are not
    generally necessary on DCCP-Resets.

8.1.  Acks of Acks and Unidirectional Connections

    DCCP was designed to work well for both bidirectional and
    unidirectional flows of data, and for connections that transition
    between these states.  However, acknowledgements required for a
    unidirectional connection are very different from those required for
    a bidirectional connection. In particular, unidirectional
    connections need to worry about acks of acks.

    The ack-of-acks problem arises because some acknowledgement
    mechanisms are reliable. For example, an HC-Receiver using CCID 2,
    TCP-like Congestion Control, sends Ack Vectors containing completely
    reliable acknowledgement information. The HC-Sender should
    occasionally inform the HC-Receiver that it has received an ack. If
    it did not, the HC-Receiver might resend complete Ack Vector
    information, going back to the start of the connection, with every
    DCCP-Ack packet! However, note that acks-of-acks need not be
    reliable themselves: when an ack-of-acks is lost, the HC-Receiver
    will simply maintain, and periodically retransmit, old
    acknowledgement-related state for a little longer. Therefore, there
    is no need for acks-of-acks-of-acks.

    When communication is bidirectional, any required acks-of-acks are
    automatically contained in normal acknowledgements for data packets.
    On a unidirectional connection, however, the receiver DCCP sends no
    data, so the sender would not normally send acknowledgements.
    Therefore, the CCID in force on that half-connection must explicitly
    say whether, when, and how the HC-Sender should generate acks-of-
    acks.

    For example, consider a bidirectional connection where both half-
    connections use the same CCID (either 2 or 3), and where DCCP B goes
    "quiescent". This means that the connection becomes unidirectional:
    DCCP B stops sending data, and sends only sends DCCP-Ack packets to



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    DCCP A. For CCID 2, TCP-like Congestion Control, DCCP B uses Ack
    Vector to reliably communicate which packets it has received. As
    described above, DCCP A must occasionally acknowledge a pure
    acknowledgement from DCCP B, so that DCCP B can free old Ack Vector
    state. For instance, DCCP A might send a DCCP-DataAck packet every
    now and then, instead of DCCP-Data. In contrast, for CCID 3, TFRC
    Congestion Control, DCCP B's acknowledgements generally need not be
    reliable, since they contain cumulative loss rates; TFRC works even
    if every DCCP-Ack is lost. Therefore, DCCP A need never acknowledge
    an acknowledgement.

    When communication is unidirectional, a single CCID---in the
    example, the A-to-B CCID---controls both DCCPs' acknowledgements, in
    terms of their content, their frequency, and so forth. For
    bidirectional connections, the A-to-B CCID governs DCCP B's
    acknowledgements (including its acks of DCCP A's acks), while the B-
    to-A CCID governs DCCP A's acknowledgements.

    DCCP A switches its ack pattern from bidirectional to unidirectional
    when it notices that DCCP B has gone quiescent. It switches from
    unidirectional to bidirectional when it must acknowledge even a
    single DCCP-Data or DCCP-DataAck packet from DCCP B. (This includes
    the case where a single DCCP-Data or DCCP-DataAck packet was lost in
    transit, which is detectable using the # NDP field in the DCCP
    packet header.)

    Each CCID defines how to detect quiescence on that CCID, and how
    that CCID handles acks-of-acks on unidirectional connections. The B-
    to-A CCID defines when DCCP B has gone quiescent. Usually, this
    happens when a period has passed without B sending any data packets.
    For CCID 2, this period is roughly two round-trip times.  The A-to-B
    CCID defines how DCCP A handles acks-of-acks once DCCP B has gone
    quiescent.

8.2.  Ack Piggybacking

    Acknowledgements of A-to-B data MAY be piggybacked on data sent by
    DCCP B, as long as that does not delay the acknowledgement longer
    than the A-to-B CCID would find acceptable. However, data
    acknowledgements often require more than 4 bytes to express. A large
    set of acknowledgements prepended to a large data packet might
    exceed the path's MTU. In this case, DCCP B SHOULD send separate
    DCCP-Data and DCCP-Ack packets, or wait, but not too long, for a
    smaller datagram.

    Piggybacking is particularly common at DCCP A when the B-to-A half-
    connection is quiescent---that is, when DCCP A is just acknowledging
    DCCP B's acknowledgements, as described above. There are three



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    reasons to acknowledge DCCP B's acknowledgements: to allow DCCP B to
    free up information about previously acknowledged data packets from
    A; to shrink the size of future acknowledgements; and to manipulate
    the rate future acknowledgements are sent. Since these are secondary
    concerns, DCCP A can generally afford to wait indefinitely for a
    data packet to piggyback its acknowledgement onto.

    Any restrictions on ack piggybacking are described in the relevant
    CCID's profile.

8.3.  Ack Ratio Feature

    Ack Ratio provides a common mechanism by which CCIDs that clock
    acknowledgements off of data packets can perform rudimentary
    congestion control on the acknowledgement stream. CCID 2, TCP-like
    Congestion Control, uses Ack Ratio to limit the rate of its
    acknowledgement stream, for example. Some CCIDs ignore Ack Ratio,
    performing congestion control on acknowledgements in some other way.

    Ack Ratio has feature number 3. The Ack Ratio feature located at
    DCCP B equals the ratio of data packets sent by DCCP A to
    acknowledgement packets sent back by DCCP B. For example, if it is
    set to four, then DCCP B will send at least one acknowledgement
    packet for every four data packets DCCP A sends. DCCP A sends a
    "Change(Ack Ratio)" option to DCCP B to change DCCP B's ack ratio.

    An Ack Ratio option contains two bytes of data: a sixteen-bit
    integer representing the ratio. A new connection starts with Ack
    Ratio 2 for both DCCPs.

    This feature is non-negotiable.

8.4.  Use Ack Vector Feature

    The Use Ack Vector feature lets DCCPs negotiate whether they should
    use Ack Vector options to report congestion. Ack Vector provides
    detailed loss information, and lets senders report back to their
    applications whether particular packets were dropped. Use Ack Vector
    is mandatory for some CCIDs, and optional for others.

    Use Ack Vector has feature number 4. The Use Ack Vector feature
    located at DCCP B specifies whether DCCP B MUST use Ack Vector
    options on its acknowledgements to DCCP A, although DCCP B MAY send
    Ack Vector options even when Use Ack Vector is false. DCCP A sends a
    "Change(Use Ack Vector, 1)" option to DCCP B to ask B to send Ack
    Vector options as part of its acknowledgement traffic.





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    Use Ack Vector feature values are a single byte long. The receiver
    MUST send Ack Vector options if this byte is nonzero. A new
    connection starts with Use Ack Vector 0 for both DCCPs.

8.5.  Ack Vector Options

    The Ack Vector gives a run-length encoded history of data packets
    received at the client. Each byte of the vector gives the state of
    that data packet in the loss history, and the number of preceding
    packets with the same state. The option's data looks like this:

    +--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------
    |001001??| Length |SSLLLLLL|SSLLLLLL|SSLLLLLL|  ...
    +--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------
    Type=37/38         \___________ Vector ___________...


    The two Ack Vector options (option types 37 and 38) differ only in
    the values they imply for ECN Nonce Echo. Section 9.2 describes this
    further.

    The vector itself consists of a series of bytes, each of whose
    encoding is:

     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |St | Run Length|
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


        St[ate]: 2 bits

        Run Length: 6 bits

    State occupies the most significant two bits of each byte, and can
    have one of four values:

        0   Packet received (and not ECN marked).

        1   Packet received ECN marked.

        2   Reserved.

        3   Packet not yet received.

    The first byte in the first Ack Vector option refers to the packet
    indicated in the Acknowledgement Number; subsequent bytes refer to
    older packets. (Ack Vector MUST NOT be sent on DCCP-Data and DCCP-



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    Request packets, which lack an Acknowledgement Number.) If an Ack
    Vector contains the decimal values 0,192,3,64,5 and the
    Acknowledgement Number is decimal 100, then:

        Packet 100 was received (Acknowledgement Number 100, State 0,
        Run Length 0).

