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Versions: (draft-watson-fecframe-raptor) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 RFC 6681

FEC Framework                                                  M. Watson
Internet-Draft                                                   Netflix
Intended status:  Standards Track                         T. Stockhammer
Expires:  June 12, 2011                                   Nomor Research
                                                                 M. Luby
                                                   Qualcomm Incorporated
                                                        December 9, 2010


                    Raptor FEC Schemes for FECFRAME
                     draft-ietf-fecframe-raptor-04

Abstract

   This document describes Fully-Specified Forward Error Correction
   (FEC) Schemes for the Raptor and RaptorQ codes and their application
   to reliable delivery of media streams in the context of FEC
   Framework.  The Raptor and RaptorQ codes are systematic codes, where
   a number of repair symbols are generated from a set of source symbols
   and sent in one or more repair flows in addition to the source
   symbols that are sent to the receiver(s) within a source flow.  The
   Raptor and RaptorQ codes offer close to optimal protection against
   arbitrary packet losses at a low computational complexity.  Six FEC
   Schemes are defined, two for protection of arbitrary packet flows,
   two that are optimised for small source blocks and another two for
   protection of a single flow that already contains a sequence number.
   Repair data may be sent over arbitrary datagram transport (e.g.  UDP)
   or using RTP.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on June 12, 2011.

Copyright Notice




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   Copyright (c) 2010 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.


Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   2.  Document Outline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   3.  Requirements Notation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   4.  Definitions and Abbreviations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     4.1.  Definitions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     4.2.  Abbreviations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   5.  General procedures for Raptor FEC Schemes  . . . . . . . . . .  6
   6.  Raptor FEC Schemes for arbitrary packet flows  . . . . . . . .  8
     6.1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     6.2.  Formats and Codes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
       6.2.1.  FEC Framework Configuration Information  . . . . . . .  8
       6.2.2.  Source FEC Payload ID  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
       6.2.3.  Repair FEC Payload ID  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     6.3.  Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
       6.3.1.  Source symbol construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
       6.3.2.  Repair packet construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     6.4.  FEC Code Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   7.  Optimised Raptor FEC Scheme for arbitrary packet flows . . . . 12
     7.1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     7.2.  Formats and Codes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
       7.2.1.  FEC Framework Configuration Information  . . . . . . . 13
       7.2.2.  Source FEC Payload ID  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
       7.2.3.  Repair FEC Payload ID  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     7.3.  Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
       7.3.1.  Source symbol construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
       7.3.2.  Repair packet construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     7.4.  FEC Code Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   8.  Raptor FEC Scheme for a single sequenced flow  . . . . . . . . 14
     8.1.  Formats and codes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
       8.1.1.  FEC Framework Configuration Information  . . . . . . . 14
       8.1.2.  Source FEC Payload ID  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
       8.1.3.  Repair FEC Payload ID  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15



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     8.2.  Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
       8.2.1.  Source symbol construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
       8.2.2.  Derivation of Source FEC Packet Identification
               Information  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
       8.2.3.  Repair packet construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
       8.2.4.  Procedures for RTP source flows  . . . . . . . . . . . 17
     8.3.  FEC Code Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
   9.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
   10. Session Description Protocol (SDP) Signaling . . . . . . . . . 18
   11. Congestion Control Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
   12. IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
     12.1. Registration of FEC Scheme IDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
   13. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
   14. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
     14.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
     14.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20


































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1.  Introduction

   The FEC Framework [I-D.ietf-fecframe-framework] describes a framework
   for the application of Forward Error Correction to arbitrary packet
   flows.  Modeled after the FEC Building Block developed by the IETF
   Reliable Multicast Transport working group [RFC5052], the FEC
   Framework defines the concept of FEC Schemes which provide specific
   Forward Error Correction schemes.  This document describes six FEC
   Schemes which make use of the Raptor and RaptorQ FEC codes as defined
   in [RFC5053] and [I-D.ietf-rmt-bb-fec-raptorq].

