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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 RFC 7235

HTTPbis Working Group                                   R. Fielding, Ed.
Internet-Draft                                              Day Software
Obsoletes: 2616 (if approved)                                  J. Gettys
Updates: 2617 (if approved)                               Alcatel-Lucent
Intended status: Standards Track                                J. Mogul
Expires: January 13, 2011                                             HP
                                                              H. Frystyk
                                                               Microsoft
                                                             L. Masinter
                                                           Adobe Systems
                                                                P. Leach
                                                               Microsoft
                                                          T. Berners-Lee
                                                                 W3C/MIT
                                                           Y. Lafon, Ed.
                                                                     W3C
                                                         J. Reschke, Ed.
                                                              greenbytes
                                                           July 12, 2010


                    HTTP/1.1, part 7: Authentication
                     draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-10

Abstract

   The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level
   protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information
   systems.  HTTP has been in use by the World Wide Web global
   information initiative since 1990.  This document is Part 7 of the
   seven-part specification that defines the protocol referred to as
   "HTTP/1.1" and, taken together, obsoletes RFC 2616.  Part 7 defines
   HTTP Authentication.

Editorial Note (To be removed by RFC Editor)

   Discussion of this draft should take place on the HTTPBIS working
   group mailing list (ietf-http-wg@w3.org).  The current issues list is
   at <http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/report/3> and related
   documents (including fancy diffs) can be found at
   <http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/>.

   The changes in this draft are summarized in Appendix C.11.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.



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   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on January 13, 2011.

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   Copyright (c) 2010 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
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   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
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   This document may contain material from IETF Documents or IETF
   Contributions published or made publicly available before November
   10, 2008.  The person(s) controlling the copyright in some of this
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   Without obtaining an adequate license from the person(s) controlling
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   outside the IETF Standards Process, and derivative works of it may
   not be created outside the IETF Standards Process, except to format
   it for publication as an RFC or to translate it into languages other
   than English.













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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     1.1.  Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     1.2.  Syntax Notation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
       1.2.1.  Core Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
       1.2.2.  ABNF Rules defined in other Parts of the
               Specification  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   2.  Status Code Definitions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     2.1.  401 Unauthorized . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     2.2.  407 Proxy Authentication Required  . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   3.  Header Field Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     3.1.  Authorization  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     3.2.  Proxy-Authenticate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     3.3.  Proxy-Authorization  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     3.4.  WWW-Authenticate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   4.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     4.1.  Status Code Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     4.2.  Message Header Registration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   5.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     5.1.  Authentication Credentials and Idle Clients  . . . . . . .  9
   6.  Acknowledgments  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   7.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     7.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     7.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   Appendix A.  Compatibility with Previous Versions  . . . . . . . . 10
     A.1.  Changes from RFC 2616  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   Appendix B.  Collected ABNF  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   Appendix C.  Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before
                publication)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     C.1.  Since RFC2616  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     C.2.  Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-00  . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     C.3.  Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-01  . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     C.4.  Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-02  . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     C.5.  Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-03  . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     C.6.  Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-04  . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     C.7.  Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-05  . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     C.8.  Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-06  . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     C.9.  Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-07  . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     C.10. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-08  . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     C.11. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-09  . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   Index  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12









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1.  Introduction

   This document defines HTTP/1.1 access control and authentication.
   Right now it includes the extracted relevant sections of RFC 2616
   with only minor changes.  The intention is to move the general
   framework for HTTP authentication here, as currently specified in
   [RFC2617], and allow the individual authentication mechanisms to be
   defined elsewhere.  This introduction will be rewritten when that
   occurs.

   HTTP provides several OPTIONAL challenge-response authentication
   mechanisms which can be used by a server to challenge a client
   request and by a client to provide authentication information.  The
   general framework for access authentication, and the specification of
   "basic" and "digest" authentication, are specified in "HTTP
   Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication" [RFC2617].
   This specification adopts the definitions of "challenge" and
   "credentials" from that specification.

1.1.  Requirements

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

   An implementation is not compliant if it fails to satisfy one or more
   of the "MUST" or "REQUIRED" level requirements for the protocols it
   implements.  An implementation that satisfies all the "MUST" or
   "REQUIRED" level and all the "SHOULD" level requirements for its
   protocols is said to be "unconditionally compliant"; one that
   satisfies all the "MUST" level requirements but not all the "SHOULD"
   level requirements for its protocols is said to be "conditionally
   compliant".

