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Versions: (draft-polk-geopriv-dhcp-lbyr-uri-option) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 19

Geopriv WG                                                   James Polk
Internet-Draft                                            Cisco Systems
Intended status:  Standards Track (PS)                    March 9, 2009
Expires: September 9, 2009


        Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) IPv4 and IPv6
         Option for a Location Uniform Resource Identifier (URI)
              draft-ietf-geopriv-dhcp-lbyr-uri-option-04

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Legal

   This documents and the information contained therein are provided on
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   REPRESENTS OR IS SPONSORED BY (IF ANY), THE INTERNET SOCIETY, THE
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Abstract

   This document creates a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
   Option for the downloading of a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI)
   pointing to the geolocation record of an endpoint.  This URI, called
   a Location-by-Reference (LbyR), points to a record on a location
   server which tracks the geolocation of the endpoint.  Once
   downloaded by an endpoint, this LbyR can be forwarded to another
   entity, to be dereferenced if this entity wants to learn the
   geolocation of the sender endpoint.


Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Format of the DHCP LbyrElement Option . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
       2.1.  Overall Format of LbyrElement Option in IPv4  . . . . .  5
       2.2.  Overall Format of LbyrElement Option in IPv6  . . . . .  6
       2.3.  LbyrElement Format for both IPv4 and IPv6 . . . . . . .  6
   3.  DHC Option Operation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
       3.1 Architectural Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
       3.2 Harmful URIs and URLs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
       3.3 Valid Location URI Schemes or Types . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   4.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   5.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   6.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   7.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
       7.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
       7.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13


   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].






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1.  Introduction

   This document creates a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
   Option for the downloading of a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI)
   pointing to the geolocation record of an endpoint.  A client, for
   example, can be a Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) User Agent (UA)
   [RFC3261] (i.e., a Phone).  This URI, called a
   Location-by-Reference (LbyR), points to a record on a location
   server [ID-LBYR-REQ] which tracks the geolocation of the endpoint
   (through means not defined in this document).  The LbyR record
   stores the Geolocation of a Location Target, where the location of
   the Location Target changing at the record, but not in the URI used
   to access the record.  Once downloaded by an endpoint (the target in
   this case), this LbyR can be forwarded to another entity, for
   example, using SIP as defined in [ID-SIP-LOC], to be dereferenced if
   this second entity wants to learn the geolocation of the Location
   Target.

   The act of dereferencing location is explained in [ID-SIP-LOC],
   which demonstrates how a Location Recipient of an LbyR subscribes to
   a Location Server to attain the location of the Target. If the
   dereferencer has permission, defined in [ID-GEO-POL], the location
   of the target will be returned to the Location Seeker.  The Location
   Server will grant permission to location inquires based on the rules
   established by a Rule Holder [RFC3693].  The Location Server has the
   ability to challenge any Location Seeker's request, thereby
   providing additive security properties to location revelation.

   Endpoints will require their geographic location for a growing
   number of services.  A popular use-case currently is for emergency
   services, in which SIP requires its location to be placed in a SIP
   INVITE request [ID-SIP-LOC] towards a public safety answering point
   (PSAP), i.e., an emergency response center.  The reason for this is
   twofold:

   o An emergency services SIP request must be routed/retargeted to the
     appropriate PSAP that is local to where the calling device is.

   o The first responders require the UA's location in order to know
     where to be dispatched to render aid to the caller.

   Including location in the SIP request is the most efficient means of
   accomplishing both requirements above.

   There are other use-cases, such as calling the appropriate Pizza Hut
   without having to look up in a directory which store is closest.  A
   UA knowing its location can call a main/national/international Pizza
   Hut number or address and let the UA's location tell Pizza Hut
   enough information to have them route/retarget the SIP request to
   the appropriate store within the Pizza Hut organization to deliver
   the pizza to the caller's location.



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   A problem exists within existing RFCs that provide location to the
   UA ([RFC3825] and [RFC4776]), these types of DHCP Options for
   geolocation requires an update of the entire location information
   (LI)every time a UA moves.  Not all UAs will move frequently, but
   some will.  Refreshing location every time a UA moves does not scale
   in certain networks/environments, such as IP based cellular
   networks, enterprise networks or service provider networks with
   mobile endpoints.  An 802.11 based access network is one example of
   this. Constantly updating LI to the endpoints might not scale in
   mobile  (residential or enterprise or municipal) networks in which
   the UA is moving through more than one network attachment point,
   perhaps as a person walks or drives with their UA down a
   neighborhood street or apartment complex or a shopping center.