   The FEC protection mechanism is independent of the type of the source
   data, which can be an arbitrary sequence of packets, including for
   example audio or video data.  In general, the operation of the
   protection mechanism is as follows:

   o  The sender determines a set of source packets (a source block) to
      be protected together based on the FEC Framework Configuration
      Information.

   o  The sender arranges the source packets into a set of source
      symbols, each of which is the same size.

   o  The sender applies the Raptor/RaptorQ protection operation on the
      source symbols to generate the required number of repair symbols.

   o  The sender packetizes the repair symbols and sends the repair
      packet(s) along with the source packets to the receiver(s).

   Per the FEC Framework requirements, the sender MUST transmit the
   source and repair packets in different source and repair flows, or in
   the case RTP transport is used for repair packets, in different RTP
   streams.  At the receiver side, if all of the source packets are
   successfully received, there is no need for FEC recovery and the
   repair packets are discarded.  However, if there are missing source
   packets, the repair packets can be used to recover the missing
   information.

   The operation of the FEC mechanism requires that the receiver can
   identify the relationships between received source packets and repair
   packets and in particular which source packets are missing.  In many
   cases, data already exists in the source packets which can be used to
   refer to source packets and to identify which packets are missing.
   In this case we assume it is possible to derive a "sequence number"
   directly or indirectly from the source packets and this sequence
   number can be used within the FEC Scheme.  This case is referred to
   as a "single sequenced flow".  In this case the FEC Source Payload ID
   defined in [I-D.ietf-fecframe-framework] is empty and the source



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   packets are not modified by the application of FEC, with obvious
   backwards compatibility advantages.

   Otherwise, it is necessary to add data to the source packets for FEC
   purposes in the form of a non-empty FEC Source Payload ID.  This case
   if referred to as the "arbitrary packet flow" case.  Accordingly,
   this document defines two FEC Schemes, one for the case of a single
   sequenced flow and another for the case of arbitrary packet flows.


2.  Document Outline

   This document is organised as follows:

   o  Section 5 defines general procedures applicable to the use of the
      Raptor and RaptorQ codes in the context of the FEC Framework.

   o  Section 6defines an FEC Scheme for the case of arbitrary source
      flows and follows the format defined for FEC Schemes in
      [I-D.ietf-fecframe-framework].  When used with Raptor codes, this
      scheme is equivalent to that defined in [MBMSTS].

   o  Section 7 defines an FEC Scheme similar to that defined in
      Section 6but with optimisations for the case where only limited
      source block sizes are required.  When used with Raptor codes,
      this scheme is equivalent to that defined in [dvbts] for arbitrary
      packet flows.

   o  Section 8 defines an FEC Scheme for the case of a single flow
      which is already provided with a source packet sequence number.
      When used with Raptor codes, this scheme is equivalent to that
      defined in [dvbts] for the case of a single sequenced flow.


3.  Requirements Notation

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].


4.  Definitions and Abbreviations

   The definitions, notations and abbreviations commonly used in this
   document are summarized in this section.






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4.1.  Definitions

   This document uses the following definitions.  For further
   definitions that apply to FEC Framework in general, see
   [I-D.ietf-fecframe-framework].

   Symbol:  A unit of data.  Its size, in bytes, is referred to as the
      symbol size.

   FEC Framework Configuration Information:  Information that controls
      the operation of the FEC Framework.  Each FEC Framework instance
      has its own configuration information.

4.2.  Abbreviations

   This document uses the following abbreviations.  For further
   abbreviations that apply to FEC Framework in general, see
   [I-D.ietf-fecframe-framework].

   FSSI:  FEC-Scheme-Specific Information.

   SS-FSSI:  Sender-Side FEC-Scheme-Specific Information.

   RS-FSSI:  Receiver-Side FEC-Scheme-Specific Information.