        Packet 99 was lost (State 3, Run Length 0).

        Packets 98, 97, 96 and 95 were received (State 0, Run Length 3).

        Packet 94 was ECN marked (State 1, Run Length 0).

        Packets 93, 92, 91, 90, 89, and 88 were received (State 0, Run
        Length 5).

    Run lengths of more than 64 must be encoded in multiple bytes. A
    single Ack Vector option can acknowledge up to 16192 data packets.
    Should more packets need to be acknowledged than can fit in 253
    bytes of Ack Vector, then multiple Ack Vector options can be sent.
    The second Ack Vector option will begin where the first Ack Vector
    option left off, and so forth.

    Ack Vector states are subject to two general constraints. (These
    principles SHOULD also be followed for other acknowledgement
    mechanisms; referring to Ack Vector states simplifies their
    explanation.)

    (1) Packets reported as State 0 or State 1 MUST have been processed
        by the receiving DCCP stack. In particular, their options must
        have been processed. Any data on the packet need not have been
        delivered to the receiving application; in fact, the data may
        have been dropped.

    (2) Packets reported as State 3 MUST NOT have been received by DCCP.
        Feature negotiations and options on such packets MUST NOT have
        been processed, and the Acknowledgement Number MUST NOT
        correspond to such a packet.

    Packets dropped in the application's receive buffer SHOULD be
    reported as Received or Received ECN Marked (States 0 and 1),
    depending on their ECN state; such packets' ECN Nonces MUST be
    included in the Nonce Echo. The Data Dropped option informs the
    sender that some packets reported as received actually had their
    payloads dropped.

    One or more Ack Vector options that, together, report the status of
    more packets than have actually been sent SHOULD be considered



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    invalid. The receiving DCCP SHOULD either ignore the options or
    reset the connection with Reason set to "Option Error". Packets
    whose status has not reported by any Ack Vector option SHOULD be
    treated as "not yet received" (State 3) by the sender.

8.5.1.  Ack Vector Consistency

    A DCCP sender will commonly receive multiple acknowledgements for
    some of its data packets. For instance, an HC-Sender might receive
    two DCCP-Acks with Ack Vectors, both of which contained information
    about sequence number 24.  (Because of cumulative acking,
    information about a sequence number is repeated in every ack until
    the HC-Sender acknowledges an ack. Perhaps the HC-Receiver is
    sending acks faster than the HC-Sender is acknowledging them.) In a
    perfect world, the two Ack Vectors would always be consistent.
    However, there are many reasons why they might not be:

    o The HC-Receiver received packet 24 between sending its acks, so
      the first ack said 24 was not received (State 3) and the second
      said it was received or ECN marked (State 0 or 1).

    o The HC-Receiver received packet 24 between sending its acks, and
      the network reordered the acks. In this case, the packet will
      appear to transition from State 0 or 1 to State 3.

    o The network duplicated packet 24, and one of the duplicates was
      ECN marked. This might show up as a transition between States 0
      and 1.

    To cope with these situations, HC-Sender DCCP implementations SHOULD
    combine multiple received Ack Vector states according to this table:

                                Received State
                                  0   1   3
                                +---+---+---+
                              0 | 0 |0/1| 0 |
                        Old     +---+---+---+
                              1 | 1 | 1 | 1 |
                       State    +---+---+---+
                              3 | 0 | 1 | 3 |
                                +---+---+---+


    To read the table, choose the row corresponding to the packet's old
    state and the column corresponding to the packet's state in the
    newly received Ack Vector, then read the packet's new state off the
    table. For an old state of 0 (received non-marked) and received
    state of 1 (received ECN marked), the packet's new state may be set



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    to either 0 or 1. The HC-Sender implementation will be indifferent
    to ack reordering if it chooses new state 1 for that cell.

    The HC-Receiver should collect information about received packets,
    which it will eventually report to the HC-Sender on one or more
    acknowledgements, according to the following table:

                               Received Packet
                                  0   1   3
                                +---+---+---+
                              0 | 0 |0/1| 0 |
                      Stored    +---+---+---+
                              1 |0/1| 1 | 1 |
                       State    +---+---+---+
                              3 | 0 | 1 | 3 |
                                +---+---+---+


    This table equals the sender's table, except that when the stored
    state is 1 and the received state is 0, the receiver is allowed to
    switch its stored state to 0.

    A HC-Sender MAY choose to throw away old information gleaned from
    the HC-Receiver's Ack Vectors, in which case it MUST ignore newly
    received acknowledgements from the HC-Receiver for those old
    packets. It is often kinder to save recent Ack Vector information
    for a while, so that the HC-Sender can undo its reaction to presumed
    congestion when a "lost" packet unexpectedly shows up (the
    transition from State 3 to State 0).

8.5.2.  Ack Vector Coverage

    We can divide the packets that have been sent from an HC-Sender to
    an HC-Receiver into four roughly contiguous groups. From oldest to
    youngest, these are:

    (1) Packets already acknowledged by the HC-Receiver, where the HC-
        Receiver knows that the HC-Sender has definitely received the
        acknowledgements.

    (2) Packets already acknowledged by the HC-Receiver, where the HC-
        Receiver cannot be sure that the HC-Sender has received the
        acknowledgements.

    (3) Packets not yet acknowledged by the HC-Receiver.

    (4) Packets not yet received by the HC-Receiver.




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    The union of groups 2 and 3 is called the Acknowledgement Window.
    Generally, every Ack Vector generated by the HC-Receiver will cover
    the whole Acknowledgement Window: Ack Vector acknowledgements are
    cumulative. (This simplifies Ack Vector maintenance at the HC-
    Receiver; see Section 23, below.) As packets are received, this
    window both grows on the right and shrinks on the left. It grows
    because there are more packets, and shrinks because the data
    packets' Acknowledgement Numbers will acknowledge previous
    acknowledgements, moving packets from group 2 into group 1.

8.6.  Slow Receiver Option

    An HC-Receiver sends the Slow Receiver option to its sender to
    indicate that it is having trouble keeping up with the sender's
    data. The HC-Sender SHOULD NOT increase its sending rate for
    approximately one round-trip time after seeing a packet with a Slow
    Receiver option. However, the Slow Receiver option does not indicate
    congestion, and the HC-Sender need not reduce its sending rate. (If
    necessary, the receiver can force the sender to slow down by
    dropping packets or reporting false ECN marks.) APIs SHOULD let
    receiver applications set Slow Receiver, and sending applications
    determine whether or not their receivers are Slow.

    The Slow Receiver option takes just one byte:

    +--------+
    |00000010|
    +--------+
     Type=2


    Slow Receiver does not specify why the receiver is having trouble
    keeping up with the sender. Possible reasons include lack of buffer
    space, CPU overload, and application quotas. A sending application
    might react to Slow Receiver by reducing its sending rate or by
    switching to a lossier compression algorithm. However, a smart
    sender might actually *increase* its sending rate in response to
    Slow Receiver, by switching to a less-compressed sending format. (A
    highly-compressed data format might overwhelm a slow CPU more
    seriously than the higher memory requirements of a less-compressed
    data format.) This tension between transfer size (less compression
    means more congestion) and processing speed (less compression means
    less processing) cannot be resolved in general.

    Slow Receiver implements a portion of TCP's receive window
    functionality.  We believe receiver operating systems and
    applications will find it much easier to send Slow Receiver when
    appropriate than they currently find it to correctly set a TCP



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    receive window.

8.7.  Data Dropped Option

    The Data Dropped option indicates that some packets reported as
    received actually had their data dropped before it reached the
    application. The sender's congestion control mechanism may respond
    to data-dropped packets less severely than to lost or marked
    packets. For instance, a windowed mechanism might subtract a
    constant value from its congestion window, rather than cut it in
    half.

    Data Dropped lets a sender differentiate between different kinds of
    loss (network and endpoint), but it does not allow total freedom in
    how to react. The congestion control response to a Data Dropped
    packet MUST be approved by the IETF. In particular, a congestion
    control mechanism MUST react to a Data Dropped packet as if the
    packet were ECN marked, unless specified otherwise in the relevant
    CCID profile.

