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Versions: (draft-niccolini-ippm-storetraceroutes) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 RFC 5388

IPPM Working Group                                          S. Niccolini
Internet-Draft                                             S. Tartarelli
Intended status: Standards Track                              J. Quittek
Expires: April 26, 2009                                         T. Dietz
                                                                     NEC
                                                                M. Swany
                                                                    UDel
                                                        October 23, 2008


    Information Model and XML Data Model for Traceroute Measurements
                  draft-ietf-ippm-storetraceroutes-12

Status of this Memo

   By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any
   applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware
   have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on April 26, 2009.

Abstract

   This document describes a standard way to store the configuration and
   the results of traceroute measurements.  This document first of all
   describes the terminology used in this document and the traceroute
   tool itself; afterwards, the common information model is defined
   dividing the information elements in two semantically separated
   groups (configuration elements and results elements).  Moreover an
   additional element is defined to relate configuration elements and
   results elements by means of a common unique identifier.  On the



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   basis of the information model a data model based on XML is defined
   to store the results of traceroute measurements.


Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Terminology used in this document  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   3.  The Traceroute tool and its operations . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   4.  Results of traceroute measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   5.  Information Model for Traceroute Measurements  . . . . . . . .  5
     5.1.  Data Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     5.2.  Information Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
       5.2.1.  Relationship between the Information Elements  . . . .  7
       5.2.2.  Configuration Information Elements . . . . . . . . . . 10
       5.2.3.  Results Information Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
       5.2.4.  Information Element Correlating Configuration and
               Results Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
       5.2.5.  Information Elements to compare traceroute
               measurements results one with each other . . . . . . . 18
   6.  Data Model for Storing Traceroute Measurements . . . . . . . . 19
   7.  XML Schema for traceroute Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
   8.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
     8.1.  Conducting Traceroute Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
     8.2.  Securing Traceroute Measurements Information . . . . . . . 36
   9.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
   10. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
     10.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
     10.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
   Appendix A.  Traceroute Default Configuration Parameters . . . . . 38
     A.1.  Alternative Traceroute Implementations . . . . . . . . . . 42
   Appendix B.  Known Problems with Traceroute  . . . . . . . . . . . 42
     B.1.  Compatibility between traceroute measurements results
           and IPPM metrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
   Appendix C.  Differences to DISMAN-TRACEROUTE-MIB  . . . . . . . . 43
     C.1.  Scope  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
     C.2.  Naming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
     C.3.  Semantics  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
     C.4.  Additional Information Elements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
   Appendix D.  Traceroute Examples with XML representation . . . . . 46
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
   Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 72









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1.  Introduction

   Traceroutes are being used by lots of measurement efforts, either as
   an independent measurement or to get path information to support
   other measurement efforts.  That is why there is the need to
   standardize the way the configuration and the results of traceroute
   measurements are stored.  The standard metrics defined by the IPPM
   working group in matter of delay, connectivity and losses do not
   apply to the metrics returned by the traceroute tool; therefore, in
   order to compare results of traceroute measurements, the only
   possibility is to add to the stored results a specification of the
   operating system as well as name and version for the traceroute tool
   used.  This document, in order to store results of traceroute
   measurements and allow comparison of them, defines a standard way to
   store them using a XML schema.  The document is organized as follows:
   Section 2 defines the terminology used in this document, Section 3
   describes the traceroute tool, Section 4 describes the results of a
   traceroute measurement as displayed to the screen from which the
   traceroute tool was launched.  Section 5 and Section 6 respectively
   describe the information model and data model for storing
   configuration and results of the traceroute measurements.  Section 7
   contains the XML schema to be used as a template for storing and/or
   exchanging traceroute measurements information.  The document ends
   with security considerations and IANA considerations in Section 8 and
   Section 9 respectively.

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].


2.  Terminology used in this document

   The terminology used in this document is defined as follow:
   o  traceroute tool: a software tool for network diagnostic behaving
      as described in Section 3;
   o  traceroute measurement: an instance of the traceroute tool
      launched, with specific configuration parameters (traceroute
      measurement configuration parameters), from a specific host
      (initiator of the traceroute measurement) giving as output
      specific traceroute measurement results;
   o  traceroute probe: one of many IP packets send out by the
      traceroute tool during a traceroute measurement;
   o  traceroute measurement configuration parameters: the configuration
      parameters of a traceroute measurement;
   o  traceroute measurement results: the results of a traceroute
      measurement;




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   o  traceroute measurement information: both the results and the
      configuration parameters of a traceroute measurement;
   o  traceroute measurement path: a sequence of hosts transited in
      order by traceroute probes during a traceroute measurement;


3.  The Traceroute tool and its operations

   Traceroute is a network diagnostic tool used to determine the hop by
   hop path from a source to a destination and the Round Trip Time (RTT)
   from the source to each hop.  Traceroute can be therefore used to
   discover some information (hop counts, delays, etc.) about the path
   between the initiator of the traceroute measurement and other hosts.

   Typically, the traceroute tool attempts to discover the path to a
   destination by sending UDP probes with specific time-to-live (TTL)
   values in the IP packet header and trying to elicit an ICMP
   TIME_EXCEEDED response from each gateway along the path to some host.

   More in detail, a first set of probes with TTL equal to 1 are sent by
   the traceroute tool from the host initiating the traceroute
   measurement (some tool implementations allow setting the initial TTL
   to a value equal to "n" different from 1, so that the first "n-1"
   hops are skipped and the first hop that will be traced is the "n-th"
   in the path).  Upon receiving a probe, the first hop host decreases
   the TTL value (by one or more).  By observing a TTL value equal to
   zero, the host rejects the probe and typically returns an ICMP
   message with a TIME_EXCEEDED value.  The traceroute tool can
   therefore derive the IP address of the first hop from the header of
   the ICMP message and evaluate the RTT between the host initiating the
   traceroute measurement and the first hop.  The next hops are
   discovered following the same procedure, taking care of increasing at
   each step the TTL value of the probes by one.  The TTL value is
   increased until either an ICMP PORT_UNREACHABLE message is received,
   meaning that the destination host has been reached, or the maximum
   configured number of hops has been hit.

   Some implementations, use ICMP Echoes, instead of UDP datagrams.
   However, many routers do not return ICMP messages about ICMP
   messages, i.e. no ICMP TIME_EXCEEDED is returned for an ICMP Echo.
   Therefore, this document recommends to base implementations on UDP
   datagrams.  Considerations on TCP-based implementations of the
   traceroute tool are reported in Appendix A.1.


4.  Results of traceroute measurements

   The following list reports the information fields provided as results



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   by all traceroute tool implementations considered.  The order in
   which they are reported here is not relevant and it changes in
   different implementations.  For each hop the information reported is:
   o  the hop index;
   o  the host symbolic address, provided that at least one of the
      probes received a response, the symbolic address could be resolved
      at the corresponding host and that the option to display only
      numerical addresses was not set;
   o  the host IP address, provided that at least one of the probes
      received a response;
   o  the RTT for each response to a probe.
   Depending on the traceroute tool implementation, additional
   information might be displayed in the output (for instance MPLS-
   related information).

   It might happen that some probes do not receive a response within the
   configured time-out (for instance if the probe is filtered out by a
   firewall).  In this case, an "*" is displayed in place of the RTT.
   The information model reflects this using a string with the value of
   "RoundTripTimeNotAvailable" meaning either the probe was lost because
   of a time-out or it was not possible to transmit a probe.  It may
   also happen that some implementations print the same line multiple
   times when a router decreases the TTL by more than one looking like
   multiple hops, the information model is not impacted by this since
   each line is handled separately and it is left to the applications
   handling the XML file how to deal with it.  Moreover, for delays
   below 1 ms, some implementations reports 0 ms (e.g.  UNIX and LINUX)
   while WINDOWS tracert reports "< 1 ms".


5.  Information Model for Traceroute Measurements

   The information model is composed of information elements; for
   defining these information elements, a template is used.  Such
   template is specified in the list below:

   o  name - A unique and meaningful name for the information element.
      The preferred spelling for the name is to use mixed case if the
      name is compound, with an initial lower case letter, e.g.,
      "sourceIpAddress".
   o  description - The semantics of this information element.
   o  dataType - One of the types listed in Section 5.1 of this document
      or in an extension of the information model.  The type space for
      attributes is constrained to facilitate implementation.
   o  units - If the element is a measure of some kind, the units
      identify what the measure is.





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5.1.  Data Types

   This section describes the set of basic valid data types of the
   information model.

   o  String - The type "String" represents a finite length string of
      valid characters from the Unicode character encoding set.  Unicode
      allows for ASCII and many other international character sets to be
      used.  It is expected that strings will be encoded in UTF-8
      format, which is identical in encoding for USASCII characters, but
      also accommodates other Unicode multi-byte characters.
   o  String255 - Same type as "String" but with the restriction to 255
      characters.
   o  InetAddressType - The type "InetAddressType" represents a type of
      Internet address.  The allowed values are to be intended as
      imported from [RFC4001] (where the intent was to import only some
      of the values); additional allowed value are "asnumber" and
      "noSpecification".
   o  InetAddress - The type "InetAddress" denotes a generic Internet
      address.  The allowed values are imported from [RFC4001] (the
      values imported are unknown, ipv4, ipv6 and dns), while non-global
      IPv4/IPv6 addresses (e.g. ipv4z and ipv6z) were excluded; an
      additional allowed value is the AS number to be indicated as the
      actual number plus the indication how the mapping from IP address
      to AS number was performed. "unknown" is used to indicate an IP
      address that is not in one of the formats defined.
   o  ipASNumberMappingType - The type "ipASNumberMappingType"
      represents a type of mapping from IP to AS number, it indicated
      the method that was used to do get the mapping (allowed values are
      "bgptables", "routingregistries", "nslookup", "others" or
      "unknown").
   o  Boolean - The type "boolean" represents a Boolean value according
      to XML standards [W3C.REC-xmlschema-2-20041028].
   o  UnsignedInt - The type "UnsignedInt" represents a value in the
      range (0..4294967295).
   o  UnsignedShort - The type "UnsignedShort" represents a value in the
      range (0..65535).
   o  UnsignedByte - The type "UnsignedByte" represents a value in the
      range (0..255).
   o  u8nonzero - The type "u8nonzero" represents a value in the range
      (1..255).
   o  ProbesType - The type "ProbesType" represents a way of indicating
      the protocol used for the traceroute probes.  Values defined in
      this document are UDP, TCP and ICMP.
   o  OperationResponseStatus - The type "OperationResponseStatus" is
      used to report the result of an operation.  The allowed values are
      to be intended as imported from [RFC4560].




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   o  dateTime - The type "dateTime" represents a date-time
      specification according to XML standards
      [W3C.REC-xmlschema-2-20041028] but restricted to the values
      defined in [RFC3339].

5.2.  Information Elements

   This section describes the elements related to the storing of a
   traceroute measurement.  The elements are grouped in two groups
   (Configuration and Results) according to their semantics.  In order
   to relate configuration and results elements by means of a common
   unique identifier, an additional element is defined belonging to both
   the two groups.

5.2.1.  Relationship between the Information Elements

   Every traceroute measurement is represented by an instance of the
   "traceRoute" element.  This class provides a standardized
   representation for traceroute measurement data.  The "traceroute"
   element is an element that can be composed of (depending on the
   nature of the traceroute measurement):

   o  1 optional "RequestMetadata" element;
   o  0..4294967295 "Measurement" elements;

   Each "Measurement" element contains:

   o  1 optional "MeasurementMetadata" element;
   o  0..4294967295 "MeasurementResult" elements;

   The "RequestMetadata" element can be used for specifying parameters
   of a traceroute measurement to be performed at one or more nodes by
   one or more traceroute implementations.  Depending on the
   capabilities of a traceroute implementation, not all requested
   parameters can be applied.  Which parameters have actually been
   applied by for specific traceroute measurement is specified in a
   "MeasurementMetadata" element.

   The "RequestMetadata" element is a sequence that contains:

   o  1 "TestName" element;
   o  1 optional "ToolVersion" element;
   o  1 optional "ToolName" element;
   o  1 "CtlTargetAddress" element;
   o  1 optional "CtlBypassRouteTable" element;
   o  1 optional "CtlProbeDataSize" element;





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   o  1 optional "CtlTimeOut" element;
   o  1 optional "CtlProbesPerHop" element;
   o  1 optional "CtlPort" element;
   o  1 optional "CtlMaxTtl" element;
   o  1 optional "CtlDSField" element;
   o  1 optional "CtlSourceAddress" element;
   o  1 optional "CtlIfIndex" element;
   o  1 optional "CtlMiscOptions" element;
   o  1 optional "CtlMaxFailures" element;
   o  1 optional "CtlDontFragment" element;
   o  1 optional "CtlInitialTtl" element;
   o  1 optional "CtlDescr" element;
   o  1 "CtlType" element;

   If the "RequestMetadata" element is omitted from an XML file then it
   means that the traceroute measurement configuration parameters
   requested were all used and the "MeasurementMetadata" element list
   them in detail.

