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Versions: (draft-boschi-ipfix-reducing-redundancy) 00 01 02 03 04 RFC 5473

Internet-Draft                                             E. Boschi
draft-ietf-ipfix-reducing-redundancy-00.txt           Hitachi Europe
Expires: March 3, 2007                                       L. Mark
                                                    Fraunhofer FOKUS
                                                           B. Claise
                                                       Cisco Systems

                                                     August 30, 2006



             Reducing redundancy in IPFIX and PSAMP reports
           draft-ietf-ipfix-reducing-redundancy-00.txt


   Status of this Memo

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on March 3, 2007.


   Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2006).




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Abstract

   This document describes a bandwidth saving method for exporting flow
   or packet information using the IP Flow Information Export (IPFIX)
   protocol. As the PSAMP protocol is based on IPFIX, these
   considerations are valid for PSAMP exports as well.

   This method works by separating information common to several flow
   records from information specific to an individual flow record.
   Common flow information is exported only once in a data record
   defined by an option template, while the rest of the specific flow
   information is associated with the common information via a unique
   identifier.

 Conventions used in this document

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].



Table of Contents


  1.   Introduction.............................................4
   1.1    IPFIX Documents Overview..............................4
   1.2    PSAMP Documents Overview..............................4
  2.   Terminology..............................................5
   2.1    Terminology Summary Table............................10
   2.2    IPFIX Flows versus PSAMP Packets.....................11
  3.   Problem Statement and High Level Solution...............11
   3.1    Per Flow Data Reduction..............................11
   3.1.1 Unique Data Reduction.................................11
   3.1.2 Multiple Data Reduction...............................12
   3.2    Per Packet Data Reduction............................14
  4.   Specifications for bandwidth saving information export..16
   4.1    Per Flow Data Reduction..............................16
   4.1.1 Unique Data Reduction.................................16
   4.1.2 Multiple Data Reduction...............................18
   4.2    Per-Packet Data Reduction............................19
  5.   Transport Protocol Choice...............................19
   5.1    SCTP.................................................19
   5.2    UDP..................................................20
   5.3    TCP..................................................20
  6.   commonPropertiesID Management...........................20
  7.   The Collecting Process Side.............................21
   7.1    SCTP.................................................22
   7.2    UDP..................................................22


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   7.3    TCP..................................................22
  8.   Export and Evaluation Considerations....................22
   8.1    Transport Protocol Choice............................23
   8.2    Reduced Size Encoding................................23
   8.3    CommonPropertiesID vs. TemplateID scope..............23
   8.4    Efficiency Gain......................................23
  9.   IANA Considerations.....................................24
  10.  Security Considerations.................................24
  11.  Appendix A: Examples....................................24
   11.1   Per Flow Data Reduction..............................24
   11.1.1 Unique Data Reduction................................24
   11.1.2 Multiple Data Reduction..............................28
   11.2   Per-Packet Information Export........................31
  12.  References..............................................34
   12.1   Normative References.................................34
   12.2   Informative References...............................35
  13.  Author's Addresses......................................35
  14.  Intellectual Property Statement.........................36
  15.  Copyright Statement.....................................36
  16.  Disclaimer..............................................37































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1. Introduction

   The IPFIX working group has specified a protocol to export IP Flow
   information [IPFIX-PROTO]. This protocol is designed to export
   information about IP traffic flows and related measurement data,
   where a flow is defined by a set of key attributes (e.g. source and
   destination IP address, source and destination port, etc.). However,
   thanks to its template mechanism, the IPFIX protocol can export any
   type of information, as long as the information element is specified
   in [IPFIX-INFO] or registered with IANA.

   Regardless of the flow attributes content, flow records with common
   attributes export the same values in every single flow record.
   These common attributes may represent values common to a collection
   of flows or packets, or values that are invariant over time. The
   reduction of redundant data from the export stream can result in a
   significant reduction of the transferred data.

   This draft specifies a way to export these invariant or common
   attributes only once, while the rest of the flow specific attributes
   are exported in regular data records. Unique common properties
   identifiers are used to link data records and the common attributes.

   The proposed method is applicable to IPFIX flow and to PSAMP per
   packet information, without any changes to both the IPFIX and PSAMP
   protocol specifications.


1.1 IPFIX Documents Overview

   The IPFIX protocol [IPFIX-PROTO] provides network administrators
   with access to IP flow information.  The architecture for the export
   of measured IP flow information out of an IPFIX exporting process to
   a collecting process is defined in [IPFIX-ARCH], per the
   requirements defined in [RFC3917].  This document specifies how
   IPFIX data record and templates are carried via a congestion-aware
   transport protocol from IPFIX exporting processes to IPFIX
   collecting process.  IPFIX has a formal description of IPFIX
   information elements, their name, type and additional semantic
   information, as specified in [IPFIX-INFO].  Finally [IPFIX-AS]
   describes what type of applications can use the IPFIX protocol and
   how they can use the information provided.  It furthermore shows how
   the IPFIX framework relates to other architectures and frameworks.


1.2 PSAMP Documents Overview

   The document "A Framework for Packet Selection and Reporting" [PSAMP-
   FMWK], describes the PSAMP framework for network elements to select


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   subsets of packets by statistical and other methods, and to export a
   stream of reports on the selected packets to a collector. The set of
   packet selection techniques (sampling, filtering, and hashing)
   supported by PSAMP are described in "Sampling and Filtering
   Techniques for IP Packet Selection" [PSAMP-TECH]. The PSAMP protocol
   [PSAMP-PROTO] specifies the export of packet information from a PSAMP
   exporting process to a PSAMP collecting process. Like IPFIX, PSAMP
   has a formal description of its information elements, their name,
   type and additional semantic information. The PSAMP information
   model is defined in [PSAMP-INFO]. Finally [PSAMP-MIB] describes the
   PSAMP Management Information Base.


2. Terminology

   The terms in this section are in line with the IPFIX terminology
   section [IPFIX-PROTO], and [PSAMP-PROTO]. Note that this document
   selected the IPFIX definition of the term Exporting Process [IPFIX-
   PROTO], as this definition is more generic than the PSAMP definition
   [PSAMP-PROTO].

   Observation Point

        An Observation Point is a location in the network where IP
        packets can be observed.  Examples include: a line to which a
        probe is attached, a shared medium, such as an Ethernet-based
        LAN, a single port of a router, or a set of interfaces
        (physical or logical) of a router.

        Note that every Observation Point is associated with an
        Observation Domain (defined below), and that one Observation
        Point may be a superset of several other Observation Points.
        For example one Observation Point can be an entire line card.
        That would be the superset of the individual Observation Points
        at the line card's interfaces.

   Observation Domain

        An Observation Domain is the largest set of Observation Points
        for which Flow information can be aggregated by a Metering
        Process.  For example, a router line card may be an Observation
        Domain if it is composed of several interfaces, each of which
        is an Observation Point. In the IPFIX Message it generates, the
        Observation Domain includes its Observation Domain ID, which is
        unique per Exporting Process.  That way, the Collecting Process
        can identify the specific Observation Domain from the Exporter
        that sends the IPFIX Messages. Every Observation Point is
        associated with an Observation Domain. It is RECOMMENDED that
        Observation Domain IDs are also unique per IPFIX Device.


