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Versions: (draft-rpeon-httpbis-header-compression) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 RFC 7541

HTTPbis Working Group                                            R. Peon
Internet-Draft                                               Google, Inc
Intended status: Standards Track                              H. Ruellan
Expires: October 05, 2014                                      Canon CRF
                                                          April 03, 2014


                 HPACK - Header Compression for HTTP/2
                draft-ietf-httpbis-header-compression-07

Abstract

   This specification defines HPACK, a compression format for
   efficiently representing HTTP header fields in the context of HTTP/2.

Editorial Note (To be removed by RFC Editor)

   Discussion of this draft takes place on the HTTPBIS working group
   mailing list (ietf-http-wg@w3.org), which is archived at <http://
   lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/ietf-http-wg/>.

   Working Group information can be found at <http://tools.ietf.org/wg/
   httpbis/>; that specific to HTTP/2 are at <http://http2.github.io/>.

   The changes in this draft are summarized in Appendix A.1.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on October 05, 2014.









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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  Overview  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     2.1.  Outline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   3.  Header Field Encoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     3.1.  Encoding Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
       3.1.1.  Encoding Context  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
       3.1.2.  Header Table  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
       3.1.3.  Reference Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
       3.1.4.  Header Field Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
       3.1.5.  Header Field Emission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     3.2.  Header Block Decoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
       3.2.1.  Header Field Representation Processing  . . . . . . .   8
       3.2.2.  Reference Set Emission  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
       3.2.3.  Header Set Completion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     3.3.  Header Table Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
       3.3.1.  Maximum Table Size  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
       3.3.2.  Entry Eviction When Header Table Size Changes . . . .  10
       3.3.3.  Entry Eviction when Adding New Entries  . . . . . . .  11
   4.  Detailed Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     4.1.  Low-level representations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
       4.1.1.  Integer representation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
       4.1.2.  String Literal Representation . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     4.2.  Indexed Header Field Representation . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     4.3.  Literal Header Field Representation . . . . . . . . . . .  14
       4.3.1.  Literal Header Field with Incremental Indexing  . . .  14
       4.3.2.  Literal Header Field without Indexing . . . . . . . .  15
       4.3.3.  Literal Header Field never Indexed  . . . . . . . . .  16
     4.4.  Encoding Context Update . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
   5.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
     5.1.  Compression-based Attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
     5.2.  Memory Consumption  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19



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     5.3.  Implementation Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
   6.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
   7.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
     7.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
     7.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
   Appendix A.  Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before
                publication  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
     A.1.  Since draft-ietf-httpbis-header-compression-06  . . . . .  21
     A.2.  Since draft-ietf-httpbis-header-compression-05  . . . . .  21
     A.3.  Since draft-ietf-httpbis-header-compression-04  . . . . .  21
     A.4.  Since draft-ietf-httpbis-header-compression-03  . . . . .  21
     A.5.  Since draft-ietf-httpbis-header-compression-02  . . . . .  22
     A.6.  Since draft-ietf-httpbis-header-compression-01  . . . . .  22
     A.7.  Since draft-ietf-httpbis-header-compression-00  . . . . .  22
   Appendix B.  Static Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
   Appendix C.  Huffman Codes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
   Appendix D.  Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  31
     D.1.  Integer Representation Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . .  31
       D.1.1.  Example 1: Encoding 10 using a 5-bit prefix . . . . .  31
       D.1.2.  Example 2: Encoding 1337 using a 5-bit prefix . . . .  31
       D.1.3.  Example 3: Encoding 42 starting at an
               octet-boundary  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  32
     D.2.  Header Field Representation Examples  . . . . . . . . . .  32
       D.2.1.  Literal Header Field with Indexing  . . . . . . . . .  32
       D.2.2.  Literal Header Field without Indexing . . . . . . . .  33
       D.2.3.  Indexed Header Field  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
       D.2.4.  Indexed Header Field from Static Table  . . . . . . .  35
     D.3.  Request Examples without Huffman  . . . . . . . . . . . .  35
       D.3.1.  First request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  35
       D.3.2.  Second request  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  37
       D.3.3.  Third request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  38
     D.4.  Request Examples with Huffman . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  40
       D.4.1.  First request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  40
       D.4.2.  Second request  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  41
       D.4.3.  Third request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  42
     D.5.  Response Examples without Huffman . . . . . . . . . . . .  44
       D.5.1.  First response  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  44
       D.5.2.  Second response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  46
       D.5.3.  Third response  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  47
     D.6.  Response Examples with Huffman  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  49
       D.6.1.  First response  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  49
       D.6.2.  Second response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  52
       D.6.3.  Third response  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  53

1.  Introduction






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   This specification defines HPACK, a compression format for
   efficiently representing HTTP header fields in the context of HTTP/2
   (see [HTTP2]).

2.  Overview

   In HTTP/1.1 (see [HTTP-p1]), header fields are encoded without any
   form of compression.  As web pages have grown to include dozens to
   hundreds of requests, the redundant header fields in these requests
   now measurably increase latency and unnecessarily consume bandwidth
   (see [PERF1] and [PERF2]).

   SPDY [SPDY] initially addressed this redundancy by compressing header
   fields using the DEFLATE format [DEFLATE], which proved very
   effective at efficiently representing the redundant header fields.
   However, that approach exposed a security risk as demonstrated by the
   CRIME attack (see [CRIME]).

   This document describes HPACK, a new compressor for header fields
   which eliminates redundant header fields, is not vulnerable to known
   security attacks, and which also has a bounded memory requirement for
   use in constrained environments.

2.1.  Outline

   The HTTP header field encoding defined in this document is based on a
   header table that maps name-value pairs to index values.  The header
   table is incrementally updated during the HTTP/2 connection.

   A set of header fields is treated as an unordered collection of name-
   value pairs.  Names and values are considered to be opaque sequences
   of octets.  The order of header fields is not guaranteed to be
   preserved after being compressed and decompressed.

   As two consecutive sets of header fields often have header fields in
   common, each set is coded as a difference from the previous set.  The
   goal is to only encode the changes (header fields present in one of
   the sets that are absent from the other) between the two sets of
   header fields.

   A header field is represented either literally or as a reference to a
   name-value pair in the header table.  A set of header fields is
   stored as a set of references to entries in the header table
   (possibly keeping only a subset of it, as some header fields may be
   missing a corresponding entry in the header table).  Differences
   between consecutive sets of header fields are encoded as changes to
   the set of references.




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   The encoder is responsible for deciding which header fields to insert
   as new entries in the header table.  The decoder executes the
   modifications to the header table and reference set prescribed by the
   encoder, reconstructing the set of header fields in the process.
   This enables decoders to remain simple and understand a wide variety
   of encoders.

   Examples illustrating the use of these different mechanisms to
   represent header fields are available in Appendix D.

3.  Header Field Encoding

3.1.  Encoding Concepts

   The encoding and decoding of header fields relies on some components
   and concepts:

   Header Field:  A name-value pair.  Both the name and value are
      treated as opaque sequences of octets.

   Header Table:  The header table (see Section 3.1.2) is a component
      used to associate stored header fields to index values.

   Static Table:  The static table (see Appendix B) is a component used
      to associate static header fields to index values.  This data is
      ordered, read-only, always accessible, and may be shared amongst
      all encoding contexts.

   Reference Set:  The reference set (see Section 3.1.3) is a component
      containing an unordered set of references to entries in the header
      table.  This is used for the differential encoding of a new header
      set.

   Header Set:  A header set is an unordered group of header fields that
      are encoded jointly.  A complete set of key-value pairs contained
      in a HTTP request or response is a header set.

   Header Field Representation:  A header field can be represented in
      encoded form either as a literal or as an index (see
      Section 3.1.4).

   Header Block:  The entire set of encoded header field representations
      which, when decoded, yield a complete header set.

   Header Field Emission:  When decoding a set of header field
      representations, some operations emit a header field (see
      Section 3.1.5).  Emitted header fields are added to the current
      header set and cannot be removed.



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3.1.1.  Encoding Context

   The set of mutable structures used within an encoding context include
   a header table and a reference set.  Everything else is either
   immutable or conceptual.

   HTTP messages are exchanged between a client and a server in both
   directions.  The encoding of header fields in each direction is
   independent from the other direction.  There is a single encoding
   context for each direction used to encode all header fields sent in
   that direction.

3.1.2.  Header Table

   A header table consists of a list of header fields maintained in
   first-in, first-out order.  The first and newest entry in a header
   table is always at index 1, and the oldest entry of a header table is
   at the index len(header table).

   The header table is initially empty.

   There is typically no need for the header table to contain duplicate
   entries.  However, duplicate entries MUST NOT be treated as an error
   by a decoder.

   The encoder decides how to update the header table and as such can
   control how much memory is used by the header table.  To limit the
   memory requirements of the decoder, the header table size is strictly
   bounded (see Section 3.3.1).

   The header table is updated during the processing of a set of header
   field representations (see Section 3.2.1).

3.1.3.  Reference Set

   A reference set is an unordered set of references to entries of the
   header table.

   The reference set is initially empty.

   The reference set is updated during the processing of a set of header
   field representations (see Section 3.2.1).

   The reference set enables differential encoding, whereby only
   differences between the previous header set and the current header
   set need to be encoded.  The use of differential encoding is optional
   for any header set.




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   When an entry is evicted from the header table, if it was referenced
   from the reference set, its reference is removed from the reference
   set.

   To limit the memory requirements on the decoder side for handling the
   reference set, only entries within the header table can be contained
   in the reference set.  To still allow entries from the static table
   to take advantage of the differential encoding, when a header field
   is represented as a reference to an entry of the static table, this
   entry is inserted into the header table (see Section 3.2.1).

3.1.4.  Header Field Representation

   An encoded header field can be represented either as a literal or as
   an index.

   Literal Representation:  A literal representation defines a new
      header field.  The header field name is represented either
      literally or as a reference to an entry of the header table.  The
      header field value is represented literally.

      Three different literal representations are provided:

      *  A literal representation that does not add the header field to
         the header table (see Section 4.3.2).

      *  A literal representation that does not add the header field to
         the header table and require that this header field always use
         a literal representation, in particular when re-encoded by an
         intermediary (see Section 4.3.3).

      *  A literal representation that adds the header field as a new
         entry at the beginning of the header table (see Section 4.3.1).

   Indexed Representation:  The indexed representation defines a header
      field as a reference to an entry in either the header table or the
      static table (see Section 4.2).

      Indices between 1 and len(header table), inclusive, refer to
      elements in the header table, with index 1 referring to the
      beginning of the table.

      Indices between len(header table) + 1 and len(header table) +
      len(static table), inclusive, refer to elements in the static
      table, where the index len(header table) + 1 refers to the first
      entry in the static table.

      Any other indices MUST be treated as a decoding error.



