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DNS Extensions                                                 R. Arends
Internet-Draft                                      Telematica Instituut
Expires: April 26, 2004                                        M. Larson
                                                                VeriSign
                                                              R. Austein
                                                                     ISC
                                                               D. Massey
                                                                 USC/ISI
                                                                 S. Rose
                                                                    NIST
                                                        October 27, 2003


         Protocol Modifications for the DNS Security Extensions
                  draft-ietf-dnsext-dnssec-protocol-03

Status of this Memo

   This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
   all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that other
   groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at http://
   www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt.

   The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.

   This Internet-Draft will expire on April 26, 2004.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2003). All Rights Reserved.

Abstract

   This document is part of a family of documents which describe the DNS
   Security Extensions (DNSSEC).  The DNS Security Extensions are a
   collection of new resource records and protocol modifications which
   add data origin authentication and data integrity to the DNS.  This
   document describes the DNSSEC protocol modifications.  This document



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   defines the concept of a signed zone, along with the requirements for
   serving and resolving using DNSSEC.  These techniques allow a
   security-aware resolver to authenticate both DNS resource records and
   authoritative DNS error indications.

   This document obsoletes RFC 2535 and incorporates changes from all
   updates to RFC 2535.

Table of Contents

   1.    Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   1.1   Background and Related Documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   1.2   Reserved Words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   1.3   Editors' Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   1.3.1 Open Technical Issues  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   1.3.2 Technical Changes or Corrections . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   1.3.3 Typos and Minor Corrections  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   2.    Zone Signing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   2.1   Including DNSKEY RRs in a Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   2.2   Including RRSIG RRs in a Zone  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   2.3   Including NSEC RRs in a Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   2.4   Including DS RRs in a Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   2.5   Changes to the CNAME Resource Record.  . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   2.6   Example of a Secure Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   3.    Serving  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   3.1   Authoritative Name Servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   3.1.1 Including RRSIG RRs in a Response  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   3.1.2 Including DNSKEY RRs In a Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   3.1.3 Including NSEC RRs In a Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   3.1.4 Including DS RRs In a Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   3.1.5 Responding to Queries for Type AXFR or IXFR  . . . . . . . . 14
   3.1.6 The AD and CD Bits in an Authoritative Response  . . . . . . 15
   3.2   Recursive Name Servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
   3.2.1 The DO bit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
   3.2.2 The CD bit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
   3.2.3 The AD bit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
   3.3   Example DNSSEC Responses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
   4.    Resolving  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
   4.1   Rate Limiting  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
   4.2   Stub resolvers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
   5.    Authenticating DNS Responses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
   5.1   Special Considerations for Islands of Security . . . . . . . 24
   5.2   Authenticating Referrals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
   5.3   Authenticating an RRset Using an RRSIG RR  . . . . . . . . . 25
   5.3.1 Checking the RRSIG RR Validity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
   5.3.2 Reconstructing the Signed Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
   5.3.3 Checking the Signature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
   5.3.4 Authenticating A Wildcard Expanded RRset Positive



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         Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
   5.4   Authenticated Denial of Existence  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
   6.    IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
   7.    Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
   8.    Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
         Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
         Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
         Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
   A.    Signed Zone Example  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
   B.    Example Responses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
   B.1   Answer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
   B.2   Name Error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
   B.3   No Data Error  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
   B.4   Referral to Signed Zone  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
   B.5   Referral to Unsigned Zone  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
   B.6   Wildcard Expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
   B.7   Wildcard No Data Error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
   B.8   DS Child Zone No Data Error  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
   C.    Authentication Examples  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
   C.1   Authenticating An Answer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
   C.1.1 Authenticating the example DNSKEY RR . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
   C.2   Name Error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
   C.3   No Data Error  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
   C.4   Referral to Signed Zone  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
   C.5   Referral to Unsigned Zone  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
   C.6   Wildcard Expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
   C.7   Wildcard No Data Error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
   C.8   DS Child Zone No Data Error  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
         Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . 54






















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1. Introduction

   The DNS Security Extensions (DNSSEC) are a collection of new resource
   records and protocol modifications which add data origin
   authentication and data integrity to the DNS. This document defines
   the DNSSEC protocol modifications. Section 2 of this document defines
   the concept of a signed zone and lists the requirements for zone
   signing. Section 3 describes the modifications to authoritative name
   server behavior necessary to handle signed zones. Section 4 describes
   the behavior of entities which include security-aware resolver
   functions. Finally, Section 5 defines how to use DNSSEC RRs to
   authenticate a response.

1.1 Background and Related Documents

   The reader is assumed to be familiar with the basic DNS concepts
   described in RFC1034 [RFC1034] and RFC1035 [RFC1035].

   This document is part of a family of documents which define DNSSEC.
   An introduction to DNSSEC and definition of common terms can be found
   in [I-D.ietf-dnsext-dnssec-intro].  A definition of the DNSSEC
   resource records can be found in [I-D.ietf-dnsext-dnssec-records].

1.2 Reserved Words

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED",  "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119. [RFC2119].

1.3 Editors' Notes

1.3.1 Open Technical Issues

1.3.2 Technical Changes or Corrections

   Please report technical corrections to dnssec-editors@east.isi.edu.
   To assist the editors, please indicate the text in error and point
   out the RFC that defines the correct behavior.  For a technical
   change where no RFC that defines the correct behavior, or if there's
   more than one applicable RFC and the definitions conflict, please
   post the issue to namedroppers.

   An example correction to dnssec-editors might be: Page X says
   "DNSSEC RRs SHOULD be automatically returned in responses."  This was
   true in RFC 2535, but RFC 3225 (Section 3, 3rd paragraph) says the
   DNSSEC RR types MUST NOT be included in responses unless the resolver
   indicated support for DNSSEC.




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1.3.3 Typos and Minor Corrections

   Please report any typos corrections to dnssec-editors@east.isi.edu.
   To assist the editors, please provide enough context for us to find
   the incorrect text quickly.

   An example message to dnssec-editors might be: page X says "the
   DNSSEC standard has been in development for over 1 years".   It
   should read "over 10 years".










































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2. Zone Signing

   DNSSEC is built around the concept of signed zones.  A signed zone
   includes DNSKEY, RRSIG, NSEC and (optionally) DS records according to
   the rules specified in Section 2.1, Section 2.2, Section 2.3 and
   Section 2.4, respectively.  Any zone which does not include these
   records according to the rules in this section MUST be considered
   unsigned for the purposes of the DNS security extensions.

   DNSSEC requires a change to the definition of the CNAME resource
   record.  Section 2.5 changes the CNAME RR to allow RRSIG and NSEC RRs
   to appear at the same owner name as a CNAME RR.

   Section 2.6 shows a sample signed zone.

2.1 Including DNSKEY RRs in a Zone

   To sign a zone, the zone's administrator generates one or more
   public/private key pairs and uses the private key(s) to sign
   authoritative RRsets in the zone.  For each private key used to
   create RRSIG RRs, there SHOULD be a corresponding zone DNSKEY RR
   stored in the zone.  A zone key DNSKEY RR has the Zone Key bit of the
   flags RDATA field set to one -- see Section 2.1.1 of
   [I-D.ietf-dnsext-dnssec-records].  Public keys associated with other
   DNS operations MAY be stored in DNSKEY RRs that are not marked as
   zone keys.

   If the zone is delegated and does not wish to act as an island of
   security, the zone MUST have at least one DNSKEY RR at the apex to
   act as a secure entry point into the zone.  This DNSKEY would then be
   used to generate a DS RR at the delegating parent (see
   [I-D.ietf-dnsext-dnssec-records]).  This DNSKEY RR SHOULD be either a
   zone key or a DNSKEY signing key (see [I-D.ietf-dnsext-dnssec-intro]
   for definition).

   DNSKEY RRs MUST NOT appear at delegation points.

2.2 Including RRSIG RRs in a Zone

   For each authoritative RRset in a signed zone (which excludes both NS
   RRsets at delegation points and glue RRsets), there MUST be at least
   one RRSIG record that meets all of the following requirements:

   o  The RRSIG owner name is equal to the RRset owner name;

   o  The RRSIG class is equal to the RRset class;

   o  The RRSIG Type Covered field is equal to the RRset type;



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   o  The RRSIG Original TTL field is equal to the TTL of the RRset;

   o  The RRSIG RR's TTL is equal to the TTL of the RRset;

   o  The RRSIG Labels field is equal to the number of labels in the
      RRset owner name, not counting the null root label and not
      counting the wildcard label if the owner name is a wildcard;

   o  The RRSIG Signer's Name field is equal to the name of the zone
      containing the RRset; and

   o  The RRSIG Algorithm, Signer's Name, and Key Tag fields identify a
      zone key DNSKEY record at the zone apex.

   The process for constructing the RRSIG RR for a given RRset is
   described in [I-D.ietf-dnsext-dnssec-records]. An RRset MAY have
   multiple RRSIG RRs associated with it.

   An RRSIG RR itself MUST NOT be signed, since signing an RRSIG RR
   would add no value and would create an infinite loop in the signing
   process.

   The NS RRset which appears at the zone apex name MUST be signed, but
   the NS RRsets which appear at delegation points (that is, the NS
   RRsets in the parent zone which delegate the name to the child zone's
   name servers) MUST NOT be signed. Glue address RRsets associated with
   delegations MUST NOT be signed.

   There MUST be an RRSIG for each RRset generated using at least one
   DNSKEY of each algorithm in the parent zone's DS RRset and each
   additional algorithm, if any, in the apex DNSKEY RRset.  The apex
   DNSKEY RRset itself MUST be signed by each algorithm appearing in the
   DS RRset.

   The difference between the set of owner names which require RRSIG
   records and the set of owner names which require NSEC records is
   subtle and worth highlighting.  RRSIG records are present at the
   owner names of all authoritative RRsets.  NSEC records are present at
   the owner names of all names for which the signed zone is
   authoritative and also at the owner names of delegations from the
   signed zone to its children.  Neither NSEC nor RRSIG records are
   present (in the parent zone) at the owner names of glue address
   RRsets.  Note, however, that this distinction is for the most part
   only visible during the zone signing process, because NSEC RRsets are
   authoritative data, and are therefore signed, thus any owner name
   which has an NSEC RRset will have RRSIG RRs as well in the signed
   zone.




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2.3 Including NSEC RRs in a Zone

   Each owner name in the zone MUST have an NSEC resource record, except
   for the owner names of any glue address RRsets.  The process for
   constructing the NSEC RR for a given name is described in
   [I-D.ietf-dnsext-dnssec-records].

   The type bitmap of every NSEC resource record in a signed zone MUST
   indicate the presence of both the NSEC record itself and its
   corresponding RRSIG record.

2.4 Including DS RRs in a Zone

   The DS resource record establishes authentication chains between DNS
   zones.  A DS RRset SHOULD be present at a delegation point when the
   child zone is signed.  The DS RRset MAY contain multiple records,
   each referencing a key used by the child zone to sign its apex DNSKEY
   RRset.  All DS RRsets in a zone MUST be signed and DS RRsets MUST NOT
   appear at non-delegation points nor at a zone's apex.

   A DS RR SHOULD point to a DNSKEY RR which is present in the child's
   apex DNSKEY RRset, and the child's apex DNSKEY RRset SHOULD be signed
   by the corresponding private key.

   The TTL of a DS RRset SHOULD match the TTL of the corresponding NS
   RRset.

   Construction of a DS RR requires knowledge of the corresponding
   DNSKEY RR in the child zone, which implies communication between the
   child and parent zones.  This communication is an operational matter
   not covered by this document.

2.5 Changes to the CNAME Resource Record.

   If a CNAME RRset is present at a name in a signed zone, appropriate
   RRSIG and NSEC RRsets are REQUIRED at that name. Other types MUST NOT
   be present at that name.

   This is a modification to the original CNAME definition given in
   [RFC1034].  The original definition of the CNAME RR did not allow any
   other types to coexist with a CNAME record, but a signed zone
   requires NSEC and RRSIG RRs for every authoritative name.  To resolve
   this conflict, this specification modifies the definition of the
   CNAME resource record to allow it to coexist with NSEC and RRSIG RRs.

2.6 Example of a Secure Zone

   Appendix A shows a complete example of a small signed zone.



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3. Serving

   This section describes the behavior of entities which include
   security-aware name functions.  In many cases such functions will be
   part of a security-aware recursive name server, but a security-aware
   authoritative name server has some of the same requirements as a
   security-aware recursive name server does. Functions specific to
   security-aware recursive name servers are described in Section 3.2;
   functions specific to authoritative servers are described in Section
   3.1.

   The terms "SNAME", "SCLASS", and "STYPE" in the following discussion
   are as used in [RFC1034].

   A security-aware name server MUST support the EDNS0 [RFC2671] message
   size extension, MUST support a message size of at least 1220 octets,
   and SHOULD support a message size of 4000 octets [RFC3226].