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   IP Traffic Flow or Flow

        There are several definitions of the term 'flow' being used by
        the Internet community.  Within the context of IPFIX we use the
        following definition:

        A Flow is defined as a set of IP packets passing an Observation
        Point in the network during a certain time interval.  All
        packets belonging to a particular Flow have a set of common
        properties.  Each property is defined as the result of applying
        a function to the values of:

           1. one or more packet header field (e.g. destination IP
        address), transport header field (e.g. destination port
        number), or application header field (e.g. RTP header fields
        [RFC1889])

           2. one or more characteristics of the packet itself (e.g.
        number of MPLS labels, etc...)

           3. one or more of fields derived from packet treatment (e.g.
        next hop IP address, the output interface, etc...)

        A packet is defined to belong to a Flow if it completely
        satisfies all the defined properties of the Flow.

        This definition covers the range from a Flow containing all
        packets observed at a network interface to a Flow consisting of
        just a single packet between two applications.  It includes
        packets selected by a sampling mechanism.

   Flow Record

        A Flow Record contains information about a specific Flow that
        was observed at an Observation Point.  A Flow Record contains
        measured properties of the Flow (e.g. the total number of bytes
        for all the Flow's packets) and usually characteristic
        properties of the Flow (e.g. source IP address).

   Metering Process

        The Metering Process generates Flow Records.  Inputs to the
        process are packet headers and characteristics observed at an
        Observation Point, and packet treatment at the Observation
        Point (for example the selected output interface).





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        The Metering Process consists of a set of functions that
        includes packet header capturing, timestamping, sampling,
        classifying, and maintaining Flow Records.

        The maintenance of Flow Records may include creating new
        records, updating existing ones, computing Flow statistics,
        deriving further Flow properties, detecting Flow expiration,
        passing Flow Records to the Exporting Process, and deleting
        Flow Records.

   Exporting Process

        The Exporting Process sends Flow Records to one or more
        Collecting Processes.  The Flow Records are generated by one or
        more Metering Processes.

   Exporter

        A device which hosts one or more Exporting Processes is termed
        an Exporter.

   IPFIX Device

        An IPFIX Device hosts at least one Exporting Process.  It may
        host further Exporting processes and arbitrary numbers of
        Observation Points and Metering Process.


   Collecting Process

        A Collecting Process receives Flow Records from one or more
        Exporting Processes.  The Collecting Process might process or
        store received Flow Records, but such actions are out of scope
        for this document.

   Template

        Template is an ordered sequence of <type, length> pairs, used
        to completely specify the structure and semantics of a
        particular set of information that needs to be communicated
        from an IPFIX Device to a Collector.  Each Template is uniquely
        identifiable by means of a Template ID.

   Template Record

        A Template Record defines the structure and interpretation of
        fields in a Data Record.




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   Data Record

        A Data Record is a record that contains values of the
        parameters corresponding to a Template Record.

   Options Template Record

        An Options Template Record is a Template Record that defines
        the structure and interpretation of fields in a Data Record,
        including defining how to scope the applicability of the Data
        Record.

   Set

        Set is a generic term for a collection of records that have a
        similar structure.  In an IPFIX Message, one or more Sets
        follow the Message Header.

        There are three different types of Sets: Template Set, Options
        Template Set, and Data Set.

   Template Set

        A Template Set is a collection of one or more Template Records
        that have been grouped together in an IPFIX Message.

   Options Template Set

        An Options Template Set is a collection of one or more Options
        Template Records that have been grouped together in an IPFIX
        Message.

   Data Set

        A Data Set is one or more Data Records, of the same type, that
        are grouped together in an IPFIX Message.  Each Data Record is
        previously defined by a Template Record or an Options Template
        Record.

   Information Element

        An Information Element is a protocol and encoding independent
        description of an attribute which may appear in an IPFIX
        Record.  The IPFIX information model [IPFIX-INFO] defines the
        base set of Information Elements for IPFIX.  The type
        associated with an Information Element indicates constraints on
        what it may contain and also determines the valid encoding
        mechanisms for use in IPFIX.



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   Observed Packet Stream

        The Observed Packet Stream is the set of all packets observed
        at the Observation Point.

   Packet Content

        The packet content denotes the union of the packet header
        (which includes link layer, network layer and other
        encapsulation headers) and the packet payload.

   Selection Process

        A Selection Process takes the Observed Packet Stream as its
        input and selects a subset of that stream as its output.

   Selector

        A Selector defines the action of a Selection Process on a
        single packet of its input.  If selected, the packet becomes an
        element of the output Packet Stream.

        The Selector can make use of the following information in
        determining whether a packet is selected:

            (i)   the Packet Content;

           (ii)  information derived from the packet's treatment at the
                  Observation Point;

            (iii) any selection state that may be maintained by the
                  Selection Process.

   PSAMP Device

        A PSAMP Device is a device hosting at least an Observation
        Point, a Selection Process and an Exporting Process.
        Typically, corresponding Observation Point(s), Selection
        Process(es) and Exporting Process(es) are co-located at this
        device, for example at a router.

   Filtering

        A filter is a Selector that selects a packet deterministically
        based on the Packet Content, or its treatment, or functions of
        these occurring in the Selection State.  Examples include field
        match Filtering, and Hash-based Selection.




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   CommonPropertiesID

        An identifier of a set of common properties that is locally
        unique to an Exporting Process and to Observation Domain. This
        ID can be used to link to information reported in separate
        records. See [IPFIX-INFO] for the Information Element
        definition.

   Common Properties

        Common Properties are a collection of one or more attributes
        shared by a set of different Flow Records. Each set of Common
        Properties is uniquely identifiable by means of a
        commonPropertiesID.

   Specific Properties

        Specific Properties are a collection of one or more attributes
        reported in a Flow Record that are not included in the Common
        Properties defined for that Flow Record.

2.1 Terminology Summary Table.

    +------------------+---------------------------------------------+
    |                  |                 Contents                    |
    |                  +--------------------+------------------------+
    |       Set        |      Template      |         Record         |
    +------------------+--------------------+------------------------+
    |     Data Set     |          /         |     Data Record(s)     |
    +------------------+--------------------+------------------------+
    |   Template Set   | Template Record(s) |           /            |
    +------------------+--------------------+------------------------+
    | Options Template | Options Template   |           /            |
    |       Set        | Record(s)          |                        |
    +------------------+--------------------+------------------------+

   Figure 1: Terminology Summary Table

   A Data Set is composed of Data Record(s).  No Template Record is
   included.  A Template Record or an Options Template Record defines
   the Data Record.

   A Template Set contains only Template Record(s).

   An Options Template Set contains only Options Template Record(s).