1.2.  Syntax Notation

   This specification uses the ABNF syntax defined in Section 1.2 of
   [Part1] (which extends the syntax defined in [RFC5234] with a list
   rule).  Appendix B shows the collected ABNF, with the list rule
   expanded.

   The following core rules are included by reference, as defined in
   [RFC5234], Appendix B.1: ALPHA (letters), CR (carriage return), CRLF
   (CR LF), CTL (controls), DIGIT (decimal 0-9), DQUOTE (double quote),
   HEXDIG (hexadecimal 0-9/A-F/a-f), LF (line feed), OCTET (any 8-bit
   sequence of data), SP (space), VCHAR (any visible USASCII character),
   and WSP (whitespace).




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1.2.1.  Core Rules

   The core rules below are defined in Section 1.2.2 of [Part1]:

     OWS         = <OWS, defined in [Part1], Section 1.2.2>

1.2.2.  ABNF Rules defined in other Parts of the Specification

   The ABNF rules below are defined in other specifications:

     challenge   = <challenge, defined in [RFC2617], Section 1.2>
     credentials = <credentials, defined in [RFC2617], Section 1.2>

2.  Status Code Definitions

2.1.  401 Unauthorized

   The request requires user authentication.  The response MUST include
   a WWW-Authenticate header field (Section 3.4) containing a challenge
   applicable to the requested resource.  The client MAY repeat the
   request with a suitable Authorization header field (Section 3.1).  If
   the request already included Authorization credentials, then the 401
   response indicates that authorization has been refused for those
   credentials.  If the 401 response contains the same challenge as the
   prior response, and the user agent has already attempted
   authentication at least once, then the user SHOULD be presented the
   entity that was given in the response, since that entity might
   include relevant diagnostic information.  HTTP access authentication
   is explained in "HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access
   Authentication" [RFC2617].

2.2.  407 Proxy Authentication Required

   This code is similar to 401 (Unauthorized), but indicates that the
   client must first authenticate itself with the proxy.  The proxy MUST
   return a Proxy-Authenticate header field (Section 3.2) containing a
   challenge applicable to the proxy for the requested resource.  The
   client MAY repeat the request with a suitable Proxy-Authorization
   header field (Section 3.3).  HTTP access authentication is explained
   in "HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication"
   [RFC2617].

3.  Header Field Definitions

   This section defines the syntax and semantics of HTTP/1.1 header
   fields related to authentication.





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3.1.  Authorization

   The "Authorization" request-header field allows a user agent to
   authenticate itself with a server -- usually, but not necessarily,
   after receiving a 401 (Unauthorized) response.  Its value consists of
   credentials containing information of the user agent for the realm of
   the resource being requested.

     Authorization   = "Authorization" ":" OWS Authorization-v
     Authorization-v = credentials

   HTTP access authentication is described in "HTTP Authentication:
   Basic and Digest Access Authentication" [RFC2617].  If a request is
   authenticated and a realm specified, the same credentials SHOULD be
   valid for all other requests within this realm (assuming that the
   authentication scheme itself does not require otherwise, such as
   credentials that vary according to a challenge value or using
   synchronized clocks).

   When a shared cache (see Section 1.2 of [Part6]) receives a request
   containing an Authorization field, it MUST NOT return the
   corresponding response as a reply to any other request, unless one of
   the following specific exceptions holds:

   1.  If the response includes the "s-maxage" cache-control directive,
       the cache MAY use that response in replying to a subsequent
       request.  But (if the specified maximum age has passed) a proxy
       cache MUST first revalidate it with the origin server, using the
       request-headers from the new request to allow the origin server
       to authenticate the new request.  (This is the defined behavior
       for s-maxage.)  If the response includes "s-maxage=0", the proxy
       MUST always revalidate it before re-using it.

   2.  If the response includes the "must-revalidate" cache-control
       directive, the cache MAY use that response in replying to a
       subsequent request.  But if the response is stale, all caches
       MUST first revalidate it with the origin server, using the
       request-headers from the new request to allow the origin server
       to authenticate the new request.