   A security-aware name server which receives a DNS query which does
   not include the EDNS OPT pseudo-RR or which has the DO bit set to
   zero MUST treat the RRSIG, DNSKEY, and NSEC RRs as it would any other
   RRset, and MUST NOT perform any of the additional processing
   described below.  Since the DS RR type has the peculiar property of
   only existing in the parent zone at delegation points, DS RRs always
   require some special processing, as described in Section 3.1.4.1.

   DNSSEC allocates two new bits in the DNS message header: the CD
   (Checking Disabled) bit and the AD (Authentic Data) bit.  The CD bit
   is controlled by resolvers; a security-aware name server MUST copy
   the CD bit from a query into the corresponding response.  The AD bit
   is controlled by name servers; a security-aware name server MUST
   ignore the setting of the AD bit in queries.  See Section 3.1.6,
   Section 3.2.2, Section 3.2.3, Section 4, and Section 4.2 for details
   on the behavior of these bits.

3.1 Authoritative Name Servers

   Upon receiving a relevant query which has the EDNS [RFC2671] OPT
   pseudo-RR DO bit [RFC3225] set to one, a security-aware authoritative
   name server for a signed zone MUST include additional RRSIG, NSEC,
   and DS RRs according to the following rules:

   o  RRSIG RRs which can be used to authenticate a response MUST be
      included in the response according to the rules in Section 3.1.1;

   o  NSEC RRs which can be used to provide authenticated denial of
      existence MUST be included in the response automatically according
      to the rules in Section 3.1.3;



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   o  Either a DS RRset or an NSEC RR proving that no DS RRs exist MUST
      be included in referrals automatically according to the rules in
      Section 3.1.4.

   DNSSEC does not change the DNS zone transfer protocol.  Section 3.1.5
   discusses zone transfer requirements.

3.1.1 Including RRSIG RRs in a Response

   When responding to a query which has the DO bit set to one, a
   security-aware authoritative name server SHOULD attempt to send RRSIG
   RRs which a security-aware resolver can use to authenticate the
   RRsets in the response.  Inclusion of RRSIG RRs in a response is
   subject to the following rules:

   o  When placing a signed RRset in the Answer section, the name server
      MUST also place its RRSIG RRs in the Answer section.  The RRSIG
      RRs have a higher priority for inclusion than any other RRsets
      which may need to be included.  If space does not permit inclusion
      of these RRSIG RRs, the name server MUST set the TC bit.

   o  When placing a signed RRset in the Authority section, the name
      server MUST also place its RRSIG RRs in the Authority section.
      The RRSIG RRs have a higher priority for inclusion than any other
      RRsets that may need to be included.  If space does not permit
      inclusion of these RRSIG RRs, the name server MUST set the TC bit.

   o  When placing a signed RRset in the Additional section, the name
      server MUST also place its RRSIG RRs in the Additional section.
      If space does not permit inclusion of these RRSIG RRs, the name
      server MUST NOT set the TC bit solely because these RRSIG RRs
      didn't fit.


3.1.2 Including DNSKEY RRs In a Response

   When responding to a query which has the DO bit set to one and which
   requests the SOA or NS RRs at the apex of a signed zone, a
   security-aware authoritative name server for that zone MAY return the
   zone apex DNSKEY RRset in the Additional section.  In this situation,
   the DNSKEY RRset and associated RRSIG RRs have lower priority than
   any other information that would be placed in the additional section.
   The name server SHOULD NOT include the DNSKEY RRset unless there is
   enough space in the response message for both the DNSKEY RRset and
   its associated RRSIG RR(s). If there is not enough space to include
   these DNSKEY and RRSIG RRs, the name server MUST omit them and MUST
   NOT set the TC bit solely because these RRs didn't fit (see Section
   3.1.1).



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3.1.3 Including NSEC RRs In a Response

   When responding to a query which has the DO bit set to one, a
   security-aware authoritative name server for a signed zone MUST
   include NSEC RRs in each of the following cases:

   No Data: The zone contains RRsets which exactly match <SNAME,
      SCLASS>, but does not contain any RRsets which exactly match
      <SNAME, SCLASS, STYPE>.

   Name Error: The zone does not contain any RRsets which match <SNAME,
      SCLASS> either exactly or via wildcard name expansion.

   Wildcard Answer: The zone does not contain any RRsets which exactly
      match <SNAME, SCLASS> but does contain an RRset which matches
      <SNAME, SCLASS, STYPE> via wildcard name expansion.

   Wildcard No Data: The zone does not contain any RRsets which exactly
      match <SNAME, SCLASS>, does contain one or more RRsets which
      matches <SNAME, SCLASS> via wildcard name expansion, but does not
      contain any RRsets which match <SNAME, SCLASS, STYPE> via wildcard
      name expansion.

   In each of these cases, the name server includes NSEC RRs in the
   response to prove that an exact match for <SNAME, SCLASS, STYPE> was
   not present in the zone and that the response which the name server
   is returning is correct given the data which are in the zone.

3.1.3.1 Including NSEC RRs: No Data Response

   If the zone contains RRsets matching <SNAME, SCLASS> but contains no
   RRset matching <SNAME, SCLASS, STYPE>, then the name server MUST
   include the NSEC RR for <SNAME, SCLASS> along with its associated
   RRSIG RR(s) in the Authority section of the response (see Section
   3.1.1).  If space does not permit inclusion of the NSEC RR or its
   associated RRSIG RR(s), the name server MUST set the TC bit (see
   Section 3.1.1).

   Since the search name exists, wildcard name expansion does not apply
   to this query, and a single signed NSEC RR suffices to prove the
   requested RR type does not exist.

3.1.3.2 Including NSEC RRs: Name Error Response

   If the zone does not contain any RRsets matching <SNAME, SCLASS>
   either exactly or via wildcard name expansion, then the name server
   MUST include the following NSEC RRs in the Authority section, along
   with their associated RRSIG RRs:



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   o  An NSEC RR proving that there is no exact match for <SNAME,
      SCLASS>; and

   o  An NSEC RR proving that the zone contains no RRsets which would
      match <SNAME, SCLASS> via wildcard name expansion.

   In some cases a single NSEC RR may prove both of these points, in
   which case the name server SHOULD only include the NSEC RR and its
   RRSIG RR(s) once in the Authority section.

   If space does not permit inclusion of these NSEC and RRSIG RRs, the
   name server MUST set the TC bit (see Section 3.1.1).

3.1.3.3 Including NSEC RRs: Wildcard Answer Response

   If the zone does not contain any RRsets which exactly match <SNAME,
   SCLASS> but does contain an RRset which matches <SNAME, SCLASS,
   STYPE> via wildcard name expansion, the name server MUST include the
   wildcard-expanded answer and the corresponding wildcard-expanded
   RRSIG RRs in the Answer section, and MUST include in the Authority
   section an NSEC RR and associated RRSIG RR(s) proving that the zone
   does not contain a closer match for <SNAME, SCLASS>.  If space does
   not permit inclusion of these answer, NSEC and RRSIG RRs, the name
   server MUST set the TC bit (see Section 3.1.1).

3.1.3.4 Including NSEC RRs: Wildcard No Data Response

   This case is a combination of the previous cases.  The zone does not
   contain an exact match for <SNAME, SCLASS>, and while the zone does
   contain RRsets which match <SNAME, SCLASS> via wildcard name
   expansion, none of those RRsets match STYPE.  The name server MUST
   include the following NSEC RRs in the Authority section, along with
   their associated RRSIG RRs:

   o  An NSEC RR proving that there are no RRsets matching STYPE at the
      wildcard owner name which matched <SNAME, SCLASS> via wildcard
      expansion; and

   o  An NSEC RR proving that there are no RRsets in the zone which
      would have been a closer match for <SNAME, SCLASS>.

   In some cases a single NSEC RR may prove both of these points, in
   which case the name server SHOULD only include the NSEC RR and its
   RRSIG RR(s) once in the Authority section.

   If space does not permit inclusion of these NSEC and RRSIG RRs, the
   name server MUST set the TC bit (see Section 3.1.1).




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3.1.3.5 Finding The Right NSEC RRs

   As explained above, there are several situations in which a
   security-aware authoritative name server needs to locate an NSEC RR
   which proves that a particular SNAME does not exist.  Locating such
   an NSEC RR within an authoritative zone is relatively simple, at
   least in concept.  The following discussion assumes that the name
   server is authoritative for the zone which would have held the
   nonexistent SNAME.  The algorithm below is written for clarity, not
   efficiency.

   To find the NSEC which proves that name N does not exist in the zone
   Z which would have held it, construct sequence S consisting of every
   name in Z, sorted into canonical order.  Find the name M which would
   have immediately preceded N in S if N had existed.  M is the owner
   name of the NSEC RR which proves that N does not exist.

   The algorithm for finding the NSEC RR which proves that a given name
   is not covered by any applicable wildcard is similar, but requires an
   extra step.  More precisely, the algorithm for finding the NSEC
   proving that the applicable wildcard name does not exist is precisely
   the same as the algorithm for finding the NSEC RR which proves that
   any other name does not exist: the part that's missing is how to
   determine the name of the nonexistent applicable wildcard.  In
   practice, this is easy, because the authoritative name server has
   already checked for the presence of precisely this wildcard name as
   part of step (1)(c) of the normal lookup algorithm described in
   Section 4.3.2 of [RFC1034].

3.1.4 Including DS RRs In a Response

   When responding to a query which has the DO bit set to one, a
   security-aware authoritative name server returning a referral
   includes DNSSEC data along with the NS RRset.

   If a DS RRset is present at the delegation point, the name server
   MUST return both the DS RRset and its associated RRSIG RR(s) along
   with the NS RRset.  The name server MUST place the NS RRset before
   the DS RRset and its associated RRSIG RR(s).

   If no DS RRset is present at the delegation point, the name server
   MUST return both the NSEC RR which proves that the DS RRset is not
   present and the NSEC RR's associated RRSIG RR(s) along with the NS
   RRset.  The name server MUST place the NS RRset before the NSEC RRset
   and its associated RRSIG RR(s).

   Including these DS, NSEC, and RRSIG RRs increases the size of
   referral messages, and may cause some or all glue RRs to be omitted.



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   If space does not permit inclusion of the DS or NSEC RRset and
   associated RRSIG RRs, the name server MUST set the TC bit (see
   Section 3.1.1).

3.1.4.1 Responding to Queries for DS RRs

   The DS resource record type is unusual in that it appears only on the
   parent zone's side of a zone cut.  For example, the DS RRset for the
   delegation of "foo.example" is stored in the "example" zone rather
   than in the "foo.example" zone.  This requires special processing
   rules for both name servers and resolvers, since the name server for
   the child zone is authoritative for the name at the zone cut by the
   normal DNS rules but the child zone does not contain the DS RRset.

   A security-aware resolver will send queries to the parent zone when
   looking for a DS RRset at a delegation point, and thus will never
   trigger the corresponding special processing in a security-aware name
   server.   The rest of this section describes how a security-aware
   recursive name server processes a misdirected DS query.

   The need for special processing by a security-aware name server only
   arises when:

   o  the name server has received a query for the DS RRset at a zone
      cut;

   o  the name server is authoritative for the child zone;

   o  the name server is not authoritative for the parent zone; and

   o  the name server does not offer recursion.

   In all other cases, the name server either has some way of obtaining
   the DS RRset or could not have been expected to have the DS RRset
   even by the pre-DNSSEC processing rules, so the name server can
   return either the DS RRset or an error response according to the
   normal processing rules.

   If all of the above conditions are met, however, the name server is
   authoritative for SNAME but cannot supply the requested RRset.  In
   this case, the name server MUST return an authoritative "no data"
   response showing that the DS RRset does not exist in the child zone's
   apex.  See Appendix B.8 for an example of such a response.

3.1.5 Responding to Queries for Type AXFR or IXFR

   DNSSEC does not change the DNS zone transfer process.  A signed zone
   will contain RRSIG, DNSKEY, NSEC, and DS resource records, but these



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   records have no special meaning with respect to a zone transfer
   operation, and these RRs are treated as any other resource record
   type.

   An authoritative name server is not required to verify that a zone is
   properly signed before sending or accepting a zone transfer.
   However, an authoritative name server MAY choose to reject the entire
   zone transfer if the zone fails meets any of the signing requirements
   described in Section 2.  The primary objective of a zone transfer is
   to ensure that all authoritative name servers have identical copies
   of the zone.  An authoritative name server which chooses to perform
   its own zone validation MUST NOT selectively reject some RRs and
   accept others.

   DS RRsets appear only on the parental side of a zone cut and are
   authoritative data in the parent zone.  As with any other
   authoritative RRset, the DS RRset MUST be included in zone transfers
   of the zone in which the RRset is authoritative data: in the case of
   the DS RRset, this is the parent zone.

   NSEC RRs appear in both the parent and child zones at a zone cut, and
   are authoritative data in both the parent and child zones.  The
   parental and child NSEC RRs at a zone cut are never identical to each
   other, since the NSEC RR in the child zone's apex will always
   indicate the presence of the child zone's SOA RR while the parental
   NSEC RR at the zone cut will never indicate the presence of an SOA
   RR.  As with any other authoritative RRs, NSEC RRs MUST be included
   in zone transfers of the zone in which they are authoritative data:
   the parental NSEC RR at a zone cut MUST be included zone transfers of
   the parent zone, while the NSEC at the zone apex of the child zone
   MUST be included in zone transfers of the child zone.