   The "MeasurementMetadata" element is a sequence that contains:

   o  1 "TestName" element;
   o  1 "OSName" element;
   o  1 "OSVersion" element;
   o  1 "ToolVersion" element;
   o  1 "ToolName" element;
   o  1 "CtlTargetAddressType" element;
   o  1 "CtlTargetAddress" element;
   o  1 "CtlBypassRouteTable" element;
   o  1 "CtlProbeDataSize" element;
   o  1 "CtlTimeOut" element;
   o  1 "CtlProbesPerHop" element;
   o  1 "CtlPort" element;
   o  1 "CtlMaxTtl" element;
   o  1 "CtlDSField" element;
   o  1 "CtlSourceAddressType" element;
   o  1 "CtlSourceAddress" element;
   o  1 "CtlIfIndex" element;
   o  1 optional "CtlMiscOptions" element;
   o  1 "CtlMaxFailures" element;
   o  1 "CtlDontFragment" element;
   o  1 "CtlInitialTtl" element;
   o  1 optional "CtlDescr" element;
   o  1 "CtlType" element;

   Configuration Information Elements can describe not just traceroute
   measurements that have already happened ("MeasurementMetadata"
   elements), but also configuration to be used when requesting a



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   measurement to be made ("RequestMetadata" element).  This is quite
   different semantically, even if the individual information elements
   are similar.  Due to this similarity both "RequestMetadata" as well
   as "MeasurementMetadata" are represented by the same type in the XML
   schema.  All elements that are missing from the "RequestMetadata" or
   marked as optional in the "RequestMetadata" but mandatory in the
   "MeasurementMetadata" must be specified as empty elements.
   Specifying them as empty elements means use the default value.  The
   "CtlType" element could have been optional in the "RequestMetadata"
   but since default values cannot be specified for complex types in an
   XML schema the element is mandatory also in the "RequestMetadata".

   The "MeasurementResult" element is a sequence that contains:

   o  1 "TestName" element;
   o  1 "ResultsStartDateAndTime" element;
   o  1 "ResultsIpTgtAddrType" element;
   o  1 "ResultsIpTgtAddr" element;
   o  1 "ProbeResults" elements;
   o  1 "ResultsEndDateAndTime" element;

   Additionally it is important to say that each "ProbeResults" element
   is a sequence that contains:

   o  1..255 "hop" elements;

   Each "hop" element is a sequence that contains

   o  1..10 "probe" elements;
   o  1 optional "HopRawOutputData" element;

   Each "probe" element contains:

   o  1 "HopAddrType" element;
   o  1 "HopAddr" element;
   o  1 optional "HopName" element;
   o  0..255 optional "MPLSLabelStackEntry" elements;
   o  1 "ProbedRoundTripTime" element;
   o  1 "ResponseStatus" element;
   o  1 "Time" element;

   Different numbers of appearances of the three basic elements in the
   XML file are meant for different scopes:

   o  a file with only 1 "RequestMetadata" element represents a file
      containing the traceroute measurement configuration parameters of
      a traceroute measurement, it can be used to distribute the
      traceroute measurement configuration parameters over multiple



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      nodes asked to run the same traceroute measurement;
   o  a file with 1 "Measurement element containing 1
      "MeasurementMetadata" and 1 "MeasurementResult" element represents
      a file containing the traceroute measurement information of a
      traceroute measurement;
   o  a file with 1 "Measurement element containing 1
      "MeasurementMetadata" and n "MeasurementResult" elements
      represents a file containing the traceroute measurement
      information of a set of traceroute measurements run over different
      times with always the same traceroute measurement configuration
      parameters;
   o  a file with 1 "RequestMetadata" and 1 "Measurement element
      containing 1 "MeasurementMetadata" and 1 "Measurement" element
      represents a file containing the traceroute measurement
      information of a traceroute measurement (containing both the
      requested traceroute measurement configuration parameters and the
      ones actually used);
   o  other combinations are possible to store multiple traceroute
      measurements all in one XML file.

5.2.2.  Configuration Information Elements

   This section describes the elements specific to the configuration of
   the traceroute measurement (belonging to both "RequestMetadata" and
   "MeasurementMetadata" elements).

5.2.2.1.  CtlTargetAddressType

   o  name - CtlTargetAddressType
   o  description - Specifies the type of address in the corresponding
      CtlTargetAddress element.  This element is not directly reflected
      in the XML Schema of Section 7.  The host address type can be
      determined by examining the inetAddress type name and the
      corresponding element value.
   o  dataType - InetAddressType
   o  units - N/A

5.2.2.2.  CtlTargetAddress

   o  name - CtlTargetAddress
   o  description - In the "RequestMetadata" element it specifies the
      host address requested to be used in the traceroute measurement.
      In the "MeasurementMetadata" element it specifies the host address
      used in the traceroute measurement.
   o  dataType - InetAddress
   o  units - N/A





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5.2.2.3.  CtlBypassRouteTable

   o  name - CtlBypassRouteTable
   o  description - In the "RequestMetadata" element specifies if it is
      requested to enable the optional bypassing of the route table or
      not.  In the "MeasurementMetadata" element, specifies if the
      optional bypassing of the route table was enabled or not.  If
      enabled, the normal routing tables will be bypassed and the probes
      will be sent directly to a host on an attached network.  If the
      host is not on a directly-attached network, an error is returned.
      This option can be used to perform the traceroute measurement to a
      local host through an interface that has no route defined.  This
      object can be used when the setsockopt SOL_SOCKET SO_DONTROUTE
      option is supported and set (see [IEEE.1003-1G.1997]).
   o  dataType - Boolean
   o  units - N/A

5.2.2.4.  CtlProbeDataSize

   o  name - CtlProbeDataSize
   o  description - Specifies the size of the probes of a traceroute
      measurement in octets (requested if in the "RequestMetadata"
      element, actually used if in the "MeasurementMetadata" element).
      If UDP datagrams are used as probes, then the value contained in
      this object is exact.  If another protocol is used to transmit
      probes (i.e.  TCP or ICMP) for which the specified size is not
      appropriate, then the implementation can use whatever size
      (appropriate to the method) is closest to the specified size.  The
      maximum value for this object was computed by subtracting the
      smallest possible IP header size of 20 octets (IPv4 header with no
      options) and the UDP header size of 8 octets from the maximum IP
      packet size.  An IP packet has a maximum size of 65535 octets
      (excluding IPv6 Jumbograms).
   o  dataType - UnsignedShort
   o  units - octets

5.2.2.5.  CtlTimeOut

   o  name - CtlTimeOut
   o  description - Specifies the time-out value, in seconds, for each
      probe of a traceroute measurement (requested if in the
      "RequestMetadata" element, actually used if in the
      "MeasurementMetadata" element).
   o  dataType - UnsignedByte
   o  units - seconds






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5.2.2.6.  CtlProbesPerHop

   o  name - CtlProbesPerHop
   o  description - Specifies the number of probes with the same time-
      to-live (TTL) value that are sent for each host (requested if in
      the "RequestMetadata" element, actually used if in the
      "MeasurementMetadata" element).
   o  dataType - UnsignedByte
   o  units - probes

5.2.2.7.  CtlPort

   o  name - CtlPort
   o  description - Specifies the base port used by the traceroute
      measurement (requested if in the "RequestMetadata" element,
      actually used if in the "MeasurementMetadata" element).
   o  dataType - UnsignedShort
   o  units - port number

5.2.2.8.  CtlMaxTtl

   o  name - CtlMaxTtl
   o  description - Specifies the maximum TTL value for the traceroute
      measurement (requested if in the "RequestMetadata" element,
      actually used if in the "MeasurementMetadata" element).
   o  dataType - u8nonzero
   o  units - time-to-live value

5.2.2.9.  CtlDSField

   o  name - CtlDSField
   o  description - Specifies the value that was requested to be stored
      in the Differentiated Services (DS) field in the traceroute probe
      (if in the "RequestMetadata" element).  Specifies the value that
      was stored in the Differentiated Services (DS) field in the
      traceroute probe (if in the "MeasurementMetadata" element).  The
      DS Field is defined as the Type of Service (TOS) octet in a IPv4
      header or as the Traffic Class octet in a IPv6 header (see section
      7 of [RFC2460]).  The value of this object must be a decimal
      integer in the range from 0 to 255.  This option can be used to
      determine what effect an explicit DS field setting has on a
      traceroute measurement and its probes.  Not all values are legal
      or meaningful.  Useful TOS octet values are probably '16' (low
      delay) and '8' (high throughput).  Further references can be found
      in [RFC2474] for the definition of the Differentiated Services
      (DS) field and to [RFC1812] Section 5.3.2 for Type of Service
      (TOS).




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   o  dataType - UnsignedByte
   o  units - N/A

5.2.2.10.  CtlSourceAddressType

   o  name - CtlSourceAddressType
   o  description - Specifies the type of address in the corresponding
      CtlSourceAddress element.  This element is not directly reflected
      in the XML Schema of Section 7.  The host address type can be
      determined by examining the inetAddress type name and the
      corresponding element value.  DNS names are not allowed for the
      CtlSourceAddress.
   o  dataType - InetAddressType
   o  units - N/A

5.2.2.11.  CtlSourceAddress

   o  name - CtlSourceAddress
   o  description - Specifies the IP address (which has to be given as
      an IP number, not a hostname) as the source address in traceroute
      probes (requested if in the "RequestMetadata" element, actually
      used if in the "MeasurementMetadata" element).  On hosts with more
      than one IP address, this option can be used in "RequestMetadata"
      element to force the source address to be something other than the
      primary IP address of the interface the probe is sent on; the
      value "unknown" means the default address will be used.
   o  dataType - InetAddress
   o  units - N/A

5.2.2.12.  CtlIfIndex

   o  name - CtlIfIndex
   o  description - Specifies the interface index as defined in
      [RFC2863] that is requested to be used in the traceroute
      measurement for sending the traceroute probes (if in the
      "RequestMetadata" element).  A value of 0 in the "RequestMetadata"
      indicates that no specific interface is requested.  Specifies the
      one actually used if in the "MeasurementMetadata" element.
   o  dataType - UnsignedInt
   o  units - N/A

5.2.2.13.  CtlMiscOptions

   o  name - CtlMiscOptions
   o  description - Specifies implementation dependent options
      (requested if in the "RequestMetadata" element, actually used if
      in the "MeasurementMetadata" element).




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   o  dataType - String255
   o  units - N/A

5.2.2.14.  CtlMaxFailures

   o  name - CtlMaxFailures
   o  description - Specifies the maximum number of consecutive timeouts
      allowed before terminating a traceroute measurement (requested if
      in the "RequestMetadata" element, actually used if in the
      "MeasurementMetadata" element).  A value of either 255 (maximum
      hop count/possible TTL value) or a 0 indicates that the function
      of terminating a remote traceroute measurement when a specific
      number of consecutive timeouts are detected was disabled.  This
      element is included to give full compatibility with [RFC4560].  No
      known implementation of traceroute currently supports it.
   o  dataType - Unsigned8
   o  units - timeouts

5.2.2.15.  CtlDontFragment

   o  name - CtlDontFragment
   o  description - Specifies if the don't fragment flag (DF) in the IP
      header for a probe was enabled or not (if in the
      "MeasurementMetadata" element).  If in the "RequestMetadata", it
      specifies if the flag was requested to be enable or not.  Setting
      the DF flag can be used for performing a manual PATH MTU test.
   o  dataType - Boolean
   o  units - N/A

5.2.2.16.  CtlInitialTtl

   o  name - CtlInitialTtl
   o  description - Specifies the initial TTL value for a traceroute
      measurement (requested if in the "RequestMetadata" element,
      actually used if in the "MeasurementMetadata" element).  Such TTL
      setting is intended to bypass the initial (often well known)
      portion of a path.
   o  dataType - u8nonzero
   o  units - N/A

5.2.2.17.  CtlDescr

   o  name - CtlDescr
   o  description - The purpose of this element is to provide a
      description of the traceroute measurement.
   o  dataType - String255





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   o  units - N/A

5.2.2.18.  CtlType

   o  name - CtlType
   o  description - Specifies the implementation method used for the
      traceroute measurement (requested if in the "RequestMetadata"
      element, actually used if in the "MeasurementMetadata" element).
      It specifies if the traceroute is using TCP, UDP, ICMP or other
      type of probes.  It is possible to specify other types of probes
      by using an element specified in another schema with a different
      namespace.
   o  dataType - ProbesType
   o  units - N/A

5.2.3.  Results Information Elements

   This section describes the elements specific to the results of the
   traceroute measurement.