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2.2 IPFIX Flows versus PSAMP Packets

   As described in [PSAMP-PROTO], the major difference between IPFIX and
   PSAMP is that the IPFIX protocol exports Flow Records while the PSAMP
   protocol exports Packet Records.  From a pure export point of view,
   IPFIX will not distinguish a Flow Record composed of several packets
   aggregated together from a Flow Record composed of a single packet.
   So the PSAMP export can be seen as special IPFIX Flow Record
   containing information about a single packet.

   For this document clarity, the term Flow Record represents a generic
   term expressing an IPFIX Flow Record or a PSAMP packet record, as
   foreseen by its definition. However, when appropriate, a clear
   distinction between Flow Record or packet Record will be made.


3. Problem Statement and High Level Solution

   Several Flow Records often share a set of common properties.
   Repeating the information about these common properties for every
   Flow Record introduces a huge amount of redundancy. This draft
   proposes a method to reduce this redundancy. The next section
   describes the generic concept. Section 3.1.2 identifies that the
   proposed solution can be applied multiple times. Section 3.2
   utilizes the concept to export per-packet information.

3.1 Per Flow Data Reduction

3.1.1   Unique Data Reduction

   Consider a set of properties "A", e.g. common sourceAddressA and
   sourcePortA, equivalent for each Flow Records exported. Figure 2
   shows how this information is repeated with classical IPFIX Flow
   Records, expressing the waste of bandwidth to export redundant
   information.

   +----------------+-------------+---------------------------+
   | sourceAddressA | sourcePortA |     <flow1 information>   |
   +----------------+-------------+---------------------------+
   | sourceAddressA | sourcePortA |     <flow2 information>   |
   +----------------+-------------+---------------------------+
   | sourceAddressA | sourcePortA |     <flow3 information>   |
   +----------------+-------------+---------------------------+
   | sourceAddressA | sourcePortA |     <flow4 information>   |
   +----------------+-------------+---------------------------+
   |      ...       |     ...     |            ...            |
   +----------------+-------------+---------------------------+

   Figure 2: Common and Specific Properties exported in the same record


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   Figure 3 shows how this information is exported when applying the
   specifications of this document.  The Common Properties are
   separated from the Specific Properties for each Flow Record.  The
   Common Properties would be exported only once in a specific Data
   Record (defined by an Option Template), while each Flow Record
   contains a pointer to the Common Properties A, along with its Flow
   specific information.  In order to maintain the relationship between
   these sets of properties, we introduce indices (index A) for the
   Common Properties that are unique for all Common Properties entries
   within an Observation Domain. The purpose of the indices is to serve
   as a "key" identifying "rows" of the Common Properties table. The
   rows are then referenced by the Specific Properties by using the
   appropriate value for the Common Properties identifier.


   +------------------------+-----------------+-------------+
   | index for properties A | sourceAddressA  | sourcePortA |
   +------------------------+-----------------+-------------+
   |          ...           |      ...        |     ...     |
   +------------------------+-----------------+-------------+


   +------------------------+---------------------------+
   | index for properties A |     <flow1 information>   |
   +------------------------+---------------------------+
   | index for properties A |     <flow2 information>   |
   +------------------------+---------------------------+
   | index for properties A |     <flow3 information>   |
   +------------------------+---------------------------+
   | index for properties A |     <flow4 information>   |
   +------------------------+---------------------------+

   Figure 3: Common and Specific Properties exported in different
   records

   This unique export of the Common Properties results in a decrease of
   the bandwidth requirements from the Exporter to the Collector.

3.1.2   Multiple Data Reduction

   A Flow Record can refer to one or more Common Properties sets; the
   use of multiple Common Properties can lead to more efficient
   exports.  Note that in the case of multiple Common Properties, the
   different sets of Common Properties MUST be disjoint (i.e. MUST not
   have information elements in common), to avoid potential collisions.




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   Consider a set of properties "A", e.g. common sourceAddressA and
   sourcePortA and another set of properties "B", e.g.
   destinationAddressB and destinationPortB. Figure 4 shows how this
   information is repeated with classical IPFIX export in several Flow
   Records.

   +--------+--------+---------+---------+---------------------+
   |srcAddrA|srcPortA|destAddrB|destPortB| <flow1 information> |
   +--------+--------+---------+---------+---------------------+
   |srcAddrA|srcPortA|destAddrB|destPortB| <flow2 information> |
   +--------+--------+---------+---------+---------------------+
   |srcAddrA|srcPortA|destAddrB|destPortB| <flow3 information> |
   +--------+--------+---------+---------+---------------------+
   |srcAddrA|srcPortA|destAddrB|destPortB| <flow4 information> |
   +--------+--------+---------+---------+---------------------+
   |   ...  |   ...  |   ...   |   ...   |        ...          |
   +--------+--------+---------+---------+---------------------+

   Figure 4: Common and Specific Properties exported in the same record

   We can separate the Common Properties into the properties A composed
   of sourceAddressA and sourcePortA, and into the properties B
   composed of destinationAddressB and destinationPortB.  The Flow
   Record that only contain the property A will only contain the index
   for property A, the Flow Record that only contain the property B
   will contain the index for property B, while the Flow Record that
   contain both the properties A and B contains both indexes (see
   Figure 5).

   +-------------------+-----------------+-------------+
   | index for prop. A | sourceAddressA  | sourcePortA |
   +-------------------+-----------------+-------------+

   +-------------------+---------------------+------------------+
   | index for prop. B | destinationAddressB | destinationPortB |
   +-------------------+---------------------+------------------+

   +-----------------+-----------------+-----------------------+
   |index for prop. A|index for prop. B|  <flow1 information>  |
   +-----------------+-----------------+-----------------------+
   |index for prop. A|index for prop. B|  <flow2 information>  |
   +-----------------+-----------------+-----------------------+
   |index for prop. A|index for prop. B|  <flow3 information>  |
   +-----------------+-----------------+-----------------------+
   |index for prop. A|index for prop. B|  <flow4 information>  |
   +-----------------+-----------------+-----------------------+
   |     ...         |        ...      |           ...         |
   +-----------------+-----------------+-----------------------+



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   Figure 5: Multiple Common (above) and Specific Properties (below)
   exported in different records

   The advantage of the multiple Common Properties is that the
   objective of reducing the bandwidth is met while the number of index
   is kept to a minimum. Indeed, an alternative solution would have
   been to have an extra index for the property C, composed of
   sourceAddressA, sourcePortA, destinationAddressB, destinationPortB.

3.2 Per Packet Data Reduction

   The PSAMP protocol can be used for the export of per-packet
   information. In this case the specific packet of observation could
   be considered a special case of a Flow (a Flow Record composed of a
   single packet) and consequently per-packet information could be
   exported using Flow Records. However, if filtering is applied to
   select a subset of all packets, using IPFIX to export per-packet
   information is relatively inefficient
   since all packets belonging to the same series share common
   attributes (e.g. source address, destination address, etc).