   ADUI  Application Data Unit Information


5.  General procedures for Raptor FEC Schemes

   This section specifies general procedures which apply to all Raptor
   and RaptorQ FEC Schemes, specifically the construction of source
   symbols from a set of source transport payloads.  As described in
   [I-D.ietf-fecframe-framework] for each Application Data Unit (ADU) in
   a source block, the FEC Scheme is provided with:

   o  A description of the source data flow with which the ADU is
      associated and an integer identifier associated with that flow.

   o  The ADU itself.

   o  The length of the ADU.

   For each ADU, we define the Application Data Unit Information (ADUI)
   as follows:

   Let




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   o  n be the number of ADUs in the source block.

   o  T be the source symbol size in bytes.  Note:  this information is
      provided by the FEC Scheme as defined below.

   o  i the index to the (i+1)-th ADU to be added to the source block, 0
      <= i < n.

   o  R[i] denote the number of octets in the (i+1)-th ADU.

   o  l[i] be a length indication associated with the i-th ADU - the
      nature of the length indication is defined by the FEC Scheme.

   o  L[i] denote two octets representing the value of l[i] in network
      byte order (high order octet first) of the i-th ADU.

   o  f[i] denote the integer identifier associated with the source data
      flow from which the i-th ADU was taken.

   o  F[i] denote a single octet representing the value of f[i].

   o  s[i] be the smallest integer such that s[i]*T >= (l[i]+3).  Note
      s[i] is the length of SPI[i] in units of symbols of size T bytes.

   o  P[i] denote s[i]*T-(l[i]+3) zero octets.  Note:  P[i] are padding
      octets to align the start of each UDP packet with the start of a
      symbol.

   o  ADUI[i] be the concatenation of F[i] ,L[i], R[i] and P[i].

   Then, a source data block is constructed by concatenating ADUI[i] for
   i = 0, 1, 2, ... n-1.  The source data block size, S, is then given
   by sum {s[i]*T, i=0, ..., n-1}.  Symbols are allocated integer
   Encoding Symbol IDs consecutively starting from zero within the
   source block.  Each ADU is associated with the Encoding Symbol ID of
   the first symbol containing SPI for that packet.  Thus, the Encoding
   Symbol ID value associated with the j-th source packet, ESI[j], is
   given by ESI[j] = 0, for j=0 and ESI[j] = sum{s[i], i=0,...,(j-1)},
   for 0 < j < n.

   Source blocks are identified by integer Source Block Numbers.  This
   specification does not specify how Source Block Numbers are allocated
   to source blocks.  The Source FEC Packet Identification Information
   consists of the identity of the source block and the Encoding Symbol
   ID associated with the packet.






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6.  Raptor FEC Schemes for arbitrary packet flows

6.1.  Introduction

   This section specifies an FEC Scheme for the application of the
   Raptor and RaptorQ codes to arbitrary packet flows.  This scheme is
   recommended in scenarios where maximal generality is required.

   When used with Raptor codes, this scheme is equivalent to that
   specified in [MBMSTS].

6.2.  Formats and Codes

6.2.1.  FEC Framework Configuration Information

6.2.1.1.  FEC Scheme ID

   The value of the FEC Scheme ID for the fully-specified FEC scheme
   defined in this section is XXX when [RFC5053] is used and YYY when
   [I-D.ietf-rmt-bb-fec-raptorq] is used, as assigned by IANA.

6.2.1.2.  Scheme-Specific Elements

   The scheme-specific elements of the FEC Framework Configuration
   information for this scheme are as follows:

   Maximum Source Block Length  Name:  "Kmax", Value range:  A decimal
      non-negative integer less than 8192 (for Raptor) or 56403 (for
      RaptorQ), in units of symbols

   Encoding Symbol Size  Name:  "T", Value range:  A decimal non-
      negative integer less than 65536, in units of bytes

   Payload ID Format  Name:  "P", Value range:  "A" or "B"

   An encoding format for The Maximum Source Block Length and Encoding
   Symbol Size is defined below.