   RRSIG RRs appear in both the parent and child zones at a zone cut,
   and are authoritative in whichever zone contains the authoritative
   RRset for which the RRSIG RR provides the signature.  That is, the
   RRSIG RR for a DS RRset or a parental NSEC RR at a zone cut will be
   authoritative in the parent zone, while the RRSIG for any RRset in
   the child zone's apex will be authoritative in the child zone. As
   with any other authoritative RRs, RRSIG RRs MUST be included in zone
   transfers of the zone in which they are authoritative data.

3.1.6 The AD and CD Bits in an Authoritative Response

   The CD and AD bits are designed to be used in communication between
   security-aware resolvers and security-aware recursive name servers.
   This bits are for the most part not relevant to query processing by
   security-aware authoritative name servers.




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   Since a security-aware name server does not perform signature
   validation for authoritative data during query processing even when
   the CD bit is set to zero, a security-aware name server SHOULD ignore
   the setting of the CD bit when composing an authoritative response.

   A security-aware name server MUST NOT set the AD bit in a response
   unless the name server considers all RRsets in the Answer or
   Authority sections of the response to be authentic.  A security-aware
   name server's local policy MAY consider data from an authoritative
   zone to be authentic without further validation, but the name server
   MUST NOT do so unless the name server obtained the authoritative zone
   via secure means (such as a secure zone transfer mechanism), and MUST
   NOT do so unless this behavior has been configured explicitly.

   A security-aware name server which supports recursion MUST follow the
   rules for the CD and AD bits given in Section 3.2 when generating a
   response that involves data obtained via recursion.

3.2 Recursive Name Servers

   As explained in [I-D.ietf-dnsext-dnssec-intro], a security-aware
   recursive name server is an entity which acts in both the
   security-aware name server and security-aware resolver roles. This
   section uses the terms "name server side" and "resolver side" to
   refer to the code within a security-aware recursive name server which
   implements the security-aware name server role and the code which
   implements the security-aware resolver role, respectively.

   A security-aware recursive name server MUST NOT attempt to answer a
   query by piecing together cached data it received in response to
   previous queries that requested different QNAMEs, QTYPEs, or
   QCLASSes.  A security-aware recursive name server MUST NOT use NSEC
   RRs from one negative response to synthesize a response for a
   different query.  A security-aware recursive name server MUST NOT use
   a previous wildcard expansion to generate a response to a different
   query.

   The resolver side MUST follow the usual rules for caching and
   negative caching which would apply to any security-aware resolver.

3.2.1 The DO bit

   The resolver side of a security-aware recursive name server MUST set
   the DO bit when sending requests, regardless of the state of the DO
   bit in the initiating request received by the name server side.  If
   the DO bit in an initiating query is not set, the name server side
   MUST strip any authenticating DNSSEC RRs from the response, but but
   MUST NOT strip any DNSSEC RRs that the initiating query explicitly



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   requested.

3.2.2 The CD bit

   The CD bit exists in order to allow a security-aware resolver to
   disable signature validation in a security-aware name server's
   processing of a particular query.  This is a useful but somewhat
   dangerous capability that requires careful handling by security-aware
   recursive name servers.

   A security-aware recursive name server MUST disregard the CD bit and
   perform normal signature validation unless:

   o  the name server side received that query via a secure channel; or

   o  the recursive name server's local policy dictates that the
      recursive name server honor the CD bit even when received via an
      insecure channel.

   Discussion of cases in which the CD bit is set to one in the rest of
   this section assumes that one or both of the above conditions applies
   to the query being processed.  If neither condition applies, the
   recursive name server MUST process the query as if the CD bit were
   set to zero. Note, however, that the name server side MUST always
   copy the setting of the CD bit from a query to the corresponding
   response, regardless of whether or not the recursive name server
   trusts the setting of the CD bit.

   The name server side of a security-aware recursive name server MUST
   pass the sense of the CD bit to the resolver side along with the rest
   of an initiating query, so that the resolver side will know whether
   or not it is required to verify the response data it returns to the
   name server side. If the CD bit is set to one, it indicates that the
   originating resolver is willing to perform whatever authentication
   its local policy requires, thus the resolver side of the recursive
   name server need not perform authentication on the RRsets in the
   response.  When the CD bit is set to one the recursive name server
   SHOULD, if possible, return the requested data to the originating
   resolver even if the recursive name server's local authentication
   policy would reject the records in question. That is, by setting the
   CD bit, the originating resolver has indicated that it takes
   responsibility for performing its own authentication, and the
   recursive name server should not interfere.

   If the resolver side implements a BAD cache (see Section 4.1) and the
   name server side receives a query which matches an entry in the
   resolver side's BAD cache, the name server side's response depends on
   the sense of the CD bit in the original query.  If the CD bit is set,



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   the name server side SHOULD return the data from the BAD cache; if
   the CD bit is not set, the name server side MUST return RCODE 2
   (server failure).

3.2.3 The AD bit

   The name server side of a security-aware recursive name server MUST
   NOT set the AD bit in a response unless the name server considers all
   RRsets in the Answer or Authority sections of the response to be
   authentic, and SHOULD set the AD bit if and only if the resolver side
   considers all RRsets in the Answer section and any relevant negative
   response RRs in the Authority section to be authentic.  The resolver
   side MUST follow the procedure described in Section 5 to determine
   whether the RRs in question are authentic.

3.3 Example DNSSEC Responses

   See Appendix B for example response packets.

































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4. Resolving

   This section describes the behavior of entities which include
   security-aware resolver functions.  In many cases such functions will
   be part of a security-aware recursive name server, but a stand-alone
   security-aware resolver has many of the same requirements.  Functions
   specific to security-aware recursive name servers are described in
   Section 3.2.

   A security-aware resolver MUST include an EDNS [RFC2671] OPT
   pseudo-RR with the DO [RFC3225] bit set to one when sending queries.

   A security-aware resolver MUST support a message size of at least
   1220 octets, SHOULD support a message size of 4000 octets, and MUST
   advertise the supported message size using the "sender's UDP payload
   size" field in the EDNS OPT pseudo-RR. A security-aware resolver MUST
   handle fragmented UDP packets correctly regardless of whether any
   such fragmented packets were received via IPv4 or IPv6.  Please see
   [RFC3226] for discussion of these requirements.

   A security-aware resolver MUST support the signature verification
   mechanisms described in Section 5, and MUST apply them to every
   received response except when:

   o  The security-aware resolver is part of a security-aware recursive
      name server, and the response is the result of recursion on behalf
      of a query received with the CD bit set;

   o  The response is the result of a query generated directly via some
      form of application interface which instructed the security-aware
      resolver not to perform validation for this query; or

   o  Validation for this query has been disabled by local policy.

   A security-aware resolver's support for signature verification MUST
   include support for verification of wildcard owner names.

   A security-aware resolver MUST attempt to retrieve missing DS,
   DNSKEY, or RRSIG RRs via explicit queries if the resolver needs these
   RRs in order to perform signature verification.

   A security-aware resolver MUST attempt to retrieve a missing NSEC RR
   which the resolver needs to authenticate a NODATA response.  In
   general it is not possible for a resolver to retrieve missing NSEC
   RRs, since the resolver will have no way of knowing the owner name of
   the missing NSEC RR, but in the specific case of a NODATA response,
   the resolver does know the name of the missing NSEC RR, and must
   therefore attempt to retrieve it.



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   When attempting to retrieve missing NSEC or DS RRs which reside on
   the parental side at a zone cut, a security-aware iterative-mode
   resolver MUST query the name servers for the parent zone, not the
   child zone.

   A security-aware resolver MUST be able to determine whether or not it
   should expect a particular RRset to be signed.  More precisely, a
   security-aware resolver must be able to distinguish between three
   cases:

   1.  An RRset for which the resolver is able to build a chain of
       signed DNSKEY and DS RRs from a trusted starting point to the
       RRset.  In this case, the RRset should be signed, and is subject
       to signature validation as described above.

   2.  An RRset for which the resolver knows that it has no chain of
       signed DNSKEY and DS RRs from any trusted starting point to the
       RRset.  This can occur when the target RRset lies in an unsigned
       zone or in a descendent of an unsigned zone.  In this case, the
       RRset may or may not be signed, but the resolver will not be able
       to verify the signature.

   3.  An RRset for which the resolver is not able to determine whether
       or not the RRset should be signed, because the resolver is not
       able to obtain the necessary DNSSEC RRs. This can occur when the
       security-aware resolver is not able to contact security-aware
       name servers for the relevant zones.

   A security-aware resolver MUST be capable of being preconfigured with
   at least one trusted public key, and MUST be capable of being
   preconfigured with multiple trusted public keys or DS RRs. Since a
   security-aware resolver will not be able to validate signatures
   without such a preconfigured trusted key, the resolver SHOULD have
   some reasonably robust mechanism for obtaining such keys when it
   boots.

   A security-aware resolver SHOULD cache each response as a single
   atomic entry, indexed by the triple <QNAME, QTYPE, QCLASS>, with the
   single atomic entry containing the entire answer, including the named
   RRset and any associated DNSSEC RRs. The resolver SHOULD discard the
   entire atomic entry when any of the RRs contained in it expire.

   A security-aware resolver MAY set the CD bit in a query to one in
   order to indicate that the resolver takes responsibility for
   performing whatever authentication its local policy requires on the
   RRsets in the response.  See Section 3.2 for the effect this bit has
   on the behavior of security-aware recursive name servers.




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   A security-aware resolver MUST zero the AD bit when composing query
   messages.

4.1 Rate Limiting

   A security-aware resolver SHOULD NOT cache data with invalid
   signatures under normal circumstances.  However, a security-aware
   resolver SHOULD take steps to rate limit the number of identical
   queries that it generates if signature validation of the responses
   fails repeatedly.

   Conceptually, this is similar in some respects to negative caching
   [RFC2308], but since the resolver has no way of obtaining an
   appropriate caching TTL from received data in this case, the TTL will
   have to be set by the implementation.  This document refers to the
   data retained as part of such a rate limiting mechanism as the "BAD
   cache".

   A security-aware resolver MAY chose to retain RRsets for which
   signature validation has failed in its BAD cache, but MUST NOT return
   such RRsets from its BAD cache unless both of the following
   conditions are met:

   o  The resolver has recently generated enough queries identical to
      this one that the resolver is suppressing queries for this <QNAME,
      QTYPE, QCLASS>; and

   o  The resolver is not required to validate the signatures of the
      RRsets in question under the rules given in Section 4 of this
      document.

   The intent of the above rule is to provide the raw data to clients
   which are capable of performing their own signature verification
   checks while protecting clients which depend on this resolver to
   perform such checks.  Several of the possible reasons why signature
   validation might fail involve conditions which may not apply equally
   to this resolver and the client which invoked it: for example, this
   resolver's clock may be set incorrectly, or the client may have
   knowledge of a relevant island of security which this resolver does
   not share.  In such cases, "protecting" a client which is capable of
   performing its own signature validation from ever seeing the "bad"
   data does not help the client.

4.2 Stub resolvers

   A security-aware stub resolver MUST include an EDNS [RFC2671] OPT
   pseudo-RR with the DO [RFC3225] bit set to one when sending queries.




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   A security-aware stub resolver MUST support a message size of at
   least 1220 octets, SHOULD support a message size of 4000 octets, and
   MUST advertise the supported message size using the "sender's UDP
   payload size" field in the EDNS OPT pseudo-RR. A security-aware stub
   resolver MUST handle fragmented UDP packets correctly regardless of
   whether any such fragmented packets were received via IPv4 or IPv6.
   Please see [RFC3226] for discussion of these requirements.

   A security-aware stub resolver MUST support the DNSSEC RR types, at
   least to the extent of not mishandling responses just because they
   contain DNSSEC RRs.   A security-aware stub resolver MAY include the
   DNSSEC RRs returned by a security-aware recursive name server as part
   of the data that it the stub resolver hands back to the application
   which invoked it but is not required to do so.

   A security-aware stub resolver SHOULD NOT set the CD bit when sending
   queries, since, by definition, a security-aware stub resolver does
   not validate signatures and thus depends on the security-aware
   recursive name server to perform validation on its behalf.

   A security-aware stub resolver MAY chose to examine the setting of
   the AD bit in response messages that it receives in order to
   determine whether the security-aware recursive name server which sent
   the response claims to have cryptographically verified the data in
   the Answer and Authority sections of the response message.  Note,
   however, that the responses received by a security-aware stub
   resolver are heavily dependent on the local policy of the
   security-aware recursive name server, so as a practical matter there
   may be little practical value to checking the status of the AD bit
   except perhaps as a debugging aid.  In any case, a security-aware
   stub resolver MUST NOT place any reliance on signature validation
   allegedly performed on its behalf except when the security-aware stub
   resolver obtained the data in question from a trusted security-aware
   recursive name server via a secure channel.

