    In any case, when ECN-marked packets are included in Data Dropped,
    the sender's congestion control mechanism MUST react to the ECN
    mark.

    If a received packet's payload is dropped for one of the reasons
    listed below, this SHOULD be reported using a Data Dropped option.
    Alternatively, the receiver MAY choose to report as "received" only
    those packets whose payloads were not dropped, subject to the
    constraint that packets not reported as received MUST NOT have had
    their options processed.

    The option's data looks like this:

    +--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------
    |00100111| Length | Block  | Block  | Block  |  ...
    +--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------
     Type=39          \___________ Vector ___________ ...

    The vector itself consists of a series of bytes, called Blocks,
    each of whose encoding corresponds to one of these choices:

     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7                  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |0| Run Length  |       or       |1|Dr St|Run Len|
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      Normal Block                      Drop Block





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    The first byte in the first Data Dropped option refers to the packet
    indicated in the Acknowledgement Number; subsequent bytes refer to
    older packets. (Data Dropped MUST NOT be sent on DCCP-Data or DCCP-
    Request packets, which lack an Acknowledgement Number.) Normal
    Blocks, which have high bit 0, indicate that any received packets in
    the Run Length had their data delivered to the application. Drop
    Blocks, which have high bit 1, indicate that received packets in the
    Run Len[gth] were not delivered as usual. The 3-bit Dr[op] St[ate]
    field says what happened; generally, no data from that packet
    reached the application. Packets reported as "not yet received" MUST
    be included in Normal Blocks; packets not covered by any Data
    Dropped option are treated as if they were in a Normal Block.
    Defined Drop States for Drop Blocks are:

        0   Packet data dropped due to protocol constraints. For
            example, the data was included on a DCCP-Request packet, and
            the receiving application does not allow that piggybacking;
            or the data was sent during an important feature
            negotiation.

        1   Packet data dropped in the receive buffer.

        2   Packet data dropped due to corruption.

        3   Packet data corrupted, but delivered to the application
            anyway.

        4   Packet data dropped because the application is no longer
            listening.

        5-7 Reserved.

    For example, if a Data Dropped option contains the decimal values
    0,144,3,146, the Acknowledgement Number is 100, and an Ack Vector
    reported all packets as received, then:

        Packet 100 was received (Acknowledgement Number 100, Normal
        Block, Run Length 0).

        Packet 99 was dropped in the receive buffer (Drop Block, Drop
        State 1, Run Length 0).

        Packets 98, 97, 96, and 95 were received (Normal Block, Run
        Length 3).

        Packets 95, 94, and 93 were dropped in the receive buffer (Drop
        Block, Drop State 1, Run Length 2).




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    Run lengths of more than 128 (for Normal Blocks) or 16 (for Drop
    Blocks) must be encoded in multiple Blocks. A single Data Dropped
    option can acknowledge up to 32384 Normal Block data packets,
    although the receiver SHOULD NOT send a Data Dropped option when all
    relevant packets fit into Normal Blocks. Should more packets need to
    be acknowledged than can fit in 253 bytes of Data Dropped, then
    multiple Data Dropped options can be sent.  The second option will
    begin where the first option left off, and so forth.

    One or more Data Dropped options that, together, report the status
    of more packets than have been sent, or that change the status of a
    packet, or that disagree with Ack Vector or equivalent options (by
    reporting a "not yet received" packet as "dropped in the receive
    buffer", for example), SHOULD be considered invalid. The receiving
    DCCP SHOULD respond to invalid Data Dropped options by ignoring them
    or by resetting the connection with Reason set to "Option Error".

    Drop State 4 ("application no longer listening") means the
    application running at the endpoint that sent the option is no
    longer listening for data. For example, a server might close its
    receiving half-connection to new data after receiving a complete
    request from the client. This would limit the amount of state the
    server would expend on incoming data, and thus reduce the potential
    damage from certain denial-of-service attacks. A Data Dropped option
    containing Drop State 4 SHOULD be sent whenever received data is
    ignored due to a non-listening application. Once a DCCP reports Drop
    State 4 for a packet, it SHOULD report Drop State 4 for every
    succeeding data packet on that half-connection; once a DCCP receives
    a Drop State 4 report, it SHOULD expect that no more data will ever
    be delivered to the other endpoint's application. A DCCP receiving
    Drop State 4 MAY report this event to the application. (Previous
    versions of this specification used a "Buffer Closed" option instead
    of Drop State 4.)

8.8.  Payload Checksum Option

    The Payload Checksum option holds the 16 bit one's complement of the
    one's complement sum of all 16 bit words in the DCCP payload (the
    data contained in a DCCP-Request, DCCP-Response, DCCP-Data, DCCP-
    DataAck, or DCCP-Move packet). When combined with a Checksum Length
    of less than 15, this lets DCCP distinguish between corruption in a
    packet's payload and corruption in its header. Corrupted-header
    packets MUST be treated as dropped by the network, while corrupted-
    payload packets MAY be treated differently; for example, the
    sender's response to corruption might be less stringent than its
    response to congestion. A low Checksum Length lets DCCP process
    packets with valid headers, even if the payload is corrupt, avoiding
    the congestion response to corruption. The Payload Checksum option



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    then lets DCCP detect payload corruption, and therefore avoid
    delivering bad data to the application.

    The option's data looks like this:

    +--------+--------+--------+--------+
    |00101101|00000100|    Checksum     |
    +--------+--------+--------+--------+
     Type=45  Length=4


    The receiving DCCP MUST check the Payload Checksum's value against
    the actual payload checksum. If the values differ, the packet's data
    SHOULD be dropped, and reported as dropped due to corruption (Drop
    State 2) using a Data Dropped option (Section 8.7). Optionally, DCCP
    MAY provide an API through which the receiving application could
    request delivery of known-corrupt data. When that API is active, the
    packet's data SHOULD be delivered, but reported as delivered corrupt
    (Drop State 3) using a Data Dropped option. In either case, the
    packet will be reported as Received or Received ECN Marked by Ack
    Vector or equivalent options.

    See Section 18.1 for a discussion of the issues related to the use
    of this option.

9.  Explicit Congestion Notification

    The DCCP protocol is fully ECN-aware. Each CCID specifies how its
    endpoints respond to ECN marks. Furthermore, DCCP, unlike TCP,
    allows senders to control the rate at which acknowledgements are
    generated (with options like Ack Ratio); this means that
    acknowledgements are generally congestion-controlled, and may have
    ECN-Capable Transport set.

    A CCID profile describes how that CCID interacts with ECN, both for
    data traffic and pure-acknowledgement traffic. A sender SHOULD set
    ECN-Capable Transport on its packets whenever the receiver has its
    ECN Capable feature turned on and the relevant CCID allows it,
    unless the sending application indicates that ECN should not be
    used.

    The rest of this section describes the ECN Capable feature and the
    interaction of the ECN Nonce with acknowledgement options such as
    Ack Vector.







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9.1.  ECN Capable Feature

    The ECN Capable feature lets a DCCP inform its partner that it
    cannot read ECN bits from received IP headers, so the partner must
    not set ECN-Capable Transport on its packets.

    ECN Capable has feature number 2. The ECN Capable feature located at
    DCCP A indicates whether or not A can successfully read ECN bits
    from received frames' IP headers. (This is independent of whether it
    can set ECN bits on sent frames.) DCCP A sends a "Prefer(ECN
    Capable, 0)" option to DCCP B to inform B that A cannot read ECN
    bits.

    An ECN Capable feature contains a single byte of data. ECN
    capability is on if and only if this byte is nonzero.