   A first example of the per packet data reduction is the measurement
   of One-Way Delay (OWD), where the exact same specific packet must be
   observed at the source and destination of the path to be measured.
   By subtracting the time of observation of the same packet at the two
   end points with synchronized clocks, the OWD is computed. As the OWD
   is measured for a specific application on which a Service Level
   Agreement (SLA) is bound, this translates into the observation of
   packets with specific properties, results of filtering.  For
   example, all the packets of a specific source and destination IP
   addresses, of a specific DSCP value, and of a specific destination
   transport port.  In order to match the identical packet at both
   Observation Points, a series of packets with those properties must
   be observed on both ends of the measurements. This implies the
   export of a series of Flow Records composed of two types of
   information: some common information for all packets, and some
   unique information about packets in order to generate a unique
   identifier for each packet passing this Observation Point (for
   example, a hash value on the invariant fields of the packet).  So,
   the two IPFIX Devices composing the measurements end points can
   individually apply the redundancy technique described in this draft
   in order to save some bandwidth for the Flow Records export.

   A second example of per packet data reduction is trajectory
   sampling. In trajectory sampling a packet is sampled on every link
   traversed in a measurement domain.




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   [TODO: make the distinction between 1. temporal export of same
   information from one PSAMP device 2. export of similar information
   from different devices. The method in this document only applies to
   1.]

   A third example of per packet data reduction is One-packet flows
   exported from a single router with a zero second export.

   [TODO: This would be an example of the I.E. 313,
   ipHeaderPacketSection and I.E 314,ipPayloadPacketSection in PSAMP]

   Figure 6, which displays the high level solution for the per-packet
   reduction, depicts three packets belonging to Flow A (and therefore
   sharing the set of Common Properties A) and one packet belonging to
   Flow B, respectively. It shows export records containing packet
   specific information and the Common Properties (source and
   destination address). The Common Properties introduce a huge amount
   of redundancy, as they are repeated for every packet in every Data
   Record.

   +----------+-----------+--------------------------+
   | srcAddrA | destAddrA |   <packet1 information>  |
   +----------+-----------+--------------------------+
   | srcAddrA | destAddrA |   <packet2 information>  |
   +----------+-----------+--------------------------+
   | srcAddrB | destAddrB |   <packet3 information>  |
   +----------+-----------+--------------------------+
   | srcAddrA | destAddrA |   <packet4 information>  |
   +----------+-----------+--------------------------+


   Figure 6: Common and Specific Properties represented in one record

   In Figure 7 we separate Common Properties from Specific Properties,
   i.e. Common Properties from specific packet information. In order to
   maintain the relation between Specific (Packet) Properties and
   Common Properties we introduce indices (index A and index B), as
   previously explained.


   +----------+-----------+------------------------+
   | srcAddrA | destAddrA | index for properties A |
   +----------+-----------+------------------------+
   | srcAddrB | destAddrB | index for properties B |
   +----------+-----------+------------------------+






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   +------------------------+------------------+
   | index for properties A |  <packet1 info>  |
   +------------------------+------------------+
   | index for properties A |  <packet2 info>  |
   +------------------------+------------------+
   | index for properties B |  <packet3 info>  |
   +------------------------+------------------+
   | index for properties A |  <packet4 info>  |
   +------------------------+------------------+


   Figure 7: Common and Specific (packet) Properties exported
   separately



4. Specifications for bandwidth saving information export

   The IPFIX protocol [IPFIX-PROTO] is Template based.  Templates
   define how data should be exported, describing data fields together
   with their type and meaning.  IPFIX specifies two types of
   Templates: the Template Record and the Options Template Record.  The
   difference between the two is that the Options Template Record
   includes the notion of scope, defining how to scope the
   applicability of the Data Record.  The scope, which is only
   available in the Options Template Record, gives the context of the
   reported Information Elements in the Data Records.  The Template
   Records and Options Template Records are necessary to decode the
   Data Records.  Indeed, by only looking at the Data Records
   themselves, this is impossible to distinguish a Data Record defined
   by Template Record from a Data Record defined by an Option Template
   Record.  To export information more efficiently, this specification
   proposes to group Flow Records by their common properties.  We
   define Common Properties as a collection of attributes shared by a
   set of different Flow Records.


4.1 Per Flow Data Reduction

4.1.1   Unique Data Reduction


   As explained in Figure 8, the information is split into two parts,
   using two different Data Records.  Common Properties MUST be
   exported via Data Records defined by an Option Template Record and
   MUST be sent only once with SCTP and TCP. These properties represent
   values common to several Flow Records (e.g. IP source and
   destination address).  The Common Properties Data Records MUST be
   sent prior to the corresponding Specific Properties Data Records.


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   The Data Records reporting Specific Properties MUST be associated
   with the Data Records reporting the Common Properties using a unique
   identifier for the Common Properties, the commonPropertiesID
   Information Element.  The commonPropertiesID MUST be exported as the
   scope in the Options Template Record, and also exported in the
   associated Template Record.


   +---------------------------+      +---------------------+
   | Common Properties         |      | Specific Properties |  Template
   | Option Template Record    |      | Template Record     |  Definition
   |                           |      |                     |
   | scope: commonPropertiesID |      | commonPropertiesID  |
   | Common Properties         |      | Specific Properties |
   +------------+--------------+      +---------+-----------+
   .............|...............................|.......................
                |                               |
   +------------v-------------+      +----------v----------+
   | Common Properties        |      | Specific Properties |+  Exported
   | Data Record              |------> Data Records        ||  Data
   +--------------------------+      +---------------------+|  Records
                                      +---------------------+


   Figure 8: Template Record and Data Record dependencies


   The Common Properties are valid for all Flow Records containing the
   associated commonPropertiesID. Since the commonPropertiesID is a 64-
   bit data type, this method limits the number of active data
   reduction to 2**64 per Exporting Process and Observation Domain.
   The assignment of Flow Records to common attributes could be
   alternatively provided by the templateID Information Element
   (instead of the commonPropertiesID Information Element). In this
   case, the scope in the Common Properties Option Template Record must
   contain the Template ID used in the Specific Properties Template
   Record, as displayed in Figure 9.  The Common Properties are valid
   for all data records of the specified Template. In this case the use
   of commonPropertiesID is not required.












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   +---------------------------+      +---------------------+
   | Common Properties         |      | Specific Properties |  Template
   | Option Template Record    |      | Template Record     |  Definition
   |                           |      |                     |
   | scope: Template ID        |      | Specific Properties |
   | Common Sroperties         |      |                     |
   +------------+--------------+      +---------+-----------+
   .............|...............................|.......................
                |                               |
   +------------v-------------+      +----------v----------+
   | Common Properties        |      | Specific Properties |+  Exported
   | Data Record              |------> Data Records        ||  Data
   +--------------------------+      +---------------------+|  Records
                                      +---------------------+

   Figure 9: Template Records and Data Records linked with TemplateID



4.1.2   Multiple Data Reduction


   If a set of Flow Records share multiple sets of Common Properties,
   multiple commonPropertiesID instances MAY be used to increase export
   efficiency even further, as displayed in the Figure 10.