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          <----------  Index Address Space ---------->
          <-- Header  Table -->  <-- Static  Table -->
          +---+-----------+---+  +---+-----------+---+
          | 1 |    ...    | k |  |k+1|    ...    | n |
          +---+-----------+---+  +---+-----------+---+
          ^                   |
          |                   V
   Insertion Point       Drop Point

                            Index Address Space

3.1.5.  Header Field Emission

   The emission of a header field is the process of marking a header
   field as belonging to the current header set.  Once a header has been
   emitted, it cannot be removed from the current header set.

   On the decoding side, an emitted header field can be safely passed to
   the upper processing layer as part of the current header set.  The
   decoder MAY pass the emitted header fields to the upper processing
   layer in any order.

   By emitting header fields instead of emitting header sets, the
   decoder can be implemented in a streaming way, and as such has only
   to keep in memory the header table and the reference set.  This
   bounds the amount of memory used by the decoder, even in presence of
   a very large set of header fields.  The management of memory for
   handling very large sets of header fields can therefore be deferred
   to the upper processing layers.

3.2.  Header Block Decoding

   The processing of a header block to obtain a header set is defined in
   this section.  To ensure that the decoding will successfully produce
   a header set, a decoder MUST obey the following rules.

3.2.1.  Header Field Representation Processing

   All the header field representations contained in a header block are
   processed in the order in which they are presented, as specified
   below.

   An _indexed representation_ with an index value of 0 entails one of
   the following actions, depending on what is encoded next:

   o  The reference set is emptied.

   o  The maximum size of the header table is updated.



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   An _indexed representation_ corresponding to an entry _present_ in
   the reference set entails the following actions:

   o  The entry is removed from the reference set.

   An _indexed representation_ corresponding to an entry _not present_
   in the reference set entails the following actions:

   o  If referencing an element of the static table:

      *  The header field corresponding to the referenced entry is
         emitted.

      *  The referenced static entry is inserted at the beginning of the
         header table.

      *  A reference to this new header table entry is added to the
         reference set, except if this new entry didn't fit in the
         header table.

   o  If referencing an element of the header table:

      *  The header field corresponding to the referenced entry is
         emitted.

      *  The referenced header table entry is added to the reference
         set.

   A _literal representation_ that is _not added_ to the header table
   entails the following action:

   o  The header field is emitted.

   A _literal representation_ that is _added_ to the header table
   entails the following actions:

   o  The header field is emitted.

   o  The header field is inserted at the beginning of the header table.

   o  A reference to the new entry is added to the reference set (except
      if this new entry didn't fit in the header table).









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3.2.2.  Reference Set Emission

   Once all the representations contained in a header block have been
   processed, the header fields referenced in the reference set which
   have not previously been emitted during this processing are emitted.

3.2.3.  Header Set Completion

   Once all of the header field representations have been processed, and
   the remaining items in the reference set have been emitted, the
   header set is complete.

3.3.  Header Table Management

3.3.1.  Maximum Table Size

   To limit the memory requirements on the decoder side, the size of the
   header table is bounded.  The size of the header table MUST stay
   lower than or equal to its maximum size.

   By default, the maximum size of the header table is equal to the
   value of the HTTP/2 setting SETTINGS_HEADER_TABLE_SIZE defined by the
   decoder (see [HTTP2]).  The encoder can change this maximum size (see
   Section 4.4), but it must stay lower than or equal to the value of
   SETTINGS_HEADER_TABLE_SIZE.

   The size of the header table is the sum of the size of its entries.

   The size of an entry is the sum of its name's length in octets (as
   defined in Section 4.1.2), of its value's length in octets
   (Section 4.1.2) and of 32 octets.

   The lengths are measured on the non-encoded entry name and entry
   value (for the case when a Huffman encoding is used to transmit
   string values).

   The 32 octets are an accounting for the entry structure overhead.
   For example, an entry structure using two 64-bits pointers to
   reference the name and the value and the entry, and two 64-bits
   integer for counting the number of references to these name and value
   would use 32 octets.

3.3.2.  Entry Eviction When Header Table Size Changes

   Whenever an entry is evicted from the header table, any reference to
   that entry contained by the reference set is removed.





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   Whenever the maximum size for the header table is made smaller,
   entries are evicted from the end of the header table until the size
   of the header table is less than or equal to the maximum size.

   The eviction of an entry from the header table causes the index of
   the entries in the static table to be reduced by one.

3.3.3.  Entry Eviction when Adding New Entries

   Whenever a new entry is to be added to the table, any name referenced
   by the representation of this new entry is cached, and then entries
   are evicted from the end of the header table until the size of the
   header table is less than or equal to (maximum size - new entry
   size), or until the table is empty.

   If the size of the new entry is less than or equal to the maximum
   size, that entry is added to the table.  It is not an error to
   attempt to add an entry that is larger than the maximum size.

4.  Detailed Format

4.1.  Low-level representations

4.1.1.  Integer representation

   Integers are used to represent name indexes, pair indexes or string
   lengths.  To allow for optimized processing, an integer
   representation always finishes at the end of an octet.

   An integer is represented in two parts: a prefix that fills the
   current octet and an optional list of octets that are used if the
   integer value does not fit within the prefix.  The number of bits of
   the prefix (called N) is a parameter of the integer representation.

   The N-bit prefix allows filling the current octet.  If the value is
   small enough (strictly less than 2^N-1), it is encoded within the
   N-bit prefix.  Otherwise all the bits of the prefix are set to 1 and
   the value is encoded using an unsigned variable length integer
   representation (see <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Variable-
   length_quantity>).  N is always between 1 and 8 bits.  An integer
   starting at an octet-boundary will have an 8-bit prefix.

   The algorithm to represent an integer I is as follows:

   if I < 2^N - 1, encode I on N bits
   else
       encode (2^N - 1) on N bits
       I = I - (2^N - 1)



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       while I >= 128
            encode (I % 128 + 128) on 8 bits
            I = I / 128
       encode I on 8 bits


   For informational purpose, the algorithm to decode an integer I is as
   follows:

   decode I from the next N bits
   if I < 2^N - 1, return I
   else
       M = 0
       repeat
           B = next octet
           I = I + (B & 127) * 2^M
           M = M + 7
       while B & 128 == 128
       return I


   Examples illustrating the encoding of integers are available in
   Appendix D.1.

   This integer representation allows for values of indefinite size.  It
   is also possible for an encoder to send a large number of zero
   values, which can waste octets and could be used to overflow integer
   values.  Excessively large integer encodings - in value or octet
   length - MUST be treated as a decoding error.  Different limits can
   be set for each of the different uses of integers, based on
   implementation constraints.

4.1.2.  String Literal Representation

   Header field names and header field values can be represented as
   literal string.  A literal string is encoded as a sequence of octets,
   either by directly encoding the literal string's octets, or by using
   a canonical [CANON] Huffman encoding [HUFF].

     0   1   2   3   4   5   6   7
   +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
   | H |    String Length (7+)     |
   +---+---------------------------+
   |  String Data (Length octets)  |
   +-------------------------------+

                       String Literal Representation




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   A literal string representation contains the following fields:

   H: A one bit flag, H, indicating whether or not the octets of the
      string are Huffman encoded.

   String Length:  The number of octets used to encode the string
      literal, encoded as an integer with 7-bit prefix (see
      Section 4.1.1).

   String Data:  The encoded data of the string literal.  If H is '0',
      then the encoded data is the raw octets of the string literal.  If
      H is '1', then the encoded data is the Huffman encoding of the
      string literal.

   String literals which use Huffman encoding are encoded with the
   Huffman codes defined in Appendix C (see examples inRequest Examples
   with Huffman Appendix D.4 and in Response Examples with Huffman
   Appendix D.6).  The encoded data is the bitwise concatenation of the
   Huffman codes corresponding to each octet of the string literal.

   As the Huffman encoded data doesn't always end at an octet boundary,
   some padding is inserted after it up to the next octet boundary.  To
   prevent this padding to be misinterpreted as part of the string
   literal, the most significant bits of the EOS (end-of-string) entry
   in the Huffman table are used.

   Upon decoding, an incomplete Huffman code at the end of the encoded
   data is to be considered as padding and discarded.  A padding
   strictly longer than 7 bits MUST be treated as a decoding error.  A
   padding not corresponding to the most significant bits of the EOS
   entry MUST be treated as a decoding error.  A Huffman encoded string
   literal containing the EOS entry MUST be treated as a decoding error.

4.2.  Indexed Header Field Representation

   An indexed header field representation either identifies an entry in
   the header table or static table.  The processing of an indexed
   header field representation is described in Section 3.2.1.

     0   1   2   3   4   5   6   7
   +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
   | 1 |        Index (7+)         |
   +---+---------------------------+

                           Indexed Header Field






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   This representation starts with the '1' 1-bit pattern, followed by
   the index of the matching pair, represented as an integer with a
   7-bit prefix.

   The index value of 0 is not used.  It MUST be treated as a decoding
   error if found in an indexed header field representation.

4.3.  Literal Header Field Representation

   Literal header field representations contain a literal header field
   value.  Header field names are either provided as a literal or by
   reference to an existing header table or static table entry.

   Literal representations all result in the emission of a header field
   when decoded.

4.3.1.  Literal Header Field with Incremental Indexing

   A literal header field with incremental indexing adds a new entry to
   the header table.

     0   1   2   3   4   5   6   7
   +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
   | 0 | 1 |      Index (6+)       |
   +---+---+-----------------------+
   | H |     Value Length (7+)     |
   +---+---------------------------+
   | Value String (Length octets)  |
   +-------------------------------+

       Literal Header Field with Incremental Indexing - Indexed Name

     0   1   2   3   4   5   6   7
   +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
   | 0 | 1 |           0           |
   +---+---+-----------------------+
   | H |     Name Length (7+)      |
   +---+---------------------------+
   |  Name String (Length octets)  |
   +---+---------------------------+
   | H |     Value Length (7+)     |
   +---+---------------------------+
   | Value String (Length octets)  |
   +-------------------------------+

         Literal Header Field with Incremental Indexing - New Name

   This representation starts with the '01' 2-bit pattern.



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   If the header field name matches the header field name of a (name,
   value) pair stored in the Header Table or Static Table, the header
   field name can be represented using the index of that entry.  In this
   case, the index of the entry, index (which is strictly greater than
   0), is represented as an integer with a 6-bit prefix (see
   Section 4.1.1).

   Otherwise, the header field name is represented as a literal.  The
   value 0 is represented on 6 bits followed by the header field name
   (see Section 4.1.2).

   The header field name representation is followed by the header field
   value represented as a literal string as described in Section 4.1.2.

4.3.2.  Literal Header Field without Indexing

   A literal header field without indexing causes the emission of a
   header field without altering the header table.