5.2.3.1.  ResultsStartDateAndTime

   o  name - ResultsStartDateAndTime
   o  description - Specifies the date and start time of the traceroute
      measurement.  This is the time when the first probe was seen at
      the sending interface.
   o  dataType - DateTime
   o  units - N/A

5.2.3.2.  ResultsIpTgtAddrType

   o  name - ResultsIpTgtAddrType
   o  description - Specifies the type of address in the corresponding
      ResultsIpTgtAddr element.  This element is not directly reflected
      in the XML Schema of Section 7.  The host address type can be
      determined by examining the inetAddress type name and the
      corresponding element value.
   o  dataType - InetAddressType
   o  units - N/A

5.2.3.3.  ResultsIpTgtAddr

   o  name - ResultsIpTgtAddr
   o  description - Specifies the IP address associated with a
      CtlTargetAddress value when the destination address is specified
      as a DNS name.  The value of this object should be "unknown" if a
      DNS name is not specified or when a specified DNS name fails to
      resolve.



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   o  dataType - InetAddress
   o  units - N/A

5.2.3.4.  HopAddrType

   o  name - HopAddrType
   o  description - Specifies the type of address in the corresponding
      HopAddr element.  This element is not directly reflected in the
      XML Schema of Section 7.  The host address type can be determined
      by examining the inetAddress type name and the corresponding
      element value.  DNS names are not allowed for HopAddr.
   o  dataType - InetAddressType
   o  units - N/A

5.2.3.5.  HopAddr

   o  name - HopAddr
   o  description - Specifies the address of a hop in the traceroute
      measurement path.  This object is not allowed to be a DNS name.
   o  dataType - InetAddress
   o  units - N/A

5.2.3.6.  HopName

   o  name - HopName
   o  description - Specifies the DNS name of the HopAddr if it is
      available.  If it is not available the element is omitted.
   o  dataType - InetAddress
   o  units - N/A

5.2.3.7.  MPLSLabelStackEntry

   o  name - MPLSLabelStackEntry
   o  description - Specifies entries of the MPLS label stack of a probe
      observed when the probe arrived at the hop that replied to the
      probe.  This object contains one MPLS label stack entry as 32 bit
      value as it is observed on the MPLS label stack.  Contained in
      this single number are the MPLS label, the Exp field, the S flag,
      and the MPLS TTL value as specified in [RFC3032].  If more than
      one MPLS label stack entry is reported then multiple instances of
      elements of this type are used.  They must be ordered in the same
      order as on the label stack with the top label stack entry being
      reported first.
   o  dataType - UnsignedInt
   o  units - N/A






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5.2.3.8.  ProbeRoundTripTime

   o  name - ProbeRoundTripTime
   o  description - If this element contains the element roundTripTime
      this specifies the amount of time measured in milliseconds from
      when a probe was sent to when its response was received or when it
      timed out.  The value of this element is reported as the
      truncation of the number reported by the traceroute tool (the
      output "< 1 ms" is therefore encoded as 0 ms).  If it contains the
      element "roundTripTimeNotAvaiable" it means either the probe was
      lost because of a timeout or it was not possible to transmit a
      probe.
   o  dataType - UnsignedShort or String
   o  units - milliseconds or N/A

5.2.3.9.  ResponseStatus

   o  name - ResponseStatus
   o  description - Specifies the result of a traceroute measurement
      made by the host for a particular probe.
   o  dataType - OperationResponseStatus
   o  units - N/A

5.2.3.10.  Time

   o  name - Time
   o  description - Specifies the timestamp for the time the response to
      the probe was received at the interface.
   o  dataType - DateTime
   o  units - N/A

5.2.3.11.  ResultsEndDateAndTime

   o  name - ResultsEndDateAndTime
   o  description - Specifies the date and end time of the traceroute
      measurement.  It is either the time when the response to the last
      probe of the traceroute measurement was received or the time when
      the last probe of the traceroute measurement was sent plus the
      relative timeout (in case of missing response).
   o  dataType - DateTime
   o  units - N/A

5.2.3.12.  HopRawOutputData

   o  name - HopRawOutputData
   o  description - Specifies the raw output data returned by the
      traceroute measurement for a certain hop in a traceroute
      measurement path.  It is an implementation-dependant printable



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      string, expected to be useful for a human interpreting the
      traceroute results.
   o  dataType - String
   o  units - N/A

5.2.4.  Information Element Correlating Configuration and Results
        Elements

   This section defines an additional element belonging to both the two
   previous groups (configuration elements and result elements) named
   TestName.  This element is defined in order to relate configuration
   elements and results ones by means of a common unique identifier (to
   be chosen in accordance to the specification of [RFC4560]).

5.2.4.1.  TestName

   o  name - TestName
   o  description - Specifies the name of a traceroute measurement.
      This is not necessarily unique, within any well-defined scope
      (e.g. a specific host, initiator of the traceroute measurement).
   o  dataType - String255
   o  units - N/A

5.2.5.  Information Elements to compare traceroute measurements results
        one with each other

   This section defines additional elements belonging to both the two
   previous groups (configuration elements and result elements); these
   elements were defined in order to allow traceroute measurements
   results comparison among different traceroute measurements.

5.2.5.1.  OSName

   o  name - OSName
   o  description - Specifies the name of the operating system on which
      the traceroute measurement was launched.  This element is ignored
      if used in the "RequestMetadata".
   o  dataType - String255
   o  units - N/A

5.2.5.2.  OSVersion

   o  name - OSVersion
   o  description - Specifies the OS version on which the traceroute
      measurement was launched.  This element is ignored if used in the
      "RequestMetadata".





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   o  dataType - String255
   o  units - N/A

5.2.5.3.  ToolVersion

   o  name - ToolVersion
   o  description - Specifies the version of the traceroute tool
      (requested to be used if in the "RequestMetadata" element,
      actually used if in the "MeasurementMetadata" element).
   o  dataType - String255
   o  units - N/A

5.2.5.4.  ToolName

   o  name - ToolName
   o  description - Specifies the name of the traceroute tool (requested
      to be used if in the "RequestMetadata" element, actually used if
      in the "MeasurementMetadata" element).
   o  dataType - String255
   o  units - N/A


6.  Data Model for Storing Traceroute Measurements

   For storing and transmitting information according to the information
   model defined in the previous section, a data model is required that
   specifies how to encode the elements of the information model.

   There are several design choices for a data model.  It can use a
   binary or textual representation and it can be defined from scratch
   or use already existing frameworks and data models.  In general, the
   use of already existing frameworks and models should be preferred.

   Binary and textual representation both have advantages and
   disadvantages.  Textual representations are (with some limitations)
   human readable while a binary representation consumes less resources
   for storing, transmitting and parsing data.

   An already existing and closely related data model is the DISMAN-
   TRACEROUTE-MIB module [RFC4560], that specifies a SMIv2 encoding of
   [RFC2578], [RFC2579] and [RFC2580] for transmitting traceroute
   measurement information (configuration and results).  This data model
   is well suited and supported within network management systems, but
   as a general format for storing and transmitting traceroute results
   it is not easily applicable.

   Another binary representation would be an extension of traffic flow
   information encodings as specified for the IPFIX protocol [RFC5101],



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   [RFC5102].  The IPFIX protocol is extensible.  However, the
   architecture behind this protocol [I-D.ietf-ipfix-architecture] is
   targeted at exporting passively measured flow information.
   Therefore, some obstacles are expected when trying to use it for
   transmitting traceroute measurements information.

   For textual representations, using the eXtensible Markup Language
   (XML) [W3C.REC-xml-20060816] is an obvious choice.  XML supports
   clean structuring of data and syntax checking of records.  With some
   limitations it is human readable.  It is supported well by a huge
   pool of tools and standards for generating, transmitting, parsing and
   converting it to other data formats.  Its disadvantages is the
   resource consumption for processing, storing, and transmitting
   information.  Since the expected data volumes related to traceroute
   measurements in network operation and maintenance is not expected to
   be extremely high, the inefficient usage of resources is not a
   significant disadvantage.  Therefore, XML was chosen as basis for the
   traceroute measurements information model that is specified in this
   section.

   Section 7 contains the XML schema to be used as a template for
   storing and/or exchanging traceroute measurements information.  The
   schema was designed in order to use an extensible approach based on
   templates (pretty similar to how IPFIX protocol is designed) where
   the traceroute configuration elements (both the requested parameters,
   Request, and the actual parameters used, MeasurementMetadata) are
   meta data to be referenced by results information elements (data) by
   means of the TestName element (used as unique identifier, chosen in
   accordance to the specification of [RFC4560]).  Currently Open Grid
   Forum (OGF) is also using this approach and cross-requirements have
   been analyzed.  As a result of this analysis the XML schema contained
   in Section 7 is compatible with OGF schema since it was designed in a
   way that both limits the unnecessary redundancy and a simple one-to-
   one transformation between the two exist.


7.  XML Schema for traceroute Measurements

   This section presents the XML schema to be used as a template for
   storing and/or exchanging traceroute measurements information.  The
   schema uses UTF-8 encoding defined in [RFC3629].  In documents
   conforming to the format presented here an XML declaration SHOULD be
   present specifying the version and the character encoding of the XML
   document.  The document should be encoded using UTF-8.  Since some of
   the strings can span multiple lines [RFC5198] applies.  XML
   processing instructions and comments MUST be ignored.  Mind that
   whitespace is significant in XML when writing documents conforming to
   this schema.  Documents using the presented format must be valid



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   according to the XML schema shown in this section.  This includes all
   elements.  Since elements of type _CtlType may contain elements from
   unknown namespaces those elements MUST be ignored if their namespace
   is unknown to the processor.  Values for elements using the XML
   schema type dateTime MUST be restricted to values defined in
   [RFC3339].  Future versions of this format MAY extend this schema by
   creating a new schema that redefines all or parts of the data types
   and elements defined in this version or by establishing a complete
   new schema.

   Due to the limited line length some lines appear wrapped.

   <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
   <xs:schema elementFormDefault="qualified"
              targetNamespace="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:traceroute-1.0"
              xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
              xmlns:tr="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:traceroute-1.0">
     <xs:simpleType name="string255">
       <xs:annotation>
         <xs:documentation>String restricted to 255
         characters.</xs:documentation>
       </xs:annotation>

       <xs:restriction base="xs:string">
         <xs:maxLength value="255"/>
       </xs:restriction>
     </xs:simpleType>

     <xs:simpleType name="u8nonzero">
       <xs:annotation>
         <xs:documentation>usginedByte with non zero
         value.</xs:documentation>
       </xs:annotation>

       <xs:restriction base="xs:unsignedByte">
         <xs:minInclusive value="1"/>
       </xs:restriction>
     </xs:simpleType>

     <xs:complexType name="_roundTripTime">
       <xs:choice>
         <xs:element name="roundTripTime">
           <xs:simpleType>
             <xs:restriction base="xs:unsignedInt"/>
           </xs:simpleType>
         </xs:element>

         <xs:element name="roundTripTimeNotAvailable">



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           <xs:complexType/>
         </xs:element>
       </xs:choice>
     </xs:complexType>

     <xs:complexType name="_inetAddressUnknown"/>

     <xs:simpleType name="_inetAddressIpv4">
       <xs:restriction base="xs:string">
         <xs:pattern value="(([1-9]?[0-9]|1[0-9][0-9]|2[0-4][0-9]|25[0-5
   ]).){3}([1-9]?[0-9]|1[0-9][0-9]|2[0-4][0-9]|25[0-5])"/>
       </xs:restriction>
     </xs:simpleType>

     <xs:simpleType name="_inetAddressIpv6">
       <xs:restriction base="xs:string">
         <xs:pattern value="(([\dA-Fa-f]{1,4}:){7}[\dA-Fa-f]{1,4})(:([\d
   ]{1,3}.){3}[\d]{1,3})?"/>
       </xs:restriction>
     </xs:simpleType>

     <xs:simpleType name="_inetAddressDns">
       <xs:restriction base="xs:string">
         <xs:maxLength value="256"/>
       </xs:restriction>
     </xs:simpleType>

     <xs:complexType name="_inetAddressASNumber">
       <xs:annotation>
         <xs:documentation>Specifies the AS number of a hop in the
         traceroute path as a 32 bit number and the indication how the
         mapping from IP address to AS number was
         performed.</xs:documentation>
       </xs:annotation>

       <xs:sequence>
         <xs:element name="asNumber" type="xs:unsignedInt"/>

         <xs:element name="ipASNumberMappingType">
           <xs:simpleType>
             <xs:restriction base="xs:string">
               <xs:enumeration value="bgptables"/>