    A new connection starts with ECN Capable 1 (that is, ECN capable)
    for both DCCPs. If a DCCP is not ECN capable, it MUST send
    "Prefer(ECN Capable, 0)" options to the other endpoint until
    acknowledged (by "Change(ECN Capable, 0)") or the connection closes.
    Furthermore, it MUST NOT accept any data until the other endpoint
    sends "Change(ECN Capable, 0)". It SHOULD send Data Dropped options
    on its acknowledgements, with Drop State 0 ("protocol constraints"),
    if the other endpoint does send data inappropriately.

9.2.  ECN Nonces

    Congestion avoidance will not occur, and the receiver will sometimes
    get its data faster, when the sender is not told about any
    congestion events.  Thus, the receiver has some incentive to falsify
    acknowledgement information, reporting that marked or dropped
    packets were actually received unmarked. This problem is more
    serious with DCCP than with TCP, since TCP provides reliable
    transport: it is more difficult with TCP to lie about lost packets
    without breaking the application.

    ECN Nonces are a general mechanism to prevent ECN cheating (or loss
    cheating). Two values for the two-bit ECN header field indicate ECN-
    Capable Transport, 01 and 10. The second code point, 10, is the ECN
    Nonce. In general, a protocol sender chooses between these code
    points randomly on its output packets, remembering the sequence it
    chose. The protocol receiver reports, on every acknowledgement, the
    number of ECN Nonces it has received thus far. This is called the
    ECN Nonce Echo. Since ECN marking and packet dropping both destroy
    the ECN Nonce, a receiver that lies about an ECN mark or packet drop
    has a 50% chance of guessing right and avoiding discipline. The
    sender may react punitively to an ECN Nonce mismatch, possibly up to
    dropping the connection. The ECN Nonce Echo field need not be an



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    integer; one bit is enough to catch 50% of infractions.

    In DCCP, the ECN Nonce Echo field is encoded in acknowledgement
    options. For example, the Ack Vector option comes in two forms, Ack
    Vector [Nonce 0] (option 37) and Ack Vector [Nonce 1] (option 38),
    corresponding to the two values for a one-bit ECN Nonce Echo. The
    Nonce Echo for a given Ack Vector equals the one-bit sum (exclusive-
    or, or parity) of ECN nonces for packets reported by that Ack Vector
    as received and not ECN marked.  Thus, only packets marked as State
    0 matter for this calculation (that is, valid received packets that
    were not ECN marked).  Every Ack Vector option is detailed enough
    for the sender to determine what the Nonce Echo should have been. It
    can check this calculation against the actual Nonce Echo, and
    complain if there is a mismatch.

    (The Ack Vector could conceivably report every packet's ECN Nonce
    state, but this would severely limit Ack Vector's compressibility
    without providing much extra protection.)

    Consider a half-connection from DCCP A to DCCP B. DCCP A SHOULD set
    ECN Nonces on its packets, and remember which packets had nonces,
    whenever DCCP B reports that it is ECN Capable. An ECN-capable
    endpoint MUST calculate and use the correct value for ECN Nonce Echo
    when sending acknowledgement options. An ECN-incapable endpoint,
    however, SHOULD treat the ECN Nonce Echo as always zero. When a
    sender detects an ECN Nonce Echo mismatch, it SHOULD behave as if
    the receiver had reported one or more packets as ECN-marked (instead
    of unmarked). It MAY take more punitive action, such as resetting
    the connection. The Reason for such DCCP-Reset packets SHOULD be set
    to "Aggression Penalty".

    An ECN-incapable DCCP SHOULD ignore received ECN nonces and generate
    ECN nonces of zero. For instance, out of the two Ack Vector options,
    an ECN-incapable DCCP SHOULD generate Ack Vector [Nonce 0] (option
    37) exclusively. (Again, the ECN Capable feature MUST be set to zero
    in this case.)

9.3.  Other Aggression Penalties

    The ECN Nonce provides one way for a DCCP sender to discover that a
    receiver is misbehaving. There may be other mechanisms, and a
    receiver or middlebox may also discover that a sender is
    misbehaving---sending more data than it should. In any of these
    cases, the entity that discovers the misbehavior MAY react by
    resetting the connection, with Reason set to "Aggression Penalty". A
    receiver that detects marginal (meaning possibly spurious) sender
    misbehavior MAY instead react with a Slow Receiver option, or by
    reporting some packets as ECN marked that were not, in fact, marked.



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10.  Multihoming and Mobility

    DCCP provides primitive support for multihoming and mobility via a
    mechanism for transferring a connection endpoint from one address to
    another. The moving endpoint must negotiate mobility support
    beforehand, and both endpoints must share their Connection Nonces.
    When the moving endpoint gets a new address, it sends a DCCP-Move
    packet from that address to the stationary endpoint.  The stationary
    endpoint then changes its connection state to use the new address.

    DCCP's support for mobility is intended to solve only the simplest
    multihoming and mobility problems. For instance, DCCP has no support
    for simultaneous moves. Applications requiring more complex mobility
    semantics, or more stringent security guarantees, should use an
    existing solution like Mobile IP or [SB00].

10.1.  Mobility Capable Feature

    A DCCP uses the Mobility Capable feature to inform its partner that
    it would like to be able to change its address and/or port during
    the course of the connection.

    Mobility Capable has feature number 5. The Mobility Capable feature
    located at DCCP A indicates whether or not A will accept a DCCP-Move
    packet sent by B. DCCP B sends a "Change(Mobility Capable, 1)"
    option to DCCP A to inform it that B might like to move later.

    A Mobility Capable feature contains a single byte of data. Mobility
    is allowed if and only if this byte is nonzero. A DCCP MUST reject a
    DCCP-Move packet referring to a connection when Mobility Capable is
    0; however, it MAY reject a valid DCCP-Move packet even when
    Mobility Capable is 1.

    A new connection starts with Mobility Capable 0 (that is, mobility
    is not allowed) for both DCCPs.

10.2.  Security

    The DCCP mobility mechanism, like DCCP in general, does not provide
    cryptographic security guarantees. Nevertheless, mobile hosts must
    use valid sequence numbers and include valid Identifications in
    their DCCP-Move packets, providing protection against some classes
    of attackers.  Specifically, an attacker cannot move a DCCP
    connection to a new address unless they know valid sequence numbers
    and how to generate valid Identifications. Even with the default MD5
    Identification Regime, this means that an attacker must have snooped
    on every packet in the connection to get a reasonable probability of
    success, assuming that initial sequence numbers and Connection



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    Nonces are chosen well (that is, randomly). Section 16 further
    describes DCCP security considerations.

10.3.  Congestion Control State

    Once an endpoint has transitioned to a new address, the connection
    is effectively a new connection in terms of its congestion control
    state: the accumulated information about congestion between the old
    endpoints no longer applies. Both DCCPs MUST initialize their
    congestion control state (windows, rates, and so forth) to that of a
    new connection---that is, they must "slow start"---unless they have
    high-quality information about actual network conditions between the
    two new endpoints. Normally, the only way to get this information
    would be by running a DCCP connection between the new addresses.

    Similarly, the endpoints' configured MTUs (see 11) SHOULD be
    reinitialized, and PMTU discovery performed again, following an
    address change.

10.4.  Loss During Transition

    Several loss and delay events may affect the transition of a DCCP
    connection from one address to another. The DCCP-Move packet itself
    might be lost; the acknowledgement to that packet might be lost,
    leaving the mobile endpoint unsure of whether the transition has
    completed; and data from the old endpoint might continue to arrive
    at the receiver even after the transition.

    To protect against lost DCCP-Move packets, the mobile host SHOULD
    retransmit a DCCP-Move packet if it does not receive an
    acknowledgement within a reasonable time period. Section 5.9
    describes the mechanism used to protect against duplicate DCCP-Move
    packets.

    A receiver MAY drop all data received from the old address/port pair
    once a DCCP-Move has successfully completed. Alternately, it MAY
    accept one Loss Window's worth of this data. Congestion and loss
    events on this data SHOULD NOT affect the new connection's
    congestion control state. The receiver MUST NOT accept data with the
    old address/port pair past one Loss Window, and SHOULD send DCCP-
    Resets in response to those packets.