     0   1   2   3   4   5   6   7
   +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
   | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 |  Index (4+)   |
   +---+---+-----------------------+
   | H |     Value Length (7+)     |
   +---+---------------------------+
   | Value String (Length octets)  |
   +-------------------------------+

           Literal Header Field without Indexing - Indexed Name

     0   1   2   3   4   5   6   7
   +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
   | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 |       0       |
   +---+---+-----------------------+
   | H |     Name Length (7+)      |
   +---+---------------------------+
   |  Name String (Length octets)  |
   +---+---------------------------+
   | H |     Value Length (7+)     |
   +---+---------------------------+
   | Value String (Length octets)  |
   +-------------------------------+

             Literal Header Field without Indexing - New Name

   The literal header field without indexing representation starts with
   the '0000' 4-bit pattern.




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   If the header field name matches the header field name of a (name,
   value) pair stored in the Header Table or Static Table, the header
   field name can be represented using the index of that entry.  In this
   case, the index of the entry, index (which is strictly greater than
   0), is represented as an integer with a 6-bit prefix (see
   Section 4.1.1).

   Otherwise, the header field name is represented as a literal.  The
   value 0 is represented on 4 bits followed by the header field name
   (see Section 4.1.2).

   The header field name representation is followed by the header field
   value represented as a literal string as described in Section 4.1.2.

4.3.3.  Literal Header Field never Indexed

   A literal header field never indexed causes the emission of a header
   field without altering the header table.

     0   1   2   3   4   5   6   7
   +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
   | 0 | 0 | 0 | 1 |  Index (4+)   |
   +---+---+-----------------------+
   | H |     Value Length (7+)     |
   +---+---------------------------+
   | Value String (Length octets)  |
   +-------------------------------+

             Literal Header Field never Indexed - Indexed Name

     0   1   2   3   4   5   6   7
   +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
   | 0 | 0 | 0 | 1 |       0       |
   +---+---+-----------------------+
   | H |     Name Length (7+)      |
   +---+---------------------------+
   |  Name String (Length octets)  |
   +---+---------------------------+
   | H |     Value Length (7+)     |
   +---+---------------------------+
   | Value String (Length octets)  |
   +-------------------------------+

               Literal Header Field never Indexed - New Name

   The literal header field never indexed representation starts with the
   '0001' 4-bit pattern.




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   When a header field is represented as a literal header field never
   indexed, it MUST always be encoded with this same representation.  In
   particular, when a peer sends a header field that it received
   represented as a literal header field never indexed, it MUST use the
   same representation to forward this header field.

   This representation is intended for protecting header field values
   that are not to be put at risk by compressing them (see Section 5.1
   for more details).

   The encoding of the representation is the same as for the literal
   header field without indexing representation (see Section 4.3.2).

4.4.  Encoding Context Update

   An encoding context update causes the immediate application of a
   change to the encoding context.

     0   1   2   3   4   5   6   7
   +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
   | 0 | 0 | 1 | F |      ...      |
   +---+---------------------------+

                              Context Update

   An encoding context update starts with the '001' 3-bit pattern.

   It is followed by a flag specifying the type of the change, and by
   any data necessary to describe the change itself.

     0   1   2   3   4   5   6   7
   +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
   | 0 | 0 | 1 | 1 |       0       |
   +---+---------------------------+

                          Reference Set Emptying

   The flag bit being set to '1' signals that the reference set is
   emptied.  The remaining bits are set to '0'.

     0   1   2   3   4   5   6   7
   +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
   | 0 | 0 | 1 | 0 | Max size (4+) |
   +---+---------------------------+

                     Maximum Header Table Size Change





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   The flag bit being set to '0' signals that a change to the maximum
   size of the header table.  This new maximum size MUST be lower than
   or equal to the value of the setting SETTINGS_HEADER_TABLE_SIZE (see
   [HTTP2]).

   The new maximum size is encoded as an integer with a 4-bit prefix.

   Change in the maximum size of the header table can trigger entry
   evictions (see Section 3.3.2).

5.  Security Considerations

5.1.  Compression-based Attacks

   Compression can create a weak point allowing an attacker to recover
   secret data.  For example, the CRIME attack (see [CRIME]) took
   advantage of the DEFLATE mechanism (see [DEFLATE]) of SPDY (see
   [SPDY]) to efficiently probe the compression context.  The full-text
   compression mechanism of DEFLATE allowed the attacker to learn some
   information from each failed attempt at guessing the secret.

   For this reason, HPACK provides only limited compression mechanisms
   in the form of an indexing table and of a static Huffman encoding.

   The indexing table can still provide information to an attacker that
   would be able to probe the compression context.  However, this
   information is limited to the knowledge of whether the attacker's
   guess is correct or not.

   Still, an attacker could take advantage of this limited information
   for breaking low-entropy secrets using a brute-force attack.  A
   server usually has some protections against such brute-force attack.
   Here, the attack would target the client, where it would be harder to
   detect.  The attack would be even more dangerous if the attacker is
   able to prevent the traffic generated by its brute-force attack from
   reaching the server.

   To offer some protection against such type of attacks, HPACK enables
   an endpoint to indicate that a header field must never be compressed,
   across any hop up to the other endpoint (see Section 4.3.3).  An
   endpoint MUST use this feature to prevent the compression of any
   header field whose value contains a secret which could be put at risk
   by a brute-force attack.

   For optimal processing, a sensitive value (for example a cookie)
   needs to have an entropy high enough to not be endangered by a brute-
   force attack, in order to take advantage of HPACK indexing.




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   There is currently no known threat taking advantage of the use of a
   fixed Huffman encoding.  A study has shown that using a fixed Huffman
   encoding table created an information leakage, however this same
   study concluded that an attacker could not take advantage of this
   information leakage to recover any meaningful amount of information
   (see [PETAL]).

5.2.  Memory Consumption

   An attacker can try to cause an endpoint to exhaust its memory.
   HPACK is designed to limit both the peak and state amounts of memory
   allocated by an endpoint.

   The amount of memory used by the compressor state is limited by the
   value of the setting SETTINGS_HEADER_TABLE_SIZE.  This limitation
   takes into account both the size of the data stored in the header
   table, and the overhead required by the table structure itself.

   For the decoding side, an endpoint can limit the amount of state
   memory used by setting an appropriate value for
   SETTINGS_HEADER_TABLE_SIZE.  For the encoding side, the endpoint can
   limit the amount of state memory it uses by defining a header table
   maximum size lower than the value of SETTINGS_HEADER_TABLE_SIZE
   defined by its peer (see Section 4.4).

   The amount of temporary memory consumed is linked to the set of
   header fields emitted or received.  However, this amount of temporary
   memory can be limited by processing these header fields in a
   streaming manner.

5.3.  Implementation Limits

   An implementation of HPACK needs to ensure that large values for
   integers, long encoding for integers, or long string literal do not
   create security weaknesses.

   An implementation has to set a limit for the values it accepts for
   integers, as well as for the encoded length (see Section 4.1.1).  In
   the same way, it has to set a limit to the length it accepts for
   string literals (see Section 4.1.2).

6.  Acknowledgements

   This document includes substantial editorial contributions from the
   following individuals: Mike Bishop, Jeff Pinner, Julian Reschke,
   Martin Thomson.





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7.  References

7.1.  Normative References

   [HTTP-p1]  Fielding, R., Ed. and J. Reschke, Ed., "Hypertext Transfer
              Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing", draft-
              ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-26 (work in progress), February
              2014.

   [HTTP2]    Belshe, M., Peon, R., and M. Thomson, Ed., "Hypertext
              Transfer Protocol version 2", draft-ietf-httpbis-http2-10
              (work in progress), February 2014.

7.2.  Informative References

   [CANON]    Schwartz, E. and B. Kallick, "Generating a canonical
              prefix encoding", Communications of the ACM Volume 7 Issue
              3, pp. 166-169, March 1964,
              <http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=363991>.

   [CRIME]    Rizzo, J. and T. Duong, "The CRIME Attack", September
              2012, <https://docs.google.com/a/twist.com/presentation/d/
              11eBmGiHbYcHR9gL5nDyZChu_-lCa2GizeuOfaLU2HOU/
              edit#slide=id.g1eb6c1b5_3_6>.

   [DEFLATE]  Deutsch, P., "DEFLATE Compressed Data Format Specification
              version 1.3", RFC 1951, May 1996.

   [HUFF]     Huffman, D., "A Method for the Construction of Minimum
              Redundancy Codes", Proceedings of the Institute of Radio
              Engineers Volume 40, Number 9, pp. 1098-1101, September
              1952, <http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/
              articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=4051119>.

   [PERF1]    Belshe, M., "IETF83: SPDY and What to Consider for HTTP/
              2.0", March 2012, <http://www.ietf.org/proceedings/83/
              slides/slides-83-httpbis-3>.

   [PERF2]    McManus, P., "SPDY: What I Like About You", September
              2011, <http://bitsup.blogspot.com/2011/09/spdy-what-i
              -like-about-you.html>.

   [PETAL]    Tan, J. and J. Nahata, "PETAL: Preset Encoding Table
              Information Leakage", April 2013, <http://www.pdl.cmu.edu/
              PDL-FTP/associated/CMU-PDL-13-106.pdf>.

   [SPDY]     Belshe, M. and R. Peon, "SPDY Protocol", draft-mbelshe-
              httpbis-spdy-00 (work in progress), February 2012.



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Appendix A.  Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before publication

A.1.  Since draft-ietf-httpbis-header-compression-06

   o  Updated format to include literal headers that must never be
      compressed.

   o  Updated security considerations.

   o  Moved integer encoding examples to the appendix.

   o  Updated Huffman table.

   o  Updated static header table (adding and removing status values).

   o  Updated examples.

A.2.  Since draft-ietf-httpbis-header-compression-05

   o  Regenerated examples.

   o  Only one Huffman table for requests and responses.

   o  Added maximum size for header table, independent of
      SETTINGS_HEADER_TABLE_SIZE.

   o  Added pseudo-code for integer decoding.

   o  Improved examples (removing unnecessary removals).

A.3.  Since draft-ietf-httpbis-header-compression-04

   o  Updated examples: take into account changes in the spec, and show
      more features.

   o  Use 'octet' everywhere instead of having both 'byte' and 'octet'.

   o  Added reference set emptying.

   o  Editorial changes and clarifications.

   o  Added "host" header to the static table.

   o  Ordering for list of values (either NULL- or comma-separated).

A.4.  Since draft-ietf-httpbis-header-compression-03





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   o  A large number of editorial changes; changed the description of
      evicting/adding new entries.

   o  Removed substitution indexing

   o  Changed 'initial headers' to 'static headers', as per issue #258

   o  Merged 'request' and 'response' static headers, as per issue #259

   o  Changed text to indicate that new headers are added at index 0 and
      expire from the largest index, as per issue #233

A.5.  Since draft-ietf-httpbis-header-compression-02

   o  Corrected error in integer encoding pseudocode.