               <xs:enumeration value="routingregistries"/>

               <xs:enumeration value="nslookup"/>

               <xs:enumeration value="others"/>



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               <xs:enumeration value="unknown"/>
             </xs:restriction>
           </xs:simpleType>
         </xs:element>
       </xs:sequence>
     </xs:complexType>

     <xs:complexType name="inetAddress">
       <xs:choice>
         <xs:element name="inetAddressUnknown"
                     type="tr:_inetAddressUnknown"/>

         <xs:element name="inetAddressIpv4" type="tr:_inetAddressIpv4"/>

         <xs:element name="inetAddressIpv6" type="tr:_inetAddressIpv6"/>

         <xs:element name="inetAddressASNumber"
                     type="tr:_inetAddressASNumber"/>

         <xs:element minOccurs="0" name="inetAddressDns"
                     type="tr:_inetAddressDns"/>
       </xs:choice>
     </xs:complexType>

     <xs:complexType name="inetAddressWithoutDns">
       <xs:sequence>
         <xs:choice>
           <xs:element name="inetAddressUnknown"
                       type="tr:_inetAddressUnknown"/>

           <xs:element name="inetAddressIpv4"
                       type="tr:_inetAddressIpv4"/>

           <xs:element name="inetAddressIpv6"
                       type="tr:_inetAddressIpv6"/>

           <xs:element name="inetAddressASNumber"
                       type="tr:_inetAddressASNumber"/>
         </xs:choice>
       </xs:sequence>
     </xs:complexType>

     <xs:simpleType name="operationResponseStatus">
       <xs:restriction base="xs:string">
         <xs:enumeration value="responseReceived"/>

         <xs:enumeration value="unknown"/>




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         <xs:enumeration value="internalError"/>

         <xs:enumeration value="requestTimedOut"/>

         <xs:enumeration value="unknownDestinationAddress"/>

         <xs:enumeration value="noRouteToTarget"/>

         <xs:enumeration value="interfaceInactiveToTarget"/>

         <xs:enumeration value="arpFailure"/>

         <xs:enumeration value="maxConcurrentLimitReached"/>

         <xs:enumeration value="unableToResolveDnsName"/>

         <xs:enumeration value="invalidHostAddress"/>
       </xs:restriction>
     </xs:simpleType>

     <xs:complexType name="_CtlType">
       <xs:choice>
         <xs:element name="TCP">
           <xs:complexType/>
         </xs:element>

         <xs:element name="UDP">
           <xs:complexType/>
         </xs:element>

         <xs:element name="ICMP">
           <xs:complexType/>
         </xs:element>

         <xs:any namespace="##other"/>
       </xs:choice>
     </xs:complexType>

     <xs:complexType name="_ProbeResults">
       <xs:sequence>
         <xs:element maxOccurs="255" name="hop">
           <xs:complexType>
             <xs:sequence>
               <xs:element maxOccurs="10" name="probe">
                 <xs:complexType>
                   <xs:sequence>
                     <xs:element name="HopAddr"
                                 type="tr:inetAddressWithoutDns">



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                       <xs:annotation>
                         <xs:documentation>Specifies the address of a
                         hop in the traceroute measurement path. This
                         object is not allowed to be a DNS name. The
                         address type can be determined by examining the
                         inetAddress type name and the corresponding
                         element value.</xs:documentation>
                       </xs:annotation>
                     </xs:element>

                     <xs:element minOccurs="0" name="HopName"
                                 type="tr:_inetAddressDns">
                       <xs:annotation>
                         <xs:documentation>Specifies the DNS name of
                         the HopAddress if it is available. If it is
                         not available the element is
                         omitted.</xs:documentation>
                       </xs:annotation>
                     </xs:element>

                     <xs:element maxOccurs="255" minOccurs="0"
                                 name="MPLSLabelStackEntry">
                       <xs:annotation>
                         <xs:documentation>Specifies entries of the
                         MPLS label stack of a probe observed when the
                         probe arrived at the hop that replied to the
                         probe. This object contains one MPLS label
                         stack entry as 32 bit value as it is observed
                         on the MPLS label stack. Contained in this
                         single number are the MPLS label, the Exp
                         field, the S flag, and the MPLS TTL value as
                         specified in [RFC3032]. If more than one MPLS
                         label stack entry is reported then multiple
                         instances of elements of this type are used.
                         They must be ordered in the same order as on
                         the label stack with the top label stack
                         entry being reported
                         first.</xs:documentation>
                       </xs:annotation>

                       <xs:simpleType>
                         <xs:restriction base="xs:unsignedInt">
                           <xs:maxInclusive value="4294967295"/>
                         </xs:restriction>
                       </xs:simpleType>
                     </xs:element>

                     <xs:element name="ProbeRoundTripTime"



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                                 type="tr:_roundTripTime">
                       <xs:annotation>
                         <xs:documentation>If this element contains
                         the element roundTripTime this specifies the
                         amount of time measured in milliseconds from
                         when a probe was sent to when its response
                         was received or when it timed out. The value
                         of this element is reported as the truncation
                         of the number reported by the traceroute tool
                         (the output "&lt; 1 ms" is therefore encoded
                         as 0 ms). If it contains the element
                         "roundTripTimeNotAvaiable" it means either
                         the probe was lost because of a timeout or it
                         was not possible to transmit a
                         probe.</xs:documentation>
                       </xs:annotation>
                     </xs:element>

                     <xs:element name="ResponseStatus"
                                 type="tr:operationResponseStatus">
                       <xs:annotation>
                         <xs:documentation>Specifies the result of a
                         traceroute measurement made by the host for a
                         particular probe.</xs:documentation>
                       </xs:annotation>
                     </xs:element>

                     <xs:element name="Time" type="xs:dateTime">
                       <xs:annotation>
                         <xs:documentation>Specifies the timestamp for
                         the time the response to the probe was
                         received at the interface.</xs:documentation>
                       </xs:annotation>
                     </xs:element>
                   </xs:sequence>
                 </xs:complexType>
               </xs:element>

               <xs:element minOccurs="0" name="HopRawOutputData"
                           type="tr:string255">
                 <xs:annotation>
                   <xs:documentation>Specifies the raw output data
                   returned by the traceroute measurement for a
                   certain hop in a traceroute measurement path. It is
                   an implementation-dependant printable string,
                   expected to be useful for a human interpreting the
                   traceroute results.</xs:documentation>
                 </xs:annotation>



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               </xs:element>
             </xs:sequence>
           </xs:complexType>
         </xs:element>
       </xs:sequence>
     </xs:complexType>

     <xs:complexType name="_Metadata">
       <xs:annotation>
         <xs:documentation>Specifies the metadata for a traceroute
         operation. The parameters requested if used in
         "RequestMetadata" or the actual parameters used if used in
         "MeasurementMetadata".</xs:documentation>
       </xs:annotation>

       <xs:sequence>
         <xs:element name="TestName" type="tr:string255">
           <xs:annotation>
             <xs:documentation>Specifies the name of a traceroute
             measurement. This is not necessarily unique, within any
             well-defined scope (e.g. a specific host, initiator of
             the traceroute measurement).</xs:documentation>
           </xs:annotation>
         </xs:element>

         <xs:element default="" name="OSName" type="tr:string255">
           <xs:annotation>
             <xs:documentation>Specifies the name of the operating
             system on which the traceroute measurement was launched.
             This element is ignored if used in the
             "RequestMetadata".</xs:documentation>
           </xs:annotation>
         </xs:element>

         <xs:element default="" name="OSVersion" type="tr:string255">
           <xs:annotation>
             <xs:documentation>Specifies the OS version on which the
             traceroute measurement was launched. This element is
             ignored if used in the
             "RequestMetadata".</xs:documentation>
           </xs:annotation>
         </xs:element>

         <xs:element default="" name="ToolVersion" type="tr:string255">
           <xs:annotation>
             <xs:documentation>Specifies the version of the traceroute
             tool (requested to be used if in the "RequestMetadata"
             element, actually used if in the "MeasurementMetadata"



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             element).</xs:documentation>
           </xs:annotation>
         </xs:element>

         <xs:element default="" name="ToolName" type="tr:string255">
           <xs:annotation>
             <xs:documentation>Specifies the name of the traceroute
             tool (requested to be used if in the "RequestMetadata"
             element, actually used if in the "MeasurementMetadata"
             element).</xs:documentation>
           </xs:annotation>
         </xs:element>

         <xs:element name="CtlTargetAddress" type="tr:inetAddress">
           <xs:annotation>
             <xs:documentation>In the "RequestMetadata" element it
             specifies the host address requested to be used in the
             traceroute measurement. In the "MeasurementMetadata"
             element it specifies the host address used in the
             traceroute measurement. The host address type can be
             determined by the examining the inetAddress type name and
             the corresponding element value.</xs:documentation>
           </xs:annotation>
         </xs:element>

         <xs:element default="false" name="CtlBypassRouteTable"
                     type="xs:boolean">
           <xs:annotation>
             <xs:documentation>In the "RequestMetadata" element
             specifies if it is requested to enable the optional
             bypassing of the route table or not. In the
             "MeasurementMetadata" element, specifies if the optional
             bypassing of the route table was enabled or not.If
             enabled, the normal routing tables will be bypassed and
             the probes will be sent directly to a host on an attached
             network. If the host is not on a directly-attached
             network, an error is returned. This option can be used to
             perform the traceroute measurement to a local host
             through an interface that has no route defined. This
             object can be used when the setsockopt SOL_SOCKET
             SO_DONTROUTE option is supported and set (see the POSIX
             standard IEEE.1003-1G.1997).</xs:documentation>
           </xs:annotation>
         </xs:element>

         <xs:element default="0" name="CtlProbeDataSize">
           <xs:annotation>
             <xs:documentation>Specifies the size of the probes of a



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             traceroute measurement in octets (requested if in the
             "RequestMetadata" element, actually used if in the
             "MeasurementMetadata" element). If UDP datagrams are used
             as probes, then the value contained in this object is
             exact. If another protocol is used to transmit probes
             (i.e. TCP or ICMP) for which the specified size is not
             appropriate, then the implementation can use whatever
             size (appropriate to the method) is closest to the
             specified size. The maximum value for this object was
             computed by subtracting the smallest possible IP header
             size of 20 octets (IPv4 header with no options) and the
             UDP header size of 8 octets from the maximum IP packet
             size. An IP packet has a maximum size of 65535 octets
             (excluding IPv6 Jumbograms).</xs:documentation>
           </xs:annotation>

           <xs:simpleType>
             <xs:restriction base="xs:unsignedShort">
               <xs:maxInclusive value="65507"/>
             </xs:restriction>
           </xs:simpleType>
         </xs:element>

         <xs:element default="3" name="CtlTimeOut">
           <xs:annotation>
             <xs:documentation>Specifies the time-out value, in
             seconds, for each probe of a traceroute measurement
             (requested if in the "RequestMetadata" element, actually
             used if in the "MeasurementMetadata"
             element).</xs:documentation>
           </xs:annotation>

           <xs:simpleType>
             <xs:restriction base="xs:unsignedByte">
               <xs:minInclusive value="1"/>

               <xs:maxInclusive value="60"/>
             </xs:restriction>
           </xs:simpleType>
         </xs:element>

         <xs:element default="3" name="CtlProbesPerHop">
           <xs:annotation>
             <xs:documentation>Specifies the number of probes with the
             same time-to-live (TTL) value that are sent for each host
             (requested if in the "RequestMetadata" element, actually
             used if in the "MeasurementMetadata"
             element).</xs:documentation>



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           </xs:annotation>

           <xs:simpleType>
             <xs:restriction base="xs:unsignedByte">
               <xs:minInclusive value="1"/>

               <xs:maxInclusive value="10"/>
             </xs:restriction>
           </xs:simpleType>
         </xs:element>

         <xs:element default="33434" name="CtlPort">
           <xs:annotation>
             <xs:documentation>Specifies the base port used by the
             traceroute measurement (requested if in the
             "RequestMetadata" element, actually used if in the
             "MeasurementMetadata" element).</xs:documentation>
           </xs:annotation>

           <xs:simpleType>
             <xs:restriction base="xs:unsignedShort">
               <xs:minInclusive value="1"/>
             </xs:restriction>
           </xs:simpleType>
         </xs:element>

         <xs:element default="30" name="CtlMaxTtl" type="tr:u8nonzero">
           <xs:annotation>
             <xs:documentation>Specifies the maximum TTL value for the
             traceroute measurement (requested if in the
             "RequestMetadata" element, actually used if in the
             "MeasurementMetadata" element).</xs:documentation>
           </xs:annotation>
         </xs:element>

