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Versions: (RFC 4893) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 RFC 6793

Network Working Group                                           Q. Vohra
Internet Draft                                          Juniper Networks
Obsoletes: 4893 (if approved)                                    E. Chen
Intended Status: Standards Track                           Cisco Systems
Expiration Date: Oct 14, 2012                             April 13, 2012


               BGP Support for Four-octet AS Number Space
                    draft-ietf-idr-rfc4893bis-05.txt


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Abstract

   The Autonomous System (AS) number is encoded as a two-octet entity in
   the base BGP specification. This document describes extensions to BGP
   to carry the Autonomous System numbers as four-octet entities.  This
   document obsoletes RFC 4893.


1. Introduction

   In the base BGP specification [RFC4271] the Autonomous System number
   is encoded as a two-octet entity.  To prepare for the anticipated
   exhaustion of the two-octet AS numbers, this document describes
   extensions to BGP to carry the Autonomous System numbers as four-
   octet entities.

   More specifically, this document defines a BGP capability, "support
   for 4-octet AS number capability", to be used by a BGP speaker to
   indicate its support for the four-octet AS numbers.  Two attributes,
   AS4_PATH and AS4_AGGREGATOR, are introduced that can be used to
   propagate four-octet based AS path information across BGP speakers
   that do not support the four-octet AS numbers.  This document also
   specifies mechanisms for constructing the AS path information from
   the AS_PATH attribute and the AS4_PATH attribute.

   The extensions specified in this document allow a gradual transition
   from 2-octet AS numbers to 4-octet AS numbers.


2. Specification of Requirements

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].


3. Protocol Extensions

   For the purpose of this document we define a BGP speaker that does
   not support the new 4-octet AS number extensions as an OLD BGP
   speaker, and a BGP speaker that supports the new 4-octet AS number
   extensions as a NEW BGP speaker.

   BGP carries the Autonomous System numbers in the "My Autonomous
   System" field of the OPEN message, in the AS_PATH attribute of the
   UPDATE message, and in the AGGREGATOR attribute of the UPDATE
   message.  BGP also carries the Autonomous System numbers in the BGP
   Communities attribute.



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   A NEW BGP speaker uses BGP Capability Advertisements [RFC5492] to
   advertise to its neighbors (either internal or external) that it
   supports 4-octet AS number extensions, as specified in this document.

   The Capability that is used by a BGP speaker to convey to its BGP
   peer the 4-octet Autonomous System number capability, also carries
   the Autonomous System number (encoded as a 4-octet entity) of the
   speaker in the Capability Value field of the Capability Optional
   Parameter.  The Capability Length field of the Capability is set to
   4.

   The AS path information exchanged between NEW BGP speakers are
   carried in the existing AS_PATH attribute, except that each AS number
   in the attribute is encoded as a 4-octet entity (instead of a 2-octet
   entity).  The same applies to the AGGREGATOR attribute - the same
   attribute is used between NEW BGP speakers, except that the AS number
   carried in the attribute is encoded as a 4-octet entity.

   The AS_PATH attribute and the AGGREGATOR attribute carried between a
   NEW BGP speaker and an OLD BGP speaker will continue to contain
   2-octet AS numbers.

   To preserve the AS path information with 4-octet AS numbers across
   OLD BGP speakers, this document defines a new AS path attribute,
   called AS4_PATH.  This is an optional transitive attribute that
   contains the AS path encoded with 4-octet AS numbers.  The AS4_PATH
   attribute has the same semantics as the AS_PATH attribute, except
   that it is optional transitive, and it carries 4-octet AS numbers.

   To prevent the possible propagation of confederation path segments
   outside of a confederation, the path segment types AS_CONFED_SEQUENCE
   and AS_CONFED_SET [RFC5065] are declared invalid for the AS4_PATH
   attribute, and MUST NOT be included in the AS4_PATH attribute of an
   UPDATE message.