A.6.  Since draft-ietf-httpbis-header-compression-01

   o  Refactored of Header Encoding Section: split definitions and
      processing rule.

   o  Backward incompatible change: Updated reference set management as
      per issue #214.  This changes how the interaction between the
      reference set and eviction works.  This also changes the working
      of the reference set in some specific cases.

   o  Backward incompatible change: modified initial header list, as per
      issue #188.

   o  Added example of 32 octets entry structure (issue #191).

   o  Added Header Set Completion section.  Reflowed some text.
      Clarified some writing which was akward.  Added text about
      duplicate header entry encoding.  Clarified some language w.r.t
      Header Set.  Changed x-my-header to mynewheader.  Added text in
      the HeaderEmission section indicating that the application may
      also be able to free up memory more quickly.  Added information in
      Security Considerations section.

A.7.  Since draft-ietf-httpbis-header-compression-00

      Fixed bug/omission in integer representation algorithm.

      Changed the document title.

      Header matching text rewritten.

      Changed the definition of header emission.



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      Changed the name of the setting which dictates how much memory the
      compression context should use.

      Removed "specific use cases" section

      Corrected erroneous statement about what index can be contained in
      one octet

      Added descriptions of opcodes

      Removed security claims from introduction.

Appendix B.  Static Table

   The static table consists of an unchangeable ordered list of (name,
   value) pairs.  The first entry in the table is always represented by
   the index len(header table) + 1, and the last entry in the table is
   represented by the index len(header table) + len(static table).

   The following table lists the pre-defined header fields that make-up
   the static table.

          +-------+-----------------------------+--------------+
          | Index | Header Name                 | Header Value |
          +-------+-----------------------------+--------------+
          | 1     | :authority                  |              |
          | 2     | :method                     | GET          |
          | 3     | :method                     | POST         |
          | 4     | :path                       | /            |
          | 5     | :path                       | /index.html  |
          | 6     | :scheme                     | http         |
          | 7     | :scheme                     | https        |
          | 8     | :status                     | 200          |
          | 9     | :status                     | 204          |
          | 10    | :status                     | 206          |
          | 11    | :status                     | 304          |
          | 12    | :status                     | 400          |
          | 13    | :status                     | 404          |
          | 14    | :status                     | 500          |
          | 15    | accept-charset              |              |
          | 16    | accept-encoding             |              |
          | 17    | accept-language             |              |
          | 18    | accept-ranges               |              |
          | 19    | accept                      |              |
          | 20    | access-control-allow-origin |              |
          | 21    | age                         |              |
          | 22    | allow                       |              |
          | 23    | authorization               |              |



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          | 24    | cache-control               |              |
          | 25    | content-disposition         |              |
          | 26    | content-encoding            |              |
          | 27    | content-language            |              |
          | 28    | content-length              |              |
          | 29    | content-location            |              |
          | 30    | content-range               |              |
          | 31    | content-type                |              |
          | 32    | cookie                      |              |
          | 33    | date                        |              |
          | 34    | etag                        |              |
          | 35    | expect                      |              |
          | 36    | expires                     |              |
          | 37    | from                        |              |
          | 38    | host                        |              |
          | 39    | if-match                    |              |
          | 40    | if-modified-since           |              |
          | 41    | if-none-match               |              |
          | 42    | if-range                    |              |
          | 43    | if-unmodified-since         |              |
          | 44    | last-modified               |              |
          | 45    | link                        |              |
          | 46    | location                    |              |
          | 47    | max-forwards                |              |
          | 48    | proxy-authenticate          |              |
          | 49    | proxy-authorization         |              |
          | 50    | range                       |              |
          | 51    | referer                     |              |
          | 52    | refresh                     |              |
          | 53    | retry-after                 |              |
          | 54    | server                      |              |
          | 55    | set-cookie                  |              |
          | 56    | strict-transport-security   |              |
          | 57    | transfer-encoding           |              |
          | 58    | user-agent                  |              |
          | 59    | vary                        |              |
          | 60    | via                         |              |
          | 61    | www-authenticate            |              |
          +-------+-----------------------------+--------------+

                       Table 1: Static Table Entries

   The table give the index of each entry in the static table.  The full
   index of each entry, to be used for encoding a reference to this
   entry, is computed by adding the number of entries in the header
   table to this index.





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Appendix C.  Huffman Codes

   The following codes are used when encoding string literals with an
   Huffman coding (see Section 4.1.2).

   Each row in the table specifies one Huffman code:

   sym:  The symbol to be represented.  It is the decimal value of an
      octet, possibly prepended with its ASCII representation.  A
      specific symbol, "EOS", is used to indicate the end of a string
      literal.

   code as bits:  The Huffman code for the symbol represented as a
      base-2 integer.

   code as hex:  The Huffman code for the symbol, represented as a
      hexadecimal integer, aligned on the least significant bit.

   len:  The number of bits for the Huffman code of the symbol.

   As an example, the Huffman code for the symbol 48 (corresponding to
   the ASCII character "0") consists in the 5 bits "0", "0", "1", "0",
   "1".  This corresponds to the value 5 encoded on 5 bits.

                                               code
                       code as bits           as hex   len
        sym           aligned to MSB          aligned   in
                                              to LSB   bits
       (  0)  |11111111|11111111|11101110|10  3ffffba  [26]
       (  1)  |11111111|11111111|11101110|11  3ffffbb  [26]
       (  2)  |11111111|11111111|11101111|00  3ffffbc  [26]
       (  3)  |11111111|11111111|11101111|01  3ffffbd  [26]
       (  4)  |11111111|11111111|11101111|10  3ffffbe  [26]
       (  5)  |11111111|11111111|11101111|11  3ffffbf  [26]
       (  6)  |11111111|11111111|11110000|00  3ffffc0  [26]
       (  7)  |11111111|11111111|11110000|01  3ffffc1  [26]
       (  8)  |11111111|11111111|11110000|10  3ffffc2  [26]
       (  9)  |11111111|11111111|11110000|11  3ffffc3  [26]
       ( 10)  |11111111|11111111|11110001|00  3ffffc4  [26]
       ( 11)  |11111111|11111111|11110001|01  3ffffc5  [26]
       ( 12)  |11111111|11111111|11110001|10  3ffffc6  [26]
       ( 13)  |11111111|11111111|11110001|11  3ffffc7  [26]
       ( 14)  |11111111|11111111|11110010|00  3ffffc8  [26]
       ( 15)  |11111111|11111111|11110010|01  3ffffc9  [26]
       ( 16)  |11111111|11111111|11110010|10  3ffffca  [26]
       ( 17)  |11111111|11111111|11110010|11  3ffffcb  [26]
       ( 18)  |11111111|11111111|11110011|00  3ffffcc  [26]
       ( 19)  |11111111|11111111|11110011|01  3ffffcd  [26]



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       ( 20)  |11111111|11111111|11110011|10  3ffffce  [26]
       ( 21)  |11111111|11111111|11110011|11  3ffffcf  [26]
       ( 22)  |11111111|11111111|11110100|00  3ffffd0  [26]
       ( 23)  |11111111|11111111|11110100|01  3ffffd1  [26]
       ( 24)  |11111111|11111111|11110100|10  3ffffd2  [26]
       ( 25)  |11111111|11111111|11110100|11  3ffffd3  [26]
       ( 26)  |11111111|11111111|11110101|00  3ffffd4  [26]
       ( 27)  |11111111|11111111|11110101|01  3ffffd5  [26]
       ( 28)  |11111111|11111111|11110101|10  3ffffd6  [26]
       ( 29)  |11111111|11111111|11110101|11  3ffffd7  [26]
       ( 30)  |11111111|11111111|11110110|00  3ffffd8  [26]
       ( 31)  |11111111|11111111|11110110|01  3ffffd9  [26]
   ' ' ( 32)  |00110                                6  [ 5]
   '!' ( 33)  |11111111|11100                    1ffc  [13]
   '"' ( 34)  |11111000|0                         1f0  [ 9]
   '#' ( 35)  |11111111|111100                   3ffc  [14]
   '$' ( 36)  |11111111|1111100                  7ffc  [15]
   '%' ( 37)  |011110                              1e  [ 6]
   '&' ( 38)  |1100100                             64  [ 7]
   ''' ( 39)  |11111111|11101                    1ffd  [13]
   '(' ( 40)  |11111110|10                        3fa  [10]
   ')' ( 41)  |11111000|1                         1f1  [ 9]
   '*' ( 42)  |11111110|11                        3fb  [10]
   '+' ( 43)  |11111111|00                        3fc  [10]
   ',' ( 44)  |1100101                             65  [ 7]
   '-' ( 45)  |1100110                             66  [ 7]
   '.' ( 46)  |011111                              1f  [ 6]
   '/' ( 47)  |00111                                7  [ 5]
   '0' ( 48)  |0000                                 0  [ 4]
   '1' ( 49)  |0001                                 1  [ 4]
   '2' ( 50)  |0010                                 2  [ 4]
   '3' ( 51)  |01000                                8  [ 5]
   '4' ( 52)  |100000                              20  [ 6]
   '5' ( 53)  |100001                              21  [ 6]
   '6' ( 54)  |100010                              22  [ 6]
   '7' ( 55)  |100011                              23  [ 6]
   '8' ( 56)  |100100                              24  [ 6]
   '9' ( 57)  |100101                              25  [ 6]
   ':' ( 58)  |100110                              26  [ 6]
   ';' ( 59)  |11101100|                           ec  [ 8]
   '<' ( 60)  |11111111|11111110|0              1fffc  [17]
   '=' ( 61)  |100111                              27  [ 6]
   '>' ( 62)  |11111111|1111101                  7ffd  [15]
   '?' ( 63)  |11111111|01                        3fd  [10]
   '@' ( 64)  |11111111|1111110                  7ffe  [15]
   'A' ( 65)  |1100111                             67  [ 7]
   'B' ( 66)  |11101101|                           ed  [ 8]
   'C' ( 67)  |11101110|                           ee  [ 8]