   3.  If the response includes the "public" cache-control directive, it
       MAY be returned in reply to any subsequent request.

3.2.  Proxy-Authenticate

   The "Proxy-Authenticate" response-header field consists of a
   challenge that indicates the authentication scheme and parameters
   applicable to the proxy for this Effective Request URI (Section 4.3



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   of [Part1]).  It MUST be included as part of a 407 (Proxy
   Authentication Required) response.

     Proxy-Authenticate   = "Proxy-Authenticate" ":" OWS
                            Proxy-Authenticate-v
     Proxy-Authenticate-v = 1#challenge

   The HTTP access authentication process is described in "HTTP
   Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication" [RFC2617].
   Unlike WWW-Authenticate, the Proxy-Authenticate header field applies
   only to the current connection and SHOULD NOT be passed on to
   downstream clients.  However, an intermediate proxy might need to
   obtain its own credentials by requesting them from the downstream
   client, which in some circumstances will appear as if the proxy is
   forwarding the Proxy-Authenticate header field.

3.3.  Proxy-Authorization

   The "Proxy-Authorization" request-header field allows the client to
   identify itself (or its user) to a proxy which requires
   authentication.  Its value consists of credentials containing the
   authentication information of the user agent for the proxy and/or
   realm of the resource being requested.

     Proxy-Authorization   = "Proxy-Authorization" ":" OWS
                             Proxy-Authorization-v
     Proxy-Authorization-v = credentials

   The HTTP access authentication process is described in "HTTP
   Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication" [RFC2617].
   Unlike Authorization, the Proxy-Authorization header field applies
   only to the next outbound proxy that demanded authentication using
   the Proxy-Authenticate field.  When multiple proxies are used in a
   chain, the Proxy-Authorization header field is consumed by the first
   outbound proxy that was expecting to receive credentials.  A proxy
   MAY relay the credentials from the client request to the next proxy
   if that is the mechanism by which the proxies cooperatively
   authenticate a given request.

3.4.  WWW-Authenticate

   The "WWW-Authenticate" response-header field consists of at least one
   challenge that indicates the authentication scheme(s) and parameters
   applicable to the Effective Request URI (Section 4.3 of [Part1]).  It
   MUST be included in 401 (Unauthorized) response messages.

     WWW-Authenticate   = "WWW-Authenticate" ":" OWS WWW-Authenticate-v
     WWW-Authenticate-v = 1#challenge



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   The HTTP access authentication process is described in "HTTP
   Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication" [RFC2617].
   User agents are advised to take special care in parsing the WWW-
   Authenticate field value as it might contain more than one challenge,
   or if more than one WWW-Authenticate header field is provided, the
   contents of a challenge itself can contain a comma-separated list of
   authentication parameters.

4.  IANA Considerations

4.1.  Status Code Registration

   The HTTP Status Code Registry located at
   <http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-status-codes> should be updated
   with the registrations below:

   +-------+-------------------------------+-------------+
   | Value | Description                   | Reference   |
   +-------+-------------------------------+-------------+
   | 401   | Unauthorized                  | Section 2.1 |
   | 407   | Proxy Authentication Required | Section 2.2 |
   +-------+-------------------------------+-------------+

4.2.  Message Header Registration

   The Message Header Registry located at <http://www.iana.org/
   assignments/message-headers/message-header-index.html> should be
   updated with the permanent registrations below (see [RFC3864]):

   +---------------------+----------+----------+-------------+
   | Header Field Name   | Protocol | Status   | Reference   |
   +---------------------+----------+----------+-------------+
   | Authorization       | http     | standard | Section 3.1 |
   | Proxy-Authenticate  | http     | standard | Section 3.2 |
   | Proxy-Authorization | http     | standard | Section 3.3 |
   | WWW-Authenticate    | http     | standard | Section 3.4 |
   +---------------------+----------+----------+-------------+

   The change controller is: "IETF (iesg@ietf.org) - Internet
   Engineering Task Force".

5.  Security Considerations

   This section is meant to inform application developers, information
   providers, and users of the security limitations in HTTP/1.1 as
   described by this document.  The discussion does not include
   definitive solutions to the problems revealed, though it does make
   some suggestions for reducing security risks.