   Similarly, this document defines a new aggregator attribute called
   AS4_AGGREGATOR, which is optional transitive.  The AS4_AGGREGATOR
   attribute has the same semantics as the AGGREGATOR attribute, except
   that it carries a 4-octet AS number.

   Currently assigned 2-octet Autonomous System numbers are converted
   into 4-octet Autonomous System numbers by setting the two high-order
   octets of the 4-octet field to zero.  Such a 4-octet AS number is
   said to be mappable to a 2-octet AS number.

   To represent 4-octet AS numbers (which are not mapped from 2-octets)
   as 2-octet AS numbers in the AS path information encoded with 2-octet
   AS numbers, this document reserves a 2-octet AS number.  We denote



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   this special AS number as AS_TRANS for ease of description in the
   rest of this specification.  This AS number is also placed in the "My
   Autonomous System" field of the OPEN message originated by a NEW BGP
   speaker, if the speaker does not have a (globally unique) 2-octet AS
   number.


4. Operations


4.1. Interaction Between NEW BGP Speakers

   A BGP speaker that supports 4-octet Autonomous System numbers SHALL
   advertise this to its peers using the BGP Capability Advertisements.
   The Autonomous System number of the BGP speaker MUST be carried in
   the capability value field of the "support for 4-octet AS number
   capability".

   When a NEW BGP speaker processes an OPEN message from another NEW BGP
   speaker, it MUST use the Autonomous System number encoded in the
   Capability Value field of the Capability in lieu of the "My
   Autonomous System" field of the OPEN message.

   A BGP speaker that advertises such capability to a particular peer,
   and receives from that peer the advertisement of such capability MUST
   encode Autonomous System numbers as 4-octet entities in both the
   AS_PATH and the AGGREGATOR attributes in the updates it sends to the
   peer, and MUST assume that these attributes in the updates received
   from the peer encode Autonomous System numbers as 4-octet entities.

   The new attributes, AS4_PATH and AS4_AGGREGATOR MUST NOT be carried
   in an UPDATE message between NEW BGP speakers.  A NEW BGP speaker
   that receives the AS4_PATH attribute or the AS4_AGGREGATOR attribute
   in an UPDATE message from another NEW BGP speaker MUST discard the
   path attribute and continue processing the UPDATE message.


4.2. Interaction Between NEW and OLD BGP Speakers


4.2.1. BGP Peering

   Note that peering between a NEW BGP speaker and an OLD one is
   possible only if the NEW BGP speaker has a 2-octet AS number.
   However, this document does not assume that an Autonomous System with
   NEW speakers has to have a globally unique 2-octet AS number --
   AS_TRANS could be used instead (even if a multiple Autonomous System
   would use it).



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4.2.2. Generating Updates

   When communicating with an OLD BGP speaker, a NEW speaker MUST send
   the AS path information in the AS_PATH attribute encoded with 2-octet
   AS numbers.  The NEW speaker MUST also send the AS path information
   in the AS4_PATH attribute (encoded with 4-octet AS numbers), except
   for the case where the entire AS path information is composed of
   2-octet AS numbers only.  In this case, the NEW speaker MUST NOT send
   the AS4_PATH attribute.

   In the AS_PATH attribute encoded with 2-octet AS numbers, non-
   mappable 4-octet AS numbers are represented by the well-known 2-octet
   AS number, AS_TRANS.  This will preserve the path length property of
   the AS path information and also help in updating the AS path
   information received on a NEW BGP speaker from an OLD speaker, as
   explained in the next section.

   The NEW speaker constructs the AS4_PATH attribute from the AS path
   information.  Whenever the AS path information contains the
   AS_CONFED_SEQUENCE or AS_CONFED_SET path segment, the NEW BGP speaker
   MUST exclude such path segments from the AS4_PATH attribute being
   constructed.

   The AS4_PATH attribute, being optional transitive, will be carried
   across a series of OLD BGP speakers without modification and will
   help preserve the non-mappable 4-octet AS numbers in the AS path
   information.

