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Versions: 00 RFC 4106

Network Working Group                                           J. Viega
Internet-Draft                                     Secure Software, Inc.
Expires: October 26, 2004                                      D. McGrew
                                                     Cisco Systems, Inc.
                                                          April 27, 2004



           The Use of Galois/Counter Mode (GCM) in IPsec ESP
                  draft-ietf-ipsec-ciph-aes-gcm-00.txt


Status of this Memo


   This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
   all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026.


   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on October 26, 2004.


Copyright Notice


   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2004). All Rights Reserved.


Abstract


   This memo describes the use of the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)
   in Galois/Counter Mode (GCM) as an IPsec Encapsulating Security
   Payload (ESP) mechanism to provide confidentiality and data origin
   authentication.  This method can be efficiently implemented in
   hardware for speeds of 10 gigabits per second and above, and is also
   well-suited to software implementations.









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Table of Contents


   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   1.1 Conventions Used In This Document  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  AES-GCM  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   3.  ESP Payload Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   3.1 Initialization Vector (IV) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   3.2 Ciphertext . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   4.  Nonce Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   5.  AAD Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   6.  Integrity Check Value (ICV)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   7.  Packet Expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   8.  IKE Conventions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   8.1 Keying Material and Salt Values  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   8.2 Phase 1 Identifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   8.3 Phase 2 Identifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   8.4 Key Length Attribute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   9.  Test Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   10. Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   11. Design Rationale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
   12. IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
   13. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
       Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
       Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
       Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
       Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . 20


























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1. Introduction


   This document describes the use of AES in GCM mode (AES-GCM) as an
   IPSec ESP mechanism for confidentiality and data origin
   authentication.  We refer to this method as AES-GCM-ESP. This
   mechanism is not only efficient and secure, it also enables
   high-speed implementations in hardware, and thus allows IPsec
   connections that can make effective use of emerging 10-gigabit and
   40-gigabit network devices.


   Counter mode (CTR) has emerged as the preffered encryption method for
   high-speed implementations.  Unlike conventional encryption modes
   like CBC and CBC-MAC, CTR can be efficiently implemented at high data
   rates because it can be pipelined.  The ESP CTR protocol describes
   how this mode can be used with IPsec ESP [RFC3686].


   Unfortunately, CTR provides no data origin authentication, and thus
   the ESP CTR standard requires the use of a data origin authentication
   algorithm in conjunction with CTR.  This requirement is problematic,
   because none of the standard data origin authentication algorithms
   can be efficiently implemented for high data rates.  GCM solves this
   problem, because under the hood, it combines CTR mode with a secure,
   parallelizable and efficient authentication mechanism.


   This document does not cover implementation details of GCM.  Those
   details can be found in [GCM], along with test vectors.


1.1 Conventions Used In This Document


   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].




















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2. AES-GCM


   GCM is a block cipher mode of operation providing both
   confidentiality and data origin authentication.  The GCM
   authenticated encryption operation has four inputs: a secret key, an
   initialization vector (IV), a plaintext, and an input for additional
   authenticated data (AAD).  It has two outputs, a ciphertext whose
   length is identical to the plaintext, and an authentication tag.  In
   the following, we describe how the IV, plaintext, and AAD are formed
   from the ESP fields, and how the ESP packet is formed from the
   ciphertext and authentication tag.


   ESP also defines an IV.  For clarity, we refer to the AES-GCM IV as a
   nonce in the context of AES-GCM-ESP.  The same nonce and key
   combination MUST NOT be used more than once.


   Since reusing an nonce/key combination destroys the security
   guarantees of AES-GCM mode, it can be difficult to use this mode
   securely when using statically configured keys.  For safety's sake,
   implementations MUST use an automated key mangement system, such as
   the Internet Key Exchange (IKE) [RFC2409], to ensure that this
   requirement is met.






























