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Versions: (draft-marshall-geopriv-lbyr-requirements) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 RFC 5808

GeoPriv                                                 R. Marshall, Ed.
Internet-Draft                                                       TCS
Intended status: Informational                         February 25, 2008
Expires: August 28, 2008


           Requirements for a Location-by-Reference Mechanism
                draft-ietf-geopriv-lbyr-requirements-02

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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2008).














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Abstract

   This document defines terminology and provides requirements relating
   to Location-by-Reference approach using a location URI to handle
   location information within signaling and other Internet messaging.


Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   3.  Overview of Location-by-Reference  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   4.  High-Level Requirements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     4.1.  Requirements for a  Location Configuration Protocol  . . .  9
     4.2.  Requirements for a  Location Dereference Protocol  . . . . 11
   5.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
   6.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
   7.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
   8.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
     8.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
     8.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
   Appendix A.  Change log  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
   Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
   Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 20



























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1.  Introduction

   Location-based services rely on ready access to location information,
   which can be through a direct or indirect mechanism.  While there are
   mechanisms for providing location directly, (e.g., as part of the SIP
   signaling protocol), an alternative mechanism has been developed for
   handling location indirectly, via a location reference, a pointer to
   the actual location information.  This reference is called a location
   URI, and is used by the mechanism we generally call the Location-by-
   Reference mechanism, or simply, LbyR.

   The use of a location URI is generally applied in one of the
   following ways:

   1.  Creation/allocation of a location URI, by a location server based
   on some request mechanism.

   2.  As part of a Location Configuration Protocol, between a target
   and location server*.

   3.  The location dereference process, (between a dereference  client
   and dereference server).

   4.  Cancellation/expiration of a location URI, by a location server
   based on either a direct target request or some other action (e.g.,
   timer).

   *In this document, we make no differentiation between a LS, per
   RFC3693, and a LIS, but may refer to either of them as a location
   server interchangeably.

   These four things fall under two general protocol mechanisms,
   location configuration protocols and location dereference protocols.

   A fifth use of location URI is within the context of what is called
   location conveyance.  Location conveyance is defined as part of the
   SIP protocol, and is out of scope for this document. (see
   [I-D.ietf-sip-location-conveyance] for an explanation of conveyance
   of location using a location URI.

   The issues around location configuration protocols have been
   documented in a location configuration protocol problem statement and
   requirements document [I-D.ietf-geopriv-l7-lcp-ps].

   There are currently a several examples of a location configuration
   protocol.  These include DHCP, LLDP-MED, and HELD
   [I-D.ietf-geopriv-http-location-delivery]) protocols.




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   The structure of this document includes terminology, Section 2,
   followed by a discussion of the basic elements that surround how a
   location URI is used.  These elements, or actors, are discussed in an
   overview section, Section 3, accompanied by a graph and associated
   processing steps.

   Requirements are outlined accordingly, separated as location
   configuration requirements, Section 4.1, and location dereference
   requirements, Section 4.2.

   In contrast to using a location URI as the mechanism to support a
   Location-by-Reference model, it may be worth mentioning the common
   alternative model, that of Location-by-Value (LbyV), which provides
   location directly.  LbyV uses a location object, (e.g., a PIDF-LO,
   [RFC4119]) within SIP signaling.  Using the LbyV model for location
   configuration is considered out of scope for this document (see
   [I-D.ietf-sip-location-conveyance] for an explanation of location
   conveyance for either LbyR or LbyV scenarios.

   Location determination, different than location configuration or
   dereferencing, often includes topics related to manual provisioning
   processes, automated measurements, and/or location transformations,
   (e.g., geo-coding), and are beyond the scope of this document.




























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2.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

   This document reuses the terminology of [RFC3693], such as Location
   Server (LS), Location Recipient (LR), Rule Maker (RM), Target,
   Location Generator (LG), Location Object (LO), and Using Protocol:

   Location-by-Value (LbyV):  The mechanism of representing location
      either in configuration or conveyance protocols, (i.e., the actual
      included location value).

   Location-by-Reference (LbyR):  The mechanism of representing location
      by means of a location URI for use in either a location
      configuration, conveyance, or dereferencing protocol, and which
      refers to a fully specified location.