         <xs:element default="0" name="CtlDSField"
                     type="xs:unsignedByte">
           <xs:annotation>
             <xs:documentation>Specifies the value that was requested
             to be stored in the Differentiated Services (DS) field in
             the traceroute probe (if in the "RequestMetadata"
             element). Specifies the value that was stored in the
             Differentiated Services (DS) field in the traceroute
             probe (if in the "MeasurementMetadata" element). The DS
             Field is defined as the Type of Service (TOS) octet in a
             IPv4 header or as the Traffic Class octet in a IPv6
             header (see section 7 of [RFC2460]). The value of this
             object must be a decimal integer in the range from 0 to



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             255. This option can be used to determine what effect an
             explicit DS field setting has on a traceroute measurement
             and its probes. Not all values are legal or meaningful.
             Useful TOS octet values are probably '16' (low delay) and
             '8' (high throughput). Further references can be found in
             [RFC2474] for the definition of the Differentiated
             Services (DS) field and to [RFC1812] Section 5.3.2 for
             Type of Service (TOS).</xs:documentation>
           </xs:annotation>
         </xs:element>

         <xs:element name="CtlSourceAddress"
                     type="tr:inetAddressWithoutDns">
           <xs:annotation>
             <xs:documentation>Specifies the IP address (which has to
             be given as an IP number, not a hostname) as the source
             address in traceroute probes (requested if in the
             "RequestMetadata" element, actually used if in the
             "MeasurementMetadata" element). On hosts with more than
             one IP address, this option can be used in
             "RequestMetadata" element to force the source address to
             be something other than the primary IP address of the
             interface the probe is sent on; the value "unknown" means
             the default address will be used. The address type can be
             determined by examining the inetAddress type name and the
             corresponding element value.</xs:documentation>
           </xs:annotation>
         </xs:element>

         <xs:element default="0" name="CtlIfIndex"
                     type="xs:unsignedInt">
           <xs:annotation>
             <xs:documentation>Specifies the interface index as
             defined in [RFC2863] that is requested to be used in the
             traceroute measurement for sending the traceroute probes
             (if in the "RequestMetadata" element). A value of 0 in
             the "RequestMetadata" indicates that no specific
             interface is requested. Specifies the one actually used
             if in the "MeasurementMetadata"
             element.</xs:documentation>
           </xs:annotation>
         </xs:element>

         <xs:element minOccurs="0" name="CtlMiscOptions"
                     type="tr:string255">
           <xs:annotation>
             <xs:documentation>Specifies implementation dependent
             options (requested if in the "RequestMetadata" element,



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             actually used if in the "MeasurementMetadata"
             element).</xs:documentation>
           </xs:annotation>
         </xs:element>

         <xs:element default="5" name="CtlMaxFailures"
                     type="xs:unsignedByte">
           <xs:annotation>
             <xs:documentation>Specifies the maximum number of
             consecutive timeouts allowed before terminating a
             traceroute measurement (requested if in the
             "RequestMetadata" element, actually used if in the
             "MeasurementMetadata" element). A value of either 255
             (maximum hop count/possible TTL value) or a 0 indicates
             that the function of terminating a remote traceroute
             measurement when a specific number of consecutive
             timeouts are detected was disabled. This element is
             included to give full compatibility with [RFC4560]. No
             known implementation of traceroute currently supports
             it.</xs:documentation>
           </xs:annotation>
         </xs:element>

         <xs:element default="false" name="CtlDontFragment"
                     type="xs:boolean">
           <xs:annotation>
             <xs:documentation>Specifies if the don't fragment flag
             (DF) in the IP header for a probe was enabled or not (if
             in the "MeasurementMetadata" element). If in the
             "RequestMetadata", it specifies if the flag was requested
             to be enable or not. Setting the DF flag can be used for
             performing a manual PATH MTU test.</xs:documentation>
           </xs:annotation>
         </xs:element>

         <xs:element default="1" name="CtlInitialTtl"
                     type="tr:u8nonzero">
           <xs:annotation>
             <xs:documentation>Specifies the initial TTL value for a
             traceroute measurement (requested if in the
             "RequestMetadata" element, actually used if in the
             "MeasurementMetadata" element). Such TTL setting is
             intended to bypass the initial (often well known) portion
             of a path.</xs:documentation>
           </xs:annotation>
         </xs:element>

         <xs:element maxOccurs="1" minOccurs="0" name="CtlDescr"



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                     type="tr:string255">
           <xs:annotation>
             <xs:documentation>The purpose of this element is to
             provide a description of the traceroute
             measurement.</xs:documentation>
           </xs:annotation>
         </xs:element>

         <xs:element name="CtlType" type="tr:_CtlType">
           <xs:annotation>
             <xs:documentation>Specifies the implementation method
             used for the traceroute measurement (requested if in the
             "RequestMetadata" element, actually used if in the
             "MeasurementMetadata" element). It specifies if the
             traceroute is using TCP, UDP, ICMP or other type of
             probes. It is possible to specify other types of probes
             by using an element specified in another schema with a
             different namespace.</xs:documentation>
           </xs:annotation>
         </xs:element>
       </xs:sequence>
     </xs:complexType>

     <xs:complexType name="_Measurement">
       <xs:annotation>
         <xs:documentation>Contains the actual traceroute measurement
         results.</xs:documentation>
       </xs:annotation>

       <xs:sequence>
         <xs:element name="TestName" type="tr:string255">
           <xs:annotation>
             <xs:documentation>Specifies the name of a traceroute
             measurement. This is not necessarily unique, within any
             well-defined scope (e.g. a specific host, initiator of
             the traceroute measurement).</xs:documentation>
           </xs:annotation>
         </xs:element>

         <xs:element name="ResultsStartDateAndTime" type="xs:dateTime">
           <xs:annotation>
             <xs:documentation>Specifies the date and start time of
             the traceroute measurement. This is the time when the
             first probe was seen at the sending
             interface.</xs:documentation>
           </xs:annotation>
         </xs:element>




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         <xs:element name="ResultsIpTgtAddr"
                     type="tr:inetAddressWithoutDns">
           <xs:annotation>
             <xs:documentation>Specifies the IP address associated
             with a CtlTargetAddress value when the destination
             address is specified as a DNS name. The value of this
             object should be "unknown" if a DNS name is not specified
             or when a specified DNS name fails to resolve. The
             address type can be determined by examining the inetAddress
             type name and the corresponding element
             value.</xs:documentation>
           </xs:annotation>
         </xs:element>

         <xs:element name="ProbeResults" type="tr:_ProbeResults"/>

         <xs:element name="ResultsEndDateAndTime" type="xs:dateTime">
           <xs:annotation>
             <xs:documentation>Specifies the date and end time of the
             traceroute measurement. It is either the time when the
             response to the last probe of the traceroute measurement
             was received or the time when the last probe of the
             traceroute measurement was sent plus the relative timeout
             (in case of missing response).</xs:documentation>
           </xs:annotation>
         </xs:element>
       </xs:sequence>
     </xs:complexType>

     <xs:element name="traceRoute">
       <xs:complexType>
         <xs:sequence>
           <xs:element minOccurs="0" name="RequestMetadata"
                       type="tr:_Metadata"/>

           <xs:element maxOccurs="4294967295" minOccurs="0"
                       name="Measurement">
             <xs:complexType>
               <xs:sequence>
                 <xs:element minOccurs="0" name="MeasurementMetadata"
                             type="tr:_Metadata"/>

                 <xs:element maxOccurs="4294967295" minOccurs="0"
                             name="MeasurementResult"
                             type="tr:_Measurement"/>
               </xs:sequence>
             </xs:complexType>
           </xs:element>



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         </xs:sequence>
       </xs:complexType>
     </xs:element>
   </xs:schema>


8.  Security Considerations

   Security considerations discussed in this section are grouped into
   considerations related to conducting traceroute measurements and
   considerations related to storing and transmitting traceroute
   measurements information.

   This memo does not specify an implementation of a traceroute tool.
   Neither does it specify a certain procedure for storing traceroute
   measurements information.  Still it is considered desirable to
   discuss related security issues below.

8.1.  Conducting Traceroute Measurements

   Conducting Internet measurements can raise both security and privacy
   concerns.  Traceroute measurements, in which traffic is injected into
   the network, can be abused for denial-of-service attacks disguised as
   legitimate measurement activity.

   Measurement parameters MUST be carefully selected so that the
   measurements inject trivial amounts of additional traffic into the
   networks they measure.  If they inject "too much" traffic, they can
   skew the results of the measurement, and in extreme cases cause
   congestion and denial of service.

   The measurements themselves could be harmed by routers giving
   measurement traffic a different priority than "normal" traffic, or by
   an attacker injecting artificial measurement traffic.  If routers can
   recognize measurement traffic and treat it separately, the
   measurements will not reflect actual user traffic.  If an attacker
   injects artificial traffic that is accepted as legitimate, the loss
   rate will be artificially lowered.  Therefore, the measurement
   methodologies SHOULD include appropriate techniques to reduce the
   probability measurement traffic can be distinguished from "normal"
   traffic.

   Authentication techniques, such as digital signatures, may be used
   where appropriate to guard against injected traffic attacks.







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8.2.  Securing Traceroute Measurements Information

   Traceroute measurement information are not considered highly
   sensitive.  Still, they may contain sensitive information on network
   paths, routing states, used IP addresses, and roundtrip times, that
   operators of networks may want to protect for business or security
   reasons.

   It is thus important to control access to Information acquired by
   conducting traceroute measurements, particularly when transmitting it
   over a networks but also when storing it.  It is RECOMMENDED that
   transmission of traceroute measurement information over a network
   uses appropriate protection mechanisms for preserving privacy,
   integrity and authenticity.  It is further RECOMMENDED that secure
   authentication and authorization are used for protecting stored
   traceroute measurement information.


9.  IANA Considerations

   This document uses URNs to describe an XML namespace and an XML
   schema for traceroute measurements information storing and
   transmission conforming to a registry mechanism described in
   [RFC3688].  Two URI assignments are requested.
   1.  Registration request for the IPPM traceroute measurements
       namespace
       *  URI: urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:traceroute-1.0
       *  Registrant Contact: IESG
       *  XML: None.  Namespace URIs do not represent an XML
   2.  Registration request for the IPPM traceroute measurements schema
       *  URI: urn:ietf:params:xml:schema:traceroute-1.0
       *  Registrant Contact: IESG
       *  XML: See the section Section 7 of this document.


10.  References

10.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC2460]  Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6
              (IPv6) Specification", RFC 2460, December 1998.

   [RFC2863]  McCloghrie, K. and F. Kastenholz, "The Interfaces Group
              MIB", RFC 2863, June 2000.




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   [RFC3032]  Rosen, E., Tappan, D., Fedorkow, G., Rekhter, Y.,
              Farinacci, D., Li, T., and A. Conta, "MPLS Label Stack
              Encoding", RFC 3032, January 2001.

   [RFC3339]  Klyne, G., Ed. and C. Newman, "Date and Time on the
              Internet: Timestamps", RFC 3339, July 2002.

   [RFC3629]  Yergeau, F., "UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO
              10646", STD 63, RFC 3629, November 2003.

   [RFC4001]  Daniele, M., Haberman, B., Routhier, S., and J.
              Schoenwaelder, "Textual Conventions for Internet Network
              Addresses", RFC 4001, February 2005.

   [RFC4560]  Quittek, J. and K. White, "Definitions of Managed Objects
              for Remote Ping, Traceroute, and Lookup Operations",
              RFC 4560, June 2006.

   [RFC5198]  Klensin, J. and M. Padlipsky, "Unicode Format for Network
              Interchange", RFC 5198, March 2008.

10.2.  Informative References

   [I-D.ietf-ipfix-architecture]
              Sadasivan, G., "Architecture for IP Flow Information
              Export", draft-ietf-ipfix-architecture-12 (work in
              progress), September 2006.

   [IEEE.1003-1G.1997]
              Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers,
              "Protocol Independent Interfaces", IEEE Standard 1003.1G,
              March 1997.

   [RFC1812]  Baker, F., "Requirements for IP Version 4 Routers",
              RFC 1812, June 1995.

   [RFC2474]  Nichols, K., Blake, S., Baker, F., and D. Black,
              "Definition of the Differentiated Services Field (DS
              Field) in the IPv4 and IPv6 Headers", RFC 2474,
              December 1998.

   [RFC2578]  McCloghrie, K., Ed., Perkins, D., Ed., and J.
              Schoenwaelder, Ed., "Structure of Management Information
              Version 2 (SMIv2)", STD 58, RFC 2578, April 1999.

   [RFC2579]  McCloghrie, K., Ed., Perkins, D., Ed., and J.
              Schoenwaelder, Ed., "Textual Conventions for SMIv2",
              STD 58, RFC 2579, April 1999.