   Similarly, if the NEW speaker has to send the AGGREGATOR attribute,
   and if the aggregating Autonomous System's AS number is a non-
   mappable 4-octet AS number, then the speaker MUST use the
   AS4_AGGREGATOR attribute, and set the AS number field in the existing
   AGGREGATOR attribute to the reserved AS number, AS_TRANS.  Note that
   if the AS number is 2-octets only, then the AS4_AGGREGATOR attribute
   MUST NOT be sent.


4.2.3. Processing Received Updates

   When a NEW BGP speaker receives an update from an OLD one, it MUST be
   prepared to receive the AS4_PATH attribute along with the existing
   AS_PATH attribute.  If the AS4_PATH attribute is also received, both
   the attributes will be used to construct the exact AS path
   information, and therefore the information carried by both the
   attributes will be considered for AS path loop detection.

   Note that a route may have traversed a series of autonomous systems
   with 2-octet AS numbers and OLD BGP speakers only.  In that case, if



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   the route carries the AS4_PATH attribute, this attribute must have
   remained unmodified since the route left the last NEW BGP speaker.
   The trailing AS path information (representing autonomous systems
   with 2-octet AS numbers and OLD BGP speakers only) is contained only
   in the current AS_PATH attribute (encoded in the leading part of the
   AS_PATH attribute).

   Under certain conditions, it may not be possible to reconstruct the
   entire AS path information from the AS_PATH and the AS4_PATH
   attributes of a route.  This occurs, for example, when two or more
   routes that carry the AS4_PATH attribute are aggregated by an OLD BGP
   speaker, and the AS4_PATH attribute of at least one of these routes
   carries at least one 4-octet AS number (as oppose to a 2-octet AS
   number that is encoded in 4 octets).  Depending on the
   implementation, either the AS4_PATH attribute would be lost during
   route aggregation, or both the AS_PATH attribute and the AS4_PATH
   attribute would contain valid, partial information that cannot be
   combined seamlessly, resulting in incomplete AS path information in
   these cases.

   A NEW BGP speaker MUST also be prepared to receive the AS4_AGGREGATOR
   attribute along with the AGGREGATOR attribute from an OLD BGP
   speaker.  When both the attributes are received, if the AS number in
   the AGGREGATOR attribute is not AS_TRANS, then:

      -  the AS4_AGGREGATOR attribute and the AS4_PATH attribute SHALL
         be ignored,

      -  the AGGREGATOR attribute SHALL be taken as the information
         about the aggregating node, and

      -  the AS_PATH attribute SHALL be taken as the AS path
         information.

   Otherwise,

      -  the AGGREGATOR attribute SHALL be ignored,

      -  the AS4_AGGREGATOR attribute SHALL be taken as the information
         about the aggregating node, and

      -  the AS path information would need to be constructed, as in all
         other cases.


   In order to construct the AS path information, it would be necessary
   to first calculate the number of AS numbers in the AS_PATH and
   AS4_PATH attributes using the method specified in Section 9.1.2.2



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   [RFC4271] and [RFC5065] for route selection.

   If the number of AS numbers in the AS_PATH attribute is less than the
   number of AS numbers in the AS4_PATH attribute, then the AS4_PATH
   attribute SHALL be ignored, and the AS_PATH attribute SHALL be taken
   as the AS path information.

   If the number of AS numbers in the AS_PATH attribute is larger than
   or equal to the number of AS numbers in the AS4_PATH attribute, then
   the AS path information SHALL be constructed by taking as many AS
   numbers and path segments as necessary from the leading part of the
   AS_PATH attribute, and then prepending them to the AS4_PATH attribute
   so that the AS path information has an identical number of AS numbers
   as the AS_PATH attribute.  Note that a valid AS_CONFED_SEQUENCE or
   AS_CONFED_SET path segment SHALL be prepended if it is either the
   leading path segment or adjacent to a path segment that is prepended.


