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Versions: (draft-allman-dkim-ssp) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 RFC 5617

DKIM Working Group                                             E. Allman
Internet-Draft                                            Sendmail, Inc.
Intended status:  Standards Track                              M. Delany
Expires:  December 19, 2007                                  Yahoo! Inc.
                                                               J. Fenton
                                                     Cisco Systems, Inc.
                                                           June 17, 2007


                     DKIM Sender Signing Practices
                         draft-ietf-dkim-ssp-00

Status of this Memo

   By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any
   applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware
   have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes
   aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section 6 of BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on December 19, 2007.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2007).

Abstract

   DomainKeys Identified Mail (DKIM) defines a domain-level
   authentication framework for email using public-key cryptography and
   key server technology to permit verification of the source and
   contents of messages by either Mail Transport Agents (MTAs) or Mail
   User Agents (MUAs).  The primary DKIM protocol is described in



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   [RFC4871].

   This document describes the records that senders may use to advertise
   how they sign their outgoing mail, and how verifiers should access
   and interpret those results.

Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

(Unresolved Issues/To Be Done)

   Security Considerations needs further work.




































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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   2.  Language and Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     2.1.  Terms Imported from DKIM Signatures Specification  . . . .  5
     2.2.  Valid Signature  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     2.3.  Originator Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     2.4.  Alleged Signer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     2.5.  Alleged Originator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     2.6.  Sender Signing Practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     2.7.  Originator Signature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     2.8.  Suspicious . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     2.9.  Third-Party Signature  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     2.10. Verifier Acceptable Third-Party Signature  . . . . . . . .  7
   3.  Operation Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   4.  Detailed Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     4.1.  DNS Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     4.2.  Publication of SSP Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     4.3.  Record Syntax  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     4.4.  Sender Signing Practices Check Procedure . . . . . . . . . 11
   5.  Third-Party Signatures and Mailing Lists . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     5.1.  Mailing List Manager Actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     5.2.  Signer Actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
   6.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
   7.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     7.1.  Fraudulent Sender Address  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     7.2.  DNS Attacks  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
   8.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     8.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     8.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
   Appendix A.  Change Log  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     A.1.  Changes since -allman-ssp-02 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     A.2.  Changes since -allman-ssp-01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     A.3.  Changes since -allman-ssp-00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
   Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 19















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1.  Introduction

   DomainKeys Identified Mail (DKIM) defines a mechanism by which email
   messages can be cryptographically signed, permitting a signing domain
   to claim responsibility for the introduction of a message into the
   mail stream.  Message recipients can verify the signature by querying
   the signer's domain directly to retrieve the appropriate public key,
   and thereby confirm that the message was attested to by a party in
   possession of the private key for the signing domain.

   However, the legacy of the Internet is such that not all messages
   will be signed, and the absence of a signature on a message is not an
   a priori indication of forgery.  In fact, during early phases of
   deployment it must be expected that most messages will remain
   unsigned.  However, some domains may choose to sign all of their
   outgoing mail, for example, to protect their brand name.  It is
   highly desirable for such domains to be able to advertise that fact
   to verifiers, and that messages claiming to be from them that do not
   have a valid signature are likely to be forgeries.  This is the topic
   for sender signing practices.

   In the absence of a valid DKIM signature on behalf of the "From"
   address [RFC2822], the verifier of a message MUST determine whether
   messages from that sender are expected to be signed, and what
   signatures are acceptable.  In particular, whether a domain signs all
   outbound email must be communicated to the verifier.  Without such a
   mechanism, the benefit of message signing techniques such as DKIM is
   limited since unsigned messages will always need to be considered to
   be potentially legitimate.  This determination is referred to as a
   Sender Signing Practices check.

   Conceivably, such expressions might be imagined to be extended in the
   future to include information about what hashing algorithms a domain
   uses, what kind of messages might be sent (e.g., bulk vs. personal
   vs. transactional), etc.  Such concerns are out of scope of this
   standard, because they can be expressed in the key record
   ("Selector") with which the signature is verified.  In contrast, this
   specification focuses on information which is relevant in the absence
   of a valid signature.  Expressions of signing practice which require
   outside auditing are similarly out of scope for this specification
   because they fall under the purview of reputation and accreditation.

   The detailed requirements for Sender Signing Practices are given in
   [I-D.ietf-dkim-ssp-requirements], which the protocol described in
   this document attempts to satisfy.  This document refers extensively
   to [RFC4871], which should be read as a prerequisite to this
   document.