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   [RFC2580]  McCloghrie, K., Perkins, D., and J. Schoenwaelder,
              "Conformance Statements for SMIv2", STD 58, RFC 2580,
              April 1999.

   [RFC3688]  Mealling, M., "The IETF XML Registry", BCP 81, RFC 3688,
              January 2004.

   [RFC5101]  Claise, B., "Specification of the IP Flow Information
              Export (IPFIX) Protocol for the Exchange of IP Traffic
              Flow Information", RFC 5101, January 2008.

   [RFC5102]  Quittek, J., Bryant, S., Claise, B., Aitken, P., and J.
              Meyer, "Information Model for IP Flow Information Export",
              RFC 5102, January 2008.

   [W3C.REC-xml-20060816]
              Paoli, J., Yergeau, F., Sperberg-McQueen, C., Bray, T.,
              and E. Maler, "Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0
              (Fourth Edition)", World Wide Web Consortium
              Recommendation REC-xml-20060816, August 2006,
              <http://www.w3.org/TR/2006/REC-xml-20060816>.

   [W3C.REC-xmlschema-2-20041028]
              Biron, P. and A. Malhotra, "XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes
              Second Edition", World Wide Web Consortium
              Recommendation REC-xmlschema-2-20041028, October 2004,
              <http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-xmlschema-2-20041028>.


Appendix A.  Traceroute Default Configuration Parameters

   This section lists traceroute measurement configuration parameters as
   well as their defaults on various platforms and illustrates how
   widely they may vary.  This document considered four major traceroute
   tool implementations and compared them based on configurable
   parameters and default values.  The LINUX (SUSE 9.1), BSD (FreeBSD
   7.0) and UNIX (SunOS 5.9) implementations are based on UDP datagrams,
   while the WINDOWS (XP SP2) one uses ICMP Echoes.  The comparison is
   summarized in the following table, where an N/A in the option column,
   means that such parameter is not configurable for the specific
   implementation.  A comprehensive comparison of available
   implementations is outside the scope of this document; however,
   already by sampling a few different implementations, it can be
   observed that they can differ quite significantly in terms of
   configurable parameters and also default values.  Note that in the
   following table only those options which are available in at least
   two of the considered implementations are reported.




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             +---------------------------------------------------------+
             |  OS    |Option|           Description         | Default |
             +--------+------+-------------------------------+---------+
             | LINUX  | -m   |Specify the maximum TTL used   |   30    |
             |--------+------|in traceroute probes.          |---------|
             | FreeBSD| -m   |                               |  OS var |
             |--------+------|                               |---------|
             | UNIX   | -m   |                               |   30    |
             |--------+------|                               |---------|
             | WINDOWS| -h   |                               |   30    |
             +--------+------+-------------------------------+---------+
             | LINUX  | -n   |Display hop addresses          |    -    |
             |--------+------|numerically rather than        |---------|
             | FreeBSD| -n   |symbolically.                  |    -    |
             |--------+------|                               |---------|
             | UNIX   | -n   |                               |    -    |
             |--------+------|                               |---------|
             | WINDOWS| -d   |                               |    -    |
             +--------+------+-------------------------------+---------+
             | LINUX  | -w   |Set the time to wait for a     |  3 sec  |
             |--------+------|response to a probe.           |---------|
             | FreeBSD| -w   |                               |  5 sec  |
             |--------+------|                               |---------|
             | UNIX   | -w   |                               |  5 sec  |
             |--------+------|                               |---------|
             | WINDOWS| -w   |                               |  4 sec  |
             +--------+------+-------------------------------+---------+
             | LINUX  | N/A  |Specify a loose source route   |    -    |
             |--------+------|gateway (to direct the         |---------|
             | FreeBSD| -g   |traceroute probes through      |    -    |
             |--------+------|routers not necessarily in     |---------|
             | UNIX   | -g   | the path).                    |    -    |
             |--------+------|                               |---------|
             | WINDOWS| -g   |                               |    -    |
             +--------+------+-------------------------------+---------+
             | LINUX  | -p   |Set the base UDP port number   |  33434  |
             |------- +------|used in traceroute probes      |---------|
             | FreeBSD| -p   |(UDP port = base + nhops - 1). |  33434  |
             |--------+------|                               |---------|
             | UNIX   | -p   |                               |  33434  |
             |--------+------|                               |---------|
             | WINDOWS| N/A  |                               |    -    |
             +--------+------+-------------------------------+---------+
             | LINUX  | -q   |Set the number of probes per   |    3    |
             |--------+------|TTL.                           |---------|
             | FreeBSD| -q   |                               |    3    |
             |--------+------|                               |---------|
             | UNIX   | -q   |                               |    3    |



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             |--------+------|                               |---------|
             | WINDOWS| N/A  |                               |    3    |
             +--------+------+-------------------------------+---------+
             | LINUX  | -S   |Set the IP source address in   |IP       |
             |--------+------|outgoing probes to the         |address  |
             | FreeBSD| -s   |specified value.               |of the   |
             |--------+------|                               |out      |
             | UNIX   | -s   |                               |interface|
             |--------+------|                               |         |
             | WINDOWS| N/A  |                               |         |
             +--------+------+-------------------------------+---------+
             | LINUX  | -t   |Set the type-of-service (TOS)  |    0    |
             |--------+------|in the probes to the specified |---------|
             | FreeBSD| -t   |value.                         |    0    |
             |--------+------|                               |---------|
             | UNIX   | -t   |                               |    0    |
             |--------+------|                               |---------|
             | WINDOWS| N/A  |                               |    0    |
             +--------+------+-------------------------------+---------+
             | LINUX  | -v   |Verbose output: received ICMP  |    -    |
             |--------+------|packets other than             |---------|
             | FreeBSD| -v   |TIME_EXCEEDED and              |    -    |
             |--------+------|UNREACHABLE are listed.        |---------|
             | UNIX   | -v   |                               |    -    |
             |--------+------|                               |---------|
             | WINDOWS| N/A  |                               |    -    |
             +--------+------+-------------------------------+---------+
             | LINUX  | N/A  |Set  the time (in msec) to     |    -    |
             |--------+------|pause between probes.          |---------|
             | FreeBSD| -z   |                               |    0    |
             |--------+------|                               |---------|
             | UNIX   | -P   |                               |    0    |
             |--------+------|                               |---------|
             | WINDOWS| N/A  |                               |    -    |
             +--------+------+-------------------------------+---------+
             | LINUX  | -r   |Bypass the normal routing      |    -    |
             |--------+------|tables and send directly to a  |---------|
             | FreeBSD| -r   |host on attached network.      |    -    |
             |--------+------|                               |---------|
             | UNIX   | -r   |                               |    -    |
             |--------+------|                               |---------|
             | WINDOWS| N/A  |                               |    -    |
             +--------+------+-------------------------------+---------+
             | LINUX  | -f   |Set the initial TTL for the    |    1    |
             |--------+------|first probe.                   |---------|
             | FreeBSD| -f   |                               |    1    |
             |--------+------|                               |---------|
             | UNIX   | -f   |                               |    1    |



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             |--------+------|                               |---------|
             | WINDOWS| N/A  |                               |    1    |
             +--------+------+-------------------------------+---------+
             | LINUX  | -F   |Set the "don't fragment" bit.  |    -    |
             |--------+------|                               |---------|
             | FreeBSD| -F   |                               |    -    |
             |--------+------|                               |---------|
             | UNIX   | -F   |                               |    -    |
             |--------+------|                               |---------|
             | WINDOWS| N/A  |                               |    -    |
             +--------+------+-------------------------------+---------+
             | LINUX  | N/A  |Enables socket level debugging.|    -    |
             |--------+------|                               |---------|
             | FreeBSD| -d   |                               |    -    |
             |--------+------|                               |---------|
             | UNIX   | -d   |                               |    -    |
             |--------+------|                               |---------|
             | WINDOWS| N/A  |                               |    -    |
             +--------+------+-------------------------------+---------+
             | LINUX  | N/A  |Use ICMP ECHO instead of UDP   |    -    |
             |--------+------|datagrams.                     |---------|
             | FreeBSD| -I   |                               |    -    |
             |--------+------|                               |---------|
             | UNIX   | -I   |                               |    -    |
             |--------+------|                               |---------|
             | WINDOWS| N/A  |                               |    -    |
             +--------+------+-------------------------------+---------+
             | LINUX  | -I   |Specify a network interface to |    -    |
             |--------+------|obtain the IP address for      |---------|
             | FreeBSD| -i   |outgoing IP packets            |    -    |
             |--------+------|(alternative to option -s).    |---------|
             | UNIX   | -i   |                               |    -    |
             |--------+------|                               |---------|
             | WINDOWS| N/A  |                               |    -    |
             +--------+------+-------------------------------+---------+
             | LINUX  | N/A  |Toggle checksum.               |    -    |
             |--------+------|                               |---------|
             | FreeBSD| -x   |                               |    -    |
             |--------+------|                               |---------|
             | UNIX   | -x   |                               |    -    |
             |--------+------|                               |---------|
             | WINDOWS| N/A  |                               |    -    |
             +--------+------+-------------------------------+---------+
             | LINUX  |  -   |As optional last parameter,    |Depends  |
             |--------+------|LINUX, FreeBSD and UNIX        |on       |
             | FreeBSD|  -   |implementations allow          |implement|
             |--------+------|specifying the probe datagram  |ation.   |
             | UNIX   |  -   |length for outgoing probes.    |         |



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             |--------+------|                               |         |
             | WINDOWS| N/A  |                               |         |
             +--------+------+-------------------------------+---------+

A.1.  Alternative Traceroute Implementations

   As stated above, the widespread use of firewalls might prevent UDP or
   ICMP based traceroutes to completely trace the path to a destination,
   since traceroute probes might end up being filtered.  In some cases,
   such limitation might be overcome by sending instead TCP packets to
   specific ports that hosts located behind the firewall are listening
   for connections on.  TCP based implementations use TCP SYN or FIN
   probes and listen for TIME_EXCEEDED messages, TCP RESET and other
   messages from firewalls and gateways on the path.  On the other hand,
   some firewalls filter out TCP SYN packets to prevent denial of
   service attacks, therefore the actual advantage of using TCP instead
   of UDP traceroute depends mainly on firewall configurations, which
   are not known in advance.  A detailed analysis of TCP-based
   traceroute tools and measurements was outside the scope of this
   document, anyway for completeness reasons the information model
   supports the storing of TCP-based traceroute measurements, too.


Appendix B.  Known Problems with Traceroute

B.1.  Compatibility between traceroute measurements results and IPPM
      metrics

   Because of implementation choices, a known inconsistency exists
   between the round-trip delay metric defined by the IPPM working group
   in RFC 2681 and the results returned by the current traceroute tool
   implementations.  Unfortunately, it is unlikely that the traceroute
   tool implementations will implement the standard definition in the
   near future.  The only possibility is therefore to compare results of
   different traceroute measurements one with each other; in order to do
   this, specifications both of the operating system (name and version)
   and of the traceroute tool version used were added to the metadata
   elements in order to help in comparing metrics between two different
   traceroute measurements results (if run using the same operating
   system and the same version of the tool).  Moreover, the traceroute
   tool has built-in configurable mechanisms like time-outs and can
   experience problems related to the crossing of firewalls; therefore
   some of the packets that traceroute sends out end up being time-out
   or filtered.  As a consequence, it might not be possible to trace the
   path to a node or there might not be a complete set of probes
   describing the RTT to reach it.





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Appendix C.  Differences to DISMAN-TRACEROUTE-MIB

   For performing remote traceroute operations at managed node, the IETF
   has standardized the DISMAN-TRACEROUTE-MIB module in [RFC4560].  This
   module allows:

   o  retrieving capability information of the traceroute tool
      implementation at the managed node,
   o  configuring traceroute measurements to be performed,
   o  retrieving information about ongoing and completed traceroute
      measurements,
   o  retrieving traceroute measurement statistics.

   The traceroute storage format described in this document has
   significant overlaps with this MIB module.  Particularly, the models
   for the traceroute measurement configuration and for the result from
   completed measurements are almost identical.  But for other pats of
   the DISMAN-TRACEROUTE MIB module there is no need to model them in a
   traceroute measurements storage format.  Particularly, the capability
   information, information about ongoing measurements and measurement
   statistics are not covered by the DISMAN traceroute storage model.

   Concerning traceroute measurements and their results, there are
   structural differences between the two models caused by the different
   choices for the encoding of the specification.  For DISMAN-
   TRACEROUTE-MIB, the Structure of Management Information (SMIv2, STD
   58, RFC 2578 [RFC2578]) was used, while the IPPM traceroute
   measurements data model is encoded using XML.