5. Handling BGP Communities

   As specified in [RFC1997], when the high-order two-octets of the
   community attribute is neither 0x0000 nor 0xffff, these two octets
   encode the Autonomous System number.  Quite clearly this would not
   work for a NEW BGP speaker with a non-mappable 4-octet AS number.
   Such BGP speakers should use the Four-octet AS Specific Extended
   Communities [RFC5668] instead.


6. Error Handling

   Given that the two-octet AS numbers dominate during the transition,
   and are carried in the AS_PATH attribute by an OLD BGP speaker, in
   this document the "attribute discard" approach is chosen to handle a
   malformed AS4_PATH attribute.

   Similarly, as the AS4_AGGREGATOR is just informational, the
   "attribute discard" approach is chosen to handle a malformed
   AS4_AGGREGATOR attribute.

   The AS4_PATH attribute and AS4_AGGREGATOR attribute MUST NOT be
   carried in an UPDATE message between NEW BGP speakers.  A NEW BGP
   speaker that receives the AS4_PATH attribute or the AS4_AGGREGATOR
   attribute in an UPDATE message from another NEW BGP speaker MUST
   discard the path attribute and continue processing the UPDATE
   message.  This case SHOULD be logged locally for analysis.

   In addition, the path segment types AS_CONFED_SEQUENCE and
   AS_CONFED_SET [RFC5065] MUST NOT be carried in the AS4_PATH attribute



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   of an UPDATE message.  A NEW BGP speaker that receives these path
   segment types in the AS4_PATH attribute of an UPDATE message from an
   OLD BGP speaker MUST discard these path segments, adjust the relevant
   attribute fields accordingly, and continue processing the UPDATE
   message.  This case SHOULD be logged locally for analysis.

   The AS4_PATH attribute in an UPDATE message SHALL be considered
   malformed under the following conditions:

      - the attribute length is not a multiple of two, or is too small
        (i.e., less than 6) for the attribute to carry at least one
        AS number, or

      - the path segment length in the attribute is either zero, or
        is inconsistent with the attribute length, or

      - the path segment type in the attribute is not one of the
        types defined: AS_SEQUENCE, AS_SET, AS_CONFED_SEQUENCE
        and AS_CONFED_SET.

   A NEW BGP speaker that receives a malformed AS4_PATH attribute in an
   UPDATE message from an OLD BGP speaker MUST discard the attribute,
   and continue processing the UPDATE message.  The error SHOULD be
   logged locally for analysis.

   The AS4_AGGREGATOR attribute in an UPDATE message SHALL be considered
   malformed if the attribute length is not 8.

   A NEW BGP speaker that receives a malformed AS4_AGGREGATOR attribute
   in an UPDATE message from an OLD BGP speaker MUST discard the
   attribute, and continue processing the UPDATE message.  The error
   SHOULD be logged locally for analysis.


7. Transition

   The scheme described in this document allows a gradual transition
   from 2-octet AS numbers to 4-octet AS numbers.  One can upgrade one
   Autonomous System or one BGP speaker at a time.

   To simplify transition, this document assumes that an Autonomous
   System could start using a 4-octet AS number only after all the BGP
   speakers within that Autonomous System have been upgraded to support
   4-octet AS numbers.

   A non-mappable 4-octet AS number cannot be used as a "Member AS
   Number" of a BGP Confederation until all the BGP speakers within the
   Confederation have transitioned to support 4-octet AS numbers.



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   In an environment where an Autonomous System that has OLD BGP
   speakers peers with two or more Autonomous Systems that have NEW BGP
   speakers and use AS_TRANS (rather than having a globally unique AS
   number), use of Multi-Exit Discriminators by the Autonomous System
   with the OLD speakers may result in a situation where Multi-Exit
   Discriminator will influence route selection among the routes that
   were received from different neighboring Autonomous Systems.