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3. ESP Payload Data


   The ESP Payload Data is comprised of an eight-octet initialization
   vector (IV) followed by the ciphertext.  The payload field, as
   defined in [RFC2406], is structured as shown in Figure 1, along with
   the ICV associated with the payload.


     0                   1                   2                   3
     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                      Initialization Vector                    |
    |                            (8 octets)                         |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                                                               |
    ~                       Ciphertext (variable)                   ~
    |                                                               |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


             Figure 1: ESP Payload Encrytped with AES-GCM.



3.1 Initialization Vector (IV)


   The AES-GCM-ESP IV field MUST be eight octets.  For a given key, the
   IV MUST NOT repeat.  The most natural way to implement this is with a
   counter, but it can be anything that guarantees uniqueness, such as a
   linear feedback shift register (LFSR).  Note that the encrypter can
   use any IV generation method that meets the uniqueness requirement,
   without coordinating with the decrypter.


3.2 Ciphertext


   The plaintext input to AES-GCM is formed by concatenating the
   plaintext data described by the Next Header field with the Padding,
   the Pad Length, and the Next Header field.  The Ciphertext field
   consists of the ciphertext output from the AES-GCM algorithm.  The
   length of the ciphertext is identical to that of the plaintext.


   Implementations that do not seek to hide the length of the plaintext
   SHOULD use the minimum amount of padding required, which will be less
   than four octets.











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4. Nonce Format


   The nonce passed to the GCM-AES encryption algorithm has the
   following layout:


     0                   1                   2                   3
     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                             Salt                              |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                     Initialization Vector                     |
    |                                                               |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


                         Figure 2: Nonce Format


   The components of the nonce are as follows:


   Salt
      The salt field is a four-octet value that is assigned at the
      beginning of the security association, and then remains constant
      for the life of the security association. The salt SHOULD be
      unpredictable (i.e., chosen at random) before it is selected, but
      need not be secret.  We describe how to set the salt for a
      Security Association established via the Internet Key Exchange in
      Section 8.1.


   Initialization Vector
      The IV field is described in section Section 3.1.























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5. AAD Construction


   The data integrity and data origin authentication for the SPI and
   (Extended) Sequence Number fields is provided without encrypting
   them. This is done by including those fields in the AES-GCM
   Additional Authenticated Data (AAD) field.  Two formats of the AAD
   are defined: one for 32-bit sequence numbers, and one for 64-bit
   extended sequence numbers.  The format with 32-bit sequence numbers
   is shown in Figure 3, and the format with 64-bit extended sequence
   numbers is shown in Figure 4.


     0                   1                   2                   3
     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                               SPI                             |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                     32-bit Sequence Number                    |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


            Figure 3: AAD Format with 32-bit Sequence Number



     0                   1                   2                   3
     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                               SPI                             |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                 64-bit Extended Sequence Number               |
    |                                                               |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


       Figure 4: AAD Format with 64-bit Extended Sequence Number




















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6. Integrity Check Value (ICV)


   The ICV consists solely of the AES-GCM Authentication Tag.
   Implementations MUST support a full-length 16-octet ICV, and MAY
   support 4, 8 or 12 octet ICVs and MUST NOT support other ICV lengths.
   Although ESP does not require that an ICV be present, AES-GCM-ESP
   intentionally does not allow a zero-length ICV. This is because GCM
   provides no integrity protection whatsoever when used with a
   zero-length Authentication Tag.











































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7. Packet Expansion


   The IV adds an additional eight octets to the packet and the ICV adds
   an additional 4, 8, 12 or 16 octets.  These are the only sources of
   packet expansion, other than the 10-13 bytes taken up by the ESP SPI,
   Sequence Number, Padding, Pad Length, and Next Header fields (if the
   minimal amount of padding is used).













































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8. IKE Conventions


   This section describes the conventions used to generate keying
   material and salt values for use with AES-GCM-ESP using the Internet
   Key Exchange (IKE) [RFC2409] protocol.  The identifiers and
   attributes needed to negotiate a security association using
   AES-GCM-ESP are also defined.