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5. Authenticating DNS Responses

   In order to use DNSSEC RRs for authentication, a security-aware
   resolver requires preconfigured knowledge of at least one
   authenticated DNSKEY or DS RR.  The process for obtaining and
   authenticating this initial DNSKEY or DS RR is achieved via some
   external mechanism.  For example, a resolver could use some off-line
   authenticated exchange to obtain a zone's DNSKEY RR or obtain a DS RR
   that identifies and authenticates a zone's DNSKEY RR.  The remainder
   of this section assumes that the resolver has somehow obtained an
   initial set of authenticated DNSKEY RRs.

   An initial DNSKEY RR can be used to authenticate a zone's apex DNSKEY
   RRset.  To authenticate an apex DNSKEY RRset using an initial key,
   the resolver MUST:

   1.  Verify that the initial DNSKEY RR appears in the apex DNSKEY
       RRset, and verify that the DNSKEY RR has the Zone Key Flag
       (DNSKEY RDATA bit 7) set to one.

   2.  Verify that there is some RRSIG RR which covers the apex DNSKEY
       RRset, and that the combination of the RRSIG RR and the initial
       DNSKEY RR authenticates the DNSKEY RRset.  The process for using
       an RRSIG RR to authenticate an RRset is described in Section 5.3.

   Once the resolver has authenticated the apex DNSKEY RRset using an
   initial DNSKEY RR, delegations from that zone can be authenticated
   using DS RRs.  This allows a resolver to start from an initial key,
   and use DS RRsets to proceed recursively down the DNS tree obtaining
   other apex DNSKEY RRsets.  If the resolver were preconfigured with a
   root DNSKEY RR, and if every delegation had a DS RR associated with
   it, then the resolver could obtain and validate any apex DNSKEY
   RRset.  The process of using DS RRs to authenticate referrals is
   described in Section 5.2.

   Once the resolver has authenticated a zone's apex DNSKEY RRset,
   Section 5.3 shows how the resolver can use DNSKEY RRs in the apex
   DNSKEY RRset and RRSIG RRs from the zone to authenticate any other
   RRsets in the zone.  Section 5.4 shows how the resolver can use
   authenticated NSEC RRsets from the zone to prove that an RRset is not
   present in the zone.

   When a resolver indicates support for DNSSEC, a security-aware name
   server should attempt to provide the necessary DNSKEY, RRSIG, NSEC,
   and DS RRsets in a response (see Section 3).  However, a
   security-aware resolver may still receive a response which that lacks
   the appropriate DNSSEC RRs, whether due to configuration issues such
   as a security-oblivious recursive name server which accidentally



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   interfere with DNSSEC RRs or due to a deliberate attack in which an
   adversary forges a response, strips DNSSEC RRs from a response, or
   modifies a query so that DNSSEC RRs appear not to be requested.  The
   absence of DNSSEC data in a response MUST NOT by itself be taken as
   an indication that no authentication information exists.

   A resolver SHOULD expect authentication information from signed
   zones. A resolver SHOULD believe that a zone is signed if the
   resolver has been configured with public key information for the
   zone, or if the zone's parent is signed and the delegation from the
   parent contains a DS RRset.

5.1 Special Considerations for Islands of Security

   Islands of security (see [I-D.ietf-dnsext-dnssec-intro]) are signed
   zones for which it is not possible to construct an authentication
   chain to the zone from its parent.  Validating signatures within an
   island of security requires the validator to have some other means of
   obtaining an initial authenticated zone key for the island.  If a
   validator cannot obtain such a key, it will have to choose whether to
   accept the unvalidated responses or not based on local policy.

   All the normal processes for validating responses apply to islands of
   security.  The only difference between normal validation and
   validation within an island of security is in how the validator
   obtains a starting point for the authentication chain.

5.2 Authenticating Referrals

   Once the apex DNSKEY RRset for a signed parent zone has been
   authenticated, DS RRsets can be used to authenticate the delegation
   to a signed child zone.  A DS RR identifies a DNSKEY RR in the child
   zone's apex DNSKEY RRset, and contains a cryptographic digest of the
   child zone's DNSKEY RR.  A strong cryptographic digest algorithm
   ensures that an adversary can not easily generate a DNSKEY RR that
   matches the digest.  Thus, authenticating the digest allows a
   resolver to authenticate the matching DNSKEY RR.  The resolver can
   then use this child DNSKEY RR to authenticate the entire child apex
   DNSKEY RRset.

   Given a DS RR for a delegation, the child zone's apex DNSKEY RRset
   can be authenticated if all of the following hold:

   o  The DS RR has been authenticated using some DNSKEY RR in the
      parent's apex DNSKEY RRset (see Section 5.3);

   o  The Algorithm and Key Tag in the DS RR match the Algorithm field
      and the key tag of a DNSKEY RR in the child zone's apex DNSKEY



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      RRset which, when hashed using the digest algorithm specified in
      the DS RR's Digest Type field, results in a digest value which
      matches the Digest field of the DS RR; and

   o  The matching DNSKEY RR in the child zone has the Zone Flag bit set
      to one, the corresponding private key has signed the child zone's
      apex DNSKEY RRset, and the resulting RRSIG RR authenticates the
      child zone's apex DNSKEY RRset.

   If the referral from the parent zone did not contain a DS RRset, the
   response should have included a signed NSEC RRset proving that no DS
   RRset exists for the delegated name (see Section 3.1.4).  A
   security-aware resolver MUST query the name servers for the parent
   zone for the DS RRset if the referral includes neither a DS RRset nor
   a NSEC RRset proving that the DS RRset does not exist (see Section
   4).

   If the resolver authenticates an NSEC RRset which proves that no DS
   RRset is present for this zone, then there is no authentication path
   leading from the parent to the child.  If the resolver has an initial
   DNSKEY or DS RR which belongs to the child zone or to any delegation
   below the child zone, this initial DNSKEY or DS RR MAY be used to
   re-establish an authentication path.  If no such initial DNSKEY or DS
   RR exists, the resolver can not authenticate RRsets in or below the
   child zone.

   Note that, for a signed delegation, there are two NSEC RRs associated
   with the delegated name.  One NSEC RR resides in the parent zone, and
   can be used to prove whether a DS RRset exists for the delegated
   name.  The second NSEC RR resides in the child zone, and identifies
   which RRsets are present at the apex of the child zone.  The parent
   NSEC RR and child NSEC RR can always be distinguished, since the SOA
   bit will be set in the child NSEC RR and clear in the parent NSEC RR.
   A security-aware resolver MUST use the parent NSEC RR when attempting
   to prove that a DS RRset does not exist.

5.3 Authenticating an RRset Using an RRSIG RR

   A resolver can use an RRSIG RR and its corresponding DNSKEY RR to
   attempt to authenticate RRsets.  The resolver first checks the RRSIG
   RR to verify that it covers the RRset, has a valid time interval, and
   identifies a valid DNSKEY RR.  The resolver then constructs the
   canonical form of the signed data by appending the RRSIG RDATA
   (excluding the Signature Field) with the canonical form of the
   covered RRset.  Finally, resolver uses the public key and signature
   to authenticate the signed data.  Section 5.3.1, Section 5.3.2, and
   Section 5.3.3 describe each step in detail.




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5.3.1 Checking the RRSIG RR Validity

   A security-aware resolver can use an RRSIG RR to authenticate an
   RRset if all of the following conditions hold:

   o  The RRSIG RR and the RRset MUST have the same owner name and the
      same class;

   o  The RRSIG RR's Signer's Name field MUST be the name of the zone
      that contains the RRset;

   o  The RRSIG RR's Type Covered field MUST equal the RRset's type;

   o  The number of labels in the RRset owner name MUST be greater than
      or equal to the value in the RRSIG RR's Labels field;

   o  The resolver's notion of the current time MUST be less than or
      equal to the time listed in the RRSIG RR's Expiration field;

   o  The resolver's notion of the current time MUST be greater than or
      equal to the time listed in the RRSIG RR's Inception field;

   o  The RRSIG RR's Signer's Name, Algorithm, and Key Tag fields MUST
      match the owner name, algorithm, and key tag for some DNSKEY RR in
      the zone's apex DNSKEY RRset;

   o  The matching DNSKEY RR MUST be present in the zone's apex DNSKEY
      RRset, and MUST have the Zone Flag bit (DNSKEY RDATA Flag bit 7)
      set to one.

   It is possible for more than one DNSKEY RR to match the conditions
   above.  In this case, the resolver can not predetermine which DNSKEY
   RR to use to authenticate the signature, MUST try each matching
   DNSKEY RR until the resolver has either validated the signature or
   has run out of matching keys to try.

   Note that this authentication process is only meaningful if the
   resolver authenticates the DNSKEY RR before using it to validate
   signatures.  The matching DNSKEY RR is considered to be authentic if:

   o  The apex DNSKEY RRset containing the DNSKEY RR is considered
      authentic; or

   o  The RRset covered by the RRSIG RR is the apex DNSKEY RRset itself,
      and the DNSKEY RR either matches an authenticated DS RR from the
      parent zone or matches a DS RR or DNSKEY RR which the resolver has
      been preconfigured to believe to be authentic.




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5.3.2 Reconstructing the Signed Data

   Once the RRSIG RR has met the validity requirements described in
   Section 5.3.1, the resolver needs to reconstruct the original signed
   data.  The original signed data includes RRSIG RDATA (excluding the
   Signature field) and the canonical form of the RRset.  Aside from
   being ordered, the canonical form of the RRset might also differ from
   the received RRset due to DNS name compression, decremented TTLs, or
   wildcard expansion.  The resolver should use the following to
   reconstruct the original signed data:

         signed_data = RRSIG_RDATA | RR(1) | RR(2)...  where

            "|" denotes concatenation

            RRSIG_RDATA is the wire format of the RRSIG RDATA fields
               with the Signature field excluded and the Signer's Name
               in canonical form.

            RR(i) = name | class | type | OrigTTL | RDATA length | RDATA

               name is calculated according to the function below

               class is the RRset's class

               type is the RRset type and all RRs in the class

               OrigTTL is the value from the RRSIG Original TTL field

               All names in the RDATA field are in canonical form

               The set of all RR(i) is sorted into canonical order.

            To calculate the name:
               let rrsig_labels = the value of the RRSIG Labels field

               let fqdn = RRset's fully qualified domain name in
                               canonical form

               let fqdn_labels = RRset's fully qualified domain name in
                               canonical form

               if rrsig_labels = fqdn_labels,
                   name = fqdn

               if rrsig_labels < fqdn_labels,
                  name = "*." | the leftmost rrsig_label labels of the
                                fqdn



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               if rrsig_labels > fqdn
                  the RRSIG RR did not pass the necessary validation
                  checks and MUST NOT be used to authenticate this
                  RRset.

   The canonical forms for names and RRsets are defined in
   [I-D.ietf-dnsext-dnssec-records].

   NSEC RRsets at a delegation boundary require special processing.
   There are two distinct NSEC RRsets associated with a signed delegated
   name.  One NSEC RRset resides in the parent zone, and specifies which
   RRset are present at the parent zone.  The second NSEC RRset resides
   at the child zone, and identifies which RRsets are present at the
   apex in the child zone.  The parent NSEC RRset and child NSEC RRset
   can always be distinguished since only the child NSEC RRs will
   specify an SOA RRset exists at the name. When reconstructing the
   original NSEC RRset for the delegation from the parent zone, the NSEC
   RRs MUST NOT be combined with NSEC RRs from the child zone, and when
   reconstructing the original NSEC RRset for the apex of the child
   zone, the NSEC RRs MUST NOT be combined with NSEC RRs from the parent
   zone.

   Note also that each of the two NSEC RRsets at a delegation point has
   a corresponding RRSIG RR with an owner name matching the delegated
   name, and each of these RRSIG RRs is authoritative data associated
   with the same zone which contains the corresponding NSEC RRset.  If
   necessary, a resolver can tell these RRSIG RRs apart by checking the
   Signer's Name field.

5.3.3 Checking the Signature

   Once the resolver has validated the RRSIG RR as described in Section
   5.3.1 and reconstructed the original signed data as described in
   Section 5.3.2, the resolver can attempt to use the cryptographic
   signature to authenticate the signed data, and thus (finally!)
   authenticate the RRset.

   The Algorithm field in the RRSIG RR identifies the cryptographic
   algorithm to generate the signature.  The signature itself is
   contained in the Signature field of the RRSIG RDATA, and the public
   key to used generate the signature is contained in the Public Key
   field of the matching DNSKEY RR(s) (found in Section 5.3.1).
   [I-D.ietf-dnsext-dnssec-records] provides a list of algorithm types,
   and provides pointers to the documents that define each algorithm's
   use.

   Note that it is possible for more than one DNSKEY RR to match the
   conditions in Section 5.3.1.  In this case, the resolver can only



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   determine which DNSKEY RR by trying each matching key until the
   resolver either succeeds in validating the signature or runs out of
   keys to try.