   If the UA were provided a URI reference to retain and hand out when
   it wants or needs to convey its location (in a protocol other than
   DHCP), a Location URI reference that would not change as the UA's
   location changes, scaling issues would be significantly reduced to
   needing an update of the URI only when a client changes
   administrative domains - which is much less often.  This delivery of
   an indirect location has the added benefit of not using up valuable
   or limited bandwidth to the UA with the constant updates.  It also
   relieves the UA from having to determine when it has moved far
   enough to consider asking for a refresh of its location.  Many
   endpoints will not have this ability, so relying on it could prove
   fruitless.  Once the UA has a Location URI, a service provider,
   however it Sights the Location Target, as described in RFC 3693
   [RFC3693], would merely update the actual location in the LIS
   record, i.e., the record the URI points towards.  This document does
   not define how this update is done, as it will not be done with
   DHCP.

   In enterprise networks, if a known location is assigned to each
   individual Ethernet port in the network, a device that attaches to
   the network a wall-jack (directly associated with a specific
   Ethernet Switch port) will be associated with a known location via a
   unique circuit-ID that's used by the RAIO Option defined in RFC 3046
   [RFC3046].  This assumes wall-jacks have an updated wiremap
   database.  RFC 3825 and RFC 4776 would return an LCI value of
   location.  This document specifies how a Location URI is returned by
   DHCP.  Behind the DHCP server, in the backend of the network, via
   the (logical entity of a) LIS has a PIDF-LO in each location record
   a Location URI points to.

   If an 802.11 Access Port (AP) is at a specific known location within
   this enterprise network, all wireless Ethernet devices attaching to
   the network through this AP could be given the same location in
   their respective location records because the DHCP server would know
   each device was attaching from a known location, in this case, the
   same location.  This is assuming no 802.11 triangulation is
   occurring, this would give a more precise location to be placed in
   the location record (URI) of each device.


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   If local configuration has the requirement of only assigning unique
   Location URIs to each client, then unique LbyRs will be given out,
   though they will all have the same location at the record, relieving
   the backend Sighter from individually maintaining each location
   independently.

   This Option can be useful in WiMAX connected endpoints or IP
   cellular endpoints.  The Location URI Option can be configured as a
   client if it is a router, such as a residential home gateway, with
   the ability to communicate to downstream endpoints as a server.

   The means of challenge by any given LIS can vary, and a policy
   established by a rulemaker [RFC3693] for a Location Target as to
   what type of challenge(s) are used, how strong a challenge is used
   or how precise the location information is given to a requestor. All
   of this is outside the scope of this document (since this will not
   be accomplished using DHCP).

   This document IANA registers the new IPv4 and IPv6 DHC Options for a
   Location URI.


2.  Format of the DHCP LbyrElement Option

2.1 Overall Format of LbyrElement Option in IPv4

   The LbyrElement Option format for IPv4 is as follows:

     0                   1                   2                   3
     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |   Code XXX    |   Length=XX   |  Ver  | Resv  |               .
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+               .
    .                         LbyrElements...                      ...
    .                  (see section 2.3 for details) ...            .
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

    Figure 1. IPv4 Fields for this LbyrElement Option

   Code XXX:  The code for this DHCPv4 option (IANA assigned).

   Length=XX: The length of this option, counted in bytes - not
              counting the Code and Length bytes. This is a variable
              length Option, therefore the length value will change
              based on the length of the LbyR within the Option.

   Ver:       (4 bits) The version of this Option. This will specify
              version 1.

   Resv:      (4 bits) reserved for future use.



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   LbyrElement: see section 2.3 for details


2.2 Overall Format of LbyrElement Option in IPv6

   The LbyrElement Option format for IPv6 is as follows:

     0                   1                   2                   3
     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |          option-code          |           option-len          |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |  Ver  | Resv  |                                               .
    +---------------+                                               .
    .                        LbyrElements...                        .
    .                 (see section 2.3 for details)                 .
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

    Figure 2. IPv6 fields of this LbyrElement Option

   option-code: The code for this DHCPv6 option (IANA assigned).

   option-len:  The length of this option, counted in bytes - not
                counting the Code and Length bytes. This is a variable
                length Option, therefore the length value will change
                based on the shape within the Option.