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   'D' ( 68)  |1101000                             68  [ 7]
   'E' ( 69)  |11101111|                           ef  [ 8]
   'F' ( 70)  |1101001                             69  [ 7]
   'G' ( 71)  |1101010                             6a  [ 7]
   'H' ( 72)  |11111001|0                         1f2  [ 9]
   'I' ( 73)  |11110000|                           f0  [ 8]
   'J' ( 74)  |11111001|1                         1f3  [ 9]
   'K' ( 75)  |11111010|0                         1f4  [ 9]
   'L' ( 76)  |11111010|1                         1f5  [ 9]
   'M' ( 77)  |1101011                             6b  [ 7]
   'N' ( 78)  |1101100                             6c  [ 7]
   'O' ( 79)  |11110001|                           f1  [ 8]
   'P' ( 80)  |11110010|                           f2  [ 8]
   'Q' ( 81)  |11111011|0                         1f6  [ 9]
   'R' ( 82)  |11111011|1                         1f7  [ 9]
   'S' ( 83)  |1101101                             6d  [ 7]
   'T' ( 84)  |101000                              28  [ 6]
   'U' ( 85)  |11110011|                           f3  [ 8]
   'V' ( 86)  |11111100|0                         1f8  [ 9]
   'W' ( 87)  |11111100|1                         1f9  [ 9]
   'X' ( 88)  |11110100|                           f4  [ 8]
   'Y' ( 89)  |11111101|0                         1fa  [ 9]
   'Z' ( 90)  |11111101|1                         1fb  [ 9]
   '[' ( 91)  |11111111|100                       7fc  [11]
   '\' ( 92)  |11111111|11111111|11110110|10  3ffffda  [26]
   ']' ( 93)  |11111111|101                       7fd  [11]
   '^' ( 94)  |11111111|111101                   3ffd  [14]
   '_' ( 95)  |1101110                             6e  [ 7]
   '`' ( 96)  |11111111|11111111|10             3fffe  [18]
   'a' ( 97)  |01001                                9  [ 5]
   'b' ( 98)  |1101111                             6f  [ 7]
   'c' ( 99)  |01010                                a  [ 5]
   'd' (100)  |101001                              29  [ 6]
   'e' (101)  |01011                                b  [ 5]
   'f' (102)  |1110000                             70  [ 7]
   'g' (103)  |101010                              2a  [ 6]
   'h' (104)  |101011                              2b  [ 6]
   'i' (105)  |01100                                c  [ 5]
   'j' (106)  |11110101|                           f5  [ 8]
   'k' (107)  |11110110|                           f6  [ 8]
   'l' (108)  |101100                              2c  [ 6]
   'm' (109)  |101101                              2d  [ 6]
   'n' (110)  |101110                              2e  [ 6]
   'o' (111)  |01101                                d  [ 5]
   'p' (112)  |101111                              2f  [ 6]
   'q' (113)  |11111110|0                         1fc  [ 9]
   'r' (114)  |110000                              30  [ 6]
   's' (115)  |110001                              31  [ 6]



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   't' (116)  |01110                                e  [ 5]
   'u' (117)  |1110001                             71  [ 7]
   'v' (118)  |1110010                             72  [ 7]
   'w' (119)  |1110011                             73  [ 7]
   'x' (120)  |1110100                             74  [ 7]
   'y' (121)  |1110101                             75  [ 7]
   'z' (122)  |11110111|                           f7  [ 8]
   '{' (123)  |11111111|11111110|1              1fffd  [17]
   '|' (124)  |11111111|1100                      ffc  [12]
   '}' (125)  |11111111|11111111|0              1fffe  [17]
   '~' (126)  |11111111|1101                      ffd  [12]
       (127)  |11111111|11111111|11110110|11  3ffffdb  [26]
       (128)  |11111111|11111111|11110111|00  3ffffdc  [26]
       (129)  |11111111|11111111|11110111|01  3ffffdd  [26]
       (130)  |11111111|11111111|11110111|10  3ffffde  [26]
       (131)  |11111111|11111111|11110111|11  3ffffdf  [26]
       (132)  |11111111|11111111|11111000|00  3ffffe0  [26]
       (133)  |11111111|11111111|11111000|01  3ffffe1  [26]
       (134)  |11111111|11111111|11111000|10  3ffffe2  [26]
       (135)  |11111111|11111111|11111000|11  3ffffe3  [26]
       (136)  |11111111|11111111|11111001|00  3ffffe4  [26]
       (137)  |11111111|11111111|11111001|01  3ffffe5  [26]
       (138)  |11111111|11111111|11111001|10  3ffffe6  [26]
       (139)  |11111111|11111111|11111001|11  3ffffe7  [26]
       (140)  |11111111|11111111|11111010|00  3ffffe8  [26]
       (141)  |11111111|11111111|11111010|01  3ffffe9  [26]
       (142)  |11111111|11111111|11111010|10  3ffffea  [26]
       (143)  |11111111|11111111|11111010|11  3ffffeb  [26]
       (144)  |11111111|11111111|11111011|00  3ffffec  [26]
       (145)  |11111111|11111111|11111011|01  3ffffed  [26]
       (146)  |11111111|11111111|11111011|10  3ffffee  [26]
       (147)  |11111111|11111111|11111011|11  3ffffef  [26]
       (148)  |11111111|11111111|11111100|00  3fffff0  [26]
       (149)  |11111111|11111111|11111100|01  3fffff1  [26]
       (150)  |11111111|11111111|11111100|10  3fffff2  [26]
       (151)  |11111111|11111111|11111100|11  3fffff3  [26]
       (152)  |11111111|11111111|11111101|00  3fffff4  [26]
       (153)  |11111111|11111111|11111101|01  3fffff5  [26]
       (154)  |11111111|11111111|11111101|10  3fffff6  [26]
       (155)  |11111111|11111111|11111101|11  3fffff7  [26]
       (156)  |11111111|11111111|11111110|00  3fffff8  [26]
       (157)  |11111111|11111111|11111110|01  3fffff9  [26]
       (158)  |11111111|11111111|11111110|10  3fffffa  [26]
       (159)  |11111111|11111111|11111110|11  3fffffb  [26]
       (160)  |11111111|11111111|11111111|00  3fffffc  [26]
       (161)  |11111111|11111111|11111111|01  3fffffd  [26]
       (162)  |11111111|11111111|11111111|10  3fffffe  [26]
       (163)  |11111111|11111111|11111111|11  3ffffff  [26]



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       (164)  |11111111|11111111|11000000|0   1ffff80  [25]
       (165)  |11111111|11111111|11000000|1   1ffff81  [25]
       (166)  |11111111|11111111|11000001|0   1ffff82  [25]
       (167)  |11111111|11111111|11000001|1   1ffff83  [25]
       (168)  |11111111|11111111|11000010|0   1ffff84  [25]
       (169)  |11111111|11111111|11000010|1   1ffff85  [25]
       (170)  |11111111|11111111|11000011|0   1ffff86  [25]
       (171)  |11111111|11111111|11000011|1   1ffff87  [25]
       (172)  |11111111|11111111|11000100|0   1ffff88  [25]
       (173)  |11111111|11111111|11000100|1   1ffff89  [25]
       (174)  |11111111|11111111|11000101|0   1ffff8a  [25]
       (175)  |11111111|11111111|11000101|1   1ffff8b  [25]
       (176)  |11111111|11111111|11000110|0   1ffff8c  [25]
       (177)  |11111111|11111111|11000110|1   1ffff8d  [25]
       (178)  |11111111|11111111|11000111|0   1ffff8e  [25]
       (179)  |11111111|11111111|11000111|1   1ffff8f  [25]
       (180)  |11111111|11111111|11001000|0   1ffff90  [25]
       (181)  |11111111|11111111|11001000|1   1ffff91  [25]
       (182)  |11111111|11111111|11001001|0   1ffff92  [25]
       (183)  |11111111|11111111|11001001|1   1ffff93  [25]
       (184)  |11111111|11111111|11001010|0   1ffff94  [25]
       (185)  |11111111|11111111|11001010|1   1ffff95  [25]
       (186)  |11111111|11111111|11001011|0   1ffff96  [25]
       (187)  |11111111|11111111|11001011|1   1ffff97  [25]
       (188)  |11111111|11111111|11001100|0   1ffff98  [25]
       (189)  |11111111|11111111|11001100|1   1ffff99  [25]
       (190)  |11111111|11111111|11001101|0   1ffff9a  [25]
       (191)  |11111111|11111111|11001101|1   1ffff9b  [25]
       (192)  |11111111|11111111|11001110|0   1ffff9c  [25]
       (193)  |11111111|11111111|11001110|1   1ffff9d  [25]
       (194)  |11111111|11111111|11001111|0   1ffff9e  [25]
       (195)  |11111111|11111111|11001111|1   1ffff9f  [25]
       (196)  |11111111|11111111|11010000|0   1ffffa0  [25]
       (197)  |11111111|11111111|11010000|1   1ffffa1  [25]
       (198)  |11111111|11111111|11010001|0   1ffffa2  [25]
       (199)  |11111111|11111111|11010001|1   1ffffa3  [25]
       (200)  |11111111|11111111|11010010|0   1ffffa4  [25]
       (201)  |11111111|11111111|11010010|1   1ffffa5  [25]
       (202)  |11111111|11111111|11010011|0   1ffffa6  [25]
       (203)  |11111111|11111111|11010011|1   1ffffa7  [25]
       (204)  |11111111|11111111|11010100|0   1ffffa8  [25]
       (205)  |11111111|11111111|11010100|1   1ffffa9  [25]
       (206)  |11111111|11111111|11010101|0   1ffffaa  [25]
       (207)  |11111111|11111111|11010101|1   1ffffab  [25]
       (208)  |11111111|11111111|11010110|0   1ffffac  [25]
       (209)  |11111111|11111111|11010110|1   1ffffad  [25]
       (210)  |11111111|11111111|11010111|0   1ffffae  [25]
       (211)  |11111111|11111111|11010111|1   1ffffaf  [25]