8.1 Keying Material and Salt Values


   IKE makes use of a pseudo-random function (PRF) to derive keying
   material.  The PRF is used iteratively to derive keying material of
   arbitrary size, called KEYMAT.  Keying material is extracted from the
   output string without regard to boundaries.


   The size of the KEYMAT for the AES-GCM-ESP MUST be four octets longer
   than is needed for the associated AES key.  The keying material is
   used as follows:


   AES-GCM-ESP with a 128 bit key
      The KEYMAT requested for each AES-GCM key is 20 octets.  The first
      16 octets are the 128-bit AES key, and the remaining four octets
      are used as the salt value in the nonce.


   AES-GCM-ESP with a 192 bit key
      The KEYMAT requested for each AES-GCM key is 28 octets.  The first
      24 octets are the 192-bit AES key, and the remaining four octets
      are used as the salt value in the nonce.


   AES-GCM-ESP with a 256 bit key
      The KEYMAT requested for each AES GCM key is 36 octets.  The first
      32 octets are the 256-bit AES key, and the remaining four octets
      are used as the salt value in the nonce.



8.2 Phase 1 Identifier


   This document does not specify the conventions for using AES-GCM for
   IKE Phase 1 negotiations.  For AES-GCM to be used in this manner, a
   separate specification is needed, and an Encryption Algorithm
   Identifier needs to be assigned.  Implementations SHOULD use an IKE
   Phase 1 cipher which is at least as strong as AES-GCM. The use of AES
   CBC [RFC3602] with the same key size as used by AES-GCM-ESP is
   RECOMMENDED.


8.3 Phase 2 Identifier


   For IKE Phase 2 negotiations, IANA has assigned <TBD> as the ESP




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   Transform Identifier for AES-GCM with an eight-byte explicit IV.


8.4 Key Length Attribute


   Since the AES supports three key lengths, the Key Length attribute
   MUST be specified in the IKE Phase 2 exchange [RFC2407].  The Key
   Length attribute MUST have a value of 128, 192 or 256.













































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9. Test Vectors


   Appendix B of [GCM] provides test vectors that will assist
   implementers with AES-GCM mode.
















































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10. Security Considerations


   GCM is provably secure against adversaries that can adaptively choose
   plaintexts, ciphertexts, ICVs and the AAD field, under standard
   cryptographic assumptions (roughly, that the output of the underlying
   cipher under a randomly chosen key is indistinguishable from a
   randomly selected output).  Essentially, this means that, if used
   within its intended parameters, a break of GCM implies a break of the
   underlying block cipher.  The proof of security for GCM is available
   in [GCMP].


   The most important security consideration is that the IV never repeat
   for a given key.  In part, this is handled by disallowing the use of
   AES-GCM when using statically configured keys, as discussed in
   Section 2.


   When IKE is used to establish fresh keys between two peer entities,
   separate keys are established for the two traffic flows.  If a
   different mechanism is used to establish fresh keys, one that
   establishes only a single key to encrypt packets, then there is a
   high probability that the peers will select the same IV values for
   some packets.  Thus, to avoid counter block collisions, ESP
   implementations that permit use of the same key for encrypting and
   decrypting packets with the same peer MUST ensure that the two peers
   assign different salt values to the security association (SA).


   The other consideration is that, as with any encryption mode, the
   security of all data protected under a given security association
   decreases slightly with each message.


   To protect against this problem, implementations MUST generate a
   fresh key before encrypting 2^64 blocks of data with a given key.
   Note that it is impossible to reach this limit when using 32-bit
   Sequence Numbers.


   Note that, for each message, GCM calls the block cipher once for each
   full 16-octet block in the payload, once for any remaining octets in
   the payload, and one additional time in computing the ICV.


   Clearly, smaller ICV values are more likely to be subject to forgery
   attacks.  Implementations SHOULD use as large a size as reasonable.