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2.  Language and Terminology

2.1.  Terms Imported from DKIM Signatures Specification

   Some terminology used herein is derived directly from [RFC4871].
   Briefly,

   o  A "Signer" is the agent that signs a message.  In many cases it
      will correspond closely with the original author of the message or
      an agent working on the author's behalf.

   o  A "Verifier" is the agent that verifies a message by checking the
      actual signature against the message itself and the public key
      published by the alleged signer.  The Verifier also looks up the
      Sender Signing Practices published by the domain of the Originator
      Address if the message is not correctly signed by the Alleged
      Originator.

   o  A "Selector" specifies which of the keys published by a signing
      domain should be queried.  It is essentially a way of subdividing
      the address space to allow a single sending domain to publish
      multiple keys.

2.2.  Valid Signature

   A "Valid Signature" is any signature on a message which correctly
   verifies using the procedure described in section 6.1 of [RFC4871].

2.3.  Originator Address

   The "Originator Address" is the email address in the From header
   field of a message [RFC2822], or if and only if the From header field
   contains multiple addresses, the first address in the From header
   field.

      NON-NORMATIVE RATIONALE:  The alternative option when there are
      multiple addresses in the From header field is to use the value of
      the Sender header field.  This would be closer to the semantics
      indicated in [RFC2822] than using the first address in the From
      header field.  However, the large number of deployed Mail User
      Agents that do not display the Sender header field value argues
      against that.  Multiple addresses in the From header field are
      rare in real life.








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2.4.  Alleged Signer

   An "Alleged Signer" is the identity of the signer claimed in a DKIM-
   Signature header field in a message received by a Verifier; it is
   "alleged" because it has not yet been verified.

2.5.  Alleged Originator

   An "Alleged Originator" is the Originator Address of a message
   received by a Verifier; it is "alleged" because it has not yet been
   verified.

2.6.  Sender Signing Practices

   "Sender Signing Practices" (or just "practices") consist of a
   machine-readable record published by the domain of the Alleged
   Originator which includes information about whether or not that
   entity signs all of their email, and whether signatures from third
   parties are sanctioned by the Alleged Originator.

2.7.  Originator Signature

   An "Originator Signature" is any Valid Signature where the signing
   address (listed in the "i=" tag if present, otherwise its default
   value, consisting of the null address, representing an unknown user,
   followed by "@", followed by the value of the "d=" tag) matches the
   address in the "From" header field.  If the signing address does not
   include a local-part, then only the domains must match; otherwise,
   the two addresses must be identical.

2.8.  Suspicious

   Messages that do not contain a valid Originator Signature and which
   are inconsistent with a Sender Signing Practices check (e.g., are
   received without a Valid Signature and the sender's signing practices
   indicate all messages from the entity are signed) are referred to as
   "Suspicious".  The handling of such messages is at the discretion of
   the Verifier or final recipient.  "Suspicious" applies only to the
   DKIM evaluation of the message; a Verifier may decide the message
   should be accepted on the basis of other information beyond the scope
   of this document.  Conversely, messages deemed non-Suspicious may be
   rejected for other reasons.

2.9.  Third-Party Signature

   A "Third-Party Signature" is a Valid Signature which is not an
   Originator Signature.




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2.10.  Verifier Acceptable Third-Party Signature

   A Verifier Acceptable Third-Party Signature is a Third-Party
   Signature that the Verifier is willing to accept as meaningful for
   the message under consideration.  The Verifier may use any criteria
   it deems appropriate for making this determination.


3.  Operation Overview

   Sender Signing Practices checks MUST be based on the Originator
   Address.  If the message contains a valid Originator Signature, no
   Sender Signing Practices check need be performed:  the Verifier
   SHOULD NOT look up the Sender Signing Practices and the message
   SHOULD be considered non-Suspicious.

   Verifiers checking messages that do not have at least one valid
   Originator Signature MUST perform a Sender Signing Practices check on
   the domain specified by the Originator Address as described in
   Section 4.4.

   The result of a Sender Signing Practices check is one of four
   possible practices:

   1.  Some messages from this domain are not signed; the message SHOULD
       be presumed to be legitimate in the absence of a valid signature.
       This is the default.

   2.  All messages from this domain are signed; all messages from this
       domain should have a Valid Signature.  Signatures on behalf of a
       third party (e.g., a mailing list) handling the message MAY be
       accepted at the discretion of the verifier.