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                            1                   2                   3
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |       Symbol Size (T)         |Max. Source Block Length (Kmax)|
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |P|  Reserved   |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                 Figure 1: FEC Scheme Specific Information

   The P bit shall be set to zero to indicate Format A or to one to
   indicate Format B. The last octet of the above encoding may be
   omitted, in which case Format A shall be assumed.

   The Payload ID Format identifier defines which of the Source FEC
   Payload ID and Repair FEC Payload ID formats defined below shall be
   used.  Payload ID Format B SHALL NOT be used when[RFC5053] is used.

6.2.2.  Source FEC Payload ID

   This scheme makes use of an Explicit Source FEC Payload ID, which is
   appended to the end of the source packets.  Two formats are defined
   for the Source FEC Payload ID, format A and format B. The format that
   is used is signaled as part of the FEC Framework Configuration
   Information.

   The Source FEC Payload ID for format A is provided in Figure 2.

   .

                          1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |   Source Block Number (SBN)   |   Encoding Symbol ID (ESI)    |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                Figure 2: Source FEC Payload ID - Format A

   Source Block Number (SBN), (16 bits):  An integer identifier for the
      source block that the source data within the packet relates to.

   Encoding Symbol ID (ESI), (16 bits):  The starting symbol index of
      the source packet in the source block.

   The Source FEC Payload ID for format B is provided in Figure 3.






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                          1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |      SBN      |            Encoding Symbol ID (ESI)           |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                Figure 3: Source FEC Payload ID - Format B

   Source Block Number (SBN), (8 bits):  An integer identifier for the
      source block that the source data within the packet relates to.

   Encoding Symbol ID (ESI), (24 bits):  The starting symbol index of
      the source packet in the source block.

6.2.3.  Repair FEC Payload ID

   Two formats for the Repair FEC Payload ID, Format A and Format B are
   defined below.

   The Repair FEC Payload ID for format A is provided in Figure 4.


                          1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |   Source Block Number (SBN)   |   Encoding Symbol ID (ESI)    |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |   Source Block Length (SBL)   |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                Figure 4: Repair FEC Payload ID - Format A

   Source Block Number (SBN), (16 bits)  An integer identifier for the
      source block that the repair symbols within the packet relate to.
      For format A, it is of size 16 bits.

   Encoding Symbol ID (ESI), (16 bits)  Integer identifier for the
      encoding symbols within the packet.

   Source Block Length (SBL), (16 bits)  The number of source symbols in
      the source block.

   The Repair FEC Payload ID for format B is provided in Figure 5.








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                          1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |      SBN      |            Encoding Symbol ID (ESI)           |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |   Source Block Length (SBL)   |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                Figure 5: Repair FEC Payload ID - Format B

   Source Block Number (SBN), (8 bits)  An integer identifier for the
      source block that the repair symbols within the packet relate to.
      For format A, it is of size 16 bits.

   Encoding Symbol ID (ESI), (24 bits)  Integer identifier for the
      encoding symbols within the packet.

   Source Block Length (SBL), (16 bits)  The number of source symbols in
      the source block.

   The interpretation of the Source Block Number, Encoding Symbol
   Identifier and Source Block Length is defined by the FEC Code
   Specification.

6.3.  Procedures

6.3.1.  Source symbol construction

   This FEC Scheme uses the procedures defined in Section 5 to construct
   a set of source symbols to which the FEC code can be applied.  The
   sender MUST allocate Source Block Numbers to source blocks
   sequentially, wrapping around to zero after Source Block Number 65535
   (Format A) or 255 (Format B).

   During the construction of the source block:

   o  the length indication, l[i], included in the Source Packet
      Information for each packet shall be the transport payload length.

   o  the value of s[i] in the construction of the Source Packet
      Information for each packet shall be the smallest integer such
      that s[i]*T >= (l[i]+3).