   This difference in structure implies that the DISMAN-TRACEROUTE-MIB
   module contains SMI-specific information element (managed objects)
   that concern tables of managed objects (specification, entry creation
   and deletion, status retrieval) that are not required for the XML-
   encoded traceroute measurements data model.

   But for most of the remaining information elements that concern
   configuration of traceroute measurements and results of completed
   measurements, the semantics is identical between the DISMAN-
   TRACEROUTE-MIB module and the traceroute measurements data model.
   There are very few exceptions to this which are listed below.  Also
   naming of information elements is identical between both models with
   a few exceptions.  For the traceroute measurements data model, a few
   information elements have been added, some because of the different
   structure and some to provide additional information on completed
   measurements.






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C.1.  Scope

   There are some basic differences in nature and application between
   MIB modules and XML documents.  This results in two major differences
   of Scope between the DISMAN-TRACEROUTE-MIB module and the traceroute
   measurements data model.

   The first difference is the traceRouteResultsTable contained in the
   DISMAN-TRACEROUTE-MIB module.  This table allows online observation
   of status and progress of an ongoing traceroute measurement.  This
   highly dynamic information is not included in the traceroute
   measurements data model, because it has not been envisioned to use
   the model for dynamically reporting progress of individual traceroute
   measurements.  The traceroute measurements data model is rather
   intended to be used for reporting completed traceroute measurements.

   The second difference is due to the fact that information in a MIB is
   typically tied to a local node hosting the MIB instance.  The
   "RequestMetadata" element specified in the traceroute measurements
   data model can be used for specifying a measurement request that may
   be applied to several probes in a network.  This concept does not
   exist in the DISMAN-TRACEROUTE-MIB module.

   For the remaining elements in the DISMAN-TRACEROUTE-MIB module and in
   the traceroute measurements data model there is a very good match
   between the two worlds.  The traceRouteCtlTable corresponds to the
   "MeasurementMetadata" element and the combination of the
   traceRouteProbeHistoryTable and the traceRouteHopsTable corresponds
   to a collection of "MeasurementResult" elements.

C.2.  Naming

   Basically, names in both models are chosen using the same naming
   conventions.

   For the traceroute measurement configuration information all names,
   such as CtlProbesPerHop, are identical in both models except for the
   traceRoute prefix that was removed to avoid unnecessary redundancy in
   the XML file and for CtlDataSize which was renamed to
   CtlProbeDataSize for clarification in the traceroute measurements
   data model.

   Results of measurements in the DISMAN-TRACEROUTE-MIB modules are
   distributed over two tables, the traceRouteResultsTable containing
   mainly information about ongoing measurements and the
   traceRouteProbeHistoryTable containing only information about
   completed measurements.  According to the SMIv2 naming conventions
   names of information elements in these tables have different prefixes



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   (traceRouteResults and traceRouteProbeHistory).  Since the traceroute
   measurements data model only reports on completed measurements, this
   separation is not needed anymore and the prefix "Results" is used for
   all related information elements.

   Beyond that, there are only a few changes in element names.  The
   renaming actions include:

   o  traceRouteProbeHistoryResponse to ProbeRoundTripTime,
   o  traceRouteProbeHistoryHAddr to HopAddr,
   o  traceRouteProbeHistoryTime to ResultsEndDateAndTime,
   o  traceRouteProbeHistoryLastRC to ResultsHopRawOutputData.

C.3.  Semantics

   The semantics was changed for two information elements only.

   For traceRouteProbeHistoryResponse in the DISMAN-TRACEROUTE-MIB, a
   value of 0 indicated, that it was not possible to transmit a probe.
   For the traceroute measurements data model, a value of 0 for element
   RoundTripTime indicates that the measured time was less than one
   millisecond, while for the case that it was not possible to transmit
   a probe a string is used that indicates the problem.

   For traceRouteCtlIfIndex in the DISMAN-TRACEROUTE-MIB, a value of 0
   indicated, that it the option to set the index is not available.
   This was translated to the traceroute measurements data model, such
   that a value of 0 for this element indicates that the used interface
   is unknown.

   The element traceRouteProbeHistoryLastRC in the DISMAN-TRACEROUTE-MIB
   was replaced by element ResultsHopRawOutputData.  While
   traceRouteProbeHistoryLastRC just reports a reply code,
   ResultsHopRawOutputData reports the full raw output data (per hop)
   produced by the traceroute measurements that was used.

C.4.  Additional Information Elements

   Only a few information elements have been added to the model of the
   DISMAN-TRACEROUTE-MIB module.

   o  For providing information on the MPLS label stack entries of a
      probe in the traceroute measurement path MPLSLabelStackEntry was
      added.
   o  For providing additional timestamp beyond ResultsEndDateAndTime,
      ResultsStartDateAndTime and Time were added.





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   o  For providing DNS names at the time of the execution of the
      traceroute for each HopAddr (which may change over time) HopName
      was added.


Appendix D.  Traceroute Examples with XML representation

   This Section shows some examples of traceroute applications.  In
   addition the encoding of requests and results is shown for some of
   those examples.  Note that also in these XML examples some lines
   appear wrapped due to the limited length of line.

   A typical traceroute on a linux system looks like the following:
   # traceroute  -f 4 www.example 1500
   traceroute to ww.example (192.0.2.42), 30 hops max, 1500 byte packets
    5  out.host1.example (192.0.2.254)  6.066 ms   5.625 ms   6.095 ms
    6  rtr4.host6.example (192.0.2.142)  6.979 ms   6.221 ms   7.368 ms
    7  hop7.rtr9.example (192.0.2.11)  16.165 ms   15.347 ms   15.514 ms
    8  192.0.2.222 (192.0.2.222)  32.796 ms   28.723 ms   26.988 ms
    9  in.example (192.0.2.123)  15.861 ms   16.262 ms   17.610 ms
   10  in.example (192.0.2.123)(N!)  17.391 ms * *

   This traceroute ignores the first 4 hops and uses 1500 byte packets.
   It does not reach its goal since the last listed hop says that the
   network is not reachable (N!).  The XML representation for this trace
   follows:
   <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
   <traceRoute xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:traceroute-1.0">
     <RequestMetadata>
       <TestName>Example 1</TestName>
       <OSName/>
       <OSVersion/>
       <ToolVersion/>
       <ToolName/>
       <CtlTargetAddress>
         <inetAddressDns>www.example</inetAddressDns>
       </CtlTargetAddress>
       <CtlBypassRouteTable/>
       <CtlProbeDataSize>1500</CtlProbeDataSize>
       <CtlTimeOut/>
       <CtlProbesPerHop/>
       <CtlPort/>
       <CtlMaxTtl/>
       <CtlDSField/>
       <CtlSourceAddress>
         <inetAddressUnknown/>
       </CtlSourceAddress>
       <CtlIfIndex/>



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       <CtlMiscOptions/>
       <CtlMaxFailures/>
       <CtlDontFragment/>
       <CtlInitialTtl>4</CtlInitialTtl>
       <CtlDescr>Show how it encodes in XML</CtlDescr>
       <CtlType><UDP/></CtlType>
     </RequestMetadata>
     <Measurement>
       <MeasurementMetadata>
         <TestName>Example 1</TestName>
         <OSName>Linux</OSName>
         <OSVersion>2.6.16.54-0.2.5-smp i386</OSVersion>
         <ToolVersion>1.0</ToolVersion>
         <ToolName>traceroute</ToolName>
         <CtlTargetAddress>
           <inetAddressDns>www.example</inetAddressDns>
         </CtlTargetAddress>
         <CtlBypassRouteTable/>
         <CtlProbeDataSize>1500</CtlProbeDataSize>
         <CtlTimeOut/>
         <CtlProbesPerHop/>
         <CtlPort/>
         <CtlMaxTtl/>
         <CtlDSField/>
         <CtlSourceAddress>
           <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.1</inetAddressIpv4>
         </CtlSourceAddress>
         <CtlIfIndex>2</CtlIfIndex>
         <CtlMiscOptions/>
         <CtlMaxFailures/>
         <CtlDontFragment/>
         <CtlInitialTtl>4</CtlInitialTtl>
         <CtlDescr>Show how it encodes in XML</CtlDescr>
         <CtlType><UDP/></CtlType>
       </MeasurementMetadata>
       <MeasurementResult>
         <TestName>Example 1</TestName>
         <ResultsStartDateAndTime>2008-05-16T14:22:34+02:00</ResultsStar
   tDateAndTime>
         <ResultsIpTgtAddr>
           <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.42</inetAddressIpv4>
         </ResultsIpTgtAddr>
         <ProbeResults>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.254</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>



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               <HopName>out.host1.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>6</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-16T14:22:35+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.254</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>out.host1.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime><roundTripTime>5</roundTripTime></Pro
   beRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-16T14:22:35+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.254</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>out.host1.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>6</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-16T14:22:35+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <HopRawOutputData> 5  out.host1.example (192.0.2.254)  6.06
   6 ms   5.625 ms   6.095 ms</HopRawOutputData>
           </hop>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.142</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>rtr4.host6.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>6</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-16T14:22:36+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.142</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>rtr4.host6.example</HopName>



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               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>6</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-16T14:22:36+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.142</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>rtr4.host6.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>7</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-16T14:22:37+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <HopRawOutputData> 6  rtr4.host6.example (192.0.2.142)  6.9
   79 ms   6.221 ms   7.368 ms</HopRawOutputData>
           </hop>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.11</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>hop7.rtr9.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>16</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-16T14:22:37+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.11</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>hop7.rtr9.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>15</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-16T14:22:38+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.11</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>hop7.rtr9.example</HopName>



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               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>15</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-16T14:22:38+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <HopRawOutputData> 7  hop7.rtr9.example (192.0.2.11)  16.16
   5 ms   15.347 ms   15.514 ms</HopRawOutputData>
           </hop>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.222</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>32</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-16T14:22:39+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.222</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>38</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-16T14:22:39+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.222</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>26</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-16T14:22:39+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <HopRawOutputData> 8  192.0.2.222 (192.0.2.222)  32.796 ms
     28.723 ms   26.988 ms</HopRawOutputData>
           </hop>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.123</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>



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               <HopName>in.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>15</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-16T14:22:40+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.123</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>in.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>16</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-16T14:22:40+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.123</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>in.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>17</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-16T14:22:40+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <HopRawOutputData> 9  in.example (192.0.2.123)  15.861 ms
    16.262 ms   17.610 ms</HopRawOutputData>
           </hop>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.123</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>in.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>17</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>noRouteToTarget</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-16T14:22:41+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.123</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>



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               <HopName>in.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTimeNotAvailable/>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>requestTimedOut</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-16T14:22:44+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.123</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>in.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTimeNotAvailable/>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>requestTimedOut</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-16T14:22:44+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <HopRawOutputData>10  in.example (192.0.2.123)(N!)  17.391
   ms * *</HopRawOutputData>
           </hop>
         </ProbeResults>
         <ResultsEndDateAndTime>2008-05-16T14:22:44+02:00</ResultsEndDat
   eAndTime>
       </MeasurementResult>
     </Measurement>
   </traceRoute>

   The second example was generated on an OpenBSD system.  On that
   system the traceroute looks the following:
   # traceroute -P tcp w2.example 128

   traceroute to w2.example (192.0.2.254), 64 hops max, 160 byte packets
    1  router1.example.org (192.0.2.22)  0.486 ms  0.486 ms  0.482 ms
    2  router7.example.org (192.0.2.1)  3.27 ms  1.420 ms  1.873 ms
    3  hop0.c.example (192.0.2.105)  3.177 ms  3.258 ms  3.859 ms
    4  hop6.c.example (192.0.2.107)  5.994 ms  4.607 ms  5.678 ms
    5  hop3.c.example (192.0.2.111)  20.341 ms  20.732 ms  19.505 ms
    6  in.example.net (192.0.2.222)  20.333 ms  19.174 ms  19.856 ms
    7  egress.example.net (192.0.2.227)  20.268 ms  21.79 ms  19.992 ms
    8  routerin.example (192.0.2.253)  19.983 ms  19.931 ms  19.894 ms
    9  routerdmz.example (192.0.2.249)  20.943 ms !X *  19.829 ms !X

   It was executed with the TCP protocol and 128 byte packets (plus
   header).  The traceroute ended at hop 9 because the packets are
   administratively filtered (!X).  A corresponding XML representation
   follows:
   <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>