   If the Labels field of the RRSIG RR is not equal to the number of
   labels in the RRset's fully qualified owner name, then the RRset is
   either invalid or the result of wildcard expansion.  The resolver
   MUST verify that wildcard expansion was applied properly before
   considering the RRset to be authentic.  Section 5.3.4 describes how
   to determine whether a wildcard was applied properly.

   If other RRSIG RRs also cover this RRSIG RR, the local resolver
   security policy determines whether the resolver also needs to test
   these RRSIG RRs, and determines how to resolve conflicts if these
   RRSIG RRs lead to differing results.

   If the resolver accepts the RRset as authentic, the resolver MUST set
   the TTL of the RRSIG RR and each RR in the authenticated RRset to a
   value no greater than the minimum of:

   o  The RRset's TTL as received in the response;

   o  The RRSIG RR's TTL as received in the response; and

   o  The value in the RRSIG RR's Original TTL field.


5.3.4 Authenticating A Wildcard Expanded RRset Positive Response

   If the number of labels in an RRset's fully qualified domain name is
   greater than the Labels field in the covering RRSIG RDATA, then the
   RRset and its covering RRSIG RR were created as a result of wildcard
   expansion.  Once the resolver has verified the signature as described
   in Section 5.3, the resolver must take additional steps to verify the
   non-existence of an exact match or closer wildcard match for the
   query.   Section 5.4 discusses these steps.

   Note that the response received by the resolver should include all
   NSEC RRs needed to authenticate the response (see Section 3.1.3).

5.4 Authenticated Denial of Existence

   A resolver can use authenticated NSEC RRs to prove that an RRset is
   not present in a signed zone.  Security-aware name servers should
   automatically include any necessary NSEC RRs for signed zones in
   their responses to security-aware resolvers.

   Security-aware resolvers MUST first authenticate NSEC RRsets



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   according to the standard RRset authentication rules described in
   Section 5.3, then apply the NSEC RRsets as follows:

   o  If the requested RR name matches the owner name of an
      authenticated NSEC RR, then the NSEC RR's type bit map field lists
      all RR types present at that owner name, and a resolver can prove
      that the requested RR type does not exist by checking for the RR
      type in the bit map.  Since the existence of the authenticated
      NSEC RR proves that the owner name exists in the zone, wildcard
      expansion could not have been used to match the requested RR owner
      name and type.

   o  If the requested RR name would appear after an authenticated NSEC
      RR owner name and before the name listed in that NSEC RR's Next
      Domain Name field according to the canonical DNS name order
      defined in [I-D.ietf-dnsext-dnssec-records], then no exact match
      for the requested RR name exists in the zone. However, it is
      possible that a wildcard could be used to match the requested RR
      owner name and type, so proving that the requested RRset does not
      exist also requires proving that no possible wildcard exists which
      could have been used to generate a positive response.

   To prove non-existence of an RRset, the resolver must be able to
   verify both that the queried RRset does not exist and that no
   relevant wildcard RRset exists.  Proving this may require more than
   one NSEC RRset from the zone.  If the complete set of necessary NSEC
   RRsets is not present in a response (perhaps due to truncation), then
   a security-aware resolver MUST resend the query in order to attempt
   to obtain the full collection of NSEC RRs necessary to verify
   non-existence of the requested RRset.   As with all DNS operations,
   however, the resolver MUST bound the work it puts into answering any
   particular query.

   Since a verified NSEC RR proves the existence of both itself and its
   corresponding RRSIG RR, a verifier MUST ignore the settings of the
   NSEC and RRSIG bits in an NSEC RR.

   Authentication examples are given in Section Appendix C.













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6. IANA Considerations

   [I-D.ietf-dnsext-dnssec-records] contains a review of the IANA
   considerations introduced by DNSSEC.  The additional IANA
   considerations discussed in this document:

   [RFC2535] reserved the CD and AD bits in the message header.  The
   meaning of the AD bit was redefined in [I-D.ietf-dnsext-ad-is-secure]
   and the meaning of both the CD and AD bit are restated in this
   document.  No new bits in the DNS message header are defined in this
   document.

   [RFC2671] introduced EDNS and [RFC3225] reserved the DNSSEC OK bit
   and defined its use.  The use is restated but not altered in this
   document.




































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7. Security Considerations

   This document describes how the DNS security extensions use public
   key cryptography to sign and authenticate DNS resource record sets.
   Please see [I-D.ietf-dnsext-dnssec-intro] for terminology and general
   security considerations related to DNSSEC.

   An active attacker who can set the CD bit in a DNS query message or
   the AD bit in a DNS response message can use these bits to defeat the
   protection which DNSSEC attempts to provide to security-oblivious
   recursive-mode resolvers.  For this reason, use of these control bits
   by a security-aware recursive-mode resolver requires a secure
   channel.  See Section 3.2.2 and Section 4.2 for further discussion.

   DNSSEC introduces a number of denial of service issues.  These issues
   will also be addressed in a future version of these security
   considerations.


































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8. Acknowledgements

   This document was created from the input and ideas of several members
   of the DNS Extensions Working Group and working group mailing list.
   The editors would like to express their thanks for the comments and
   suggestions received during the revision of these security extension
   specifications.












































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Normative References

   [RFC1034]  Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - concepts and facilities",
              STD 13, RFC 1034, November 1987.

   [RFC1035]  Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - implementation and
              specification", STD 13, RFC 1035, November 1987.

   [RFC1982]  Elz, R. and R. Bush, "Serial Number Arithmetic", RFC 1982,
              August 1996.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC2181]  Elz, R. and R. Bush, "Clarifications to the DNS
              Specification", RFC 2181, July 1997.

   [RFC2671]  Vixie, P., "Extension Mechanisms for DNS (EDNS0)", RFC
              2671, August 1999.

   [RFC3225]  Conrad, D., "Indicating Resolver Support of DNSSEC", RFC
              3225, December 2001.

   [RFC3226]  Gudmundsson, O., "DNSSEC and IPv6 A6 aware server/resolver
              message size requirements", RFC 3226, December 2001.

   [I-D.ietf-dnsext-dnssec-intro]
              Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D. and S.
              Rose, "DNS Security Introduction and Requirements",
              draft-ietf-dnsext-dnssec-intro-07 (work in progress),
              October 2003.

   [I-D.ietf-dnsext-dnssec-records]
              Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D. and S.
              Rose, "Resource Records for DNS Security Extensions",
              draft-ietf-dnsext-dnssec-records-05 (work in progress),
              October 2003.














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Informative References

   [RFC2308]  Andrews, M., "Negative Caching of DNS Queries (DNS
              NCACHE)", RFC 2308, March 1998.

   [RFC2535]  Eastlake, D., "Domain Name System Security Extensions",
              RFC 2535, March 1999.

   [RFC2930]  Eastlake, D., "Secret Key Establishment for DNS (TKEY
              RR)", RFC 2930, September 2000.

   [RFC2931]  Eastlake, D., "DNS Request and Transaction Signatures (
              SIG(0)s)", RFC 2931, September 2000.

   [I-D.ietf-dnsext-delegation-signer]
              Gudmundsson, O., "Delegation Signer Resource Record",
              draft-ietf-dnsext-delegation-signer-15 (work in progress),
              June 2003.

   [I-D.ietf-dnsext-wcard-clarify]
              Halley, B. and E. Lewis, "Clarifying the Role of Wild Card
              Domains in the Domain Name System",
              draft-ietf-dnsext-wcard-clarify-02 (work in progress),
              September 2003.

   [I-D.ietf-dnsext-ad-is-secure]
              Wellington, B. and O. Gudmundsson, "Redefinition of DNS AD
              bit", draft-ietf-dnsext-ad-is-secure-06 (work in
              progress), June 2002.


Authors' Addresses

   Roy Arends
   Telematica Instituut
   Drienerlolaan 5
   7522 NB  Enschede
   NL

   EMail: roy.arends@telin.nl











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   Matt Larson
   VeriSign, Inc.
   21345 Ridgetop Circle
   Dulles, VA  20166-6503
   USA

   EMail: mlarson@verisign.com


   Rob Austein
   Internet Software Consortium
   40 Gavin Circle
   Reading, MA  01867
   USA

   EMail: sra@isc.org


   Dan Massey
   USC Information Sciences Institute
   3811 N. Fairfax Drive
   Arlington, VA  22203
   USA

   EMail: masseyd@isi.edu


   Scott Rose
   National Institute for Standards and Technology
   100 Bureau Drive
   Gaithersburg, MD  20899-8920
   USA

   EMail: scott.rose@nist.gov

















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Appendix A. Signed Zone Example

   The following example shows a (small) complete signed zone.

   example.       3600 IN SOA ns1.example. bugs.ns1.example. (
                              1065745538
                              3600
                              300
                              3600000
                              3600
                              )
                  3600 RRSIG  SOA 1 1 3600 20031108232541 (
                              20031009232541 5742 example.
                              0EhIo5SFK2xwM2CMh3P6FJUmpV5VFotM5pzb
                              8f3cL3SyKfOswI2osc3VvbtiEDQHEcE4/b+v
                              BNx99Wc4jm3llWlsDOxlIbtR/S44xeOVRpff
                              pLuMW4IZmdwGY/xh/WHOCV+bqVl+s9un0OcX
                              LQTbyhlNTWdVYxPLo2T2dNP8a+0= )
                  3600 NS     ns1.example.
                  3600 NS     ns2.example.
                  3600 RRSIG  NS 1 1 3600 20031108232541 (
                              20031009232541 5742 example.
                              KBhJYJ0vFNyMJrt07gvHN9WAOijhXbcikUNw
                              ZEJxkL+UCv/GFJi1ABGMDowschPkpHIgDEOQ
                              exaLWGGUrOA5xMHYONWZpkL4rQ3URAKF46VJ
                              dMg0UTdw3pTD7Lvs8t6Dim46dj9h/QQEgNLF
                              BYpCn/jKFJ7lYnYYGLAUofh/+mo= )
                  3600 MX     1 xx.example.
                  3600 RRSIG  MX 1 1 3600 20031108232541 (
                              20031009232541 5742 example.
                              CSB4g+vSxyrfsfycsZwAx2hKhwK/x7GAIY0p
                              MLBgAA/USiiMben0II4aYf5lybs0NINnFDju
                              2Kc78M8t9zBGeJcZCZEs9mKiXhW8WJanvIjg
                              BwJgWXwAnVnq20TXlsHiuwuhmtrb76/Avl4i
                              lnX6XA3eeDlQlOTuPe0B91MCuow= )
                  3600 NSEC   a.example. NS SOA MX RRSIG NSEC DNSKEY
                  3600 RRSIG  NSEC 1 1 3600 20031108232541 (
                              20031009232541 5742 example.
                              10XG3f8uExTPfof30CoonvXSMeqrhrkcN9YG
                              krhJD4xeVKarTkQMt0dFe66Bbuy961Bv9go1
                              IEp0R+sV3B5ldqSKBrcIRsh4QFqQp6IPZ+By
                              yxyYV25L68I1dkM1JoV7IMFsfcTDPjyl3wv2
                              2LAQ2lyqLBpow5BRR4sAgjZ7Yaw= )
                  3600 DNSKEY 256 3 1 (
                              AQPdhnap0Oj2jUq74g+vel5cukdH+wpzjiH8
                              ZOQSOHrw+s3TmbhyqXbZ/j5Uu9p65ARoevvG
                              yv459dxxZCKZ4wftXe5BUkJvZVf8HnhYW5R+
                              kQduVeqGVlkBarL5haKX28Pxvs8tV7CyY/Rd



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                              cfnJlZyJcfwY0ETo4P2gntVMERZuJQ==
                              )
                  3600 DNSKEY 257 3 1 (
                              AQOwRqeRkdYUD6UCyJXTaErj0UYLHxOHlhDb
                              qik1k/j2PJFOZ7GZhc95HnYco611O5VRQ6WQ
                              pK0dL9eiwcc+gSS2L6V9pWxCfDnEPWFC6eVm
                              jRZAdAU6gsyNSZCT7rF1lAXdmWcwkaIdNaDL
                              oNqpieIQd2t+rd/oF8/++DRtzF0toQ==
                              )
                  3600 RRSIG  DNSKEY 1 1 3600 20031108232541 (
                              20031009232541 5742 example.
                              EtFrBqs8i80Ath+xOtjPHcepV/cjATf2E1fo
                              +fhSggjw2vAXDY4Sygk2tKZ9Tvhahmw1rRC3
                              CnApLvsjQ9qmnYAvkZdMILw9gPx1rBaq9d7H
                              nt7mPc/LFrO4G9JS6JNwBCnjwcxro8kNYLo6
                              97FCO3y4T7y9Hb80OvCZ36cNdps= )
                  3600 RRSIG  DNSKEY 1 1 3600 20031108232541 (
                              20031009232541 23853 example.
                              VseD0IGDKqJXiZMJnRNuq89ibF5g8VGPmMJS
                              h/hS8+nu5vLiyEObJcVxfanslAlBQSGHmJsM
                              AvXpeJUrT/zOyZ8vfy/igMhd25rnSxAD6uhl
                              4ohJiiPtFvHgLEvT0QZHizrP4wMvpXvfwn03
                              1/VEFzXZ0rULlTdWjoNzSMIYBwg= )
   a.example.     3600 IN NS  ns1.a.example.
                  3600 IN NS  ns2.a.example.
                  3600 DS     42939 1 1 (
                              4BA08982E5739A60E02B69409B0927F9524E
                              3494 )
                  3600 RRSIG  DS 1 2 3600 20031108232541 (
                              20031009232541 5742 example.
                              Dp6ySNq7SgIfndS4N5wFynmqXXf+WQ7RTAW/
                              gC4RPDljbV8WnjZp5P7ip9zsHO9A7hEW8LPp
                              zEMMzUPfucrSnZ/Jmc60BYIkzkt493QPfz1H
                              YFRaJ6VyZoF38oN0s/H+a97c+HxAt4TElW+c
                              iHQEOrm7yXIHwnrre1iuzMZn1jY= )
                  3600 NSEC   ai.example. NS DS RRSIG NSEC
                  3600 RRSIG  NSEC 1 2 3600 20031108232541 (
                              20031009232541 5742 example.
                              mhov2WXDa2Swk/7/VQoI36e5OKvd/0CmMWdi
                              +3k/+i7mo9omz854ZBFMLaQzFvaS7Cn//I/H
                              7tYSY/fScUrs/UfB7le0DzdocsoaMYtexSS1
                              KA7ofbPdYpBHngIGbO5EHaGrqbKGY61fIQ/g
                              /WvT0KXnoX+v31Oq3VstBoWmizo= )
   ns1.a.example. 3600 IN A   192.0.2.5
   ns2.a.example. 3600 IN A   192.0.2.6
   ai.example.    3600 IN A   192.0.2.9
                  3600 RRSIG  A 1 2 3600 20031108232541 (
                              20031009232541 5742 example.