6.3.2.  Repair packet construction

   The ESI value placed into a repair packet is calculated as specified
   in Section 5.3.2 of [RFC5053] when Raptor as defined in [RFC5053] is
   used and as specified in Section 4.4.2 of



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   [I-D.ietf-rmt-bb-fec-raptorq] when RaptorQ as defined in
   [I-D.ietf-rmt-bb-fec-raptorq] is used, where K=SBL.

6.4.  FEC Code Specification

   The Raptor FEC encoder defined in [RFC5053] or
   [I-D.ietf-rmt-bb-fec-raptorq] SHALL be used.  The source symbols
   passed to the Raptor FEC encoder SHALL consist of the source symbols
   constructed according to Section 6.3.1.  Thus the value of the
   parameter K used by the FEC encoder (equal to the Source Block
   Length) may vary amongst the blocks of the stream but SHALL NOT
   exceed the Maximum Source Block Length signaled in the FEC Scheme-
   specific information.  The symbol size, T, to be used for source
   block construction and the repair symbol construction is equal to the
   Encoding Symbol Size signaled in the FEC Scheme Specific Information.


7.  Optimised Raptor FEC Scheme for arbitrary packet flows

7.1.  Introduction

   This section specifies a slightly modified version of the FEC Scheme
   specified in Section 6 which is applicable to scenarios in which only
   relatively small block sizes will be used.  These modifications admit
   substantial optimisations to both sender and receiver
   implementations.

   In outline, the modifications are:

   o  All source blocks within a stream are encoded using the same
      source block size.  Code shortening is used to encode blocks of
      different sizes.  This is achieved by padding every block to the
      required size using zero symbols before encoding.  The zero
      symbols are then discarded after decoding.  The source block size
      to be used for a stream is signaled in the Maximum Source Block
      Size field of the scheme-specific information.  This allows for
      efficient parallel encoding of multiple streams.  Note that the
      padding operation is equivalent to the padding operation in
      [I-D.ietf-rmt-bb-fec-raptorq] with K' the specified single source
      block size and K the actual source block size K.

   o  The possible choices of the source block size for a stream is
      restricted to a small specified set of sizes.  This allows
      explicit operation sequences for encoding and decoding the
      restricted set of source block sizes to be pre-calculated and
      embedded in software or hardware.

   When the Raptor FEC encoder as defined in [RFC5053] is used, this



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   scheme is equivalent to that specified in [dvbts] for arbitrary
   packet flows.

7.2.  Formats and Codes

7.2.1.  FEC Framework Configuration Information

7.2.1.1.  FEC Scheme ID

   The value of the FEC Scheme ID for the fully-specified FEC scheme
   defined in this section is XXX when [RFC5053] is used and YYY when
   [I-D.ietf-rmt-bb-fec-raptorq] is used, as assigned by IANA.

7.2.1.2.  FEC Scheme specific information

   See . (Section 6.2.1.2)

7.2.2.  Source FEC Payload ID

   See . (Section 6.2.2)

7.2.3.  Repair FEC Payload ID

   SeeSection 6.2.3

7.3.  Procedures

7.3.1.  Source symbol construction

   See Section 6.3.1

7.3.2.  Repair packet construction

   The number of repair symbols contained within a repair packet is
   computed from the packet length.  The ESI value placed into a repair
   packet is calculated as X + MSBL - SBL, where X would be the ESI
   value of the repair packet if the ESI were calculated as specified in
   Section 5.3.2 of [RFC5053] when Raptor as defined in[RFC5053] is used
   and as specified in Section 4.4.2 of [I-D.ietf-rmt-bb-fec-raptorq]
   when RaptorQ as defined in [I-D.ietf-rmt-bb-fec-raptorq] is used,
   where K=SBL.  The value of SBL SHALL be at most the value of MSBL.