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11. Design Rationale


   This specification was designed to be as similar to the AES-CCM ESP
   [CCM-ESP] and AES-CTR ESP [RFC3686] mechanisms as reasonable, while
   promoting simple, efficient implementations in both hardware and
   software.  We re-use the design and implementation experience from
   those standards.


   The major difference with CCM is that the CCM ESP mechanism requires
   an 11-octet nonce, whereas the GCM ESP mechanism requires using a
   12-octet nonce.  GCM is specially optimized to handle the 12-octet
   nonce case efficiently.  Nonces of other lengths would cause
   unnecessary additional complexity and delays, particularly in
   hardware implementations.  The additional octet of nonce is used to
   increase the size of the salt.





































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12. IANA Considerations


   Currently, no ESP transform numbers have been assigned for use with
   the AES-GCM transform.
















































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13. Acknowledgements


   This work is closely modeled after Russ Housley's AES-CCM transform
   [CCM-ESP].  Portions of this document are directly copied from that
   draft.  We thank Russ for his support of this work.


   Additionally, the GCM mode of operation was originally conceived as
   an improvement to CWC mode [CWC], the first unencumbered block cipher
   mode capable of supporting high-speed authenticated encryption.











































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Normative References


   [GCM]      McGrew, D. and J. Viega, "The Galois/Counter Mode of
              Operation (GCM)", Submission to NIST. http://
              csrc.nist.gov/CryptoToolkit/modes/proposedmodes/gcm/
              gcm-spec.pdf, January 2004.


   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.


   [RFC2406]  Kent, S. and R. Atkinson, "IP Encapsulating Security
              Payload (ESP)", RFC 2406, November 1998.


   [RFC2407]  Piper, D., "The Internet IP Security Domain of
              Interpretation for ISAKMP", RFC 2407, November 1998.


   [RFC3602]  Frankel, S., Glenn, R. and S. Kelly, "The AES-CBC Cipher
              Algorithm and Its Use with IPsec", RFC 3602, September
              2003.

































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Informative References


   [CCM-ESP]  Housley, R., "Using AES CCM Mode With IPsec ESP", Work In
              Progress. <draft-ietf-ipsec-ciph-aes-ccm-05.txt>.


   [CWC]      Kohno, T., Viega, J. and D. Whiting, "CWC: A
              high-performance conventional authenticated encryption
              mode", Fast Software Encryption. http://eprint.iacr.org/
              2003/106.pdf, February 2004.


   [GCMP]     McGrew, D., "Security Analysis of Galois/Counter Mode
              (GCM)",  http://www.cryptobarn.com/papers/gcm-sec.pdf,
              March 2004.


   [RFC2409]  Harkins, D. and D. Carrel, "The Internet Key Exchange
              (IKE)", RFC 2409, November 1998.


   [RFC2675]  Borman, D., Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "IPv6 Jumbograms",
              RFC 2675, August 1999.


   [RFC3610]  Whiting, D., Housley, R. and N. Ferguson, "Counter with
              CBC-MAC (CCM)", RFC 3610, September 2003.


   [RFC3686]  Housley, R., "Using Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)
              Counter Mode With IPsec Encapsulating Security Payload
              (ESP)", RFC 3686, January 2004.



Authors' Addresses


   John Viega
   Secure Software, Inc.
   4100 Lafayette Center Dr., Suite 100
   Chantilly, VA  20151
   US


   Phone: (703) 814 4402
   EMail: viega@securesoftware.com














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   David A. McGrew
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   510 McCarthy Blvd.
   Milpitas, CA  95035
   US


   Phone: (408) 525 8651
   EMail: mcgrew@cisco.com
   URI:   http://www.mindspring.com/~dmcgrew/dam.htm











































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Intellectual Property Statement


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   HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
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Acknowledgment


   Funding for the RFC Editor function is currently provided by the
   Internet Society.












































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