   Ver:         See above (Section 2.1). This will specify version 1.

   Resv:    See above (Section 2.1).

   LbyrElement: see below (Section 2.3 for details).


2.3 LbyrElement Format for both IPv4 and IPv6

   The LbyrElement, in both DHCPv4 and DHCPv6, have the following
   format:

     0                   1                   2                   3
     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |    LbyrType    |   LbyrLength   |   LbyrValue                ...
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

    Figure 3. LbyrElement Format for both IPv4 and IPv6


      LbyrType:   A one-byte identifier of the data location value.

      LbyrLength: The length, in bytes, of the LbyrValue, not including
                  the LbyrLength field itself, up to a maximum of 255


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                  bytes.

      LbyrValue:  The LbyrElement value, as described in detail below.
                  The LbyrValue is always in UTP-8.

   The LbyrTypes this document defines (and IANA registers) for a point
   are:

      LbyrType=1 Location-by-Reference URI - This is the URI pointing
                 at the location record where the PIDF-LO resides which
                 indicates the location of the Location Target.

      LbyrType=2 Valid-For - The time, in seconds, this URI is to be
                 considered Valid for dereferencing. The timer
                 associated with this LbyrType starts upon receipt of
                 this Option.

   The LbyrType=2 (Valid-For) indicates how long, in seconds, the
   client is to consider this LbyrType=1 (Location-by-Reference URI)
   valid before performing a refresh of this Option, with a refreshed
   LbyrType=2 (Valid-For) value.  A refresh MAY be done merely at the
   normal DHCP refresh rate, or necessitated by this timer, perhaps
   with the client only requesting this Option be refreshed.

   It is RECOMMENDED when the counter associated with this LbyrType=2
   (Valid-For) value has passed, the client perform a refresh of this
   Option.  For example, if 16000 was the initial value of the
   LbyrType=2  (Valid-For) value, when 8000 seconds have passed, the
   Option SHOULD be refreshed.

   The LbyrType=2 (Valid-For) is not mandated for use by this document.
   However, its presence MUST NOT cause any error in handling the
   Location URI (i.e., if not understood, it MUST be ignored).

   This Option format is highly extensible. Additional LbyrType types
   created MUST be done so through IANA registration with peer review
   and an RFC.


3. DHC Option Operation

   The [RFC3046] RAIO MUST be utilized to provide the appropriate
   indication to the DHCP Server where this DISCOVER or REQUEST message
   came from, in order to supply the correct response.  That said, this
   Option SHOULD NOT be in a DISCOVER message, because there is zero
   knowledge by the client of which Server will answer.

   Caution SHOULD always be used involving the creation of large
   Options, meaning that this Option MAY need to be in its own INFORM,
   OPTION or ACK message.

   It is RECOMMENDED to avoid building URIs, with any parameters,


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   larger than what a single DHCP response can be.  However, if a
   message is larger than 255 bytes, concatenation is allowed, per RFC
   3396 [RFC3396].

   Per [RFC2131], subsequent LbyrElement Options, which are
   non-concatenated, overwrite the previous value.

   Location URIs MUST NOT reveal identity information of the user of
   the device, since DHCP is a cleartext delivery protocol. For
   example, Location URIs such as

      sips:34LKJH534663J54@example.com

   SHOULD be done, providing no identity information, rather than a
   Location URI such as this

      sips:aliceisinatlanta@example.com

   This Option is for only communications between a DHCP client and a
   DHCP server.  It can be solicited (requested) by the client, or it
   can be pushed by the server without a request for it.  DHCP Options
   not understood are ignored.  A DHCP server might or might not have
   the location of a client, therefore direct knowledge of a
   Location URI within the server.  If a server does not have a
   client's location, a communication path (or request) to a LIS would
   be necessary.

