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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 RFC 5526

ENUM Working Group                                         J. Livingood
Internet-Draft                             Comcast Cable Communications
Expires: May 12, 2007                                         P. Pfautz
                                                                   AT&T
                                                             R. Stastny
                                                                  Oefeg
                                                          November 2006


              The E.164 to Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI)
           Dynamic Delegation Discovery System (DDDS) Application for
                            Infrastructure ENUM
                     draft-ietf-enum-infrastructure-02


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   This Internet-Draft will expire on May 12, 2007.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2006).


Abstract

   This document defines a use case as well as a proposal for a parallel
   namespace to “e164.arpa” as defined in RFC3761, to be used for
   Infrastructure ENUM purposes.



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Table of Contents

   1. Terminology....................................................2
   2. Introduction...................................................2
   3. IANA Considerations............................................3
   4. DNS Root for Infrastructure ENUM...............................3
   5. Security and Privacy Considerations............................3
   6. Acknowledgements...............................................3
   7. References.....................................................4
      7.1 Normative References.......................................4
      7.2 Informative References.....................................4
   Authors' Addresses................................................4
   Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements....................5


1. Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED",  "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in BCP 14, RFC-2119.

2. Introduction

   ENUM (E.164 Number Mapping, RFC 3761 [1]) is a system that transforms
   E.164 numbers [2] into domain names and then uses the DNS (Domain
   Name Service) [3] to discover NAPTR records that specify what
   services are available for a specific domain name.

   ENUM as originally defined was based on the end-user opt-in
   principle.  While this has great potential to foster new services and
   end-user choice in the long-term, the current requirements for IP-
   based interconnection of Voice over IP (VoIP) domains require the
   provisioning of all allocated or served (hosted) numbers of a
   participating service provider, without the need for individual users
   to opt-in or not.  This is particularly important if Infrastructure
   ENUM is used for number portability applications, for example.

   In addition, while it is possible that service providers could
   mandate that their users opt-in into e164.arpa through end-user
   contract terms and conditions, there are substantial downsides to
   such an approach.  Thus, for all these reasons and many others, ENUM
   for end-user provisioning is ill-suited for use by service providers
   for the interconnection of VoIP domains.

   As VoIP evolves and becomes pervasive, E.164-addressed telephone
   calls need not necessarily traverse the Public Switched Telephone
   Network (PSTN).  Therefore, VoIP service providers have an interest



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   in using ENUM, on a so-called "Infrastructure" basis, to keep VoIP
   traffic on IP networks on an end-to-end basis, both within and
   between service provider domains.

   The requirements for Infrastructure ENUM are provided in an ENUM
   Working Group document, Infrastructure ENUM Requirements [4].  This
   document defines that Infrastructure ENUM be implemented by means of
   a parallel namespace to e164.arpa dedicated to Infrastructure ENUM,
   in a domain which is to be determined.

   Infrastructure ENUM Tier 2 resource records in the Infrastructure
   ENUM tree would be controlled by the service provider that is
   providing services to a given E.164 number, generally referred to in
   various nations as the "carrier of record".  The definition of who
   controls a given E.164 number is a national matter or is defined by
   the entity controlling the numbering space.


3. IANA Considerations

   IANA has created a registry for Enumservices as originally specified
   in RFC 2916 and revised in RFC 3761.  Enumservices registered with
   IANA are valid for Infrastructure ENUM as well as end-user ENUM.

4. DNS Root for Infrastructure ENUM

   The top level DNS zone for infrastructure ENUM must support a level
   of performance similar to that required for root servers (RFC 2870)
   and must be independent of e164.arpa.

5. Security and Privacy Considerations

   Since Infrastructure ENUM is also implemented on the public Internet,
   the same security considerations apply as noted in RFC 3761.

   In addition, since there is no opt-in for end-users, personally-
   identifiable information (PII) must not be disclosed for any end-
   user.

   Thus, the information provided in the NAPTR records must not disclose
   any PII about the end-user such as a name in user-info. This can be
   achieved, for example, by entering the information in the format
   sip:<e164_phone_number>@provider.example,
   mailto:<e164_phone_number>@provider.example or sip:<opaque
   string>@provider.example.

6.
  Acknowledgements



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   The authors wish to thank Lawrence Conroy, Patrik Faltstrom, Michael
   Haberler, Steve Lind, Alexander Mayrhofer, and Richard Shockey for
   their helpful discussion of this draft and the concept of
   Infrastructure ENUM.

7. References

7.1 Normative References

   [1] Faltstrom, P. and M. Mealling, "The E.164 to Uniform Resource
   Identifiers (URI) Dynamic Delegation Discovery System (DDDS)
   Application (ENUM)", RFC 3761, April 2004.

   [2] ITU-T, "The International Public Telecommunication Number Plan",
   Recommendation E.164, May 1997.

   [3] Mockapetris, P., "DOMAIN NAMES - CONCEPTS AND FACILITIES", RFC
   1034, November 1987.

   [4] Lind, S., Pfautz, P., "Infrastructure ENUM Requirements", draft-
   enum-infrastructure-requirements-01, March 2006.  (work-in-progress)

   [5] Mealling, M., "Dynamic Delegation Discovery System (DDDS) Part
   Three: The Domain Name System (DNS) Database", RFC 3403, October
   2002.

   [6] Mealling, M., "Dynamic Delegation Discovery System (DDDS) Part
   One: The Comprehensive DDDS", RFC 3401, October 2002.

   [7] Mealling, M., "Dynamic Delegation Discovery System (DDDS) Part
   Two: The Algorithm", RFC 3402, October 2002.

   [8] Mealling, M., "Dynamic Delegation Discovery System (DDDS) Part
   Four: The Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI)", RFC 3404, October
   2002.

   [9] Mealling, M., "Dynamic Delegation Discovery System (DDDS) Part
   Five: URI.ARPA Assignment Procedures", RFC 3405, October 2002.

   [10] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
   Levels", RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [11] Faltstrom, P., "E.164 number and DNS", RFC 2916, September 2000.

7.2 Informative References


Authors' Addresses



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   Jason Livingood
   Comcast Cable Communications
   1500 Market Street
   Philadelphia, PA 19102
   USA

   Phone: +1-215-981-7813
   Email: jason_livingood@cable.comcast.com


   Penn Pfautz
   AT&T
  200 S. Laurel Ave
  Middletown, NJ  07748
  USA

  Phone: +1-732-420-4962
  Email: ppfautz@att.com


   Richard Stastny
   Oefeg
   Postbox 147
   1103 Vienna
   Austria

   Phone: +43-664-420-4100
   Email: Richard.stastny@oefeg.at

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