   Under certain conditions, it may not be possible to reconstruct the
   entire AS path information from the AS_PATH and the AS4_PATH
   attributes of a route.  This occurs when two or more routes that
   carry the AS4_PATH attribute are aggregated by an OLD BGP speaker,
   and the AS4_PATH attribute of at least one of these routes carries at
   least one 4-octet AS number (as oppose to a 2-octet AS number that is
   encoded in 4 octets).  When such aggregation results in creating a
   route that is less specific than any of the component routes (route
   whose Network Layer Reachability Information (NLRI) covers NLRI of
   all the component routes), loss of the AS path information does not
   create a risk of a routing loop.  In all other cases, loss of the AS
   path information does create a risk of a routing loop.


8. IANA Considerations

   This document expands the pool for AS numbers from 0 - 65535 to 0 -
   4294967295.  The AS numbers are managed by the IANA "Autonomous
   System Numbers" registry.  Other than expanding the AS number pool,
   this document does not propose any modifications to the existing
   policies and procedures pertaining to the AS number allocation.

   This document uses a BGP Capability code to indicate that a BGP
   speaker supports the 4-octet AS numbers.  The Capability Code 65 has
   been assigned by IANA per [RFC5492].

   In addition, this document introduces two BGP optional transitive
   attributes, and their type codes have been assigned by the IANA.  The
   first one is the AS4_PATH attribute, value 17, which preserves the AS
   path information with 4-octet AS numbers across old BGP speakers.
   The second one is the AS4_AGGREGATOR attribute, value 18, which is
   similar in use to the current AGGREGATOR attribute, but it carries a
   4-octet AS number.

   Finally, this document introduces a reserved 2-octet AS number --
   AS_TRANS.  The AS number 23456 has been assigned by the IANA for
   AS_TRANS.






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9. Security Considerations

   This extension to BGP does not change the underlying security issues
   inherent in the existing BGP, except for the following:

   The inconsistency between the AS_PATH attribute and the AS4_PATH
   attribute can create loss of the AS path information, and potential
   routing loops in certain cases as discussed in the document.  This
   could be exploited by an attacker.

   It is a misconfiguration to assign a non-mappable 4-octet AS number
   as the "Member AS Number" in a BGP confederation before all the BGP
   speakers within the confederation have transitioned to support
   4-octet AS numbers.  Such a misconfiguration would weaken the AS path
   loop detection within a confederation.


10. Acknowledgments

   The authors would like to thank Yakov Rekhter, Chaitanya Kodeboyina,
   and Jeffrey Haas for the numerous discussions that went into the
   making of this document.

   The authors would also like to thank members of the IDR Working Group
   for their review and comments.


11. Normative References

   [RFC4271]   Rekhter, Y., Ed., Li, T., Ed., and S. Hares, Ed., "A
               Border Gateway Protocol 4 (BGP-4)", RFC 4271, January
               2006.

   [RFC1997]   Chandra, R., Traina, P., and T. Li, "BGP Communities
               Attribute", RFC 1997, August 1996.

   [RFC5492]   Scudder, J. and R. Chandra, "Capabilities Advertisement
               with BGP-4", RFC 5492, February 2009.

   [RFC5065]   Traina, P., McPherson, D., and J. Scudder, "Autonomous
               System Confederations for BGP", RFC 5065, August 2007.

   [RFC2119]   Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
               Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC5668]   Rekhter, Y., Ramachandra, S., and D. Tappan, "4-Octet AS
               Specific BGP Extended Community", RFC 5668, October 2009.




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Appendix A.  Comparison with RFC 4893

   This document includes several clarifications and editorial changes,
   and specifies the error handling for the new attributes.


12. Authors' Addresses

   Quaizar Vohra
   Juniper Networks
   1194 N. Mathilda Ave.
   Sunnyvale, CA 94089
   USA

   EMail: quaizar.vohra@gmail.com


   Enke Chen
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   170 W. Tasman Dr.
   San Jose, CA 95134
   USA

   EMail: enkechen@cisco.com



























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