   +----------------------------+      +---------------------+
   | Common Properties          |      | Specific Properties | Template
   | Option Template Record     |      | Template Record     | Definition
   |                            |      |                     |
   | Scope: commonPropertiesID1 |      | commonPropertiesID1 |
   | Scope: commonPropertiesID2 |      | commonPropertiesID2 |
   | Common Properties          |      | Specific Properties |
   +------------+---------------+      +---------+-----------+
   .............|...............................|.......................
                |                               |
   +------------v-------------+      +----------v----------+
   | Common Properties        |      | Specific Properties |+  Exported
   | Data Record              |------> Data Records        ||  Data
   +--------------------------+      +---------------------+|  Records
                                      +---------------------+

   Figure 10: Multiple data reduction







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4.2 Per-Packet Data Reduction

   From the IPFIX protocol, there are no differences between the Flow
   Record or per packet record data reduction, except maybe the
   terminology where the Specific Properties could be called packet
   specific properties in the following Figure 11.


   +---------------------------+      +---------------------+
   | Common Properties         |      | Specific Properties |  Template
   | Option Template Record    |      | Template Record     |  Definition
   |                           |      |                     |
   | scope: commonPropertiesID |      | commonPropertiesID  |
   | Common Properties         |      | Specific Properties |
   +------------+--------------+      +---------+-----------+
   .............|...............................|.......................
                |                               |
   +------------v-------------+      +----------v----------+
   | Common Properties        |      | Specific Properties |+  Exported
   | Data Record              |------> Data Records        ||  Data
   +--------------------------+      +---------------------+|  Records
                                      +---------------------+

   Figure 11: Per-packet data reduction



5. Transport Protocol Choice

   This document follows the IPFIX transport protocol specifications
   defined in [IPFIX-PROTO]. However, depending on the transport
   protocol choice, this document imposes some more constraints. If
   SCTP is selected as the IPFIX protocol, the SCTP sub-section
   specifications MUST be respected. If UDP is selected as the IPFIX
   protocol, the UDP sub-section specifications MUST be respected.  If
   TCP is selected as the IPFIX protocol, the TCP sub-section
   specifications MUST be respected.

5.1 SCTP

   The active Common Properties MUST be sent after the SCTP association
   establishment before the corresponding Specific Properties Data
   Records.  In case of SCTP association re-establishment, all active
   Common Properties MUST be re-sent before the corresponding Specific
   Properties Data Records.

   The Common Properties Flow Records MUST be sent on a reliable SCTP
   stream.



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5.2 UDP

   Common Properties Data Records MUST be re-sent at regular intervals,
   whose frequency MUST be configurable.
   CommonPropertiesIDs have a specified lifetime during which they
   cannot be reused. After that time a commonPropertiesID can be
   assigned to another set of Common Properties. CommonPropertiesID
   whose lifetime has longer expired SHOULD be preferred. The lifetime
   MUST be configurable.


5.3 TCP

   Common Properties MUST be sent after the TCP connection
   establishment before the corresponding Specific Properties Data
   Records.  In case of TCP connection re-establishment, all active
   Common Properties MUST be re-sent before the corresponding Specific
   Properties Data Records.


6. commonPropertiesID Management

   The commonPropertiesID is an identifier of a set of common
   properties that is locally unique to an Exporting Process and to
   Observation Domain. The Exporting Process MUST manage the
   commonPropertiesIDs allocations for its Observation Domains.
   Different Observation Domains from the same Exporter MAY use the
   same commonPropertiesID value to refer to different sets of Common
   Properties.

   The commonPropertiesID values MAY be assigned sequentially, but it's
   NOT REQUIRED. Particular commonPropertiesID ranges or   values MAY
   have explicit meanings for the IPFIX Device. For example,
   commonPropertiesID values may be assigned based on the result of a
   hash function, etc...

   Using a 64-bit commonPropertiesID Information Element allows the
   export of 2**64 -1 active sets of Common Properties, per Observation
   Domain, per Exporting Process.

   CommonPropertiesIDs that are not used anymore SHOULD be withdrawn.
   The Common Properties ID withdrawal message is an Option Data Record
   consisting of only one scope field namely the CommonPropertiesID and
   no non-scope fields.







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        0                   1                   2                   3
         0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |         Set ID = 3            |      Length = 14 octets       |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |       Template ID = 259       |       Field Count = 1         |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |      Scope Field count = 1    |0|  commonPropertiesID = XX    |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |  Scope 1 Field Length = 8     |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

             Figure 12: CommonPropertiesID withdrawal template

        0                   1                   2                   3
         0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |         Set ID = 259          |      Length = 12 octets        |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |                               N                               |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |                              ...                              |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

       Figure 13: CommonPropertiesID withdrawal record, withdrawing
                           CommonPropertiesID N



7. The Collecting Process Side


   The Collecting Process can either store the Flow Records as they
   arrive, without reconstructing the initial Flow Record, or
   reconstruct the initial Flow Record. In the former case there might
   be less storage capacity required at the Collector side. In the
   latter the collector job is more complex and time-consuming due to
   the higher resource demand for record processing in real time.

   Like TemplateIDs the CommonPropertiesIDs are generated dynamically
   by the Exporting Process. The CommonPropertiesIDs are only valid
   within the protocol stack. Hence a restart of the exporting process
   may imply a renumbering of CommonProperiesIDs. For this reason it is
   not recommended to use the CommonPropertiesIds outside the protocol
   stack e.g. to store them within a database. Outside the protocol
   stack there is additional information needed to keep a non-ambiguous
   association between the related Common Properties and Specific
   Properties.



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   If the Collecting Process has received the Specific Properties Data
   Record before the associated Common Properties Data Record, the
   Collecting Process MAY store the Specific Properties Data Record and
   await the retransmission or out-of-order arrival of the Common
   Properties Data Record.

   If a Collection Process receives a CommonPropertiesID Withdraw
   Record, the Collection Process MUST expire the related Common
   Properties data.

   If SCTP is selected as the IPFIX protocol, the SCTP sub-section
   specifications MUST be respected. If UDP is selected as the IPFIX
   protocol, the UDP sub-section specifications MUST be respected.  If
   TCP is selected as the IPFIX protocol, the TCP sub-section
   specifications MUST be respected.

7.1 SCTP

   When the SCTP association is reset, either gracefully or abnormally,
   the Collecting Processes MUST delete all commonPropertiesID values
   associated with that association.

7.2 UDP

   The Collecting Process associates a lifetime with each
   commonPropertiesID. The mapping of Data Records to Common Properties
   uses the most recent Common Properties definition associated to the
   specified commonPropertiesID. The lifetime of the CommonPropertiesID
   ends on the receipt of a CommonPropertiesID withdrawal record. If
   there is no flow definition associated with that commonPropertiesID
   or the lifetime of the flow definition has expired, no mapping is
   possible. In this case the Collecting Process MAY store the Specific
   Properties and await the retransmission or out-of-order arrival of
   the Common Properties.

7.3 TCP

   When the TCP connection is reset, either gracefully or abnormally,
   the Collecting Processes MUST expire all commonPropertiesID values
   corresponding to that connection.


8. Export and Evaluation Considerations

   The main advantage of the method specified in this document is the
   reduction in the amount of measurement data that has to be
   transferred from the Exporter to the Collector. In addition there
   might be less storage capacity required at the Collector side if the



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   Collector decides to store the Flow Records as they arrive, without
   reconstructing the initial Flow Record.