   Location Configuration Protocol:  A protocol which is used by a
      client to acquire either location or a location URI from a
      location configuration server, based on information unique to the
      client.

   Location Dereference Protocol:  A protocol which is used by a client
      to query a location dereference server, based on location URI
      input and which returns location information.

   Location URI:  An identifier which serves as a pointer to a location
      record on a remote host (e.g., LIS).  Used within an Location-by-
      Reference mechanism, a location URI is provided by a location
      configuration server, and is used as input by a dereference
      protocol to retrieve location from a dereference server.


















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3.  Overview of Location-by-Reference

   In mobile wireless networks it is not efficient for the end host to
   periodically query the LIS for up-to-date location information.  This
   is especially the case when power is a constraint or a location
   update is not immediately needed.  Furthermore, the end host might
   want to delegate the task of retrieving and publishing location
   information to a third party, such as to a presence server.  Finally,
   in some deployments, the network operator may not want to make
   location information widely available.

   Different location scenarios, such as whether a Target is mobile and
   whether a mobile device needs to be located on demand or according to
   some pre-determined interval motivated the introduction of the LbyR
   concept.  Depending on the type of reference, such as HTTP/HTTPS or
   SIP Presence URI, different operations can be performed.  While an
   HTTP/HTTPS URI can be resolved to location information, a SIP
   Presence URI provides further benefits from the SUBSCRIBE/NOTIFY
   concept that can additionally be combined with location filters
   [I-D.ietf-geopriv-loc-filters].



                    +-----------+  Geopriv      +-----------+
                    |           |  Location     | Location  |
                    |    LIS    +---------------+ Recipient |
                    |           |  Dereference  |           |
                    +-+---+-----+  Protocol (3) +----+------+
                     *    |                        --
         Rulemaker  *     | Geopriv              --
         Policy    *      | Location           --
         Exchange *       | Configuration    --
            (1b) *        | Protocol       --
                *         | (1a)         --      Geopriv
               *          |            --        Using Protocol
     + - - - -*- - - - - -|- - - -+  --          (e.g., SIP)
     |+------+----+ +-----+-----+ |--            (2)
      | Rulemaker | | Target /  |--
     ||  / owner  | | End Host  + |
      |           | |           |
     |+-----------+ +-----------+ |

     |       User of Target       |
     + - - - - - - - - - - - - - -+


    Figure 1: Shows the assumed communication  model for both a layer 7
       location configuration protocol and a dereference  protocol:



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   Figure 1: Shows the assumed communication model for both a layer 7
   location configuration protocol and a location dereference protocol.

   (1a).  Target requests reference from server; and receives back, a
   location URI in server response

   (1b).  Rulemaker policy is consulted (interface out of scope)

   (2).  Target conveys reference to recipient (out of scope)

   (3).  Recipient dereferences location URI, by a choice of methods,
   including a request/response (e.g., HTTP) or publish/subscription
   (e.g., SIP SUBSCRIBE/NOTIFY)

   Note A. There is no requirement for using the same protocol in (1a)
   and (3).

   Note B. Figure 1 includes the interaction between the owner of the
   Target and the LIS to establish Rulemaker policies.  This is
   communications path (1b).  This interaction needs to be done before
   the LIS will authorize anything of than default policies to a
   dereference request for location of the Target.

   Note C. that the Target may take on the role of the Location
   Recipient whereby it would dereference the location URI to obtain its
   own location information.

   An example scenario of how this might work, is where the Target
   obtains a location URI in the form of a subscription URI (e.g., a SIP
   URI) via HELD, (a Geopriv layer 7 location configuration protocol).
   Since, in this case the Target equals Recipient, then the Target can
   subscribe to the URI in order to be notified of its current location
   based on subscription parameters (see
   [I-D.ietf-geopriv-loc-filters]).  Additionally, a geospatial boundary
   can be expressed (ref.  [I-D.ietf-geopriv-policy]), so that the
   Target/Recipient will get its updated location notification once it
   crosses the specified boundary.

   Location URIs may have an life expiration associated to them, so the
   LIS needs to be able to keep track of the location URIs that have
   been handed out, in addition, to also know about validity information
   for each location URI.  Location URIs need to expire to prevent the
   recipient of such a URI from being able to (in some cases)
   permanently track a host.  Another example of the usefulness of an
   expiration mechanism is to offer garbage collection capabilities to
   the LIS.