7.4.  FEC Code Specification

   The Raptor FEC encoder defined in [RFC5053] or
   [I-D.ietf-rmt-bb-fec-raptorq] SHALL be used.  The source symbols
   passed to the Raptor FEC encoder SHALL consist of the source symbols
   constructed according to Section 6.3.1 extended with zero or more



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   padding symbols such that the total number of symbols in the source
   block is equal to the Maximum Source Block Length signaled in the FEC
   Scheme Specific Information.  Thus the value of the parameter K used
   by the FEC encoded is equal to the Maximum Source Block Length for
   all blocks of the stream.  Padding symbols shall consist entirely of
   bytes set to the value zero.  The symbol size, T, to be used for
   source block construction and the repair symbol construction is equal
   to the Encoding Symbol Size signaled in the FEC Scheme Specific
   Information.

   When [RFC5053] is used, the parameter T SHALL be set such that the
   number of source symbols in any source block is at most 8192.  The
   Maximum Source Block Length parameter - and hence the number of
   symbols used in the FEC Encoding and Decoding operations - SHALL be
   set to one of the following values:

      101, 120, 148, 164, 212, 237, 297, 371, 450, 560, 680, 842, 1031,
      1139, 1281

   When [I-D.ietf-rmt-bb-fec-raptorq] is used, the parameter T SHALL be
   set such that the number of source symbols in any source block is
   less than 56403.  The Maximum Source Block Length parameter SHALL be
   set to one of the supported values for K' defined in Section 5.6 of
   [I-D.ietf-rmt-bb-fec-raptorq].


8.  Raptor FEC Scheme for a single sequenced flow

8.1.  Formats and codes

8.1.1.  FEC Framework Configuration Information

8.1.1.1.  FEC Scheme ID

   The value of the FEC Scheme ID for the fully-specified FEC scheme
   defined in this section is XXX when [RFC5053] is used and YYY when
   [I-D.ietf-rmt-bb-fec-raptorq] is used, as assigned by IANA.

8.1.1.2.  Scheme-specific elements

   See Section 6.2.1.2

8.1.2.  Source FEC Payload ID

   The Source FEC Payload ID field is not used by this FEC Scheme.
   Source packets are not modified by this FEC Scheme.





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8.1.3.  Repair FEC Payload ID

   Two formats for the Repair FEC Payload ID are defined, Format A and
   Format B.

                          1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |    Initial Sequence Number    |      Encoding Symbol ID       |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |      Source Block Length      |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                Figure 6: Repair FEC Payload ID - Format A

   Initial Sequence Number (Flow i ISN) - 16 bits  This field specifies
      the lowest 16 bits of the sequence number of the first packet to
      be included in this sub-block.  If the sequence numbers are
      shorter than 16 bits then the received Sequence Number SHALL be
      logically padded with zero bits to become 16 bits in length
      respectively.

   Encoding Symbol ID (ESI) - 16 bits  This field indicates which repair
      symbols are contained within this repair packet.  The ESI provided
      is the ESI of the first repair symbol in the packet.

   Source Block Length (SBL) - 16 bits  This field specifies the length
      of the source block in symbols.

                          1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |    Initial Sequence Number    |      Source Block Length      |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                 Encoding Symbol ID            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                Figure 7: Repair FEC Payload ID - Format B

   Initial Sequence Number (Flow i ISN) - 16 bits  This field specifies
      the lowest 16 bits of the sequence number of the first packet to
      be included in this sub-block.  If the sequence numbers are
      shorter than 16 bits then the received Sequence Number SHALL be
      logically padded with zero bits to become 16 bits in length
      respectively.






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   Source Block Length (SBL) - 16 bits  This field specifies the length
      of the source block in symbols.

   Encoding Symbol ID (ESI) - 24 bits  This field indicates which repair
      symbols are contained within this repair packet.  The ESI provided
      is the ESI of the first repair symbol in the packet.

8.2.  Procedures

8.2.1.  Source symbol construction

   This FEC Scheme uses the procedures defined in Section 5 to construct
   a set of source symbols to which the FEC code can be applied.  The
   sender MUST allocate Source Block Numbers to source blocks
   sequentially, wrapping around to zero after Source Block Number 65535
   in the case Format A is used for FEC Payload IDs and 255 in the case
   Format B is used for FEC Payload IDs.