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                              MtQkYPqpRfM5ntlRR/Wg7pdFt5fuf+ESoV+a
                              0RTtEUW9Q5ac7uV3luTnOSmWFFjes1x9Anqn
                              KVeWcZJU/wRYqbUK2Q9s/kLb3cPMFavHal9n
                              3gR5v5zNaTQxBrdFlxGNgX/aa9Bs3LfxK14F
                              UU/kYIPkm9qpSE3wtELJEq2cNsU= )
                  3600 HINFO  "KLH-10" "ITS"
                  3600 RRSIG  HINFO 1 2 3600 20031108232541 (
                              20031009232541 5742 example.
                              jDn/zgIqY5ucajWNW333u+KfxORI55wvnZDs
                              pCHZQ9ISjWNT7467wUcfJKBaG+alNlCOJExg
                              z8yUS5NwySlrFtGL/CBCxmrSVioKMMetg7gP
                              Qb6x5A53OhsQAGT6azS9bdBM2RFbqBkeZkXA
                              8mJ/QOldXdH5iPpmZb2Pn47x7V4= )
                  3600 AAAA   2001:db8::f00:baa9
                  3600 RRSIG  AAAA 1 2 3600 20031108232541 (
                              20031009232541 5742 example.
                              LcSkeCXOOcYClsS9GYJoG/yGeuyaUJrNICK1
                              ONN4PEzGWJ7kcF+C4N972x05bPX+wsWszBbC
                              uP/RqMyNenc8Is25te6hZ8MU7Z0zBDtKeTTG
                              qz4ir4NZfqvB6moHjcVu6Pwb5KkSb8nAobCv
                              8gB4wQFPYoozOQYTprwGtIHR2k8= )
                  3600 NSEC   b.example. A HINFO AAAA RRSIG NSEC
                  3600 RRSIG  NSEC 1 2 3600 20031108232541 (
                              20031009232541 5742 example.
                              W3fFJqdRtmpz9QikpK+v5rL+Y5iNpx5H7X7c
                              1yPMlcaS0nhowHGjCPnNbCP28Ktv9I5eqhO1
                              N/A75FLTOe9L5Qzetb/C3/ME8D46apKLBEv5
                              0GWsJqTsijj4dAjup60yeLPXTWxIdO6RNdfe
                              Qd56t0fY79/kd25RzRCFGs2qHXs= )
   b.example.     3600 IN NS  ns1.b.example.
                  3600 IN NS  ns2.b.example.
                  3600 NSEC   ns1.example. NS RRSIG NSEC
                  3600 RRSIG  NSEC 1 2 3600 20031108232541 (
                              20031009232541 5742 example.
                              csgLA1XphdEtY9WiwZOHjcOvGiBShTobK+th
                              0xDnKv7ZUxcMRi/g88Z99It+FV/Qufcf5zmM
                              RxEVOjD1e7an1X/dxD389/6Qzo6NAtSu85ps
                              TDKZscoaPBr/wYv6PG73F5yfm1hh31nhnD8f
                              BFydo6dXwQ4WK8OUC6sMCM+OHEg= )
   ns1.b.example. 3600 IN A   192.0.2.7
   ns2.b.example. 3600 IN A   192.0.2.8
   ns1.example.   3600 IN A   192.0.2.1
                  3600 RRSIG  A 1 2 3600 20031108232541 (
                              20031009232541 5742 example.
                              dJTb+VNXApV4lPaEwlyZxOS17eofL95DJe58
                              +ija8iaROK9a9D7bAI7lIKJ/4hSfBN8lIjhF
                              cpVeuGXCxldaSTOhAU5bg2GZJfxS4onfvBTE
                              HBf19SZAT9rHBeNJISau8EwDaNBHBweiaC/s



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                              Oett68JnQVQq2l/DhWsJSjuIFBQ= )
                  3600 NSEC   ns2.example. A RRSIG NSEC
                  3600 RRSIG  NSEC 1 2 3600 20031108232541 (
                              20031009232541 5742 example.
                              M8q/t6bDqPktgMyfa2LjkEDZiGloFp+I8LaO
                              KBQt96RzZ9xiXOA/7wE5ZrBrgzfl1eotLn0L
                              zbOwCwpZf7XoVm/IYCOlIEPj6kJHYvIIzp3a
                              ZBn7uDx1kInt7qc2AmTpPiWCPtSD5KTBwdLk
                              o3hJ8fow/NDw5Lsb6RQOSQ5Qxuo= )
   ns2.example.   3600 IN A   192.0.2.2
                  3600 RRSIG  A 1 2 3600 20031108232541 (
                              20031009232541 5742 example.
                              VGTTFv2DZ+KN+tm7dzAP1vWGZTLdYn9v/yuQ
                              tu9rQYAwVWoGq7iiADgLlY0cjR58GCKCGfn4
                              mXMyM9mDljOj3VmHxUjRNMgUo+AoIi8Jysr9
                              +huB5dgYRKFukcCpxKb1SmXNmSLfdS75gCas
                              8Ic8f9zHwZmCUc0wnxX6x+422PM= )
                  3600 NSEC   *.w.example. A RRSIG NSEC
                  3600 RRSIG  NSEC 1 2 3600 20031108232541 (
                              20031009232541 5742 example.
                              kkYPMaBn4zJM/iQAOO9i81X57MMCQnzk+pch
                              6tWUFF/D1ZFZf8QY2MzwDA5Bv/1DluWVbo3x
                              WjzyUV7fn77k9QKLQseUSXGnpyL2HR1hGfBV
                              6ZHAqJc99t5+5vjyiflLtOpA0+Ri46SlQGZf
                              IZ4X2Ksgn+hpIu77NRQMdmh59M8= )
   *.w.example.   3600 IN MX  1 ai.example.
                  3600 RRSIG  MX 1 2 3600 20031108232541 (
                              20031009232541 5742 example.
                              Uht2mND0Kzc4hnM4Pq4zM+fjiGTEcCzx+wSD
                              b2flOHxLQPv75mXfnH1tZv7iwrzQmcyucWsd
                              agwalJcGa3A2+UL45fjYR6zDEsag4cdg1D0/
                              +T7gIqOGWhYfiXbXuTOgUfyZRXqyGsHsAu20
                              FxfIqrcIL24dO4Ytdz2ifqvJmuM= )
                  3600 NSEC   x.w.example. MX RRSIG NSEC
                  3600 RRSIG  NSEC 1 2 3600 20031108232541 (
                              20031009232541 5742 example.
                              fsk9iik9+gpte3I4tffoXyca5jfuYnLLy7/9
                              7LAVd4KKj9zqSB8f3QD1mjditUK9PGTTtlPL
                              4mq8F3T8PIt0pfgV8mPl6GP+bR+iVQEEE1YH
                              yzR21az4Od5KBYYdsPjZzJnOhzCtgyleAoOx
                              vOHmndDhRTDwVCg179qlrEIsOgE= )
   x.w.example.   3600 IN MX  1 xx.example.
                  3600 RRSIG  MX 1 3 3600 20031108232541 (
                              20031009232541 5742 example.
                              i65kcyRnXBHd3ynSNTVKpd71DS85EjGDTi7d
                              NQR+E4/qtXVaU78hmG4BhyFMVbvyPNpj83z5
                              UqpB0baVoSVTSqGMSLxi1T38H8gqPgaYd+4r
                              uEEXZj5I+s8Cq/1RHXi0yqISqeUGAqMHqryp



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                              IKZXg2219TD4UqJuRATLhxZj2fU= )
                  3600 NSEC   x.y.w.example. MX RRSIG NSEC
                  3600 RRSIG  NSEC 1 3 3600 20031108232541 (
                              20031009232541 5742 example.
                              VTRE+Bu91QK7dBiMshr04tE/I5HCvSrjqDv+
                              b4tlUqUqkv4MoxfoceUwavMkdLm9Pi/aYUrS
                              m6XVGBDAjpDmjivlMKNkME8c0f7oQ3E1CtHS
                              pPLjTcB9WfxEOzjJJGK5BDDT6A56P4eibLiw
                              +bNx4OGknGvVqhg9pu5qEWi814s= )
   x.y.w.example. 3600 IN MX  1 xx.example.
                  3600 RRSIG  MX 1 4 3600 20031108232541 (
                              20031009232541 5742 example.
                              yDPXa5Osa4r1AF0AjKWOo87kGNDlnVPmCbIi
                              MPvBpzJ91d5TFtEZWYJpYv+eGWZCJhK7SsnL
                              Zbbjthkn7YmX1tReDQhn8aCQ6DyrIU6wZpj5
                              ywBx0z3HGcqoYmv+AiFtcYVPxG0elsrakIwG
                              /e+CPi2yE2c9M+NnwMxhpEFVGRs= )
                  3600 NSEC   xx.example. MX RRSIG NSEC
                  3600 RRSIG  NSEC 1 4 3600 20031108232541 (
                              20031009232541 5742 example.
                              cn4aj3I/EQDa+vysa08xMQSnTz8YGtLLzqAj
                              R8gy8Yqa4uSm7J17NydsWqgJkhlVxD3oBtnb
                              w/6tDzx45IHcbnVm6UDrc3DVby21AivrsZ8P
                              sm5Escp1X+qBLGSNAg2K6dlX/i2vut6g3vDa
                              66FPTb3/hhrHYkMneBO2Yvfvpj8= )
   xx.example.    3600 IN A   192.0.2.10
                  3600 RRSIG  A 1 2 3600 20031108232541 (
                              20031009232541 5742 example.
                              ZW+++XV6FyceT4UtcfbVwcsx3u5tRfFLfAHp
                              Ji11YMdORJKIJS0uVfu+UuAbe/FImnBmQq4v
                              ShjQXbLeN9BKLvde4dlMphHSKhp24913/KFd
                              +N0DMDWGZ/wPoACnqrpn1gDKWdT0l+gkF3y4
                              aI16ggg9/UEWRbvn+7tp2UfMYSw= )
                  3600 HINFO  "KLH-10" "TOPS-20"
                  3600 RRSIG  HINFO 1 2 3600 20031108232541 (
                              20031009232541 5742 example.
                              vteMgDuG1ekaSmWlXlwVRoqTXjvZ8kGWCAku
                              6Rd3t/wPeVmn3YSbC8+szYRgP8n0HvYzmVYj
                              qPyC1HCFoqIJIaNLkDEyCSHuhBwpVhyKGJdM
                              EbJ1P8Yk3w5Szjap6wn7QxcLnr8Df3xUMXnB
                              AAwDzum3fUKzVM274T9O8ggeXgE= )
                  3600 AAAA   2001:db8::f00:baaa
                  3600 RRSIG  AAAA 1 2 3600 20031108232541 (
                              20031009232541 5742 example.
                              LY9gLxiep4FO8uuiegMzc1zdE/O7ApxjiO43
                              YDBVfuf3z+IghfPRY9IhkAJss6zBxMxciC27
                              ZmlPBrysWcKDfWF7fX+q0CDZ3ZbqdU32MuK+
                              AcWaIFu9JcYUIwFRCKt/0LA0OrycwELStUB0



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                              GxlD/3EneV4+IIIv0hekxzpR8Qs= )
                  3600 NSEC   example. A HINFO AAAA RRSIG NSEC
                  3600 RRSIG  NSEC 1 2 3600 20031108232541 (
                              20031009232541 5742 example.
                              cKkFJS6Em56M0XCjMma4zFzy5ylHh2ma62oe
                              yHrqkMYS+QVUuJ8yfAoXoFbok/kDLN3rsCKK
                              ICJl1dFA3fvJnMejg0JVabQHShO2W1LmWegr
                              dh251WZQVtJHDRY8/ltYB+GHUuFpZ1CF4m+c
                              6EPqS1uLrFpRg3k4BV5y6146nZ8= )

   The apex DNSKEY set includes two DNSKEY RRs, and the DNSKEY RDATA
   Flags indicate that each of these DNSKEY RRs is a zone key.  One of
   these DNSKEY RRs also has the SEP flag set and has been used to sign
   the apex DNSKEY RRset; this is the key which should be hashed to
   generate a DS record to be inserted into the parent zone.  The other
   DNSKEY is used to sign all the other RRsets in the zone.