    During some transition period, acknowledgements from the receiver to
    the mobile host will contain information about packets sent both
    from the old address/port pair, and from the new address/port pair.
    The mobile DCCP should not let loss events on packets from the old
    address/port pair affect the new congestion control state.




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11.  Maximum Transfer Unit

    A DCCP implementation MUST maintain its idea of the current maximum
    transfer unit (MTU) for each active DCCP session. The particular MTU
    may be influenced by congestion control mechanisms, as well as Path
    MTU (PMTU) discovery [RFC 1191].

    Any API to DCCP MUST allow the application to discover DCCP's
    current MTU.  DCCP applications SHOULD use the API to discover the
    MTU, and SHOULD NOT send datagrams that are greater than the MTU. A
    DCCP API MAY choose to let applications indicate that large packets
    should be fragmented; if an application not using that API tries to
    send a packet bigger than the MTU, the DCCP implementation MUST drop
    the packet and return an appropriate error.

    The PMTU SHOULD be initialized from the interface MTU that will be
    used to send packets. The MTU will be initialized with the minimum
    of the PMTU and any MTU set by the relevant CCID.

    To perform PMTU discovery, the DCCP sender sets the IP Don't
    Fragment (DF) bit.  However, it is undersirable for MTU discovery to
    occur on the initial connection setup handshake, as the connection
    setup process may not be representative of packet sizes used during
    the connection, and performing MTU discovery on the initial
    handshake might unnecessarily delay connection establishment.  Thus,
    DF SHOULD NOT be set on DCCP-Request and DCCP-Response packets. In
    addition DF SHOULD NOT be set on DCCP-Reset packets, although
    typically these would be small enough to not be a problem.  On all
    other DCCP packets, DF SHOULD be set.

    As specified in [RFC 1191], when a router receives a packet with DF
    set that is larger than the PMTU, it sends an ICMP Destination
    Unreachable message to the source of the datagram with the Code
    indicating "fragmentation needed and DF set" (also known as a
    "Datagram Too Big" message).  When a DCCP implementation receives a
    Datagram Too Big message, it decreases its PMTU to the Next-Hop MTU
    value given in the ICMP message.  If the MTU given in the message is
    zero, the sender chooses a value for PMTU using the algorithm
    described in Section 7 of [RFC 1191]. If the MTU given in the
    message is greater than the current PMTU, the Datagram Too Big
    message is ignored, as described in [RFC 1191]. (We are aware that
    this may cause problems for DCCP endpoints behind certain
    firewalls.)

    If the DCCP implementation has decreased the PMTU, and the sending
    application attempts to send a packet larger than the new MTU, the
    API MUST cause the send to fail returning an appropriate error to
    the application, and the application SHOULD then use the API to



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    query the new value of the PMTU.  When this occurs, it is possible
    that the kernel has some packets buffered for transmission that are
    smaller than the old PMTU, but larger than the new PMTU.  The kernel
    MAY send these packets with the DF bit cleared, or it MAY discard
    these packets; it MUST NOT transmit these datagrams with the DF bit
    set.

    DCCP currently provides no way to increase the PMTU once it has
    decreased.

    A DCCP sender MAY optionally treat the reception of an ICMP Datagram
    Too Big message as an indication that the packet being reported was
    not lost due congestion, and so for the purposes of congestion
    control it MAY ignore the DCCP receiver's indication that this
    packet did not arrive.  However, if this is done, then the DCCP
    sender MUST check the ECN bits of the IP header echoed in the ICMP
    message, and only perform this optimization if these ECN bits
    indicate that the packet did not experience congestion prior to
    reaching the router whose MTU it exceeded.

12.  Middlebox Considerations

    This section describes properties of DCCP that firewalls, network
    address translators, and other middleboxes should consider,
    including parts of the packet that middleboxes should not change.
    The intent is to draw attention to aspects of DCCP that may be
    useful, or dangerous, for middleboxes, or that differ significantly
    from TCP.

    The Service Name field in DCCP-Request packets provide information
    that may be useful for stateful middleboxes. With Service Name, a
    middlebox can tell what protocol a connection will use, without
    relying on port numbers.  Middleboxes MAY disallow attempted
    connections with zero Service Names by sending a DCCP-Reset.
    Middleboxes SHOULD NOT modify the Service Name.

    The Source and Destination Port fields are in the same packet
    locations as the corresponding fields in TCP and UDP, which may
    simplify some middlebox implementations.

    Middleboxes MUST NOT modify DCCP packets' Sequence Number,
    Acknowledgement Number, and # NDP fields in order to add or remove
    packets from a packet stream. Any such modification would affect the
    endpoints' accounting of which packets have been lost, destroy the
    Identification mechanism, and confuse the congestion control
    mechanisms in use. Note that there is less need to modify DCCP's
    per-packet sequence numbers than TCP's per-byte sequence numbers;
    for example, a middlebox can change the contents of a packet without



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    changing its sequence number. (In TCP, sequence number modification
    is required to support protocols like FTP that carry variable-length
    addresses in the data stream. If such an application were deployed
    over DCCP, middleboxes would simply grow or shrink the relevant
    packets as necessary, without changing their sequence numbers.)

    The exception to this rule is that middleboxes MAY reset connections
    in progress. Clearly this requires inserting a packet into one or
    both packet streams, as well as dropping all later packets on the
    connection.

    This does not explicitly prevent one sequence number modification
    occasionally seen with TCP, namely proxies with "connection
    splicing" [SHHP00]. Such proxies intercept TCP connection attempts
    from a client, but may later "splice" data from an external server
    connection into that client connection via sequence number
    manipulations. Packets are not added to or removed from the spliced-
    in stream, reducing the sequence number issues somewhat.
    Nevertheless, DCCP, with its extensive end-to-end feature
    negotiation, is inherently unfriendly to the idea of connection
    splicing: the proxy would have to ensure that the server chose the
    same feature values that the proxy had previously negotiated with
    the client.  Furthermore, Identification options would require
    special handling; and there may be other issues. We suggest that
    DCCP splicing, if implemented, should take place at the application
    level.

    A middlebox that wants to trivially support the MD5 Identification
    Regime (Section 6.4.3) MUST NOT alter packets' Sequence Number,
    Type, CCval, Acknowledgement Number, and Reserved fields, or the
    Connection Nonce feature values, which are included in the MD5 hash
    sent with Identification and Challenge options.

    The contents of this section SHOULD NOT be interpreted as a
    wholesale endorsement of stateful middleboxes.

13.  Abstract API

    API issues for DCCP are discussed in another Internet-Draft, in
    progress.

14.  Multiplexing Issues

    In contrast to TCP, DCCP does not offer reliable ordered delivery.
    As a consequence, with DCCP there are no inherent performance
    penalties in layering functionality above DCCP to multiplex several
    sub-flows into a single DCCP connection.




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    If it is desired to share congestion control state among multiple
    DCCP flows that share the same source and destination addresses, the
    possibilities are to add DCCP-specific mechanisms to enable this, or
    to use a generic multiplexing facility like the Congestion Manager
    [RFC 3124] residing below the transport layer.  For some DCCP flows,
    the ability to specify the congestion control mechanism might be
    critical, and for these flows the Congestion Manager will only be a
    viable tool if it allows DCCP to specify the congestion control
    mechanism used by the Congestion Manager for that flow.  Thus, to
    allow the sharing of congestion control state among multiple DCCP
    flows, the alternatives seem to be to add DCCP-specific
    functionality to the Congestion Manager, or to add a similar layer
    below DCCP that is specific to DCCP.  We defer issues of DCCP
    operating over a revised version of the Congestion Manager, or over
    a DCCP-specific module for the sharing of congestion control state,
    to later work.

15.  DCCP and RTP

    The real-time transport protocol, RTP [RFC 1889], is currently used
    (over UDP) by many of DCCP's target applications (for instance,
    streaming media). This section therefore discusses the relationship
    between DCCP and RTP, and in particular, the question of whether any
    changes in RTP are necessary or desirable when it is layered over
    DCCP instead of UDP. The main issue here is header size: a DCCP
    header is at least 4 bytes larger than a UDP header.