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       (212)  |11111111|11111111|11011000|0   1ffffb0  [25]
       (213)  |11111111|11111111|11011000|1   1ffffb1  [25]
       (214)  |11111111|11111111|11011001|0   1ffffb2  [25]
       (215)  |11111111|11111111|11011001|1   1ffffb3  [25]
       (216)  |11111111|11111111|11011010|0   1ffffb4  [25]
       (217)  |11111111|11111111|11011010|1   1ffffb5  [25]
       (218)  |11111111|11111111|11011011|0   1ffffb6  [25]
       (219)  |11111111|11111111|11011011|1   1ffffb7  [25]
       (220)  |11111111|11111111|11011100|0   1ffffb8  [25]
       (221)  |11111111|11111111|11011100|1   1ffffb9  [25]
       (222)  |11111111|11111111|11011101|0   1ffffba  [25]
       (223)  |11111111|11111111|11011101|1   1ffffbb  [25]
       (224)  |11111111|11111111|11011110|0   1ffffbc  [25]
       (225)  |11111111|11111111|11011110|1   1ffffbd  [25]
       (226)  |11111111|11111111|11011111|0   1ffffbe  [25]
       (227)  |11111111|11111111|11011111|1   1ffffbf  [25]
       (228)  |11111111|11111111|11100000|0   1ffffc0  [25]
       (229)  |11111111|11111111|11100000|1   1ffffc1  [25]
       (230)  |11111111|11111111|11100001|0   1ffffc2  [25]
       (231)  |11111111|11111111|11100001|1   1ffffc3  [25]
       (232)  |11111111|11111111|11100010|0   1ffffc4  [25]
       (233)  |11111111|11111111|11100010|1   1ffffc5  [25]
       (234)  |11111111|11111111|11100011|0   1ffffc6  [25]
       (235)  |11111111|11111111|11100011|1   1ffffc7  [25]
       (236)  |11111111|11111111|11100100|0   1ffffc8  [25]
       (237)  |11111111|11111111|11100100|1   1ffffc9  [25]
       (238)  |11111111|11111111|11100101|0   1ffffca  [25]
       (239)  |11111111|11111111|11100101|1   1ffffcb  [25]
       (240)  |11111111|11111111|11100110|0   1ffffcc  [25]
       (241)  |11111111|11111111|11100110|1   1ffffcd  [25]
       (242)  |11111111|11111111|11100111|0   1ffffce  [25]
       (243)  |11111111|11111111|11100111|1   1ffffcf  [25]
       (244)  |11111111|11111111|11101000|0   1ffffd0  [25]
       (245)  |11111111|11111111|11101000|1   1ffffd1  [25]
       (246)  |11111111|11111111|11101001|0   1ffffd2  [25]
       (247)  |11111111|11111111|11101001|1   1ffffd3  [25]
       (248)  |11111111|11111111|11101010|0   1ffffd4  [25]
       (249)  |11111111|11111111|11101010|1   1ffffd5  [25]
       (250)  |11111111|11111111|11101011|0   1ffffd6  [25]
       (251)  |11111111|11111111|11101011|1   1ffffd7  [25]
       (252)  |11111111|11111111|11101100|0   1ffffd8  [25]
       (253)  |11111111|11111111|11101100|1   1ffffd9  [25]
       (254)  |11111111|11111111|11101101|0   1ffffda  [25]
       (255)  |11111111|11111111|11101101|1   1ffffdb  [25]
   EOS (256)  |11111111|11111111|11101110|0   1ffffdc  [25]






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Appendix D.  Examples

   A number of examples are worked through here, covering integer
   encoding, header field representation, and the encoding of whole sets
   of header fields, for both requests and responses, and with and
   without Huffman coding.

D.1.  Integer Representation Examples

   This section shows the representation of integer values in details
   (see Section 4.1.1).

D.1.1.  Example 1: Encoding 10 using a 5-bit prefix

   The value 10 is to be encoded with a 5-bit prefix.

   o  10 is less than 31 (2^5 - 1) and is represented using the 5-bit
      prefix.

     0   1   2   3   4   5   6   7
   +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
   | X | X | X | 0 | 1 | 0 | 1 | 0 |   10 stored on 5 bits
   +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+


D.1.2.  Example 2: Encoding 1337 using a 5-bit prefix

   The value I=1337 is to be encoded with a 5-bit prefix.

      1337 is greater than 31 (2^5 - 1).



         The 5-bit prefix is filled with its max value (31).

      I = 1337 - (2^5 - 1) = 1306.



         I (1306) is greater than or equal to 128, the while loop body
         executes:



            I % 128 == 26

            26 + 128 == 154




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            154 is encoded in 8 bits as: 10011010

            I is set to 10 (1306 / 128 == 10)

            I is no longer greater than or equal to 128, the while loop
            terminates.

         I, now 10, is encoded on 8 bits as: 00001010.

      The process ends.

     0   1   2   3   4   5   6   7
   +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
   | X | X | X | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 |  Prefix = 31, I = 1306
   | 1 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 1 | 0 | 1 | 0 |  1306>=128, encode(154), I=1306/128
   | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 0 | 1 | 0 |  10<128, encode(10), done
   +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+


D.1.3.  Example 3: Encoding 42 starting at an octet-boundary

   The value 42 is to be encoded starting at an octet-boundary.  This
   implies that a 8-bit prefix is used.

   o  42 is less than 255 (2^8 - 1) and is represented using the 8-bit
      prefix.

     0   1   2   3   4   5   6   7
   +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
   | 0 | 0 | 1 | 0 | 1 | 0 | 1 | 0 |   42 stored on 8 bits
   +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+


D.2.  Header Field Representation Examples

   This section shows several independent representation examples.

D.2.1.  Literal Header Field with Indexing

   The header field representation uses a literal name and a literal
   value.

   Header set to encode:

   custom-key: custom-header


   Reference set: empty.



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   Hex dump of encoded data:

   400a 6375 7374 6f6d 2d6b 6579 0d63 7573 | @.custom-key.cus
   746f 6d2d 6865 6164 6572                | tom-header


   Decoding process:

   40                                      | == Literal indexed ==
   0a                                      |   Literal name (len = 10)
   6375 7374 6f6d 2d6b 6579                | custom-key
   0d                                      |   Literal value (len = 13)
   6375 7374 6f6d 2d68 6561 6465 72        | custom-header
                                           | -> custom-key: custom-head\
                                           |   er


   Header Table (after decoding):

   [  1] (s =  55) custom-key: custom-header
         Table size:  55


   Decoded header set:

   custom-key: custom-header


D.2.2.  Literal Header Field without Indexing

   The header field representation uses an indexed name and a literal
   value.

   Header set to encode:

   :path: /sample/path


   Reference set: empty.

   Hex dump of encoded data:

   040c 2f73 616d 706c 652f 7061 7468      | ../sample/path


   Decoding process:





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   04                                      | == Literal not indexed ==
                                           |   Indexed name (idx = 4)
                                           |     :path
   0c                                      |   Literal value (len = 12)
   2f73 616d 706c 652f 7061 7468           | /sample/path
                                           | -> :path: /sample/path


   Header table (after decoding): empty.

   Decoded header set:

   :path: /sample/path


D.2.3.  Indexed Header Field

   The header field representation uses an indexed header field, from
   the static table.  Upon using it, the static table entry is copied
   into the header table.

   Header set to encode:

   :method: GET


   Reference set: empty.

   Hex dump of encoded data:

   82                                      | .


   Decoding process:

   82                                      | == Indexed - Add ==
                                           |   idx = 2
                                           | -> :method: GET


   Header Table (after decoding):

   [  1] (s =  42) :method: GET
         Table size:  42


   Decoded header set:




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   :method: GET


D.2.4.  Indexed Header Field from Static Table

   The header field representation uses an indexed header field, from
   the static table.  In this example, the SETTINGS_HEADER_TABLE_SIZE is
   set to 0, therefore, the entry is not copied into the header table.

   Header set to encode:

   :method: GET


   Reference set: empty.

   Hex dump of encoded data:

   82                                      | .


   Decoding process:

   82                                      | == Indexed - Add ==
                                           |   idx = 2
                                           | -> :method: GET


   Header table (after decoding): empty.

   Decoded header set:

   :method: GET


D.3.  Request Examples without Huffman

   This section shows several consecutive header sets, corresponding to
   HTTP requests, on the same connection.

D.3.1.  First request










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   Header set to encode:

   :method: GET
   :scheme: http
   :path: /
   :authority: www.example.com


   Reference set: empty.

   Hex dump of encoded data:

   8287 8644 0f77 7777 2e65 7861 6d70 6c65 | ...D.www.example
   2e63 6f6d                               | .com


   Decoding process:

   82                                      | == Indexed - Add ==
                                           |   idx = 2
                                           | -> :method: GET
   87                                      | == Indexed - Add ==
                                           |   idx = 7
                                           | -> :scheme: http
   86                                      | == Indexed - Add ==
                                           |   idx = 6
                                           | -> :path: /
   44                                      | == Literal indexed ==
                                           |   Indexed name (idx = 4)
                                           |     :authority
   0f                                      |   Literal value (len = 15)
   7777 772e 6578 616d 706c 652e 636f 6d   | www.example.com
                                           | -> :authority: www.example\
                                           |   .com


   Header Table (after decoding):

   [  1] (s =  57) :authority: www.example.com
   [  2] (s =  38) :path: /
   [  3] (s =  43) :scheme: http
   [  4] (s =  42) :method: GET
         Table size: 180


   Decoded header set:





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   :method: GET
   :scheme: http
   :path: /
   :authority: www.example.com


D.3.2.  Second request

   This request takes advantage of the differential encoding of header
   sets.

   Header set to encode:

   :method: GET
   :scheme: http
   :path: /
   :authority: www.example.com
   cache-control: no-cache


   Reference set:

   [  1] :authority: www.example.com
   [  2] :path: /
   [  3] :scheme: http
   [  4] :method: GET


   Hex dump of encoded data:

   5c08 6e6f 2d63 6163 6865                | \.no-cache


   Decoding process:

   5c                                      | == Literal indexed ==
                                           |   Indexed name (idx = 28)
                                           |     cache-control
   08                                      |   Literal value (len = 8)
   6e6f 2d63 6163 6865                     | no-cache
                                           | -> cache-control: no-cache


   Header Table (after decoding):







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   [  1] (s =  53) cache-control: no-cache
   [  2] (s =  57) :authority: www.example.com
   [  3] (s =  38) :path: /
   [  4] (s =  43) :scheme: http
   [  5] (s =  42) :method: GET
         Table size: 233


   Decoded header set:

   cache-control: no-cache
   :authority: www.example.com
   :path: /
   :scheme: http
   :method: GET


D.3.3.  Third request

   This request has not enough headers in common with the previous
   request to take advantage of the differential encoding.  Therefore,
   the reference set is emptied before encoding the header fields.

   Header set to encode:

   :method: GET
   :scheme: https
   :path: /index.html
   :authority: www.example.com
   custom-key: custom-value


   Reference set:

   [  1] cache-control: no-cache
   [  2] :authority: www.example.com
   [  3] :path: /
   [  4] :scheme: http
   [  5] :method: GET


   Hex dump of encoded data:

   3085 8c8b 8440 0a63 7573 746f 6d2d 6b65 | 0....@.custom-ke
   790c 6375 7374 6f6d 2d76 616c 7565      | y.custom-value






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   Decoding process:

   30                                      | == Empty reference set ==
                                           |   idx = 0
                                           |   flag = 1
   85                                      | == Indexed - Add ==
                                           |   idx = 5
                                           | -> :method: GET
   8c                                      | == Indexed - Add ==
                                           |   idx = 12
                                           | -> :scheme: https
   8b                                      | == Indexed - Add ==
                                           |   idx = 11
                                           | -> :path: /index.html
   84                                      | == Indexed - Add ==
                                           |   idx = 4
                                           | -> :authority: www.example\
                                           |   .com
   40                                      | == Literal indexed ==
   0a                                      |   Literal name (len = 10)
   6375 7374 6f6d 2d6b 6579                | custom-key
   0c                                      |   Literal value (len = 12)
   6375 7374 6f6d 2d76 616c 7565           | custom-value
                                           | -> custom-key: custom-valu\
                                           |   e


   Header Table (after decoding):

   [  1] (s =  54) custom-key: custom-value
   [  2] (s =  48) :path: /index.html
   [  3] (s =  44) :scheme: https
   [  4] (s =  53) cache-control: no-cache
   [  5] (s =  57) :authority: www.example.com
   [  6] (s =  38) :path: /
   [  7] (s =  43) :scheme: http
   [  8] (s =  42) :method: GET
         Table size: 379


   Decoded header set:

   :method: GET
   :scheme: https
   :path: /index.html
   :authority: www.example.com
   custom-key: custom-value




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D.4.  Request Examples with Huffman

   This section shows the same examples as the previous section, but
   using Huffman encoding for the literal values.