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   <traceRoute xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:traceroute-1.0">
     <RequestMetadata>
       <TestName>Example 2</TestName>
       <OSName/>
       <OSVersion/>
       <ToolVersion/>
       <ToolName/>
       <CtlTargetAddress>
         <inetAddressDns>w2.example</inetAddressDns>
       </CtlTargetAddress>
       <CtlBypassRouteTable/>
       <CtlProbeDataSize>128</CtlProbeDataSize>
       <CtlTimeOut/>
       <CtlProbesPerHop/>
       <CtlPort/>
       <CtlMaxTtl/>
       <CtlDSField/>
       <CtlSourceAddress>
         <inetAddressUnknown/>
       </CtlSourceAddress>
       <CtlIfIndex/>
       <CtlMiscOptions/>
       <CtlMaxFailures/>
       <CtlDontFragment/>
       <CtlInitialTtl/>
       <CtlDescr>Show how it encodes in XML</CtlDescr>
       <CtlType><TCP/></CtlType>
     </RequestMetadata>
     <Measurement>
       <MeasurementMetadata>
         <TestName>Example 2</TestName>
         <OSName>OpenBSD</OSName>
         <OSVersion>4.1 i386</OSVersion>
         <ToolVersion></ToolVersion>
         <ToolName>traceroute</ToolName>
         <CtlTargetAddress>
           <inetAddressDns>w2.example</inetAddressDns>
         </CtlTargetAddress>
         <CtlBypassRouteTable/>
         <CtlProbeDataSize>128</CtlProbeDataSize>
         <CtlTimeOut/>
         <CtlProbesPerHop/>
         <CtlPort/>
         <CtlMaxTtl/>
         <CtlDSField/>
         <CtlSourceAddress>
           <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.42</inetAddressIpv4>
         </CtlSourceAddress>



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         <CtlIfIndex>1</CtlIfIndex>
         <CtlMiscOptions/>
         <CtlMaxFailures/>
         <CtlDontFragment/>
         <CtlInitialTtl/>
         <CtlDescr>Show how it encodes in XML</CtlDescr>
         <CtlType><TCP/></CtlType>
       </MeasurementMetadata>
       <MeasurementResult>
         <TestName>Example 2</TestName>
         <ResultsStartDateAndTime>2008-05-14T09:57:11+02:00</ResultsStar
   tDateAndTime>
         <ResultsIpTgtAddr>
           <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.254</inetAddressIpv4>
         </ResultsIpTgtAddr>
         <ProbeResults>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.22</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>router1.example.org</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>0</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:13+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.22</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>router1.example.org</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>0</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:13+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.22</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>router1.example.org</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>0</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>



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               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:13+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
           </hop>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.1</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>router7.example.org</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>3</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:13+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.1</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>router7.example.org</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>1</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:13+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.1</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>router7.example.org</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>1</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:14+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
           </hop>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.105</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>hop0.c.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>3</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>



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               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:14+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.105</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>hop0.c.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>3</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:14+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.105</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>hop0.c.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>3</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:14+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
           </hop>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.107</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>hop6.c.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>5</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:15+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.107</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>hop6.c.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>4</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:16+02:00</Time>
             </probe>



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             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.107</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>hop6.c.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>5</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:16+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
           </hop>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.111</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>hop3.c.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>20</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:17+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.111</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>hop3.c.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>20</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:18+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.111</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>hop3.c.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>19</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:19+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
           </hop>
           <hop>



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             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.222</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>in.example.net</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>20</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:20+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.222</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>in.example.net</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>19</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:20+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.222</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>in.example.net</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>19</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:21+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
           </hop>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.227</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>egress.example.net</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>20</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:22+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>



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                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.227</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>egress.example.net</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>21</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:22+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.227</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>egress.example.net</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>19</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:23+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
           </hop>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.253</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>routerin.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>19</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:24+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.253</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>routerin.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>19</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:24+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.253</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>



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               <HopName>routerin.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>19</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:25+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
           </hop>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.249</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>routerdmz.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>20</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>unknown</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:26+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.249</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>routerdmz.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTimeNotAvailable/>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>requestTimedOut</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:26+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.249</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>routerdmz.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>19</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>unknown</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:30+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
           </hop>
         </ProbeResults>
         <ResultsEndDateAndTime>2008-05-14T09:57:30+02:00</ResultsEndDat
   eAndTime>
       </MeasurementResult>
     </Measurement>



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   </traceRoute>

   The third and last example is based on the Microsoft Windows pendant
   of traceroute.  On a MS Windows system the command is called
   "tracert" and typically looks as follows:
   # tracert -h 10 www.example.org

   Tracing route to www.example.org [192.0.2.11]
   over a maximum of 10 hops:

     1     1 ms     1 ms     8 ms  192.0.2.99
     2    <1 ms    <1 ms    <1 ms  r1.provider4.example [192.0.2.102]
     3    <1 ms    <1 ms    <1 ms  rtr8.provider8.example [192.0.2.254]
     4     1 ms     1 ms     1 ms  hop11.hoster7.example [192.0.2.4]
     5     2 ms     3 ms     1 ms  sw6.provider2.example [192.0.2.201]
     6     3 ms     3 ms     3 ms  out.provider2.example [192.0.2.111]
     7     *        6 ms     5 ms  192.0.2.123
     8     5 ms     5 ms     5 ms  192.0.2.42
     9    94 ms    95 ms    95 ms  ingress.example.org [192.0.2.199]
    10   168 ms   169 ms   169 ms  192.0.2.44

   Trace complete.

   In this example the trace was limited to 10 hops.  So, the tenth and
   last hop of this example was not the final destination.  Applying the
   XML schema defined in this document the trace could look as follows:
   <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
   <traceRoute xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:traceroute-1.0">
     <RequestMetadata>
       <TestName>Example 3</TestName>
       <OSName/>
       <OSVersion/>
       <ToolVersion/>
       <ToolName/>
       <CtlTargetAddress>
         <inetAddressDns>www.example.org</inetAddressDns>
       </CtlTargetAddress>
       <CtlBypassRouteTable/>
       <CtlProbeDataSize/>
       <CtlTimeOut/>
       <CtlProbesPerHop/>
       <CtlPort/>
       <CtlMaxTtl>10</CtlMaxTtl>
       <CtlDSField/>
       <CtlSourceAddress>
         <inetAddressUnknown/>
       </CtlSourceAddress>
       <CtlIfIndex/>



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       <CtlMiscOptions/>
       <CtlMaxFailures/>
       <CtlDontFragment/>
       <CtlInitialTtl/>
       <CtlDescr>Show how it encodes in XML</CtlDescr>
       <CtlType><TCP/></CtlType>
     </RequestMetadata>
     <Measurement>
       <MeasurementMetadata>
         <TestName>Example 3</TestName>
         <OSName>Windows</OSName>
         <OSVersion>XP SP2 32-bit</OSVersion>
         <ToolVersion></ToolVersion>
         <ToolName>tracert</ToolName>
         <CtlTargetAddress>
           <inetAddressDns>www.example.org</inetAddressDns>
         </CtlTargetAddress>
         <CtlBypassRouteTable/>
         <CtlProbeDataSize/>
         <CtlTimeOut/>
         <CtlProbesPerHop/>
         <CtlPort/>
         <CtlMaxTtl>10</CtlMaxTtl>
         <CtlDSField/>
         <CtlSourceAddress>
           <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.142</inetAddressIpv4>
         </CtlSourceAddress>
         <CtlIfIndex>3</CtlIfIndex>
         <CtlMiscOptions/>
         <CtlMaxFailures/>
         <CtlDontFragment/>
         <CtlInitialTtl/>
         <CtlDescr>Show how it encodes in XML</CtlDescr>
         <CtlType><TCP/></CtlType>
       </MeasurementMetadata>
       <MeasurementResult>
         <TestName>Example 3</TestName>
         <ResultsStartDateAndTime>2008-05-14T11:03:09+02:00</ResultsStar
   tDateAndTime>
         <ResultsIpTgtAddr>
           <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.11</inetAddressIpv4>
         </ResultsIpTgtAddr>
         <ProbeResults>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.99</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>



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               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>1</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:09+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.99</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>1</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:09+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.99</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>8</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:09+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
           </hop>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.102</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>r1.provider4.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>0</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:09+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.102</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>r1.provider4.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>0</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>



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               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:09+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.102</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>r1.provider4.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>0</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:09+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
           </hop>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.254</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>rtr8.provider8.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>0</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:09+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.254</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>rtr8.provider8.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>0</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:09+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.254</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>rtr8.provider8.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>0</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:09+02:00</Time>
             </probe>



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           </hop>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.4</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>hop11.hoster7.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>1</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:09+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.4</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>hop11.hoster7.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>1</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:10+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.4</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>hop11.hoster7.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>1</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:10+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
           </hop>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.201</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>sw6.provider2.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>2</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:10+02:00</Time>
             </probe>



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             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.201</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>sw6.provider2.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>3</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:11+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.201</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>sw6.provider2.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>1</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:11+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
           </hop>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.111</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>out.provider2.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>3</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:11+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.111</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>out.provider2.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>3</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:11+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>



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                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.111</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>out.provider2.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>3</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:12+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
           </hop>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.123</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTimeNotAvailable/>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>requestTimedOut</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:14+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.123</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>6</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:15+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.123</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>5</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:16+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
           </hop>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.42</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>



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                 <roundTripTime>5</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:17+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.42</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>5</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:17+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.42</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>5</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:17+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
           </hop>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.199</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>ingress.example.org</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>94</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:19+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.199</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>ingress.example.org</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>95</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:19+02:00</Time>



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             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.199</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>ingress.example.org</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>95</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:19+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
           </hop>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.44</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>168</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:20+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.44</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>169</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:21+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.44</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>169</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:23+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
           </hop>
         </ProbeResults>
         <ResultsEndDateAndTime>2008-05-14T11:03:23+02:00</ResultsEndDat
   eAndTime>



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       </MeasurementResult>
     </Measurement>
   </traceRoute>

   The three examples given in this section are intended to give an
   impression on how a trace could be represented in XML.  The
   representation generated by an implementation may differ from the
   examples here dependent on the system and the capabilities of the
   traceroute implementation.


Authors' Addresses

   Saverio Niccolini
   NEC Laboratories Europe, NEC Europe Ltd.
   Kurfuersten-Anlage 36
   Heidelberg  69115
   Germany

   Phone: +49 (0) 6221 4342 118
   Email: saverio.niccolini@nw.neclab.eu
   URI:   http://www.nw.neclab.eu


   Sandra Tartarelli
   NEC Laboratories Europe, NEC Europe Ltd.
   Kurfuersten-Anlage 36
   Heidelberg  69115
   Germany

   Phone: +49 (0) 6221 4342 132
   Email: sandra.tartarelli@nw.neclab.eu
   URI:   http://www.nw.neclab.eu


   Juergen Quittek
   NEC Laboratories Europe, NEC Europe Ltd.
   Kurfuersten-Anlage 36
   Heidelberg  69115
   Germany

   Phone: +49 (0) 6221 4342 115
   Email: quittek@nw.neclab.eu
   URI:   http://www.nw.neclab.eu







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   Thomas Dietz
   NEC Laboratories Europe, NEC Europe Ltd.
   Kurfuersten-Anlage 36
   Heidelberg  69115
   Germany

   Phone: +49 (0) 6221 4342 128
   Email: thomas.dietz@nw.neclab.eu
   URI:   http://www.nw.neclab.eu


   Martin Swany
   Dept. of Computer and Information Sciences, University of Delaware
   Newark  DE 19716
   U.S.A.

   Email: swany@UDel.Edu


































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Full Copyright Statement

   Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2008).

   This document is subject to the rights, licenses and restrictions
   contained in BCP 78, and except as set forth therein, the authors
   retain all their rights.

   This document and the information contained herein are provided on an
   "AS IS" basis and THE CONTRIBUTOR, THE ORGANIZATION HE/SHE REPRESENTS
   OR IS SPONSORED BY (IF ANY), THE INTERNET SOCIETY, THE IETF TRUST AND
   THE INTERNET ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS
   OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF
   THE INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED
   WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.


Intellectual Property

   The IETF takes no position regarding the validity or scope of any
   Intellectual Property Rights or other rights that might be claimed to
   pertain to the implementation or use of the technology described in
   this document or the extent to which any license under such rights
   might or might not be available; nor does it represent that it has
   made any independent effort to identify any such rights.  Information
   on the procedures with respect to rights in RFC documents can be
   found in BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Copies of IPR disclosures made to the IETF Secretariat and any
   assurances of licenses to be made available, or the result of an
   attempt made to obtain a general license or permission for the use of
   such proprietary rights by implementers or users of this
   specification can be obtained from the IETF on-line IPR repository at
   http://www.ietf.org/ipr.

   The IETF invites any interested party to bring to its attention any
   copyrights, patents or patent applications, or other proprietary
   rights that may cover technology that may be required to implement
   this standard.  Please address the information to the IETF at
   ietf-ipr@ietf.org.











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