    There are two potential sources of overhead in the RTP-over-DCCP
    combination, duplicated acknowledgement information and duplicated
    sequence numbers. We argue that together, these sources of overhead
    add just 4 bytes per packet relative to RTP-over-UDP, and that
    eliminating the redundancy would not reduce the overhead. However,
    particular CCIDs might make productive use of the space occupied by
    RTP's sequence number.

    First, consider acknowledgements. The information on packet loss
    that RTP communicates via RTCP SR/RR packets is communicated by DCCP
    via acknowledgement options. Much of the information in an RTCP
    receiver report could be divined from DCCP acknowledgements,
    depending on the CCID in use.  Acknowledgement options, such as Ack
    Vector, can be frequent and verbose, whereas RTCP reports are sent
    only rarely, with a minimum interval of 5 seconds between reports
    [RFC 1889].

    However, not all CCIDs require such verbose acknowledgements. CCID 3
    (TFRC) reports acknowledgements at a low rate---between 16 and 32
    bytes of options (depending on ECN usage), sent once per round trip
    time. This is not an undue burden. Furthermore, the options are



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    necessary to implement responsive congestion control, and we cannot
    report less frequently, although we might design alternative
    acknowledgement options that take fewer bytes. DCCP gives the
    application the trade off between small packet overhead and the
    precise feedback provided by Ack Vector.

    While RTP receiver reports might be considered "redundant" in the
    presence of DCCP's more precise acknowledgements, they are sent so
    infrequently that it is not worth optimizing them away. Also, note
    that in the common case of a one-way data stream, acknowledgement
    packets contain no data, so acknowledgement header size (as distinct
    from congestion on the acknowledgement path) is not an issue.

    We now consider sequence number redundancy on data packets. The
    embedded RTP header contains a 16-bit RTP sequence number. Most data
    packets will use the DCCP-Data type; DCCP-DataAck and DCCP-Ack
    packets need not usually be sent. The DCCP-Data header is 12 bytes
    long without options, including a 24-bit sequence number. This is 4
    bytes more than a UDP header. Any options required on data packets
    would add further overhead, although many CCIDs (for instance, CCID
    3 [TFRC]) don't require options on most data packets.

    The DCCP sequence number cannot be inferred from the RTP sequence
    number since it increments on non-data packets as well as data
    packets. The RTP sequence number could be inferred from the DCCP
    sequence number, though; it might equal the DCCP sequence number
    minus the total number of non-data packets seen so far in the
    connection (as tracked by DCCP's # NDP header field).

    Removing RTP's sequence number would not save any header space
    because of alignment issues. However, particular DCCP CCIDs might
    make use of the 16 bits occupied by the RTP sequence number.
    Therefore, particular DCCP CCIDs MAY provide optional CCID-specific
    features that store DCCP quantities in place of the embedded RTP
    sequence number. A conforming DCCP would write in the calculated RTP
    sequence number before passing the packet to RTP. (The DCCP checksum
    would use the DCCP quantity, not the RTP sequence number.)

    Given RTP-over-DCCP's small overhead, however, implementors
    demanding tiny headers will probably prefer more comprehensive
    header compression to this ad-hoc compression technique.

16.  Security Considerations

    DCCP does not provide cryptographic security guarantees.
    Applications desiring hard security should use IPsec or end-to-end
    security of some kind.




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    Nevertheless, DCCP is intended to protect against some classes of
    attackers.  Attackers cannot hijack a DCCP connection (close the
    connection unexpectedly, or cause attacker data to be accepted by an
    endpoint as if it came from the sender) unless they can guess valid
    sequence numbers. Thus, as long as endpoints choose initial sequence
    numbers well, a DCCP attacker must snoop on data packets to get any
    reasonable probability of success.  The sequence number validity
    (Section 5.2), Identification (Section 6.4.3), and mobility (Section
    10) mechanisms provide this guarantee.  We also avoid leaking
    sequence numbers to possibly malicious endpoints. For instance, this
    is why invalid DCCP-Moves are ignored, rather than reset.

17.  IANA Considerations

    DCCP introduces six sets of numbers whose values should be allocated
    by IANA.

    o 32-bit Service Names (Section 5.4; not exclusive to DCCP).

    o 8-bit DCCP-Reset Reasons (Section 5.8).

    o 8-bit DCCP Option Types (Section 6). The CCID-specific options 128
      through 255 need not be allocated by IANA.

    o 8-bit DCCP Feature Numbers (Section 6.3). The CCID-specific
      features 128 through 255 need not be allocated by IANA.

    o 8-bit DCCP Congestion Control Identifiers (CCIDs) (Section 7).

    o 16-bit Identification Regimes, for use with DCCP Identification
      and Challenge options (Section 6.4).

    In addition, DCCP requires a Protocol Number to be added to the
    registry of Assigned Internet Protocol Numbers. Experimental
    implementors should use Protocol Number 33 for DCCP, but this number
    may change in future.

18.  Design Motivation

    In the section we attempt to capture some of the rationale behind
    specific details of DCCP design.

18.1.  CSlen and Partial Checksumming

    A great deal of discussion has taken place regarding the utility of
    allowing a DCCP sender to restrict the checksum so that it does not
    cover the complete packet.




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    Many of the applications that we envisage using DCCP are resilient
    to some degree of data loss, or they would typically have chosen a
    reliable transport.  Some of these applications may also be
    resilient to data corruption---some audio payloads, for example.
    These resilient applications might prefer to receive corrupted data
    than to have DCCP drop a corrupted packet.  This is particularly
    because of congestion control: DCCP cannot tell the difference
    between packets dropped due to corruption and packets dropped due to
    congestion, and so it must reduce the transmission rate accordingly.
    This response may cause the connection to receive less bandwidth
    than it is due; corruption in some networking technologies is
    independent of, or at least not always correlated to, congestion.
    Therefore, corrupted packets do not need to cause as strong a
    reduction in transmission rate as the congestion response would
    dictate (so long as the DCCP header and options are not corrupt).

    Thus DCCP allows the checksum to cover all of the packet, just the
    DCCP header, or both the DCCP header and some number of bytes from
    the payload.  If the application cannot tolerate any payload
    corruption, then the checksum SHOULD cover the whole packet.  If the
    application would prefer to tolerate some corruption rather than
    have the packet dropped, then it can set the checksum to cover only
    part of the packet (but always the DCCP header).  In addition, if
    the application wishes to decouple checksumming of the DCCP header
    from checksumming of the payload, it may do so by including the
    Payload Checksum option.  This would allow payload corruption to
    cause DCCP to discard a corrupted payload, but still not mistake the
    corruption for network congestion.

    Thus, from the application point of view, partial checksums seem to
    be a desirable feature.  However, the usefulness of partial
    checksums depends on partially corrupted packets being delivered to
    the receiver.  If the link-layer CRC always discards corrupted
    packets, then this will not happen, and so the usefulness of partial
    checksums would be restricted to corruption that occurred in routers
    and other places not covered by link CRCs.  There does not appear to
    be consensus on how likely it is that future network links that
    suffer significant corruption will not cover the entire packet with
    a single strong CRC.  DCCP makes it possible to tailor such links to
    the application, but it is difficult to predict if this will be
    compelling for future link technologies.

    In addition, partial checksums do not co-exist well with IP-level
    authentication mechanisms such as IPsec AH, which cover the entire
    packet with a cryptographic hash.  Thus, if cryptographic
    authentication mechanisms are required to co-exist with partial
    checksums, the authentication must be carried in the DCCP payload.
    A possible mode of usage would appear to be similar to that of



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    Secure RTP.  However, such "application-level" authentication does
    not protect the DCCP option negotiation and state machine from
    forged packets.  An alternative would be to use IPsec ESP, and use
    encryption to protect the DCCP headers against attack, while using
    the DCCP header validity checks to authenticate that the header is
    from someone who possessed the correct key.  However, while this is
    resistant to replay (due to the DCCP sequence number), it is not by
    itself resistant to some forms of man-in-the-middle attacks because
    the payload is not tightly coupled to the packet header.  Thus an
    application-level authentication probably needs to be coupled with
    IPsec ESP or a similar mechanism to provide a reasonably complete
    security solution.  The overhead of such a solution might be
    unacceptable for some applications that would otherwise wish to use
    partial checksums.