   It is important to prevent adversaries from obtaining any information



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   about a Target through the location URI itself, or even a Target's
   location if the owner of the Target wants to protect it.  Therefore,
   each location URI must be constructed with security safeguards in
   mind.  There are two general cases assumed, both having to do with
   the form of the location URI when it is created.

   Case 1.  Where access to the location URI is limited by policy:  This
      is the case where the LIS applies authentication and access
      control at location configuration step and again at the
      dereference step.  In this case, the URI can be of any form chosen
      by the LIS.

   Case 2.  Access limited by distribution:  The LIS does not apply
      authentication and access control at the time that the location
      URI is dereferenced.  In this case, the location URI must be
      difficult to guess (so that possession can be used to imply
      authorization).


































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4.  High-Level Requirements

   This document outlines the requirements for an Location by Reference
   mechanism which can be used by a number of underlying protocols.
   Requirements here address two general types of such protocols, a
   general location configuration protocol, and a general location
   dereferencing protocol.  Given that either of these two general
   protocols can take the form of different protocols implementations
   for either location configuration vs. location dereference, (e.g.,
   HELD/DHCP/LLDP-MED, vs. HTTP GET/SIP SUBSCRIBE/NOTIFY, respectively).
   Because each of these specific protocol implementations has its own
   unique client and server interactions, the requirements here are not
   intended to state what a client or server is expected to do, but
   rather which requirements must be met separately by either a location
   configuration protocol, or a location dereference protocol, for the
   purposes of using a location URI.

   The requirements are broken into two sections.

4.1.  Requirements for a  Location Configuration Protocol

   Below, we summarize high-level design requirements needed for a
   location-by-reference mechanism as used within the location
   configuration protocol.

   C1. Location URI support:  The configuration protocol MUST support a
      location reference in URI form.

      Motivation: It is helpful to have a consistent form of key for the
      LbyR mechanism.

   C2. Location URI expiration:  When a location URI has a limited
      validity interval, its lifetime MUST be indicated.

      Motivation: A location URI may not intend to represent a location
      forever, and the identifier eventually may need to be recycled, or
      may be subject to a specific window of validity, after which the
      location reference fails to yield a location, or the location is
      determined to be kept confidential.

   C3. Location URI cancellation:  The location configuration protocol
      SHOULD support the ability to request a cancellation of a specific
      location URI.

      Motivation: If the client determines that in its best interest to
      destroy the ability for a location URI to effectively be used to
      dereference a location, then there should be a way to nullify the
      location URI.



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   C4. [Deleted, replaced by C8,C9,C10]:

   C5. User Identity Protection:  The location URI MUST NOT contain any
      user identifying information that identifies the user, device or
      address of record, (e.g., which includes phone extensions, badge
      numbers, first or last names, etc.), within the URI form.

      Motivation: It is important to protect caller identity or contact
      address from being included in the form of the location URI itself
      when it is generated.

   C6. Reuse indicator:  There SHOULD be a way to allow a client to
      control whether a location URI can be resolved once only, or
      multiple times.

      Motivation: The client requesting a location URI may request a
      location URI which has a 'one-time-use' only characteristic, as
      opposed to a location URI having multiple reuse capability.

   C7. Location URI Valid-for:  A location URI validity interval, if
      used, MUST include the validity time, in seconds, as an indication
      of how long the client can consider a location URI to be valid.

      Motivation: It is important to be able to determine how long a
      location URI is to remain useful for, and when it must be
      refreshed.

   C8. Location URI Anonymous:  The location URI MUST NOT reveal any
      information about the Target other than it's location.

      Motivation: A user should have the option to control how much
      information is revealed about them.  This provides that control by
      not forcing the inclusion of other information with location,
      (e.g., to not include any identification information in the
      location URI.)

   C9. Location URI Not guessable:  Location URIs that do not require
      authentication and authorization MUST NOT be guessable, based on
      the use of a cryptographically random sequence somewhere within
      the URI.  (Note that the number of bits depends to some extent on
      the number of active location URIs that might exist at the one
      time; 128-bit is most likely enough for the short term.)

      Motivation: Location URIs without access control reveal private
      information, and a guessable location URI could be easily
      exploited to obtain private information.