   The zone includes a wildcard entry "*.w.example".  Note that the name
   "*.w.example" is used in constructing NSEC chains, and that the RRSIG
   covering the "*.w.example" MX RRset has a label count of 2.

   The zone also includes two delegations.  The delegation to
   "b.example" includes an NS RRset, glue address records, and an NSEC
   RR; note that only the NSEC RRset is signed.  The delegation to
   "a.example" provides a DS RR; note that only the NSEC and DS RRsets
   are signed.

























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Appendix B. Example Responses

   The examples in this section show response messages using the signed
   zone example in Appendix A.

B.1 Answer

   A successful query to an authoritative server.

   ;; Header: QR AA DO RCODE=0
   ;;
   ;; Question
   x.w.example.        IN MX

   ;; Answer
   x.w.example.   3600 IN MX  1 xx.example.
   x.w.example.   3600 RRSIG  MX 1 3 3600 20031108232541 (
                              20031009232541 5742 example.
                              i65kcyRnXBHd3ynSNTVKpd71DS85EjGDTi7d
                              NQR+E4/qtXVaU78hmG4BhyFMVbvyPNpj83z5
                              UqpB0baVoSVTSqGMSLxi1T38H8gqPgaYd+4r
                              uEEXZj5I+s8Cq/1RHXi0yqISqeUGAqMHqryp
                              IKZXg2219TD4UqJuRATLhxZj2fU= )

   ;; Authority
   example.       3600 NS     ns1.example.
   example.       3600 NS     ns2.example.
   example.       3600 RRSIG  NS 1 1 3600 20031108232541 (
                              20031009232541 5742 example.
                              KBhJYJ0vFNyMJrt07gvHN9WAOijhXbcikUNw
                              ZEJxkL+UCv/GFJi1ABGMDowschPkpHIgDEOQ
                              exaLWGGUrOA5xMHYONWZpkL4rQ3URAKF46VJ
                              dMg0UTdw3pTD7Lvs8t6Dim46dj9h/QQEgNLF
                              BYpCn/jKFJ7lYnYYGLAUofh/+mo= )

   ;; Additional
   xx.example.    3600 IN A   192.0.2.10
   xx.example.    3600 RRSIG  A 1 2 3600 20031108232541 (
                              20031009232541 5742 example.
                              ZW+++XV6FyceT4UtcfbVwcsx3u5tRfFLfAHp
                              Ji11YMdORJKIJS0uVfu+UuAbe/FImnBmQq4v
                              ShjQXbLeN9BKLvde4dlMphHSKhp24913/KFd
                              +N0DMDWGZ/wPoACnqrpn1gDKWdT0l+gkF3y4
                              aI16ggg9/UEWRbvn+7tp2UfMYSw= )
   xx.example.    3600 AAAA   2001:db8::f00:baaa
   xx.example.    3600 RRSIG  AAAA 1 2 3600 20031108232541 (
                              20031009232541 5742 example.
                              LY9gLxiep4FO8uuiegMzc1zdE/O7ApxjiO43



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                              YDBVfuf3z+IghfPRY9IhkAJss6zBxMxciC27
                              ZmlPBrysWcKDfWF7fX+q0CDZ3ZbqdU32MuK+
                              AcWaIFu9JcYUIwFRCKt/0LA0OrycwELStUB0
                              GxlD/3EneV4+IIIv0hekxzpR8Qs= )
   ns1.example.   3600 IN A   192.0.2.1
   ns1.example.   3600 RRSIG  A 1 2 3600 20031108232541 (
                              20031009232541 5742 example.
                              dJTb+VNXApV4lPaEwlyZxOS17eofL95DJe58
                              +ija8iaROK9a9D7bAI7lIKJ/4hSfBN8lIjhF
                              cpVeuGXCxldaSTOhAU5bg2GZJfxS4onfvBTE
                              HBf19SZAT9rHBeNJISau8EwDaNBHBweiaC/s
                              Oett68JnQVQq2l/DhWsJSjuIFBQ= )
   ns2.example.   3600 IN A   192.0.2.2
   ns2.example.   3600 RRSIG  A 1 2 3600 20031108232541 (
                              20031009232541 5742 example.
                              VGTTFv2DZ+KN+tm7dzAP1vWGZTLdYn9v/yuQ
                              tu9rQYAwVWoGq7iiADgLlY0cjR58GCKCGfn4
                              mXMyM9mDljOj3VmHxUjRNMgUo+AoIi8Jysr9
                              +huB5dgYRKFukcCpxKb1SmXNmSLfdS75gCas
                              8Ic8f9zHwZmCUc0wnxX6x+422PM= )


B.2 Name Error

   An authoritative name error.  The NSEC RRs prove that the name does
   not exist and that no covering wildcard exists.

   ;; Header: QR AA DO RCODE=3
   ;;
   ;; Question
   ml.example.         IN A

   ;; Answer
   ;; (empty)

   ;; Authority
   example.       3600 IN SOA ns1.example. bugs.ns1.example. (
                              1065745538
                              3600
                              300
                              3600000
                              3600
                              )
   example.       3600 RRSIG  SOA 1 1 3600 20031108232541 (
                              20031009232541 5742 example.
                              0EhIo5SFK2xwM2CMh3P6FJUmpV5VFotM5pzb
                              8f3cL3SyKfOswI2osc3VvbtiEDQHEcE4/b+v
                              BNx99Wc4jm3llWlsDOxlIbtR/S44xeOVRpff



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                              pLuMW4IZmdwGY/xh/WHOCV+bqVl+s9un0OcX
                              LQTbyhlNTWdVYxPLo2T2dNP8a+0= )
   b.example.     3600 NSEC   ns1.example. NS RRSIG NSEC
   b.example.     3600 RRSIG  NSEC 1 2 3600 20031108232541 (
                              20031009232541 5742 example.
                              csgLA1XphdEtY9WiwZOHjcOvGiBShTobK+th
                              0xDnKv7ZUxcMRi/g88Z99It+FV/Qufcf5zmM
                              RxEVOjD1e7an1X/dxD389/6Qzo6NAtSu85ps
                              TDKZscoaPBr/wYv6PG73F5yfm1hh31nhnD8f
                              BFydo6dXwQ4WK8OUC6sMCM+OHEg= )
   example.       3600 NSEC   a.example. NS SOA MX RRSIG NSEC DNSKEY
   example.       3600 RRSIG  NSEC 1 1 3600 20031108232541 (
                              20031009232541 5742 example.
                              10XG3f8uExTPfof30CoonvXSMeqrhrkcN9YG
                              krhJD4xeVKarTkQMt0dFe66Bbuy961Bv9go1
                              IEp0R+sV3B5ldqSKBrcIRsh4QFqQp6IPZ+By
                              yxyYV25L68I1dkM1JoV7IMFsfcTDPjyl3wv2
                              2LAQ2lyqLBpow5BRR4sAgjZ7Yaw= )

   ;; Additional
   ;; (empty)


B.3 No Data Error

   A "NODATA" response.  The NSEC RR proves that the name exists and
   that the requested RR type does not.

   ;; Header: QR AA DO RCODE=0
   ;;
   ;; Question
   ns1.example.        IN MX

   ;; Answer
   ;; (empty)

   ;; Authority
   example.       3600 IN SOA ns1.example. bugs.ns1.example. (
                              1065745538
                              3600
                              300
                              3600000
                              3600
                              )
   example.       3600 RRSIG  SOA 1 1 3600 20031108232541 (
                              20031009232541 5742 example.
                              0EhIo5SFK2xwM2CMh3P6FJUmpV5VFotM5pzb
                              8f3cL3SyKfOswI2osc3VvbtiEDQHEcE4/b+v



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                              BNx99Wc4jm3llWlsDOxlIbtR/S44xeOVRpff
                              pLuMW4IZmdwGY/xh/WHOCV+bqVl+s9un0OcX
                              LQTbyhlNTWdVYxPLo2T2dNP8a+0= )
   ns1.example.   3600 NSEC   ns2.example. A RRSIG NSEC
   ns1.example.   3600 RRSIG  NSEC 1 2 3600 20031108232541 (
                              20031009232541 5742 example.
                              M8q/t6bDqPktgMyfa2LjkEDZiGloFp+I8LaO
                              KBQt96RzZ9xiXOA/7wE5ZrBrgzfl1eotLn0L
                              zbOwCwpZf7XoVm/IYCOlIEPj6kJHYvIIzp3a
                              ZBn7uDx1kInt7qc2AmTpPiWCPtSD5KTBwdLk
                              o3hJ8fow/NDw5Lsb6RQOSQ5Qxuo= )

   ;; Additional
   ;; (empty)


B.4 Referral to Signed Zone

   Referral to a signed zone.   The DS RR contains the data which the
   resolver will need to validate the corresponding DNSKEY RR in the
   child zone's apex.

   ;; Header: QR DO RCODE=0
   ;;
   ;; Question
   mc.a.example.       IN MX

   ;; Answer
   ;; (empty)

   ;; Authority
   a.example.     3600 IN NS  ns1.a.example.
   a.example.     3600 IN NS  ns2.a.example.
   a.example.     3600 DS     42939 1 1 (
                              4BA08982E5739A60E02B69409B0927F9524E
                              3494 )
   a.example.     3600 RRSIG  DS 1 2 3600 20031108232541 (
                              20031009232541 5742 example.
                              Dp6ySNq7SgIfndS4N5wFynmqXXf+WQ7RTAW/
                              gC4RPDljbV8WnjZp5P7ip9zsHO9A7hEW8LPp
                              zEMMzUPfucrSnZ/Jmc60BYIkzkt493QPfz1H
                              YFRaJ6VyZoF38oN0s/H+a97c+HxAt4TElW+c
                              iHQEOrm7yXIHwnrre1iuzMZn1jY= )

   ;; Additional
   ns1.a.example. 3600 IN A   192.0.2.5
   ns2.a.example. 3600 IN A   192.0.2.6




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B.5 Referral to Unsigned Zone

   Referral to an unsigned zone.  The NSEC RR proves that no DS RR for
   this delegation exists in the parent zone.

   ;; Header: QR DO RCODE=0
   ;;
   ;; Question
   mc.b.example.       IN MX

   ;; Answer
   ;; (empty)

   ;; Authority
   b.example.     3600 IN NS  ns1.b.example.
   b.example.     3600 IN NS  ns2.b.example.
   b.example.     3600 NSEC   ns1.example. NS RRSIG NSEC
   b.example.     3600 RRSIG  NSEC 1 2 3600 20031108232541 (
                              20031009232541 5742 example.
                              csgLA1XphdEtY9WiwZOHjcOvGiBShTobK+th
                              0xDnKv7ZUxcMRi/g88Z99It+FV/Qufcf5zmM
                              RxEVOjD1e7an1X/dxD389/6Qzo6NAtSu85ps
                              TDKZscoaPBr/wYv6PG73F5yfm1hh31nhnD8f
                              BFydo6dXwQ4WK8OUC6sMCM+OHEg= )

   ;; Additional
   ns1.b.example. 3600 IN A   192.0.2.7
   ns2.b.example. 3600 IN A   192.0.2.8


B.6 Wildcard Expansion

   A successful query which was answered via wildcard expansion. The
   label count in the answer's RRSIG RR indicates that a wildcard RRset
   was expanded to produce this response, and the NSEC RR proves that no
   closer match exists in the zone.