   On the other hand, these methods require additional resources on
   both the Exporter and the Collector. The Exporter has to manage
   Common Properties information and to assign commonPropertiesId
   values to Flow Records. The Collector has to process records
   described by two templates instead of just one. Additional effort is
   also required when post processing the measurement data, in order to
   correlate Flow Records with Common Properties information.

8.1 Transport Protocol Choice

   The proposed method is most effective using a reliable transport
   protocol for the transfer of the Common Properties. Therefore the
   use of SCTP or TCP is recommended. However, if the path from the
   Exporting Process to the Collecting Process is not fully reliable,
   the SCTP or TCP retransmission might reduce the benefits of this
   specification. If the path from the Exporting Process to the
   Collecting Process is full reliable, the use of UDP is less
   effective because the common properties have to be re-sent
   regularly.

8.2 Reduced Size Encoding

   The transfer of the CommonPropertiesIDs originates some overhead.
   Note that IPFIX allows reduced-size encoding of Information
   Elements. In cases where the range of the commonPropertiesID can be
   restricted, reduced-size encoding can be applied also to the
   commonPropertiesID, and would result in a further bandwidth
   efficiency gain.

8.3 CommonPropertiesID vs. TemplateID scope

   The assignment of Flow Records to common attributes could be done
   via the CommonPropertiesID and alternatively via the templateID
   Information Element. In the second case the commonPropertiesID is
   not required: this reduces the overhead but the Exporting Process
   must use one templateID per set of Common Properties. In the general
   case, this method is not scalable, but it can be suitable for
   certain applications.

8.4 Efficiency Gain

   The example in section 11.2 below uses IPFIX to export measurement
   data for each received packet. In that case, for a flow of 1000
   packets the amount of data can be decreased more than 33 percent.




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   While the goal of this specification is to reduce the bandwidth, the
   efficiency might be limited.   Indeed, the efficiency gain is based
   on the numerous redundant information in flows.  While the Exporting
   Process can evaluate the direct gain for the Flow Records to be
   exported, it can't predict whether future Flow Records would contain
   the information specified by active commonPropertiesID values.  This
   implies that the efficiency factor of this specification is higher
   for specific applications where filtering is involved, such as one-
   way delay or trajectory sampling.


9. IANA Considerations

   This document has no actions for IANA.


10. Security Considerations

   For the proposed use of the IPFIX protocol for bandwidth-saving
   export the security considerations as for the IPFIX protocol apply.


11. Appendix A: Examples


11.1    Per Flow Data Reduction


11.1.1  Unique Data Reduction

   In this section we show how flow information can be exported
   efficiently using the method described in this draft. Let's suppose
   we have to periodically export data about two IPv6 Flows.

   In this example we report the following information:



   Flow|        dstIPv6Address                 | dst- |nPkts|nBytes
       |                                       | Port |     |
   ----------------------------------------------------------------
    A  |5F05:2000:80AD:5800:0058:0800:2023:1D71|  80  | 30  |  6000
       |                                       |      |     |
    A  |5F05:2000:80AD:5800:0058:0800:2023:1D71|  80  | 50  |  9500
       |                                       |      |     |
    B  |5F05:2000:80AD:5800:0058:00AA:00B7:AF2B| 1932 | 60  |  8000
       |                                       |      |     |
    A  |5F05:2000:80AD:5800:0058:0800:2023:1D71|  80  | 40  |  6500
       |                                       |      |     |


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    A  |5F05:2000:80AD:5800:0058:0800:2023:1D71|  80  | 60  |  9500
       |                                       |      |     |
    B  |5F05:2000:80AD:5800:0058:00AA:00B7:AF2B| 1932 | 54  |  7600



   The Common Properties in this case are the destination IPv6 address
   and the destination port. We first define an Option Template that
   contains the following Information Elements:

     -  Scope: the commonPropertiesID, with a type of 137 [IPFIX-INFO]
        and a length of 8 octets.

     - The destination IPv6 address, destinationIPv6Address [IPFIX-
        INFO], with a type of 28 and a length of 16 octets

     -  The destination port, destinationTransportPort [IPFIX-INFO]
        with a type of 11, and a length of 2 octets

   Figure 14 shows the Option template defining the Common Properties
   with commonPropertiesID as scope:


         0                   1                   2                   3
         0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |         Set ID = 3            |      Length = 24 octets       |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |       Template ID = 257       |       Field Count = 3         |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |      Scope Field count = 1    |0|  commonPropertiesID = 137   |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |  Scope 1 Field Length = 8     |0|  destinationIPv6Address = 28|
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |      Field Length = 16        |0|destinationTransportPort = 11|
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |      Field Length = 2         |        (Padding)              |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Figure 14: Common Properties Option Template


   The Specific Properties Template consists of the information not
   contained in the Option Templates, i.e. flow specific information,
   in this case the number of packets and the number of bytes to be
   reported.  Additionally, this Template contains the
   commonPropertiesID. In Data Records, the value of this field will
   contain one of the unique indices of the Option Records exported



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   before. It contains the following Information Elements (see also
   Figure 15):

     - commonPropertiesID with a length of 8 octets

     - The number of packets of the Flow: inPacketDeltaCount in
        [IPFIX-INFO], with a length of 4 octets

     -  The number of octets of the Flow: inOctetDeltaCount in [IPFIX-
        INFO], with a length of 4 octets

         0                   1                   2                   3
         0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |         Set ID = 2            |      Length = 20 octets       |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |       Template ID = 258       |       Field Count = 4         |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |0|  commonPropertiesID = 137   |       Field Length = 8        |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |0|    inPacketDeltaCount = 2   |       Field Length = 4        |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |0|    inOctetDeltaCount = 1    |       Field Length = 4        |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Figure 15: Specific Properties Template


   Considering the data shown at the beginning of this example, the
   following two Data Records will be exported:



   Common-      |           dstAddress                    | dst-
   PropertiesID |                                         | Port
   -------------+-----------------------------------------+-------
       101      | 5F05:2000:80AD:5800:0058:0800:2023:1D71 |  80
                |                                         |
       102      | 5F05:2000:80AD:5800:0058:00AA:00B7:AF2B | 1932



   The Data Records reporting the Common Properties will look like:








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         0                   1                   2                   3
         0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |         Set ID = 257          |      Length = 60 octets       |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |                              101                              |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |                              ...                              |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |                            5F05:2000:   ...                   |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |                ...         80AD:5800:   ...                   |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |                ...         0058:0800:   ...                   |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |                ...         2023:1D71                          |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |            80                 |         (Padding)             |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |                              102                              |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |                              ...                              |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |                            5F05:2000:   ...                   |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |                ...         80AD:5800:   ...                   |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |                ...         0058:00AA:   ...                   |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |                ...         00B7:AF2B                          |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |           1932                |          (Padding)            |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


   Figure 16: Data Records reporting Common Properties


   The Data Records will in turn be:

   commonPropertiesID  |  inPacketDeltaCount  | inOctetDeltaCount
   ---------------------------------------------------------------
           101         |          30          |       6000
           101         |          50          |       9500
           102         |          60          |       8000
           101         |          40          |       6500
           101         |          60          |       9500
           102         |          54          |       7600



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   Figure 17 shows the first Data Record listed in the table:

         0                   1                   2                   3
         0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |          Set ID = 258         |          Length = 16          |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |                              101                              |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |                              ...                              |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |               30              |             6000              |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Figure 17: Data Record reporting Specific Properties


11.1.2  Multiple Data Reduction

   In this example we export the following flow information:


   Flow | srcAddr | srcPort | dstAddr | dstPort | nPackets | nBytes
   ----------------------------------------------------------------
    A   |10.0.0.1 | 1932    |10.0.1.2 |   80    |   30     | 6000
    B   |10.0.0.3 | 2032    |10.0.1.2 |   80    |   50     | 9500


   Figure 18 shows the Option Templates, containing the Common
   Properties together with the commonPropertiesID as Scope.