   The LIS function, which is logical, is what creates the LbyR.  The
   coordination between the logical entity of a DHCP server and the
   logical entity of a LIS as to which circuit-ID gets which
   Location URI is not done via DHCP, therefore it is not defined
   here.  Further, any location revelation rules and policies a user
   has regarding the treatment of their actual location, and who can
   access (what precision of) their location will be done with other
   than DHCP, and likely will be done before anything other than
   default authentication and authorization permissions are used when a
   Location Seeker, as defined in RFC 3693, requests a for a Target's
   location.

   Differentiating clients is done via client identifiers.  Therefore,
   in many implementations, each client can be assigned unique LbyRs,
   though this is not mandatory.

   Any dereferencing of a client's Location URI would not involve DHCP
   either, but more likely by an application layer protocol such as
   SIP, through a subscription to the Location URI on the LIS. The LIS
   would also handle all authentication and authorization of location
   requests, which is also not performed with DHCP, therefore not
   defined here.

   In the case of residential gateways being DHCP servers, they usually
   perform as DHCP clients in a hierarchical fashion up into a service


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   provider's network DHCP server(s), or learn what information to
   provide via DHCP to residential clients through a protocol such as
   PPP.  In these cases, the Location URI would likely indicate the
   residence's civic address to all wired or wireless clients within
   that residence.  This is not inconsistent with what's stated above.


3.1 Architectural Assumptions

   The following assumptions have been made for use of this LbyrElement
   Option for a client to learn its Location URI (in no particular
   order):

   o  Any user control (what Geopriv calls a 'rulemaker') for the
      parameters and profile options a Location-Object will have is out
      of scope of this document, but assumed to take place via an
      external web interface between the user and the LIS (direct or
      indirect).

   o  Any user attempting to gain access to the information at this URI
      will be challenged by the LIS, not the DHCP server for
      credentials and permissions.


3.2 Harmful URIs and URLs

   There are, in fact, some types of URIs that are not good to receive,
   due to security concerns.  For example, any URLs that can have
   scripts, such as "data:" URLs, and some "HTTP:" URLs that go to web
   pages - that have scripts.  Therefore,

   o URIs received via this Option SHOULD NOT be sent to a
     general-browser to connect to a web page, because they could have
     harmful scripts.

   o This Option SHOULD NOT contain "data:" URLs, because they could
     contain harmful scripts.

   Instead of listing all the types of URIs and URLs that can be
   misused or potentially have harmful affects, Section 3.3 IANA
   registers acceptable Location URI schemes (or types).


3.3  Valid Location URI Schemes or Types

   Therefore, this document specifies which URI types are acceptable as
   a Location URI scheme (or type):

   1. sip:
   2. sips:
   3. pres:



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   These Location URI types are IANA registered in section 4.2 of this
   document.


4.  IANA Considerations

4.1 The IPv4 Option number for this Option

   This document IANA registers this IPv4 Option number XXX (to be
   assigned by IANA once this document becomes an RFC).


4.2 The IPv6 Option-Code for this Option

   This document IANA registers this IPv6 Option-Code XXX (to be
   assigned by IANA once this document becomes an RFC).


4.3 The Version number for this Option

   This document IANA registers the version number 1 of this Option.


4.4 IANA Considerations for Acceptable Location URI Types

   IANA is requested to create a new registry for acceptable Location
   URI types.

   The following 3 URI types are registered by this document:

   1. sip:
   2. sips:
   3. pres:

   Any additional Location URI types to be defined for use via
   this DHC Option need to be created and IANA registered with peer
   review and an RFC.


5.  Security Considerations

   Where critical decisions might be based on the value of this
   Location URI option, DHCP authentication in [RFC3118] SHOULD be used
   to protect the integrity of the DHCP options.

   A real concern with RFC 3118 it is that not widely deployed because
   it requires keys on both ends of a communication to work (i.e., in
   the client and in the server).  Most implementations do not
   accommodate this.

   DHCP is a broadcast initially (a client looking for a server),
   unicast response (answer from a server) type of protocol.  It is not


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   secure in a practical sense.  In today's infrastructures, it will be
   primarily used over a wired, switched Ethernet network, requiring
   physical access to within a wire to gain access.  Further, within an
   802.11 wireless network, the 802.11 specs have layer 2 security
   mechanisms in place to help prevent a Location URI from being
   learned by an unauthorized entity.