D.4.1.  First request

   Header set to encode:

   :method: GET
   :scheme: http
   :path: /
   :authority: www.example.com


   Reference set: empty.

   Hex dump of encoded data:

   8287 8644 8ce7 cf9b ebe8 9b6f b16f a9b6 | ...D.......o.o..
   ff                                      | .


   Decoding process:

   82                                      | == Indexed - Add ==
                                           |   idx = 2
                                           | -> :method: GET
   87                                      | == Indexed - Add ==
                                           |   idx = 7
                                           | -> :scheme: http
   86                                      | == Indexed - Add ==
                                           |   idx = 6
                                           | -> :path: /
   44                                      | == Literal indexed ==
                                           |   Indexed name (idx = 4)
                                           |     :authority
   8c                                      |   Literal value (len = 15)
                                           |     Huffman encoded:
   e7cf 9beb e89b 6fb1 6fa9 b6ff           | ......o.o...
                                           |     Decoded:
                                           | www.example.com
                                           | -> :authority: www.example\
                                           |   .com


   Header Table (after decoding):




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   [  1] (s =  57) :authority: www.example.com
   [  2] (s =  38) :path: /
   [  3] (s =  43) :scheme: http
   [  4] (s =  42) :method: GET
         Table size: 180


   Decoded header set:

   :method: GET
   :scheme: http
   :path: /
   :authority: www.example.com


D.4.2.  Second request

   This request takes advantage of the differential encoding of header
   sets.

   Header set to encode:

   :method: GET
   :scheme: http
   :path: /
   :authority: www.example.com
   cache-control: no-cache


   Reference set:

   [  1] :authority: www.example.com
   [  2] :path: /
   [  3] :scheme: http
   [  4] :method: GET


   Hex dump of encoded data:

   5c86 b9b9 9495 56bf                     | \.....V.


   Decoding process:








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   5c                                      | == Literal indexed ==
                                           |   Indexed name (idx = 28)
                                           |     cache-control
   86                                      |   Literal value (len = 8)
                                           |     Huffman encoded:
   b9b9 9495 56bf                          | ....V.
                                           |     Decoded:
                                           | no-cache
                                           | -> cache-control: no-cache


   Header Table (after decoding):

   [  1] (s =  53) cache-control: no-cache
   [  2] (s =  57) :authority: www.example.com
   [  3] (s =  38) :path: /
   [  4] (s =  43) :scheme: http
   [  5] (s =  42) :method: GET
         Table size: 233


   Decoded header set:

   cache-control: no-cache
   :authority: www.example.com
   :path: /
   :scheme: http
   :method: GET


D.4.3.  Third request

   This request has not enough headers in common with the previous
   request to take advantage of the differential encoding.  Therefore,
   the reference set is emptied before encoding the header fields.

   Header set to encode:

   :method: GET
   :scheme: https
   :path: /index.html
   :authority: www.example.com
   custom-key: custom-value


   Reference set:





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   [  1] cache-control: no-cache
   [  2] :authority: www.example.com
   [  3] :path: /
   [  4] :scheme: http
   [  5] :method: GET


   Hex dump of encoded data:

   3085 8c8b 8440 8857 1c5c db73 7b2f af89 | 0....@.W.\.s{/..
   571c 5cdb 7372 4d9c 57                  | W.\.srM.W


   Decoding process:

   30                                      | == Empty reference set ==
                                           |   idx = 0
                                           |   flag = 1
   85                                      | == Indexed - Add ==
                                           |   idx = 5
                                           | -> :method: GET
   8c                                      | == Indexed - Add ==
                                           |   idx = 12
                                           | -> :scheme: https
   8b                                      | == Indexed - Add ==
                                           |   idx = 11
                                           | -> :path: /index.html
   84                                      | == Indexed - Add ==
                                           |   idx = 4
                                           | -> :authority: www.example\
                                           |   .com
   40                                      | == Literal indexed ==
   88                                      |   Literal name (len = 10)
                                           |     Huffman encoded:
   571c 5cdb 737b 2faf                     | W.\.s{/.
                                           |     Decoded:
                                           | custom-key
   89                                      |   Literal value (len = 12)
                                           |     Huffman encoded:
   571c 5cdb 7372 4d9c 57                  | W.\.srM.W
                                           |     Decoded:
                                           | custom-value
                                           | -> custom-key: custom-valu\
                                           |   e


   Header Table (after decoding):




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   [  1] (s =  54) custom-key: custom-value
   [  2] (s =  48) :path: /index.html
   [  3] (s =  44) :scheme: https
   [  4] (s =  53) cache-control: no-cache
   [  5] (s =  57) :authority: www.example.com
   [  6] (s =  38) :path: /
   [  7] (s =  43) :scheme: http
   [  8] (s =  42) :method: GET
         Table size: 379


   Decoded header set:

   :method: GET
   :scheme: https
   :path: /index.html
   :authority: www.example.com
   custom-key: custom-value


D.5.  Response Examples without Huffman

   This section shows several consecutive header sets, corresponding to
   HTTP responses, on the same connection.  SETTINGS_HEADER_TABLE_SIZE
   is set to the value of 256 octets, causing some evictions to occur.

D.5.1.  First response

   Header set to encode:

   :status: 302
   cache-control: private
   date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 20:13:21 GMT
   location: https://www.example.com


   Reference set: empty.

   Hex dump of encoded data:

   4803 3330 3259 0770 7269 7661 7465 631d | H.302Y.privatec.
   4d6f 6e2c 2032 3120 4f63 7420 3230 3133 | Mon, 21 Oct 2013
   2032 303a 3133 3a32 3120 474d 5471 1768 |  20:13:21 GMTq.h
   7474 7073 3a2f 2f77 7777 2e65 7861 6d70 | ttps://www.examp
   6c65 2e63 6f6d                          | le.com






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   Decoding process:

   48                                      | == Literal indexed ==
                                           |   Indexed name (idx = 8)
                                           |     :status
   03                                      |   Literal value (len = 3)
   3330 32                                 | 302
                                           | -> :status: 302
   59                                      | == Literal indexed ==
                                           |   Indexed name (idx = 25)
                                           |     cache-control
   07                                      |   Literal value (len = 7)
   7072 6976 6174 65                       | private
                                           | -> cache-control: private
   63                                      | == Literal indexed ==
                                           |   Indexed name (idx = 35)
                                           |     date
   1d                                      |   Literal value (len = 29)
   4d6f 6e2c 2032 3120 4f63 7420 3230 3133 | Mon, 21 Oct 2013
   2032 303a 3133 3a32 3120 474d 54        |  20:13:21 GMT
                                           | -> date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 \
                                           |   20:13:21 GMT
   71                                      | == Literal indexed ==
                                           |   Indexed name (idx = 49)
                                           |     location
   17                                      |   Literal value (len = 23)
   6874 7470 733a 2f2f 7777 772e 6578 616d | https://www.exam
   706c 652e 636f 6d                       | ple.com
                                           | -> location: https://www.e\
                                           |   xample.com


   Header Table (after decoding):

   [  1] (s =  63) location: https://www.example.com
   [  2] (s =  65) date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 20:13:21 GMT
   [  3] (s =  52) cache-control: private
   [  4] (s =  42) :status: 302
         Table size: 222


   Decoded header set:

   :status: 302
   cache-control: private
   date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 20:13:21 GMT
   location: https://www.example.com




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D.5.2.  Second response

   The (":status", "302") header field is evicted from the header table
   to free space to allow adding the (":status", "200") header field,
   copied from the static table into the header table.  The (":status",
   "302") header field doesn't need to be removed from the reference set
   as it is evicted from the header table.

   Header set to encode:

   :status: 200
   cache-control: private
   date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 20:13:21 GMT
   location: https://www.example.com


   Reference set:

   [  1] location: https://www.example.com
   [  2] date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 20:13:21 GMT
   [  3] cache-control: private
   [  4] :status: 302


   Hex dump of encoded data:

   8c                                      | .


   Decoding process:

   8c                                      | == Indexed - Add ==
                                           |   idx = 12
                                           | - evict: :status: 302
                                           | -> :status: 200


   Header Table (after decoding):

   [  1] (s =  42) :status: 200
   [  2] (s =  63) location: https://www.example.com
   [  3] (s =  65) date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 20:13:21 GMT
   [  4] (s =  52) cache-control: private
         Table size: 222


   Decoded header set:




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   :status: 200
   location: https://www.example.com
   date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 20:13:21 GMT
   cache-control: private


D.5.3.  Third response

   Several header fields are evicted from the header table during the
   processing of this header set.  Before evicting a header belonging to
   the reference set, it is emitted, by coding it twice as an Indexed
   Representation.  The first representation removes the header field
   from the reference set, the second one adds it again to the reference
   set, also emitting it.

   Header set to encode:

   :status: 200
   cache-control: private
   date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 20:13:22 GMT
   location: https://www.example.com
   content-encoding: gzip
   set-cookie: foo=ASDJKHQKBZXOQWEOPIUAXQWEOIU; max-age=3600; version=1


   Reference set:

   [  1] :status: 200
   [  2] location: https://www.example.com
   [  3] date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 20:13:21 GMT
   [  4] cache-control: private


   Hex dump of encoded data:

   8484 431d 4d6f 6e2c 2032 3120 4f63 7420 | ..C.Mon, 21 Oct
   3230 3133 2032 303a 3133 3a32 3220 474d | 2013 20:13:22 GM
   545e 0467 7a69 7084 8483 837b 3866 6f6f | T^.gzip....{8foo
   3d41 5344 4a4b 4851 4b42 5a58 4f51 5745 | =ASDJKHQKBZXOQWE
   4f50 4955 4158 5157 454f 4955 3b20 6d61 | OPIUAXQWEOIU; ma
   782d 6167 653d 3336 3030 3b20 7665 7273 | x-age=3600; vers
   696f 6e3d 31                            | ion=1


   Decoding process:

   84                                      | == Indexed - Remove ==
                                           |   idx = 4