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5.1.  Authentication Credentials and Idle Clients

   Existing HTTP clients and user agents typically retain authentication
   information indefinitely.  HTTP/1.1 does not provide a method for a
   server to direct clients to discard these cached credentials.  This
   is a significant defect that requires further extensions to HTTP.
   Circumstances under which credential caching can interfere with the
   application's security model include but are not limited to:

   o  Clients which have been idle for an extended period following
      which the server might wish to cause the client to reprompt the
      user for credentials.

   o  Applications which include a session termination indication (such
      as a "logout" or "commit" button on a page) after which the server
      side of the application "knows" that there is no further reason
      for the client to retain the credentials.

   This is currently under separate study.  There are a number of work-
   arounds to parts of this problem, and we encourage the use of
   password protection in screen savers, idle time-outs, and other
   methods which mitigate the security problems inherent in this
   problem.  In particular, user agents which cache credentials are
   encouraged to provide a readily accessible mechanism for discarding
   cached credentials under user control.

6.  Acknowledgments

   [[acks: TBD.]]

7.  References

7.1.  Normative References

   [Part1]    Fielding, R., Ed., Gettys, J., Mogul, J., Frystyk, H.,
              Masinter, L., Leach, P., Berners-Lee, T., Lafon, Y., Ed.,
              and J. Reschke, Ed., "HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections,
              and Message Parsing", draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-10
              (work in progress), July 2010.

   [Part6]    Fielding, R., Ed., Gettys, J., Mogul, J., Frystyk, H.,
              Masinter, L., Leach, P., Berners-Lee, T., Lafon, Y., Ed.,
              Nottingham, M., Ed., and J. Reschke, Ed., "HTTP/1.1, part
              6: Caching", draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-10 (work in
              progress), July 2010.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.



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   [RFC2617]  Franks, J., Hallam-Baker, P., Hostetler, J., Lawrence, S.,
              Leach, P., Luotonen, A., and L. Stewart, "HTTP
              Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication",
              RFC 2617, June 1999.

   [RFC5234]  Crocker, D., Ed. and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax
              Specifications: ABNF", STD 68, RFC 5234, January 2008.

7.2.  Informative References

   [RFC2616]  Fielding, R., Gettys, J., Mogul, J., Frystyk, H.,
              Masinter, L., Leach, P., and T. Berners-Lee, "Hypertext
              Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1", RFC 2616, June 1999.

   [RFC3864]  Klyne, G., Nottingham, M., and J. Mogul, "Registration
              Procedures for Message Header Fields", BCP 90, RFC 3864,
              September 2004.

Appendix A.  Compatibility with Previous Versions

A.1.  Changes from RFC 2616

Appendix B.  Collected ABNF

   Authorization = "Authorization:" OWS Authorization-v
   Authorization-v = credentials

   OWS = <OWS, defined in [Part1], Section 1.2.2>

   Proxy-Authenticate = "Proxy-Authenticate:" OWS Proxy-Authenticate-v
   Proxy-Authenticate-v = *( "," OWS ) challenge *( OWS "," [ OWS
    challenge ] )
   Proxy-Authorization = "Proxy-Authorization:" OWS
    Proxy-Authorization-v
   Proxy-Authorization-v = credentials

   WWW-Authenticate = "WWW-Authenticate:" OWS WWW-Authenticate-v
   WWW-Authenticate-v = *( "," OWS ) challenge *( OWS "," [ OWS
    challenge ] )

   challenge = <challenge, defined in [RFC2617], Section 1.2>
   credentials = <credentials, defined in [RFC2617], Section 1.2>









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   ABNF diagnostics:

   ; Authorization defined but not used
   ; Proxy-Authenticate defined but not used
   ; Proxy-Authorization defined but not used
   ; WWW-Authenticate defined but not used

Appendix C.  Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before publication)

C.1.  Since RFC2616

   Extracted relevant partitions from [RFC2616].

C.2.  Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-00

   Closed issues:

   o  <http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/35>: "Normative and
      Informative references"

C.3.  Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-01

   Ongoing work on ABNF conversion
   (<http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36>):

   o  Explicitly import BNF rules for "challenge" and "credentials" from
      RFC2617.

   o  Add explicit references to BNF syntax and rules imported from
      other parts of the specification.