          NON-NORMATIVE RATIONALE:  Third-party signatures, since they
          can potentially represent any domain, are considered more
          likely to be abused by attackers seeking to spoof a specific
          address.  It may therefore be desirable for verifiers to apply
          other criteria outside the scope of this specification in
          deciding to accept a given third-party signature.  For
          example, a list of known mailing list domains used by
          addresses served by the verifier might be specifically
          considered acceptable third-party signers.

   3.  All valid messages from this domain are signed, and SHOULD have a
       Valid Signature from this domain.  Third-Party Signatures SHOULD
       NOT be accepted.  This practice would typically be used by
       domains which send only transactional email (i.e., do not use
       mailing lists and such that are likely to break signatures) and



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       which wish to emphasize security over deliverability of their
       messages.

   4.  The domain does not exist; the message SHOULD be presumed not to
       be legitimate.

   If a message is encountered by a Verifier without a valid Originator
   Signature, the results MUST be interpreted as follows:

      If the result of the check is practice (1) described above, the
      message MUST be considered non-Suspicious.

      If the result of the check is practice (2), and any verifiable
      signature is present from some signer other than the Originator
      Address in the message, the message SHOULD be considered non-
      Suspicious.

      If the result of the check is practice (3) or (4), the message
      MUST be considered Suspicious.

   If the Sender Signing Practices record for the domain does not exist
   but the domain does exist, Verifier systems MUST assume that some
   messages from this entity are not signed and the message SHOULD NOT
   be considered to be Suspicious.


4.  Detailed Description

4.1.  DNS Representation

   Sender Signing Practices records are published using the DNS TXT
   resource record type.

      NON-NORMATIVE DISCUSSION:  There has been considerable discussion
      on the DKIM WG mailing list regarding the relative advantages of
      TXT and a new resource record (RR) type.  The existence of DNS
      server and resolver implementations which are unable to support
      resource record types other than a specific well-known set is
      cited as a requirement for support of TXT records regardless of
      whether a new RR is defined.  However, without a "flag day" on
      which SSP TXT record support is to be withdrawn, such support is
      likely to continue indefinitely.  As a result, this specification
      defines no new RR type for SSP.

      Another alternative proposed by P. Hallam-Baker is the publication
      of both a TXT record and, when implementations permit, a new RR,
      referred to as XPTR, which gives the location from which SSP and
      other policy information relating to a give domain can be



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      retrieved.  This has the advantage of supporting a variety of
      policies in a scalable manner, with better handling of wildcards
      and centralized publication of policy records, with caching
      advantages.  However, the above implementation issues also apply
      to XPTR, and an additional lookup is required to retrieve SSP via
      the XPTR method.  At the time of publication of this draft,
      consensus on this proposal was unclear.

   The RDATA for SSP resource records is textual in format, with
   specific syntax and semantics relating to their role in describing
   sender signing practices.  The "Tag=Value List" syntax described in
   section 3.2 of [RFC4871] is used.  Records not in compliance with
   that syntax or the syntax of individual tags described in Section 4.3
   MUST be ignored (considered equivalent to a NODATA result) for
   purposes of message disposition, although they MAY cause the logging
   of warning messages via an appropriate system logging mechanism.

   SSP records for a domain are published at a location in the domain's
   DNS hierarchy prefixed by _ssp._domainkey; e.g., the SSP record for
   example.com would be a TXT record whcih is published at
   _ssp._domainkey.example.com.

4.2.  Publication of SSP Records

   Sender Signing Policy is intended to apply to all mail allegedly sent
   from a given Originating Domain, and to the greatest extent possible,
   to all subdomains of that domain.  There are several cases that need
   to be considered in that regard:

   o  The domain itself

   o  Subdomains which may or may not be used for email

   o  Hostnames which may or may not be used for email

   o  Other named resource records in the domain

   o  Multi-level examples of the above, e.g., a.b.example.com

   o  Non-existent cases, i.e., a subdomain or hostname that does not
      actually exist within the domain

   In all of these cases, the records may be published either in
   separate DNS zones or as records within a parent zone.

   Normally, a domain expressing Sender Signing Practices will want to
   do so for both itself and its all of its "descendents" (child
   domains, and hosts, at all lower levels).  Domains wishing to do so



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   MUST publish SSP records as follows:

      Publish an SSP record for the domain itself

      Publish an SSP record for any existing subdomain

      Publish an SSP record for any multilevel name within the
      subdomain.  For example, it is necessary to publish a record for
      a.b.example.com even if the b.example.com subdomain does not exist
      in the sense of being explicitly delegated.