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                                           | -> cache-control: private
   84                                      | == Indexed - Add ==
                                           |   idx = 4
                                           | -> cache-control: private
   43                                      | == Literal indexed ==
                                           |   Indexed name (idx = 3)
                                           |     date
   1d                                      |   Literal value (len = 29)
   4d6f 6e2c 2032 3120 4f63 7420 3230 3133 | Mon, 21 Oct 2013
   2032 303a 3133 3a32 3220 474d 54        |  20:13:22 GMT
                                           | - evict: cache-control: pr\
                                           |   ivate
                                           | -> date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 \
                                           |   20:13:22 GMT
   5e                                      | == Literal indexed ==
                                           |   Indexed name (idx = 30)
                                           |     content-encoding
   04                                      |   Literal value (len = 4)
   677a 6970                               | gzip
                                           | - evict: date: Mon, 21 Oct\
                                           |    2013 20:13:21 GMT
                                           | -> content-encoding: gzip
   84                                      | == Indexed - Remove ==
                                           |   idx = 4
                                           | -> location: https://www.e\
                                           |   xample.com
   84                                      | == Indexed - Add ==
                                           |   idx = 4
                                           | -> location: https://www.e\
                                           |   xample.com
   83                                      | == Indexed - Remove ==
                                           |   idx = 3
                                           | -> :status: 200
   83                                      | == Indexed - Add ==
                                           |   idx = 3
                                           | -> :status: 200
   7b                                      | == Literal indexed ==
                                           |   Indexed name (idx = 59)
                                           |     set-cookie
   38                                      |   Literal value (len = 56)
   666f 6f3d 4153 444a 4b48 514b 425a 584f | foo=ASDJKHQKBZXO
   5157 454f 5049 5541 5851 5745 4f49 553b | QWEOPIUAXQWEOIU;
   206d 6178 2d61 6765 3d33 3630 303b 2076 |  max-age=3600; v
   6572 7369 6f6e 3d31                     | ersion=1
                                           | - evict: location: https:/\
                                           |   /www.example.com
                                           | - evict: :status: 200
                                           | -> set-cookie: foo=ASDJKHQ\



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                                           |   KBZXOQWEOPIUAXQWEOIU; ma\
                                           |   x-age=3600; version=1


   Header Table (after decoding):

   [  1] (s =  98) set-cookie: foo=ASDJKHQKBZXOQWEOPIUAXQWEOIU; max-age\
                    =3600; version=1
   [  2] (s =  52) content-encoding: gzip
   [  3] (s =  65) date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 20:13:22 GMT
         Table size: 215


   Decoded header set:

   cache-control: private
   date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 20:13:22 GMT
   content-encoding: gzip
   location: https://www.example.com
   :status: 200
   set-cookie: foo=ASDJKHQKBZXOQWEOPIUAXQWEOIU; max-age=3600; version=1


D.6.  Response Examples with Huffman

   This section shows the same examples as the previous section, but
   using Huffman encoding for the literal values.  The eviction
   mechanism uses the length of the decoded literal values, so the same
   evictions occurs as in the previous section.

D.6.1.  First response

   Header set to encode:

   :status: 302
   cache-control: private
   date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 20:13:21 GMT
   location: https://www.example.com


   Reference set: empty.










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   Hex dump of encoded data:

   4882 4017 5985 bf06 724b 9763 93d6 dbb2 | H.@.Y...rK.c....
   9884 de2a 7188 0506 2098 5131 09b5 6ba3 | ...*q... .Q1..k.
   7191 adce bf19 8e7e 7cf9 bebe 89b6 fb16 | q.......|.......
   fa9b 6f                                 | ..o


   Decoding process:










































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   48                                      | == Literal indexed ==
                                           |   Indexed name (idx = 8)
                                           |     :status
   82                                      |   Literal value (len = 3)
                                           |     Huffman encoded:
   4017                                    | @.
                                           |     Decoded:
                                           | 302
                                           | -> :status: 302
   59                                      | == Literal indexed ==
                                           |   Indexed name (idx = 25)
                                           |     cache-control
   85                                      |   Literal value (len = 7)
                                           |     Huffman encoded:
   bf06 724b 97                            | ..rK.
                                           |     Decoded:
                                           | private
                                           | -> cache-control: private
   63                                      | == Literal indexed ==
                                           |   Indexed name (idx = 35)
                                           |     date
   93                                      |   Literal value (len = 29)
                                           |     Huffman encoded:
   d6db b298 84de 2a71 8805 0620 9851 3109 | ......*q... .Q1.
   b56b a3                                 | .k.
                                           |     Decoded:
                                           | Mon, 21 Oct 2013 20:13:21 \
                                           | GMT
                                           | -> date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 \
                                           |   20:13:21 GMT
   71                                      | == Literal indexed ==
                                           |   Indexed name (idx = 49)
                                           |     location
   91                                      |   Literal value (len = 23)
                                           |     Huffman encoded:
   adce bf19 8e7e 7cf9 bebe 89b6 fb16 fa9b | ......|.........
   6f                                      | o
                                           |     Decoded:
                                           | https://www.example.com
                                           | -> location: https://www.e\
                                           |   xample.com


   Header Table (after decoding):







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   [  1] (s =  63) location: https://www.example.com
   [  2] (s =  65) date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 20:13:21 GMT
   [  3] (s =  52) cache-control: private
   [  4] (s =  42) :status: 302
         Table size: 222


   Decoded header set:

   :status: 302
   cache-control: private
   date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 20:13:21 GMT
   location: https://www.example.com


D.6.2.  Second response

   The (":status", "302") header field is evicted from the header table
   to free space to allow adding the (":status", "200") header field,
   copied from the static table into the header table.  The (":status",
   "302") header field doesn't need to be removed from the reference set
   as it is evicted from the header table.

   Header set to encode:

   :status: 200
   cache-control: private
   date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 20:13:21 GMT
   location: https://www.example.com


   Reference set:

   [  1] location: https://www.example.com
   [  2] date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 20:13:21 GMT
   [  3] cache-control: private
   [  4] :status: 302


   Hex dump of encoded data:

   8c                                      | .


   Decoding process:






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   8c                                      | == Indexed - Add ==
                                           |   idx = 12
                                           | - evict: :status: 302
                                           | -> :status: 200


   Header Table (after decoding):

   [  1] (s =  42) :status: 200
   [  2] (s =  63) location: https://www.example.com
   [  3] (s =  65) date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 20:13:21 GMT
   [  4] (s =  52) cache-control: private
         Table size: 222


   Decoded header set:

   :status: 200
   location: https://www.example.com
   date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 20:13:21 GMT
   cache-control: private


D.6.3.  Third response

   Several header fields are evicted from the header table during the
   processing of this header set.  Before evicting a header belonging to
   the reference set, it is emitted, by coding it twice as an Indexed
   Representation.  The first representation removes the header field
   from the reference set, the second one adds it again to the reference
   set, also emitting it.

   Header set to encode:

   :status: 200
   cache-control: private
   date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 20:13:22 GMT
   location: https://www.example.com
   content-encoding: gzip
   set-cookie: foo=ASDJKHQKBZXOQWEOPIUAXQWEOIU; max-age=3600; version=1











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   Reference set:

   [  1] :status: 200
   [  2] location: https://www.example.com
   [  3] date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 20:13:21 GMT
   [  4] cache-control: private


   Hex dump of encoded data:

   8484 4393 d6db b298 84de 2a71 8805 0620 | ..C.......*q...
   9851 3111 b56b a35e 84ab dd97 ff84 8483 | .Q1..k.^........
   837b b1e0 d6cf 9f6e 8f9f d3e5 f6fa 76fe | .{.....n......v.
   fd3c 7edf 9eff 1f2f 0f3c fe9f 6fcf 7f8f | ......./....o...
   879f 61ad 4f4c c9a9 73a2 200e c372 5e18 | ..a.OL..s. ..r^.
   b1b7 4e3f                               | ..N?


   Decoding process:

   84                                      | == Indexed - Remove ==
                                           |   idx = 4
                                           | -> cache-control: private
   84                                      | == Indexed - Add ==
                                           |   idx = 4
                                           | -> cache-control: private
   43                                      | == Literal indexed ==
                                           |   Indexed name (idx = 3)
                                           |     date
   93                                      |   Literal value (len = 29)
                                           |     Huffman encoded:
   d6db b298 84de 2a71 8805 0620 9851 3111 | ......*q... .Q1.
   b56b a3                                 | .k.
                                           |     Decoded:
                                           | Mon, 21 Oct 2013 20:13:22 \
                                           | GMT
                                           | - evict: cache-control: pr\
                                           |   ivate
                                           | -> date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 \
                                           |   20:13:22 GMT
   5e                                      | == Literal indexed ==
                                           |   Indexed name (idx = 30)
                                           |     content-encoding
   84                                      |   Literal value (len = 4)
                                           |     Huffman encoded:
   abdd 97ff                               | ....
                                           |     Decoded:
                                           | gzip



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                                           | - evict: date: Mon, 21 Oct\
                                           |    2013 20:13:21 GMT
                                           | -> content-encoding: gzip
   84                                      | == Indexed - Remove ==
                                           |   idx = 4
                                           | -> location: https://www.e\
                                           |   xample.com
   84                                      | == Indexed - Add ==
                                           |   idx = 4
                                           | -> location: https://www.e\
                                           |   xample.com
   83                                      | == Indexed - Remove ==
                                           |   idx = 3
                                           | -> :status: 200
   83                                      | == Indexed - Add ==
                                           |   idx = 3
                                           | -> :status: 200
   7b                                      | == Literal indexed ==
                                           |   Indexed name (idx = 59)
                                           |     set-cookie
   b1                                      |   Literal value (len = 56)
                                           |     Huffman encoded:
   e0d6 cf9f 6e8f 9fd3 e5f6 fa76 fefd 3c7e | ....n......v....
   df9e ff1f 2f0f 3cfe 9f6f cf7f 8f87 9f61 | ..../....o.....a
   ad4f 4cc9 a973 a220 0ec3 725e 18b1 b74e | .OL..s. ..r^...N
   3f                                      | ?
                                           |     Decoded:
                                           | foo=ASDJKHQKBZXOQWEOPIUAXQ\
                                           | WEOIU; max-age=3600; versi\
                                           | on=1
                                           | - evict: location: https:/\
                                           |   /www.example.com
                                           | - evict: :status: 200
                                           | -> set-cookie: foo=ASDJKHQ\
                                           |   KBZXOQWEOPIUAXQWEOIU; ma\
                                           |   x-age=3600; version=1


   Header Table (after decoding):

   [  1] (s =  98) set-cookie: foo=ASDJKHQKBZXOQWEOPIUAXQWEOIU; max-age\
                    =3600; version=1
   [  2] (s =  52) content-encoding: gzip
   [  3] (s =  65) date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 20:13:22 GMT
         Table size: 215






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   Decoded header set:

   cache-control: private
   date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 20:13:22 GMT
   content-encoding: gzip
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Authors' Addresses

   Roberto Peon
   Google, Inc

   EMail: fenix@google.com


   Herve Ruellan
   Canon CRF

   EMail: herve.ruellan@crf.canon.fr





























Peon & Ruellan          Expires October 05, 2014               [Page 56]


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