C.4.  Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-02

   Ongoing work on IANA Message Header Registration
   (<http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/40>):

   o  Reference RFC 3984, and update header registrations for headers
      defined in this document.

C.5.  Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-03

C.6.  Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-04

   Ongoing work on ABNF conversion
   (<http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36>):

   o  Use "/" instead of "|" for alternatives.




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   o  Introduce new ABNF rules for "bad" whitespace ("BWS"), optional
      whitespace ("OWS") and required whitespace ("RWS").

   o  Rewrite ABNFs to spell out whitespace rules, factor out header
      value format definitions.

C.7.  Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-05

   Final work on ABNF conversion
   (<http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36>):

   o  Add appendix containing collected and expanded ABNF, reorganize
      ABNF introduction.

C.8.  Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-06

   None.

C.9.  Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-07

   Closed issues:

   o  <http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/198>: "move IANA
      registrations for optional status codes"

C.10.  Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-08

   No significant changes.

C.11.  Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-09

   Partly resolved issues:

   o  <http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/196>: "Term for the
      requested resource's URI"

Index

   4
      401 Unauthorized (status code)  5
      407 Proxy Authentication Required (status code)  5

   A
      Authorization header  6

   G
      Grammar
         Authorization  6



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         Authorization-v  6
         challenge  5
         credentials  5
         Proxy-Authenticate  7
         Proxy-Authenticate-v  7
         Proxy-Authorization  7
         Proxy-Authorization-v  7
         WWW-Authenticate  7
         WWW-Authenticate-v  7

   H
      Headers
         Authorization  6
         Proxy-Authenticate  6
         Proxy-Authorization  7
         WWW-Authenticate  7

   P
      Proxy-Authenticate header  6
      Proxy-Authorization header  7

   S
      Status Codes
         401 Unauthorized  5
         407 Proxy Authentication Required  5

   W
      WWW-Authenticate header  7

Authors' Addresses

   Roy T. Fielding (editor)
   Day Software
   23 Corporate Plaza DR, Suite 280
   Newport Beach, CA  92660
   USA

   Phone: +1-949-706-5300
   Fax:   +1-949-706-5305
   EMail: fielding@gbiv.com
   URI:   http://roy.gbiv.com/










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   Jim Gettys
   Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs
   21 Oak Knoll Road
   Carlisle, MA  01741
   USA

   EMail: jg@freedesktop.org
   URI:   http://gettys.wordpress.com/


   Jeffrey C. Mogul
   Hewlett-Packard Company
   HP Labs, Large Scale Systems Group
   1501 Page Mill Road, MS 1177
   Palo Alto, CA  94304
   USA

   EMail: JeffMogul@acm.org


   Henrik Frystyk Nielsen
   Microsoft Corporation
   1 Microsoft Way
   Redmond, WA  98052
   USA

   EMail: henrikn@microsoft.com


   Larry Masinter
   Adobe Systems, Incorporated
   345 Park Ave
   San Jose, CA  95110
   USA

   EMail: LMM@acm.org
   URI:   http://larry.masinter.net/


   Paul J. Leach
   Microsoft Corporation
   1 Microsoft Way
   Redmond, WA  98052

   EMail: paulle@microsoft.com






Fielding, et al.        Expires January 13, 2011               [Page 14]

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   Tim Berners-Lee
   World Wide Web Consortium
   MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory
   The Stata Center, Building 32
   32 Vassar Street
   Cambridge, MA  02139
   USA

   EMail: timbl@w3.org
   URI:   http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/


   Yves Lafon (editor)
   World Wide Web Consortium
   W3C / ERCIM
   2004, rte des Lucioles
   Sophia-Antipolis, AM  06902
   France

   EMail: ylafon@w3.org
   URI:   http://www.raubacapeu.net/people/yves/


   Julian F. Reschke (editor)
   greenbytes GmbH
   Hafenweg 16
   Muenster, NW  48155
   Germany

   Phone: +49 251 2807760
   Fax:   +49 251 2807761
   EMail: julian.reschke@greenbytes.de
   URI:   http://greenbytes.de/tech/webdav/


















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