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   C10.  Location URI Optional:  In the case of user-provided
      authorization policies, where anonymous or non-guessable location
      URIs are not warranted, the location configuration protocol MAY
      support optional location URI forms.

      Motivation: Users don't always have such strict privacy
      requirements, but may opt to specify their own location URI, or
      components thereof.

4.2.  Requirements for a  Location Dereference Protocol

   Below, we summarize high-level design requirements needed for a
   location-by-reference mechanism as used within the location
   dereference protocol.

   D1. Location URI support:  The location dereference protocol MUST
      support a location reference in URI form.

      Motivation: It is required that there be consistency of use
      between location URI formats used in an configuration protocol and
      those used by a dereference protocol.

   D2. Location URI expiration indicator:  The location dereference
      protocol MUST support an indicator showing that, if it is the
      case, that a location URI is no longer valid due to expiration.

      Motivation: Location URIs are expected to expire, based on
      location configuration protocol parameters, and it is therefore
      useful to convey the expired status of the location URI in the
      location dereference protocol.

   D3. Authentication:  The location dereference protocol MUST include
      mechanisms to authenticate both the client and the server.

      Motivation: Although the implementations must support
      authentication of both parties, any given transaction has the
      option not to authenticate one or both parties.

   D4.  Dereferenced Location Form:  The value returned by the
      dereference protocol MUST contain a well-formed PIDF-LO document.

      Motivation: This is in order to ensure that adequate privacy rules
      can be adhered to, since the PIDF-LO format comprises the
      necessary structures to maintain location privacy.







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   D5. Location URI Repeated Use:  The location dereference protocol
      MUST support the ability for the same location URI to be resolved
      more than once, based on dereference server configuration.

      Motivation: Through dereference server configuration, for example,
      it may be useful to not only allow more than one dereference
      request, but, in some cases, to also limit the number of
      dereferencing attempts by a client.

   D6. Location URI Valid-for:  A location URI validity interval, if
      used, MUST include the validity time, in seconds, as an indication
      of how long the client can consider a location URI to be valid.

      Motivation: It is important to be able to determine how long a
      location URI is to remain useful when dereferencing a location
      URI.

   D7. Location URI anonymized:  Any location URI whose dereference will
      not be subject to authentication and access control MUST be
      anonymized.

      Motivation: The dereference protocol must define an anonymized
      format for location URIs.  This format must identify the desired
      location information via a random token with at least 128 bits of
      entropy (rather than some kind of explicit identifier, such as an
      IP address).

   D8. Location URI non-anonymized:  The dereference protocol MAY define
      a more general, non-anonymized URI format.

      Motivation: Only location URIs for which dereference is subject to
      access-control policy by the LIS may use this format.

   D9. Location Privacy:  The location dereference protocol MUST support
      the application of privacy rules to the dissemination of a
      requested location object.

      Motivation: The dereference server must obey all provisioned
      privacy rules that apply to a requested location object.

    D10.  Location Confidentiality:  The dereference protocol MUST
      support encryption of messages sent between the location
      dereference client and the location dereference server, and MAY
      alternatively provide messaging unencrypted.







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      Motivation: Environmental and local configuration policy will
      guide the requirement for encryption for certain transactions.  In
      some cases, encryption may be the rule, in others, it may be
      acceptable to send and receive messages without encryption.















































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5.  Security Considerations

   The LbyR mechanism currently addresses security issues as follows.

      A location URI, regardless of its construction, if public, implies
      no safeguard against anyone being able to dereference and get the
      location.  The method of constructing a location URI in its naming
      does help prevent some potential guessing, according to some
      defined pattern.  In the instance of one-time-use location URIs,
      which function similarly to a pawn ticket, the argument can be
      made that with a pawn ticket, possession implies permission, and
      location URIs which are public are protected only by privacy rules
      enforced at the dereference server.






