   In the first Common Properties Option Template we export the
   following Information Elements:

     -  Scope 1: the Common Properties ID, commonPropertiesId with a
        type of 137 [IPFIX-INFO]. Note that the commonProperties IE has
        a length of 8 octets, but if smaller size is sufficient to
        carry any value the Exporter may need to deliver, reduced size
        encoding can be used. In this example we use reduced sizing, of
        4 octets.


     - the source IPv4 Address, sourceIPv4Address [IPFIX-INFO], with a
        type of 8 and a length of 4 octets

     - the source Port, sourceTransportPort [IPFIX-INFO], with a type
        of 7 and a length of 2 octets



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   The second Option Template contains the following Information
   Elements:

     -  Scope 2: the commonPropertiesID, with a type of 137 [IPFIX-
        INFO] and a length of 4 octets (reduced sizing).

     - the destination IPv4 Address, destinationIPv4Address [IPFIX-
        INFO], with a type of 12 and a length of 4 octets

     -  the destination port, destinationTransportPort [IPFIX-INFO]
        with a type of 11, and a length of 2 octets

   The commonPropertiesId Information Element [NOTE: to be included in
   IPFIX-INFO], is used in both cases as the Scope Field.

         0                   1                   2                   3
         0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |         Set ID = 3            |      Length = 24 octets       |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |       Template ID = 256       |       Field Count = 3         |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |      Scope Field count = 1    |0|  commonPropertiesID = 137   |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |  Scope 1 Field Length = 4     |0|    sourceIPv4Address = 8    |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |      Field Length = 4         |0|  transportSourcePort = 7    |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |      Field Length = 2         |        (Padding)              |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

         0                   1                   2                   3
         0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |         Set ID = 3            |      Length = 24 octets       |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |       Template ID = 257       |       Field Count = 3         |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |      Scope Field count = 1    |0|  commonPropertiesID = 137   |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |  Scope 1 Field Length = 4     |0|  destinationIPv4Address = 12|
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |      Field Length = 4         |0|transportDestinationPort = 11|
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |      Field Length = 2         |        (Padding)              |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Figure 18: Example Common Properties Template


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   Considering the values given at the beginning of this section we
   will export the Common Properties using the following Data Records:


   commonPropertiesID  |  sourceAddress  |  sourcePort
   --------------------+-----------------+-------------
          101          |    10.0.0.1     |     1932
          102          |    10.0.0.3     |     2032


   and


   commonPropertiesID  |  dstAddress   |  dstPort
   --------------------+---------------+-----------
          103          |   10.0.1.2    |     80



   The Specific Properties Template consists of the information not
   contained in the Option Templates, i.e. flow specific information.
   Additionally, this Template contains the two commonPropertiesID. In
   Data Records, the values of each of these fields will contain one of
   the unique indices specified in the Option Records exported
   previously.

   Figure 19 displays the Template including the commonPropertiesID
   plus the Specific Properties. In this example we export the
   following Information Elements:

     - commonPropertiesID for the source fields with a length of 4
        octets (reduced size encoding)

     - commonPropertiesID for the destination fields with a length of
        4 octets (reduced size encoding)

     - the number of packets of the Flow: inPacketDeltaCount in
        [IPFIX-INFO], with a length of 4 octets

     -  the number of octets of the Flow: inOctetDeltaCount in [IPFIX-
        INFO], with a length of 4 octets








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         0                   1                   2                   3
         0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |         Set ID = 2            |      Length = 24 octets       |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |       Template ID = 259       |       Field Count = 4         |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |0|  commonPropertiesID = 137   |       Field Length = 4        |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |0|  commonPropertiesID = 137   |       Field Length = 4        |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |0|    inPacketDeltaCount = 2   |       Field Length = 4        |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |0|    inOctetDeltaCount = 1    |       Field Length = 4        |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Figure 19: Example Specific Properties Template

   Considering the values given at the beginning of this section, the
   Data Records of the two flows will look like:

         0                   1                   2                   3
         0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |          Set ID = 256         |          Length = 28          |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |                              101                              |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |                              103                              |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |               30              |             6000              |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |                              102                              |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |                              103                              |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |               50              |             9500              |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Figure 20: Specific Properties


11.2    Per-Packet Information Export

   This section demonstrates per-packet information export to support
   passive One-Way Delay (OWD) measurement.  The Templates required for
   exporting measurement data of this kind are illustrated in the
   figures below.



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   Figure 21 shows the Option Template containing the information
   concerning Flows using the commonPropertiesID as scope. In the
   Common Properties Template we export the following Information
   Elements:

     - the source IPv4 Address, sourceIPv4Address [IPFIX-INFO], with a
        type of 8 and a length of 4 octets

     - the destination IPv4 Address, destinationIPv4Address [IPFIX-
        INFO], with a type of 12 and a length of 4 octets

     - the Class of Service field, ClassOfServiceIPv4 [IPFIX-INFO],
        with a type of 5 and a length of 1 octet

     - the Protocol Identifier, protocolIdentifier [IPFIX-INFO], with
        a type of 4 and a length of 1 octet

     - source port, sourceTransportPort [IPFIX-INFO], with a type of 7
        and and a length of 2 octets

     - destination port, destinationTransportPort [IPFIX-INFO], with a
        type of 11 and a length of 2 octets

   The commonPropertiesID Information Element, is used as the Scope
   Field.

         0                   1                   2                   3
         0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
         +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
         |         Set ID = 3            |      Length = 40 octets       |
         +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
         |       Template ID = 256       |       Field Count = 7         |
         +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
         |      Scope Field count = 1    |0|  commonPropertiesID = XX    |
         +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
         |  Scope 1 Field Length = 4     |0|    sourceIPv4Address = 8    |
         +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
         |      Field Length = 4         |0| destinationIPv4Address = 12 |
         +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
         |      Field Length = 4         |0|  classOfServiceIPv4 = 5     |
         +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
         |      Field Length = 1         |0|  protocolIdentifier = 4     |
         +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
         |      Field Length = 1         |0|  transportSourcePort = 7    |
         +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
         |      Field Length = 2         |0|transportDestinationPort = 11|
         +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
         |      Field Length = 2         |        (Padding)              |
         +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


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   Figure 21: Example Flow Properties Template



   For passive One-Way-Delay measurement, the Packet Properties
   Template, or Specific Properties Template, consists of at least
   Timestamp and Packet ID. Additionally, this template contains a
   commonPropertiesId field to associate the packet with a Flow.