   During the construction of the source block:

   o  the length indication, l[i], included in the Source Packet
      Information for each packet shall be dependent on the protocol
      carried within the transport payload.  Rules for RTP are specified
      below.

   o  the value of s[i] in the construction of the Source Packet
      Information for each packet shall be the smallest integer such
      that s[i]*T >= (l[i]+3)

8.2.2.  Derivation of Source FEC Packet Identification Information

   The Source FEC Packet Identification Information for a source packet
   is derived from the sequence number of the packet and information
   received in any repair FEC packet belonging to this Source Block.
   Source blocks are identified by the sequence number of the first
   source packet in the block.  This information is signaled in all
   repair FEC packets associated with the source block in the Initial
   Sequence Number field.

   The length of the Source Packet Information (in bytes) for source
   packets within a source block is equal to length of the payload
   containing encoding symbols of the repair packets (i.e. not including
   the Repair FEC Payload ID) for that block, which MUST be the same for
   all repair packets.  The Application Data Unit Information Length
   (ADUIL) in symbols is equal to this length divided by the Encoding
   Symbol Size (which is signaled in the FEC Framework Configuration
   Information).  The set of source packets which are included in the
   source block is determined from the Initial Sequence Number (ISN) and



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   Source Block Length (SBL) as follows:

   Let,

   o  I be the Initial Sequence Number of the source block

   o  LP be the Source Packet Information Length in symbols

   o  LB be the Source Block Length in symbols

   Then, source packets with sequence numbers from I to I +LB/LP-1
   inclusive are included in the source block.

   Note that if no FEC repair packets are received then no FEC decoding
   is possible and it is unnecessary for the receiver to identify the
   Source FEC Packet Identification Information for the source packets.

   The Encoding Symbol ID for a packet is derived from the following
   information:

   o  The sequence number, Ns, of the packet

   o  The Source Packet Information Length for the source block, LP

   o  The Initial Sequence Number of the source block, I

   Then the Encoding Symbol ID for packet with sequence number Ns is
   determined by the following formula:

      ESI = ( Ns - I ) * LP

   Note that all repair packet associated to a given Source Block MUST
   contain the same Source Block Length and Initial Sequence Number.

8.2.3.  Repair packet construction

   See Section 7.3.2

8.2.4.  Procedures for RTP source flows

   In the specific case of RTP source packet flows, then the RTP
   Sequence Number field SHALL be used as the sequence number in the
   procedures described above.  The length indication included in the
   Application Data Unit Information SHALL be the RTP payload length
   plus the length of the CSRCs, if any, the RTP Header Extension, if
   present, and the RTP padding bytes, if any.  Note that this length is
   always equal to the UDP payload length of the packet minus 12.




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8.3.  FEC Code Specification

   See Section 7.4


9.  Security Considerations

   For the general security considerations related to the use of FEC,
   refer to [I-D.ietf-fecframe-framework].  No security considerations
   specific to this document have been identified.


10.  Session Description Protocol (SDP) Signaling

   This section provides an SDP [RFC4566] example.  The syntax follows
   the definition in [I-D.ietf-fecframe-sdp-elements] .Assume we have
   one source video stream (mid:S1) and one FEC repair stream (mid:R1).
   We form one FEC group with the "a=group:FEC-FR S1 R1" line.  The
   source and repair streams are sent to the same port on different
   multicast groups.  The repair window is set to 200 ms.

        v=0
        o=ali 1122334455 1122334466 IN IP4 fec.example.com
        s=Raptor FEC Example
        t=0 0
        a=group:FEC-FR S1 R1
        m=video 30000 RTP/AVP 100
        c=IN IP4 233.252.0.1/127
        a=rtpmap:100 MP2T/90000
        a=fec-source-flow: id=0
        a=mid:S1
        m=application 30000 UDP/FEC
        c=IN IP4 233.252.0.2/127
        a=fec-repair-flow: encoding-id=6; fssi=Kmax:8192,T:128,P:A
        a=repair-window:200ms
        a=mid:R1


11.  Congestion Control Considerations

   For the general congestion control considerations related to the use
   of FEC, refer to [I-D.ietf-fecframe-framework].