    On balance, the authors believe that DCCP partial checksums have the
    potential to enable some future uses that would otherwise be
    difficult.  As the cost and complexity of supporting them is small,
    it seems worth including them at this time.  It remains to be seen
    whether they are useful in practice.

19.  Thanks

    There is a wealth of work in this area, including the Congestion
    Manager.  We thank the staff and interns of ICIR and, formerly,
    ACIRI, the members of the End-to-End Research Group, and the members
    of the Transport Area Working Group for their feedback on DCCP. We
    also thank those who provided comments and suggestions via the DCCP
    BOF, Working Group, and mailing lists, including Damon Lanphear,
    Patrick McManus, Sara Karlberg, Kevin Lai, Youngsoo Choi, Dan
    Duchamp, Derek Fawcus, David Timothy Fleeman, John Loughney,
    Ghyslain Pelletier, Tom Phelan, Stanislav Shalunov, Yufei Wang, and
    Michael Welzl.

20.  Normative References

    [RFC 793] J. Postel, editor. Transmission Control Protocol. RFC 793.

    [RFC 1191] J. C. Mogul and S. E. Deering. Path MTU Discovery. RFC
        1191.

    [RFC 2026] S. Bradner. The Internet Standards Process---Revision 3.
        RFC 2026.

    [RFC 2119] S. Bradner. Key Words For Use in RFCs to Indicate
        Requirement Levels. RFC 2119.





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    [RFC 2460] S. Deering and R. Hinden. Internet Protocol, Version 6
        (IPv6) Specification. RFC 2460.

    [RFC 3168] K.K. Ramakrishnan, S. Floyd, and D. Black. The Addition
        of Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN) to IP. RFC 3168.
        September 2001.

21.  Informative References

    [CCID 2 PROFILE] S. Floyd and E. Kohler. Profile for DCCP Congestion
        Control ID 2: TCP-like Congestion Control. draft-ietf-dccp-
        ccid2-01.txt, work in progress, March 2003.

    [CCID 3 PROFILE] S. Floyd, E. Kohler, and J. Padhye. Profile for
        DCCP Congestion Control ID 3: TFRC Congestion Control. draft-
        ietf-dccp-ccid3-01.txt, work in progress, March 2003.

    [ECN NONCE] David Wetherall, David Ely, and Neil Spring. Robust ECN
        Signaling with Nonces.  draft-ietf-tsvwg-tcp-nonce-04.txt, work
        in progress, October 2002.

    [RFC 1889] Audio-Video Transport Working Group, H. Schulzrinne, S.
        Casner, R.  Frederick, and V. Jacobson. RTP: A Transport
        Protocol for Real-Time Applications. RFC 1889.

    [RFC 1948] S. Bellovin. Defending Against Sequence Number Attacks.
        RFC 1948.

    [RFC 2960] R. Stewart, Q. Xie, K. Morneault, C. Sharp, H.
        Schwarzbauer, T. Taylor, I.  Rytina, M. Kalla, L. Zhang, and V.
        Paxson. Stream Control Transmission Protocol. RFC 2960.

    [RFC 3124] H. Balakrishnan and S. Seshan. The Congestion Manager.
        RFC 3124.

    [SB00] Alex C. Snoeren and Hari Balakrishnan. An End-to-End Approach
        to Host Mobility. Proc. 6th Annual ACM/IEEE International
        Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MOBICOM '00),
        August 2000.

    [SHHP00] Oliver Spatscheck, Jorgen S. Hansen, John H. Hartman, and
        Larry L.  Peterson. Optimizing TCP Forwarder Performance.
        IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking 8(2):146-157, April 2000.

    [SYNCOOKIES] Daniel J. Bernstein. SYN Cookies.
        http://cr.yp.to/syncookies.html





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    [UDP-LITE] L-A. Larzon, M. Degermark, S. Pink, L-E. Jonsson
        (editor), and G. Fairhurst (editor). The UDP-Lite Protocol.
        draft-ietf-tsvwg-udp-lite-01.txt, work in progress, December
        2002.

22.  Authors' Addresses

    Eddie Kohler <kohler@icir.org>
    Mark Handley <mjh@icir.org>
    Sally Floyd <floyd@icir.org>

    ICSI Center for Internet Research
    1947 Center Street, Suite 600
    Berkeley, CA 94704 USA

    Jitendra Padhye <padhye@microsoft.com>

    Microsoft Research
    One Microsoft Way
    Redmond, WA 98052 USA



23.  Appendix: Ack Vector Implementation Notes

    This appendix discusses particulars of DCCP acknowledgement
    handling, in the context of an abstract implementation for Ack
    Vector. It is informative rather than normative.

    The first part of our implementation runs at the HC-Receiver, and
    therefore acknowledges data packets. It generates Ack Vector
    options. The implementation has the following characteristics:

    o At most one byte of state per acknowledged packet.

    o O(1) time to update that state when a new packet arrives (normal
      case).

    o Cumulative acknowledgements.

    o Quick removal of old state.

    The basic data structure is a circular buffer containing information
    about acknowledged packets. Each byte in this buffer contains a
    state and run length; the state can be 0 (packet received), 1
    (packet ECN marked), or 3 (packet not yet received). The live
    portion of the buffer is marked off by head and tail pointers, each
    marked with the HC-Sender sequence number to which it corresponds.



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    The buffer also stores a single-bit ECN Nonce Echo, which equals the
    one-bit sum of the ECN Nonces received on state-0 packets. The
    buffer grows from right to left. For example:

      +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
      |S,L|S,L|S,L|S,L|   |   |   |   |   |S,L|S,L|S,L|S,L|S,L|S,L|S,L|S,L|
      +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
                    ^                       ^
             Tail, seqno = T         Head, seqno = H     ECN Nonce Echo = E

                   <=== Head and Tail move this way <===


    Each `S,L' represents a State/Run length byte. We will draw these
    buffers showing only their live portion; for example, here is
    another representation for the buffer above:

       +-----------------------------------------------+
     H |S,L|S,L|S,L|S,L|S,L|S,L|S,L|S,L|S,L|S,L|S,L|S,L| T   ENE[E]
       +-----------------------------------------------+


    This smaller Example Buffer contains actual data.

             +---------------------------+
          10 |0,0|3,0|3,0|3,0|0,4|1,0|0,0| 0   ENE[1]   [Example Buffer]
             +---------------------------+


    In concrete terms, its meaning is as follows:

        Packet 10 was received. (The head of the buffer has sequence
        number 10, state 0, and run length 0.)

        Packets 9, 8, and 7 have not yet been received. (The three bytes
        preceding the head each have state 3 and run length 0.)

        Packets 6, 5, 4, 3, and 2 were received.

        Packet 1 was ECN marked.

        Packet 0 was received.

        The one-bit sum of the ECN Nonces on packets 10, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2,
        and 0 equals 1.