   Note that since the lookup algorithm described below references the
   immediate parent of the alleged originating domain, it is not
   necessary to publish SSP records for every single-level label within
   the domain.  This has been done to relieve domain administrators of
   the burden of publishing an SSP record for every other record in the
   zone, which would be otherwise required.

   Wildcards within a zone, including but not limited to wildcard MX
   records, pose a particular problem.  While referencing the immediate
   parent domain allows the discovery of an SSP record corresponding to
   an unintended immediate-child subdomain, wildcard records apply at
   multiple levels.  For example, if there is a wildcard MX record for
   example.com, the domain foo.bar.example.com can receive mail through
   the named mail exchanger.  Conversely, the existence of the record
   makes it impossible to tell whether foo.bar.example.com is a
   legitimate name since a query for that name will not return an
   NXDOMAIN error.  For that reason, SSP coverage for subdomains of
   domains containing a wildcard record is incomplete.

4.3.  Record Syntax

   Signing practices records follow the tag-value syntax described in
   section 3.2 of [RFC4871].  Tags used in SSP records are as follows.
   Unrecognized tags and tags with illegal values MUST be ignored.  In
   the ABNF below, the FWS token is inherited from [RFC2822] with the
   exclusion of obs-FWS.  The ALPHA and DIGIT tokens are imported from
   [RFC4234].

   dkim=  Outbound signing practices for the entity (plain-text;
      OPTIONAL, default is "unknown").  Possible values are as follows:

      unknown  The entity may sign some or all email.

      all  All mail from the entity is signed; unsigned email MUST be
         considered Suspicious.  The entity may send messages through
         agents that may modify and re-sign messages, so email signed
         with a Verifier Acceptable Third-Party Signature SHOULD be



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         considered non-Suspicious.

      strict  All mail from the entity is signed; messages lacking a
         valid Originator Signature MUST be considered Suspicious.  The
         entity does not expect to send messages through agents that may
         modify and re-sign messages.

            NON-NORMATIVE RATIONALE:  Strict practices may be used by
            entities which send only transactional email to individual
            addresses and which are willing to accept the consequence of
            having some mail which is re-signed appear suspicious in
            return for additional control over their addresses.  Strict
            practices may also be used by entities which do not send
            (and therefore do not sign) any email.

      ABNF:

  ssp-dkim-tag     = "dkim" [FWS] "=" [FWS] "unknown" / "all" / "strict"

   t= Flags, represented as a colon-separated list of names (plain-text;
      OPTIONAL, default is that no flags are set).  Flag values are:

      y  The entity is testing signing practices, and the Verifier
         SHOULD NOT consider a message suspicious based on the record.

      s  The signing practices apply only to the named domain, and not
         to subdomains.

      ABNF:

   ssp-t-tag     = %x75 [FWS] "=" [FWS] ssp-t-tag-flag
                           0*( [FWS] ":" [FWS] ssp-t-tag-flag )
   ssp-t-tag-flag = "y" / "s" / hyphenated-word ; for future extension
   hyphenated-word =  ALPHA [ *(ALPHA / DIGIT / "-") (ALPHA / DIGIT) ]

      Unrecognized flags MUST be ignored.

4.4.  Sender Signing Practices Check Procedure

   The Sender Signing Practices check SHOULD be performed after DKIM
   signature(s), including any where the Alleged Signer is the Alleged
   Originator, have been verified.  Verifiers MUST produce a result that
   is semantically equivalent to applying the following steps in the
   order listed.  In practice, several of these steps can be performed
   in parallel in order to improve performance.

   1.  If a valid Originator Signature exists, the message is non-
       Suspicious, and the algorithm terminates.



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   2.  The Verifier MUST query DNS for a TXT record corresponding to the
       domain part of the Originator Address prefixed by
       "_ssp._domainkey.".  If the result of this query is a NOERROR
       response with one or more answer which is a syntactically-valid
       SSP response, proceed to step 6.

   3.  The Verifier MUST query DNS for a TXT record corresponding to the
       domain part of the Originator Address (with no prefix).  This
       query is made only to check the existence of the domain name and
       MAY be done in parallel with the query made in step 2.  If the
       result of this query is an NXDOMAIN error, the message is
       Supsicious and the algorithm terminates.