   Figure 22 displays the template with the packet properties. In this
   example we export the following Information Elements:

     -  commonPropertiesID. In this case reduced size encoding is used,
        and the Information Element is declared with a length of 4
        octets instead of 8.

     -  packetTimestamp, packetID, and packetLength. Since
        packetTimestamp, packetID, and packetLength are not (yet) IETF-
        defined information elements, we export them as enterprise-
        specific IEs. The three IEs have respectively a type of 220,
        221, and 222 and a length of 8, 4, and 4 octets.


         0                   1                   2                   3
         0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
         +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
         |         Set ID = 2            |      Length = 36 octets       |
         +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
         |       Template ID = 257       |       Field Count = 4         |
         +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
         |0|  commonPropertiesID = 137   |       Field Length = 4        |
         +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
         |1|    packetTimestamp = 220    |       Field Length = 8        |
         +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
         |                      Enterprise number                        |
         +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
         |1|        packetID = 221       |       Field Length = 4        |
         +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
         |                      Enterprise number                        |
         +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
         |1|      packetLength = 222     |       Field Length = 4        |
         +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
         |                      Enterprise number                        |
         +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Figure 22: Example Packet Properties Template




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   At the collection point, packet records from the two measurement
   points are gathered and correlated by means of the packet ID. The
   resulting delay data records are exported in a similar manner as the
   packet data. One-way delay data is associated with flow information
   by the commonPropertiesId field. The OWD properties contain the
   Packet Pair ID (which is the packet ID of the two contributing
   packet records), the timestamp of the packet passing the reference
   monitor point in order to reconstruct a time series, the calculated
   delay value, and the commonPropertiesID.

   In this example using IPFIX to export the measurement data for each
   received packet 30 bytes have to be transferred (sourceAddressV4=4,
   destinationAddressV4=4, classOfServiceV4=1, protocolIdentifier=1,
   sourceTransportPort=2, destionationTransportPort=2,
   packetTimestamp=8, packetID=4, packetLength=4). Without considering
   the IPFIX protocol overhead a flow of 1000 packets produces 30000
   bytes of measurement data. Using the proposed optimization each
   packet produces an export of only 20 bytes (packetTimestamp=8,
   packetID=4, packetLength=4, commonPropertiesID=4). The export of the
   flow information produces 18 bytes (sourceAddressV4=4,
   destinationAddressV4=4, classOfServiceV4=1, protocolIdentifier=1,
   sourceTransportPort=2, destionationTransportPort=2,
   commonPropertiesID =4). For a flow of 1000 packets this sums up to
   20018 bytes. This is a decrease of more than 33 percent.



12. References


12.1    Normative References

   [RFC2119]     S. Bradner, Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
                 Requirement Levels, BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997

   [IPFIX-PROTO] B. Claise et Al, IPFIX Protocol Specification,
                 <draft-ietf-ipfix-protocol-22.txt>, Internet-Draft
                 work in progress  June 2006

   [IPFIX-INFO]  J. Quittek, S.Bryant, B.Claise, J. Meyer,
                 Information Model for IP Flow Information Export,
                 <draft-ietf-ipfix-info-12.txt>, Internet-draft work in
                 progress, June 2006

   [PSAMP-PROTO] B. Claise, J. Quittek, A. Johnson, PSAMP Protocol
                 Specification, <draft-ietf-psamp-protocol-06.txt>,
                 Internet-Draft work in progress, June 2006




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12.2    Informative References

   [IPFIX-ARCH] G. Sadasivan, N. Brownlee, B. Claise, J. Quittek,
                Architecture Model for IP Flow Information Export,
                <draft-ietf-ipfix-arch-11.txt>, Internet-Draft work in
                progress, June 2006

   [IPFIX-AS]   T. Zseby, E. Boschi, N. Brownlee, B. Claise, IPFIX
                Applicability, <draft-ietf-ipfix-as-10.txt>, Internet-
                Draft work in progress, August 2006

   [PSAMP-TECH] T. Zseby, M. Molina, N. Duffield, S. Niccolini, F.
                Raspall, Sampling and Filtering Techniques for IP
                Packet Selection, <draft-ietf-psamp-sample-tech-
                07.txt>, Internet-Draft work in progress, January 2006

   [PSAMP-INFO] T. Dietz, F. Dressler, G. Carle, B. Claise, P. Aitken,
                Information Model for Packet Sampling Exports, <draft-
                ietf-psamp-info-04.txt>, Internet-Draft work in
                progress, March 2006

   [PSAMP-MIB]  T. Dietz, B. Claise, Definitions of Managed Objects for
                Packet Sampling, <draft-ietf-psamp-mib-06.txt>,
                Internet-Draft work in progress, June 2006

   [PSAMP-FMWK] N. Duffield, D. Chiou, B. Claise, A. Greenberg, M.
                Grossglauser, P. Marimuthu, J. Rexford, G. Sadasivan, A
                Framework for Passive Packet Measurement, <draft-ietf-
                psamp-framework-10.txt>, Internet-Draft work in
                progress, January 2005

   [RFC3917]    J. Quittek, T. Zseby, B. Claise, S. Zander,
                Requirements for IP Flow Information Export, RFC 3917,
                October 2004




13. Author's Addresses


       Elisa Boschi
       Hitachi Europe SAS
       Immeuble Le Theleme
       1503 Route des Dolines
       06560 Valbonne, France
       Phone: +33 4 89874180
       Email: elisa.boschi@hitachi-eu.com



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       Lutz Mark
       Fraunhofer Institute for Open Communication Systems
       Kaiserin-Augusta-Allee 31
       10589 Berlin
       Germany
       Phone: +49-30-34 63 7306
       Fax:   +49-30-34 53 8306
       Email: mark@fokus.fraunhofer.de

      Benoit Claise
      Cisco Systems
      De Kleetlaan 6a b1
      Diegem 1813
      Belgium
      Phone: +32 2 704 5622
      Email: bclaise@cisco.com



14. Intellectual Property Statement

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   to pertain to the implementation or use of the technology described
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   The IETF invites any interested party to bring to its attention any
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   rights that may cover technology that may be required to implement
   this standard. Please address the information to the IETF at ietf-
   ipr@ietf.org.

15. Copyright Statement

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2006). This document is subject
   to the rights, licenses and restrictions contained in BCP 78, and
   except as set forth therein, the authors retain all their rights.




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16. Disclaimer

   This document and the information contained herein are provided on
   an "AS IS" basis and THE CONTRIBUTOR, THE ORGANIZATION HE/SHE
   REPRESENTS OR IS SPONSORED BY (IF ANY), THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE
   INTERNET ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR
   IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF
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   WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.










































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