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23.1.  New Packets

    When a packet arrives whose sequence number is larger than any in
    the buffer, the HC-Receiver simply moves the Head pointer to the
    left, increases the head sequence number, and stores a byte
    representing the packet into the buffer. For example, if HC-Sender
    packet 11 arrived ECN marked, the Example Buffer above would enter
    this new state (the change is marked with stars):

             +***----------------------------+
          11 |1,0|0,0|3,0|3,0|3,0|0,4|1,0|0,0| 0   ENE[1]
             +***----------------------------+


    If the packet's state equals the state at the head of the buffer,
    the HC-Receiver may choose to increment its run length (up to the
    maximum). For example, if HC-Sender packet 11 arrived without ECN
    marking and with ECN Nonce 0, the Example Buffer might enter this
    state instead:

                 +--*------------------------+
              11 |0,1|3,0|3,0|3,0|0,4|1,0|0,0| 0   ENE[1]
                 +--*------------------------+


    Of course, the new packet's sequence number might not equal the
    expected sequence number. In this case, the HC-Receiver should enter
    the intervening packets as State 3. If several packets are missing,
    the HC-Receiver may prefer to enter multiple bytes with run length
    0, rather than a single byte with a larger run length; this
    simplifies table updates when one of the missing packets arrives.
    For example, if HC-Sender packet 12 arrived with ECN Nonce 1, the
    Example Buffer would enter this state:

         +*******----------------------------+         *
      12 |0,0|3,0|0,1|3,0|3,0|3,0|0,4|1,0|0,0| 0   ENE[0]
         +*******----------------------------+         *


    When a new packet's sequence number is less than the head sequence
    number, the HC-Receiver should scan the table for the byte
    corresponding to that sequence number. (Slightly more complex
    indexing structures could reduce the complexity of this scan.)
    Assume that the sequence number was previously lost (State 3), and
    that it was stored in a byte with run length 0. Then the HC-Receiver
    can simply change the byte's state. For example, if HC-Sender packet
    8 was received with ECN Nonce 0, the Example Buffer would enter this
    state:



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                 +--------*------------------+
              10 |0,0|3,0|0,0|3,0|0,4|1,0|0,0| 0   ENE[1]
                 +--------*------------------+


    If the packet is not marked as lost, or if its sequence number is
    not contained in the table, the packet is probably a duplicate, and
    should be ignored. (The new packet's ECN marking state might differ
    from the state in the buffer; Section 8.5.1 describes what to do
    then.) If the packet's corresponding buffer byte has a non-zero run
    length, then the buffer might need be reshuffled to make space for
    one or two new bytes.

    Of course, the circular buffer may overflow, either when the HC-
    Sender is sending data at a very high rate, when the HC-Receiver's
    acknowledgements are not reaching the HC-Sender, or when the HC-
    Sender is forgetting to acknowledge those acks (so the HC-Receiver
    is unable to clean up old state). In this case, the HC-Receiver
    should either compress the buffer, transfer its state to a larger
    buffer, or drop all received packets, without processing them
    whatsoever, until its buffer shrinks again.

23.2.  Sending Acknowledgements

    Whenever the HC-Receiver needs to generate an acknowledgement, the
    buffer's contents can simply be copied into one or more Ack Vector
    options. Copied Ack Vectors might not be maximally compressed; for
    example, the Example Buffer above contains three adjacent 3,0 bytes
    that could be combined into a single 3,2 byte. The HC-Receiver
    might, therefore, choose to compress the buffer in place before
    sending the option, or to compress the buffer while copying it;
    either operation is simple.

    Every acknowledgement sent by the HC-Receiver SHOULD include the
    entire state of the buffer. That is, acknowledgements are
    cumulative.

    The HC-Receiver should store information about each acknowledgement
    it sends in another buffer. Specifically, for every acknowledgement
    it sends, the HC-Receiver should store:

    o The HC-Receiver sequence number it used for the ack packet.

    o The HC-Sender sequence number it acknowledged (that is, the
      packet's Acknowledgement Number). Since acknowledgements are
      cumulative, this single number completely specifies the set of HC-
      Sender packets acknowledged by this ack packet.




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23.3.  Clearing State

    Some of the HC-Sender's packets will include acknowledgement
    numbers, which ack the HC-Receiver's acknowledgements. When such an
    ack is received, the HC-Receiver simply finds the HC-Sender sequence
    number corresponding to that acked HC-Receiver packet, and moves the
    buffer's Tail pointer up to that sequence number. (It may choose to
    keep some older information, in case a lost packet shows up late.)
    For example, say that the HC-Receiver storing the Example Buffer had
    sent two acknowledgements already:

    (1) HC-Receiver Ack 59 acknowledged HC-Sender Seq 3 with ECN Nonce
        Echo 1.

    (2) HC-Receiver Ack 60 acknowledged HC-Sender Seq 10 with ECN Nonce
        Echo 0.

    Say the HC-Receiver then received a DCCP-DataAck packet from the HC-
    Sender with Acknowledgement Number 59. This informs the HC-Receiver
    that the HC-Sender received, and processed, all the information in
    HC-Receiver packet 59. This packet acknowledged HC-Sender packet 3,
    so the HC-Sender has now received HC-Receiver's acknowledgements for
    packets 0, 1, 2, and 3. The Example Buffer should enter this state:

                 +------------------*+ *       *
              10 |0,0|3,0|3,0|3,0|0,2| 4   ENE[0]
                 +------------------*+ *       *


    The tail byte's run length was adjusted, since packet 3 was in the
    middle of that byte. The new ECN Nonce Echo field equals the
    exclusive-or of the old field, and the ECN Nonce Echo reported with
    the relevant acknowledgement. The HC-Receiver can also throw away
    stored information about HC-Receiver Ack 59.

    A careful implementation might try to ensure reasonable robustness
    to reordering.  Suppose that the Example Buffer is as before, but
    that packet 9 now arrives, out of sequence.  The buffer would enter
    this state:

                 +----*----------------------+
              10 |0,0|0,0|3,0|3,0|0,4|1,0|0,0| 0    ENE[1]
                 +----*----------------------+

    The danger is that the HC-Sender might acknowledge the P2's previous
    acknowledgement (with sequence number 60), which says that Packet 9
    was not received, before the HC-Receiver has a chance to send a new
    acknowledgement saying that Packet 9 actually was received.



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    Therefore, when packet 9 arrived, the HC-Receiver might modify its
    acknowledgement record to:

    (1) HC-Receiver Ack 59 acknowledged HC-Sender Seq 3 with ECN Nonce
        Echo 1.

    (2) HC-Receiver Ack 60 also acknowledged HC-Sender Seq 3 with ECN
        Nonce Echo 1.

    That is, Ack 60 is now treated like a duplicate of Ack 59. This
    would prevent the Tail pointer from moving past packet 9 until the
    HC-Receiver knows that the HC-Sender has seen an Ack Vector
    indicating that packet's arrival.

23.4.  Processing Acknowledgements

    When the HC-Sender receives an acknowledgement, it generally cares
    about the number of packets that were dropped and/or ECN marked. It
    simply reads this off the Ack Vector. Additionally, it may check the
    ECN Nonce for correctness. (As described in Section 8.5.1, it may
    want to keep more detailed information about acknowledged packets in
    case packets change states between acknowledgements, or in case the
    application queries whether a packet arrived.)

    The HC-Sender must also acknowledge the HC-Receiver's
    acknowledgements so that the HC-Receiver can free old Ack Vector
    state. (Since Ack Vector acknowledgements are reliable, the HC-
    Receiver must maintain and resend Ack Vector information until it is
    sure that the HC-Sender has received that information.) A simple
    algorithm suffices: since Ack Vector acknowledgements are
    cumulative, a single acknowledgement number tells HC-Receiver how
    much ack information has arrived. Assuming that the HC-Receiver
    sends no data, the HC-Sender can simply ensure that at least once a
    round-trip time, it sends a DCCP-DataAck packet acknowledging the
    latest DCCP-Ack packet it has received. Of course, the HC-Sender
    only needs to acknowledge the HC-Receiver's acknowledgements if the
    HC-Sender is also sending data. If the HC-Sender is not sending
    data, then the HC-Receiver's Ack Vector state is stable, and there
    is no need to shrink it. The HC-Sender must watch for drops and ECN
    marks on received DCCP-Ack packets so that it can adjust the HC-
    Receiver's ack-sending rate---for example, with Ack Ratio---in
    response to congestion.

    If the other half-connection is not quiescent---that is, the HC-
    Receiver is sending data to the HC-Sender, possibly using another
    CCID---then the acknowledgements on that half-connection are
    sufficient for the HC-Receiver to free its state.




Kohler/Handley/Floyd/Padhye                     Section 23.4.  [Page 80]


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