   4.  If the immediate parent of the domain part of the domain part of
       the Originator Address is a top-level domain, then the message is
       non-Suspicious (because no SSP record was found) and the
       algorithm terminates.  The verifier MAY also compare the parent
       domain against a locally-maintained list of known address
       suffixes (e.g., .co.uk) and terminate the algorithm with a non-
       Suspicious result if the parent domain matches an entry on the
       list.

   5.  The Verifier MUST query DNS for a TXT record forthe immediate
       parent domain, prefixed with "_ssp._domainkey."  If the result of
       this query is a NOERROR response which does not contain one or
       more answers which is a syntactically-valid SSP response, or the
       "t" tag exists and any of the flags is "s" (indicating it should
       not apply to a subdomain), the message is non-Suspicious and the
       algorithm terminates.

   6.  If the SSP "t" tag exists and any of the flags is "y" (indicating
       testing), the message is non-Suspicious and the algorithm
       terminates.

   7.  If the value of the SSP "dkim" tag is "unknown", the message is
       non-Suspicious and the algorithm terminates.

   8.  If the value of the SSP "dkim" tag is "all", and one or more
       Valid Signatures are present on the message, the message is non-
       Suspicious and the algorithm terminates.

   9.  The message is Suspicious and the algorithm terminates.


5.  Third-Party Signatures and Mailing Lists

   There are several forms of mailing lists, which interact with signing
   in different ways.



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   o  "Verbatim" mailing lists send messages without modification
      whatsoever.  They are often implemented as MTA-based aliases.
      Since they do not modify the message, signatures are unaffected
      and will continue to verify.  It is not necessary for the
      forwarder to re-sign the message; however, some may choose to do
      so in order to certify that the message was sent through the list.

   o  "Digesting" mailing lists collect together one or more postings
      and then retransmit them, often on a nightly basis, to the
      subscription list.  These are essentially entirely new messages
      which must be independently authored (that is, they will have a
      "From" header field referring to the list, not the submitters) and
      signed by the Mailing List Manager itself, if they are signed at
      all.

   o  "Resending" mailing lists receive a message, modify it (often to
      add "unsubscribe" information or advertising), and immediately
      resend that message to the subscription list.  They are
      problematic because they usually do not change the "From" header
      field of the message, but they do invalidate the signature in the
      process of modifying the message.

   The first two cases act in obvious ways and do not require further
   discussion.  The remainder of this session applies only to the third
   case.

5.1.  Mailing List Manager Actions

   Mailing List Managers should make every effort to ensure that
   messages that they relay and which have Valid Signatures upon receipt
   also have Valid Signatures upon retransmission.  In particular,
   Mailing List Managers that modify the message in ways that break
   existing signatures SHOULD:

   o  Verify any existing DKIM Signatures.  A DKIM-aware Mailing List
      Manager MUST NOT re-sign an improperly signed message in such a
      way that would imply that the existing signature is acceptable.

   o  Apply regular anti-spam policies.  A Mailing List Manager SHOULD
      apply message content security policy just as they would messages
      destined for an individual user's mailbox.  In fact, a Mailing
      List Manager might apply a higher standard to messages destined to
      a mailing list than would normally be applied to individual
      messages.

         NON-NORMATIVE RATIONALE:  Since reputation will accrue to
         signers, Mailing List Managers should verify the source and
         content of messages before they are willing to sign lest their



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         reputation be sullied by nefarious parties.

   o  Add a Sender header field using a valid address pointing back to
      the Mailing List Administrator or an appropriate agent (such as an
      "owner-" or a "-request" address).

   o  Sign the resulting message with a signature that is valid for the
      Sender header field address.  The Mailing List Manager SHOULD NOT
      sign messages for which they are unwilling to accept
      responsibility.

   Mailing List Managers MAY:

   o  Reject messages with signatures that do not verify or are
      otherwise Suspicious.

5.2.  Signer Actions

   All Signers SHOULD:

   o  Include any existing Sender header field in the signed header
      field list, if the Sender header field exists.

   Signers wishing to avoid the use of Third-Party Signatures SHOULD do
   everything listed above, and also:

   o  Include the Sender header field name in the header field list
      ("h=" tag) under all circumstances, even if the Sender header
      field does not exist in the header block.  This prevents another
      entity from adding a Sender header field.

   o  Publish Sender Signing Practices that does not sanction the use of
      Third-Party Signatures


6.  IANA Considerations

   IANA is requested to create a "DKIM selector name" registry and to
   reserve the selector name "_ssp" to avoid confusion between DKIM key
   records and SSP records.