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6.  IANA Considerations

   This document does not require actions by the IANA.
















































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7.  Acknowledgements

   We would like to thank the IETF GEOPRIV working group chairs, Andy
   Newton, Allison Mankin and Randall Gellens, for creating the design
   team which initiated this requirements work.  We'd also like to thank
   those design team participants for their inputs, comments, and
   reviews.  The design team included the following folks: Richard
   Barnes; Martin Dawson; Keith Drage; Randall Gellens; Ted Hardie;
   Cullen Jennings; Marc Linsner; Rohan Mahy; Allison Mankin; Roger
   Marshall; Andrew Newton; Jon Peterson; James M. Polk; Brian Rosen;
   John Schnizlein; Henning Schulzrinne; Barbara Stark; Hannes
   Tschofenig; Martin Thomson; and James Winterbottom.







































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8.  References

8.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

8.2.  Informative References

   [I-D.ietf-geopriv-http-location-delivery]
              Barnes, M., Winterbottom, J., Thomson, M., and B. Stark,
              "HTTP Enabled Location Delivery (HELD)",
              draft-ietf-geopriv-http-location-delivery-05 (work in
              progress), February 2008.

   [I-D.ietf-geopriv-l7-lcp-ps]
              Tschofenig, H. and H. Schulzrinne, "GEOPRIV Layer 7
              Location Configuration Protocol; Problem Statement and
              Requirements", draft-ietf-geopriv-l7-lcp-ps-06 (work in
              progress), November 2007.

   [I-D.ietf-geopriv-loc-filters]
              Mahy, R., "A Document Format for Filtering and Reporting
              Location Notications in the  Presence Information Document
              Format Location Object (PIDF-LO)",
              draft-ietf-geopriv-loc-filters-01 (work in progress),
              March 2007.

   [I-D.ietf-geopriv-policy]
              Schulzrinne, H., Tschofenig, H., Morris, J., Cuellar, J.,
              and J. Polk, "Geolocation Policy: A Document Format for
              Expressing Privacy Preferences for  Location Information",
              draft-ietf-geopriv-policy-14 (work in progress),
              February 2008.

   [I-D.ietf-sip-location-conveyance]
              Polk, J. and B. Rosen, "Location Conveyance for the
              Session Initiation Protocol",
              draft-ietf-sip-location-conveyance-09 (work in progress),
              November 2007.

   [RFC3693]  Cuellar, J., Morris, J., Mulligan, D., Peterson, J., and
              J. Polk, "Geopriv Requirements", RFC 3693, February 2004.

   [RFC4119]  Peterson, J., "A Presence-based GEOPRIV Location Object
              Format", RFC 4119, December 2005.





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Appendix A.  Change log

   Changes to this draft in comparison to the previous version (-02 vs.
   -01):

   1.  Reworded Introduction (Barnes 12/6 list comments).

   2.  Changed name of "Basic Actors" section to "Overview of Location
   by Reference" (Barnes).

   3.  Keeping the LCP term away (for now) since it is used as Link
   Control Protocol elsewhere (IETF).

   4.  Changed formatting of Terminology section (Barnes).

   5.  Requirement C2. changed to indicate that if the URI has a
   lifetime, it has to have an expiry (Barnes)

   6.  C7.  Changed title and wording based on suggested text and dhcp-
   uri-option example (Polk).

   7.  The new C2 req. describing valid-for, was also added into the
   deref section, as D6

   8.  Changed C4 based on much list discussion - replaced by 3 new
   requirements...

   9.  Reworded C5 based on the follow-on C4 thread/discussion on list
   (~2/18).

   10.  Changed wording of D3 based on suggestion (Barnes).

   11.  Reworded D4 per suggestion (Barnes).

   12.  Changed D5 based on comment (Barnes), and additional title and
   text changes for clarity.

   13.  Added D9 and D10 per Richard Barnes suggestions - something
   needed in addition to his own security doc.

   14.  Deleted reference to individual Barnes-loc-sec draft per wg list
   suggestion (Barnes), but need more text for this draft's security
   section.








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Author's Address

   Roger Marshall (editor)
   TeleCommunication Systems, Inc.
   2401 Elliott Avenue
   2nd Floor
   Seattle, WA  98121
   US

   Phone: +1 206 792 2424
   Email: rmarshall@telecomsys.com
   URI:   http://www.telecomsys.com







































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Full Copyright Statement

   Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2008).

   This document is subject to the rights, licenses and restrictions
   contained in BCP 78, and except as set forth therein, the authors
   retain all their rights.

   This document and the information contained herein are provided on an
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Marshall                 Expires August 28, 2008               [Page 20]


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