12.  IANA Considerations






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12.1.  Registration of FEC Scheme IDs

   The value of FEC Scheme IDs is subject to IANA registration.  For
   general guidelines on IANA considerations as they apply to this
   document, refer to [I-D.ietf-fecframe-framework].

   This document registers three values in the FEC Framework (FECFRAME)
   FEC Encoding IDs registry as follows:

   o  1 for the Raptor FEC Scheme for Arbitrary Packet Flows (Section 6
      using Raptor [RFC5053].

   o  2 for the Raptor FEC Scheme for Arbitrary Packet Flows (Section 6
      using RaptorQ [I-D.ietf-rmt-bb-fec-raptorq].

   o  3 for the Optimised Raptor FEC Scheme for Arbitrary Packet Flows
      (Section 7) using Raptor [RFC5053].

   o  4 for the Optimised Raptor FEC Scheme for Arbitrary Packet Flows
      (Section 7) using RaptorQ [I-D.ietf-rmt-bb-fec-raptorq].

   o  5 for the Raptor FEC Scheme for a single sequence flow (Section 8)
      using Raptor [RFC5053].

   o  6 for the Raptor FEC Scheme for a single sequence flow (Section 8)
      using RaptorQ [I-D.ietf-rmt-bb-fec-raptorq].


13.  Acknowledgements

   Thanks are due to Ali C. Begen for thorough review of earlier draft
   versions of this document.


14.  References

14.1.  Normative References

   [I-D.ietf-fecframe-framework]
              Watson, M., "Forward Error Correction (FEC) Framework",
              draft-ietf-fecframe-framework-10 (work in progress),
              September 2010.

   [RFC5053]  Luby, M., Shokrollahi, A., Watson, M., and T. Stockhammer,
              "Raptor Forward Error Correction Scheme for Object
              Delivery", RFC 5053, October 2007.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate



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              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [I-D.ietf-rmt-bb-fec-raptorq]
              Luby, M., Shokrollahi, A., Watson, M., Stockhammer, T.,
              and L. Minder, "RaptorQ Forward Error Correction Scheme
              for Object Delivery", draft-ietf-rmt-bb-fec-raptorq-04
              (work in progress), August 2010.

14.2.  Informative References

   [RFC5052]  Watson, M., Luby, M., and L. Vicisano, "Forward Error
              Correction (FEC) Building Block", RFC 5052, August 2007.

   [RFC4566]  Handley, M., Jacobson, V., and C. Perkins, "SDP: Session
              Description Protocol", RFC 4566, July 2006.

   [I-D.ietf-fecframe-sdp-elements]
              Begen, A., "Session Description Protocol Elements for FEC
              Framework", October 2010.

   [dvbts]    "ETSI TS 102 034 - Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB);
              Transport of MPEG-2 Based DVB Services over IP Based
              Networks", March 2005.

   [MBMSTS]   3GPP, "Multimedia Broadcast/Multicast Service (MBMS);
              Protocols and codecs", 3GPP TS 26.346, April 2005.


Authors' Addresses

   Mark Watson
   Netflix
   100 Winchester Circle
   Los Gatos, CA  95032
   U.S.A.

   Email:  watsonm@netflix.com


   Thomas Stockhammer
   Nomor Research
   Brecherspitzstrasse 8
   Munich  81541
   Germany

   Email:  stockhammer@nomor.de





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   Michael Luby
   Qualcomm Incorporated
   3165 Kifer Road
   Santa Clara, CA  95051
   U.S.A.

   Email:  luby@qualcomm.com












































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