7.  Security Considerations

   Security considerations in the Sender Signing Practices are mostly
   related to attempts on the part of malicious senders to represent
   themselves as other senders, often in an attempt to defraud either
   the recipient or the Alleged Originator.



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   Additional security considerations regarding Sender Signing Practices
   may be found in the DKIM threat analysis [RFC4686].

7.1.  Fraudulent Sender Address

   [[Assuming 3rd party signature is based on Sender header field]] If
   the Sender Signing Practices sanction third-party signing, an
   attacker can create a message with a From header field of an
   arbitrary sender and a legitimately signed Sender header field

7.2.  DNS Attacks

   An attacker might attack the DNS infrastructure in an attempt to
   impersonate SSP records.  However, such an attacker is more likely to
   attack at a higher level, e.g., redirecting A or MX record lookups in
   order to capture traffic that was legitimately intended for the
   target domain.  Domains concerned about this should use DNSSEC
   [RFC4033].

   Because SSP operates within the framework of the legacy e-mail
   system, the default result in the absence of an SSP record is that
   the domain does notsign all of its messages.  Therefore, a DNS attack
   which is successful in suppressing the SSP response to the verifier
   is sufficient to cause the verifier to see unsigned messages as non-
   suspicious, even when that is not intended by the alleged originating
   domain.


8.  References

8.1.  Normative References

   [RFC1035]  Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - implementation and
              specification", STD 13, RFC 1035, November 1987.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC2822]  Resnick, P., "Internet Message Format", RFC 2822,
              April 2001.

   [RFC4234]  Crocker, D., Ed. and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax
              Specifications: ABNF", RFC 4234, October 2005.

   [RFC4871]  Allman, E., Callas, J., Delany, M., Libbey, M., Fenton,
              J., and M. Thomas, "DomainKeys Identified Mail (DKIM)
              Signatures", RFC 4871, May 2007.




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8.2.  Informative References

   [I-D.ietf-dkim-ssp-requirements]
              Thomas, M., "Requirements for a DKIM Signing Practices
              Protocol", draft-ietf-dkim-ssp-requirements-04 (work in
              progress), April 2007.

   [RFC4033]  Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S.
              Rose, "DNS Security Introduction and Requirements",
              RFC 4033, March 2005.

   [RFC4686]  Fenton, J., "Analysis of Threats Motivating DomainKeys
              Identified Mail (DKIM)", RFC 4686, September 2006.


Appendix A.  Change Log

A.1.  Changes since -allman-ssp-02

   o  Removed user-granularity SSP and u= tag.

   o  Replaced DKIMP resource record with a TXT record.

   o  Changed name of the primary tag from "p" to "dkim".

   o  Replaced lookup algorithm with one which traverses upward at most
      one level.

   o  Added description of records which must be published, and effect
      of wildcard records within the domain, on SSP.

A.2.  Changes since -allman-ssp-01

   o  Changed term "Sender Signing Policy" to "Sender Signing
      Practices".

   o  Changed query methodology to use a separate DNS resource record
      type, DKIMP.

   o  Changed tag values from SPF-like symbols to words.

   o  User level policies now default to that of the domain if not
      specified.

   o  Removed the "Compliance" section since we're still not clear on
      what goes here.





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   o  Changed the "parent domain" policy to only search up one level
      (assumes that subdomains will publish SSP records if appropriate).

   o  Added detailed description of SSP check procedure.

A.3.  Changes since -allman-ssp-00

   From a "diff" perspective, the changes are extensive.  Semantically,
   the changes are:

   o  Added section on "Third-Party Signatures and Mailing Lists"

   o  Added "Compliance" (transferred from -base document).  I'm not
      clear on what needs to be done here.

   o  Extensive restructuring.


Authors' Addresses

   Eric Allman
   Sendmail, Inc.
   6425 Christie Ave, Suite 400
   Emeryville, CA  94608
   USA

   Phone:  +1 510 594 5501
   Email:  eric+dkim@sendmail.org
   URI:


   Mark Delany
   Yahoo! Inc.
   701 First Avenue
   Sunnyvale, CA  94089
   USA

   Phone:  +1 408 349 6831
   Email:  markd+dkim@yahoo-inc.com
   URI:











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   Jim Fenton
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   MS SJ-9/2
   170 W. Tasman Drive
   San Jose, CA  95134-1706
   USA

   Phone:  +1 408 526 5914
   Email:  fenton@cisco.com
   URI:









































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