   ;; Header: QR AA DO RCODE=0
   ;;
   ;; Question
   a.z.w.example.      IN MX

   ;; Answer
   a.z.w.example. 3600 IN MX  1 ai.example.
   a.z.w.example. 3600 RRSIG  MX 1 2 3600 20031108232541 (
                              20031009232541 5742 example.
                              Uht2mND0Kzc4hnM4Pq4zM+fjiGTEcCzx+wSD
                              b2flOHxLQPv75mXfnH1tZv7iwrzQmcyucWsd



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                              agwalJcGa3A2+UL45fjYR6zDEsag4cdg1D0/
                              +T7gIqOGWhYfiXbXuTOgUfyZRXqyGsHsAu20
                              FxfIqrcIL24dO4Ytdz2ifqvJmuM= )

   ;; Authority
   example.       3600 NS     ns1.example.
   example.       3600 NS     ns2.example.
   example.       3600 RRSIG  NS 1 1 3600 20031108232541 (
                              20031009232541 5742 example.
                              KBhJYJ0vFNyMJrt07gvHN9WAOijhXbcikUNw
                              ZEJxkL+UCv/GFJi1ABGMDowschPkpHIgDEOQ
                              exaLWGGUrOA5xMHYONWZpkL4rQ3URAKF46VJ
                              dMg0UTdw3pTD7Lvs8t6Dim46dj9h/QQEgNLF
                              BYpCn/jKFJ7lYnYYGLAUofh/+mo= )
   x.y.w.example. 3600 NSEC   xx.example. MX RRSIG NSEC
   x.y.w.example. 3600 RRSIG  NSEC 1 4 3600 20031108232541 (
                              20031009232541 5742 example.
                              cn4aj3I/EQDa+vysa08xMQSnTz8YGtLLzqAj
                              R8gy8Yqa4uSm7J17NydsWqgJkhlVxD3oBtnb
                              w/6tDzx45IHcbnVm6UDrc3DVby21AivrsZ8P
                              sm5Escp1X+qBLGSNAg2K6dlX/i2vut6g3vDa
                              66FPTb3/hhrHYkMneBO2Yvfvpj8= )

   ;; Additional
   ai.example.    3600 IN A   192.0.2.9
   ai.example.    3600 RRSIG  A 1 2 3600 20031108232541 (
                              20031009232541 5742 example.
                              MtQkYPqpRfM5ntlRR/Wg7pdFt5fuf+ESoV+a
                              0RTtEUW9Q5ac7uV3luTnOSmWFFjes1x9Anqn
                              KVeWcZJU/wRYqbUK2Q9s/kLb3cPMFavHal9n
                              3gR5v5zNaTQxBrdFlxGNgX/aa9Bs3LfxK14F
                              UU/kYIPkm9qpSE3wtELJEq2cNsU= )
   ai.example.    3600 AAAA   2001:db8::f00:baa9
   ai.example.    3600 RRSIG  AAAA 1 2 3600 20031108232541 (
                              20031009232541 5742 example.
                              LcSkeCXOOcYClsS9GYJoG/yGeuyaUJrNICK1
                              ONN4PEzGWJ7kcF+C4N972x05bPX+wsWszBbC
                              uP/RqMyNenc8Is25te6hZ8MU7Z0zBDtKeTTG
                              qz4ir4NZfqvB6moHjcVu6Pwb5KkSb8nAobCv
                              8gB4wQFPYoozOQYTprwGtIHR2k8= )


B.7 Wildcard No Data Error

   A "NODATA" response for a name covered by a wildcard.  The NSEC RRs
   prove that the matching wildcard name does not have any RRs of the
   requested type and that no closer match exists in the zone.




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   ;; Header: QR AA DO RCODE=0
   ;;
   ;; Question
   a.z.w.example.      IN AAAA

   ;; Answer
   ;; (empty)

   ;; Authority
   example.       3600 IN SOA ns1.example. bugs.ns1.example. (
                              1065745538
                              3600
                              300
                              3600000
                              3600
                              )
   example.       3600 RRSIG  SOA 1 1 3600 20031108232541 (
                              20031009232541 5742 example.
                              0EhIo5SFK2xwM2CMh3P6FJUmpV5VFotM5pzb
                              8f3cL3SyKfOswI2osc3VvbtiEDQHEcE4/b+v
                              BNx99Wc4jm3llWlsDOxlIbtR/S44xeOVRpff
                              pLuMW4IZmdwGY/xh/WHOCV+bqVl+s9un0OcX
                              LQTbyhlNTWdVYxPLo2T2dNP8a+0= )
   x.y.w.example. 3600 NSEC   xx.example. MX RRSIG NSEC
   x.y.w.example. 3600 RRSIG  NSEC 1 4 3600 20031108232541 (
                              20031009232541 5742 example.
                              cn4aj3I/EQDa+vysa08xMQSnTz8YGtLLzqAj
                              R8gy8Yqa4uSm7J17NydsWqgJkhlVxD3oBtnb
                              w/6tDzx45IHcbnVm6UDrc3DVby21AivrsZ8P
                              sm5Escp1X+qBLGSNAg2K6dlX/i2vut6g3vDa
                              66FPTb3/hhrHYkMneBO2Yvfvpj8= )
   *.w.example.   3600 NSEC   x.w.example. MX RRSIG NSEC
   *.w.example.   3600 RRSIG  NSEC 1 2 3600 20031108232541 (
                              20031009232541 5742 example.
                              fsk9iik9+gpte3I4tffoXyca5jfuYnLLy7/9
                              7LAVd4KKj9zqSB8f3QD1mjditUK9PGTTtlPL
                              4mq8F3T8PIt0pfgV8mPl6GP+bR+iVQEEE1YH
                              yzR21az4Od5KBYYdsPjZzJnOhzCtgyleAoOx
                              vOHmndDhRTDwVCg179qlrEIsOgE= )

   ;; Additional
   ;; (empty)


B.8 DS Child Zone No Data Error

   A "NODATA" response for a QTYPE=DS query which was mistakenly sent to
   a name server for the child zone.



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   ;; Header: QR AA DO RCODE=0
   ;;
   ;; Question
   example.            IN DS

   ;; Answer
   ;; (empty)

   ;; Authority
   example.       3600 IN SOA ns1.example. bugs.ns1.example. (
                              1065745538
                              3600
                              300
                              3600000
                              3600
                              )
   example.       3600 RRSIG  SOA 1 1 3600 20031108232541 (
                              20031009232541 5742 example.
                              0EhIo5SFK2xwM2CMh3P6FJUmpV5VFotM5pzb
                              8f3cL3SyKfOswI2osc3VvbtiEDQHEcE4/b+v
                              BNx99Wc4jm3llWlsDOxlIbtR/S44xeOVRpff
                              pLuMW4IZmdwGY/xh/WHOCV+bqVl+s9un0OcX
                              LQTbyhlNTWdVYxPLo2T2dNP8a+0= )
   example.       3600 NSEC   a.example. NS SOA MX RRSIG NSEC DNSKEY
   example.       3600 RRSIG  NSEC 1 1 3600 20031108232541 (
                              20031009232541 5742 example.
                              10XG3f8uExTPfof30CoonvXSMeqrhrkcN9YG
                              krhJD4xeVKarTkQMt0dFe66Bbuy961Bv9go1
                              IEp0R+sV3B5ldqSKBrcIRsh4QFqQp6IPZ+By
                              yxyYV25L68I1dkM1JoV7IMFsfcTDPjyl3wv2
                              2LAQ2lyqLBpow5BRR4sAgjZ7Yaw= )

   ;; Additional
   ;; (empty)

















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Appendix C. Authentication Examples

   The examples in this section show how the response messages in
   Appendix B are authenticated.

C.1 Authenticating An Answer

   The query in section Appendix B.1 returned an MX RRset for
   "x.w.example.com". The corresponding RRSIG indicates the MX RRset was
   signed by an "example" DNSKEY with algorithm 1 and key tag 5742.  The
   resolver needs the corresponding DNSKEY RR in order to authenticate
   this answer.   The discussion below describes how a resolver might
   obtain this DNSKEY RR.

   The RRSIG indicates the original TTL of the MX RRset was 3600 and,
   for the purpose of authentication, the current TTL is replaced by
   3600.   The RRSIG labels field value of 3 indicates the answer was
   not the result of wildcard expansion.  The "x.w.example.com" MX RRset
   is placed in canonical form and, assuming the current time falls
   between the signature inception and expiration dates, the signature
   is authenticated.

C.1.1 Authenticating the example DNSKEY RR

   This example shows the logical authentication process that starts
   from the a preconfigured root DNSKEY (or DS RR) and moves down the
   tree to authenticate the desired "example" DNSKEY RR.   Note the
   logical order is presented for clarity and an implementation may
   choose to construct the authentication as referrals are received or
   may choose to construct the authentication chain only after all
   RRsets have been obtained, or in any other combination it sees fit.
   The example here demonstrates only the logical process and does not
   dictate any implementation rules.

   We assume the resolver starts with an preconfigured DNSKEY RR for the
   root zone (or a preconfigured DS RR for the root zone).  The resolver
   checks this preconfigured DNSKEY RR is present in the root DNSKEY
   RRset (or the DS RR matches some DNSKEY in the root DNSKEY RRset),
   this DNSKEY RR has signed the root DNSKEY RRset and the signature
   lifetime is valid.  If all these conditions are met, all keys in the
   DNSKEY RRset are considered authenticated.   The resolver then uses
   one (or more) of the root DNSKEY RRs to authenticate the "example" DS
   RRset.  Note the resolver may need to query the root zone to obtain
   the root DNSKEY RRset and/or "example" DS RRset.

   Once the DS RRset has been authenticated using the root DNSKEY, the
   resolver checks the "example" DNSKEY RRset for some "example" DNSKEY
   RR that matches one of the authenticated "example" DS RRs.  If such a



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   matching "example" DNSKEY is found, the resolver checks this DNSKEY
   RR has signed the "example" DNSKEY RRset and the signature lifetime
   is valid.  If all these conditions are met, all keys in the "example"
   DNSKEY RRset are considered authenticated.

   Finally the resolver checks that some DNSKEY RR in the "example"
   DNSKEY RRset uses algorithm 1 and has a key tag of 5742.  This DNSKEY
   is used to authenticated the RRSIG included in the response.  If
   multiple "example" DNSKEY RRs have algorithm 1 and key tag of 5742,
   then each DNSKEY RR is tried and the answer is authenticated if
   either DNSKEY RR validates the signature as described above.

C.2 Name Error

   The query in section Appendix B.2 returned NSEC RRs that prove the
   requested data does not exist and no wildcard applies.  The negative
   reply is authenticated by verifying both NSEC RRs. The NSEC RRs are
   authenticated in a manner identical to that of the MX RRset discussed
   above.

C.3 No Data Error

   The query in section Appendix B.3 returned an NSEC RR that proves the
   requested name exists, but the requested RR type does not exist. The
   negative reply is authenticated by verifying the NSEC RR.  The NSEC
   RR is authenticated in a manner identical to that of the MX RRset
   discussed above.

C.4 Referral to Signed Zone

   The query in section Appendix B.4 returned a referral to the signed
   "a.example." zone.  The DS RR is authenticated in a manner identical
   to that of the MX RRset discussed above. This DS RR is used to
   authenticate the "a.example" DNSKEY RRset.

   Once the "a.example" DS RRset has been authenticated using the
   "example" DNSKEY, the resolver checks the "a.example" DNSKEY RRset
   for some "a.example" DNSKEY RR that matches the DS RR.  If such a
   matching "a.example" DNSKEY is found, the resolver checks this DNSKEY
   RR has signed the "a.example" DNSKEY RRset and the signature lifetime
   is valid.  If all these conditions are met, all keys in the
   "a.example" DNSKEY RRset are considered authenticated.

C.5 Referral to Unsigned Zone

   The query in section Appendix B.5 returned a referral to an unsigned
   "b.example." zone.  The NSEC proves that no authentication leads from
   "example" to "b.example" and the NSEC RR is authenticated in a manner



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   identical to that of the MX RRset discussed above.

C.6 Wildcard Expansion

   The query in section Appendix B.6 returned an answer that was
   produced as a result of wildcard expansion.   The RRset expanded as
   the similar to The corresponding RRSIG indicates the MX RRset was
   signed by an "example" DNSKEY with algorithm 1 and key tag 5742.  The
   RRSIG indicates the original TTL of the MX RRset was 3600 and, for
   the purpose of authentication, the current TTL is replaced by 3600.
   The RRSIG labels field value of 2 indicates the answer the result of
   wildcard expansion since the "a.z.w.example" name contains 4 labels.
   The name "a.z.w.w.example" is replaced by "*.w.example", the MX RRset
   is placed in canonical form and, assuming the current time falls
   between the signature inception and expiration dates, the signature
   is authenticated.

   The NSEC proves that no closer match (exact or closer wildcard) could
   have been used to answer this query and the NSEC RR must also be
   authenticated before the answer is considered valid.

C.7 Wildcard No Data Error

   The query in section Appendix B.7 returned NSEC RRs that prove the
   requested data does not exist and no wildcard applies.  The negative
   reply is authenticated by verifying both NSEC RRs.

C.8 DS Child Zone No Data Error

   The query in section Appendix B.8 returned NSEC RRs that shows the
   requested was answered by a child server ("example" server).   The
   NSEC RR indicates the presence of an SOA RR, showing the answer is
   from the child .  Queries for the "example" DS RRset should be sent
   to the parent servers ("root" servers).

















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   HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
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Acknowledgement

   Funding for the RFC Editor function is currently provided by the
   Internet Society.











































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