   That said, having the Location URI does not mean this unauthorized
   entity has the location of a client.  The Location URI still needs
   to be dereferenced to learn the location of the client.  This
   dereferencing function, which is not done using DHCP, is done by
   requesting the location record at a Location Information Server, or
   LIS, which is a defined entity built to challenge each request it
   receives based on a joint policy of what is called a rulemaker.  The
   rulemaker, as defined in RFC 3693, configures the authentication and
   authorization policies for the location revelation of a Target.
   This includes giving out more or less precise location information
   in an answer, therefore it can answer a bad-hat, but not allow it
   from learning exactly where a user is.  The rulemaker, which is a
   combination of the default rules set up by the location provider and
   those decided on by the user of the Target device.  Likely, the
   rules the user wants will not be allowed to go past some limits
   established by the location provider, i.e., the administrator of the
   LIS, for various capability or security reasons.

   Penetrating a LIS is supposed to be hard, and hopefully vendors that
   implement a LIS accomplish this goal.

   As to the concerns about the Location URI itself, as stated in the
   document here (in Section 3.), it must not have any user identifying
   information in the URI string itself.  The Location URI also must be
   hard to guess that it belongs to a specific user.  There is some
   debate as to whether this Location URI need be a random alphanumeric
   string or just unique.  If the latter, there is some debate as to
   the how we define unique. Is that through space as time, as RFC 3261
   defines a SIP Call-ID needs to be (meaning: never a duplicate, ever,
   by any device, ever)? Or is it unique to within a specific domain
   for as long as it is actively assigned to a client (plus some
   interval).

   When implementing a DHC server that will serve clients across an
   uncontrolled network, one should consider the potential security
   risks therein.


6.  Acknowledgements

   Thanks to James Winterbottom, Marc Linsner, Roger Marshall and
   Robert Sparks for their useful comments. And to Lisa Dusseault for
   her concerns about the types of URIs that can cause harm.  To
   Richard Barnes for inspiring a more robust Security Considerations
   section.


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7.  References

7.1.  Normative References

 [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
           Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

 [RFC3046] Patrick, M., "DHCP Relay Agent Information Option", RFC
           3046, January 2001.

 [RFC2131] Droms, R., "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol", RFC 2131,
           March 1997.

 [RFC3118] Droms, R. and W. Arbaugh, "Authentication for DHCP
           Messages", RFC 3118, June 2001.

 [RFC3261] J. Rosenberg, H. Schulzrinne, G. Camarillo, A. Johnston, J.
           Peterson, R. Sparks, M. Handley, and E. Schooler, "SIP:
           Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 3261, May 2002.

 [RFC3265] Roach, A., "Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)-Specific
           Event Notification", RFC 3265, June 2002.

 [RFC3396] T. Lemon, S. Cheshire, "Encoding Long Options in the Dynamic
           Host Configuration Protocol (DHCPv4)", RFC 3396, November
           2002


7.2.  Informative References

 [ID-SIP-LOC] J. Polk, B. Rosen, "SIP Location Conveyance", "work in
           progress", Mar 2009

 [RFC3825] J. Polk, J. Schnizlein, M. Linsner, "Dynamic Host
           Configuration Protocol Option for Coordinate-based Location
           Configuration Information", RFC 3825, July 2004

 [RFC4776] H. Schulzrinne, " Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
           (DHCPv4 and DHCPv6) Option for Civic Addresses Configuration
           Information ", RFC 4776, November 2006

 [ID-LBYR-REQ] R. Marshall, "Requirements for a Location-by-Reference
           Mechanism", "work in progress", Feb 2009

 [RFC3693] J. Cuellar, J. Morris, D. Mulligan, J. Peterson. J. Polk,
           "Geopriv Requirements", RFC 3693, February 2004

 [ID-GEO-POL] H. Schulzrinne, H. Tschofenig, J. Morris, J. Cuellar, J.
           Polk, "Geolocation Policy: A Document Format for Expressing
           Privacy Preferences for Location Information", "work in


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Internet-Draft      Geopriv DHCP LbyrElement Option            Mar 2009

           progress", Feb 2009

Authors' Address

   James Polk
   3913 Treemont Circle
   Colleyville, Texas 76034
   USA

   Email: jmpolk@cisco.com












































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