[Docs] [txt|pdf] [Tracker] [WG] [Email] [Diff1] [Diff2] [Nits] [IPR]

Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 RFC 3948

IP Security Protocol Working Group (IPSEC)                   A. Huttunen
INTERNET-DRAFT                                      F-Secure Corporation
Category: Standards track                           W. Dixon, B. Swander
Expires: October 2002                                          Microsoft
                                                 T. Kivinen, M. Stenberg
                                        SSH Communications Security Corp
                                                                V. Volpe
                                                           Cisco Systems
                                                              L. DiBurro
                                                         Nortel Networks
                                                              April 2002

                   UDP Encapsulation of IPsec Packets
                   draft-ietf-ipsec-udp-encaps-02.txt

Status of this Memo

   This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
   all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that
   other groups may also distribute working documents as
   Internet-Drafts.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six
   months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents
   at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt.

   The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.

   This Internet-Draft will expire on October, 2002.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2002). All Rights Reserved.

Abstract

   This draft defines methods to encapsulate and decapsulate ESP
   packets inside UDP packets for the purpose of traversing NATs.

   ESP encapsulation as defined in this document is capable of being
   used in both IPv4 and IPv6 scenarios.

   The encapsulation is used whenever negotiated using IKE, as
   defined in [Kiv02]. The design choices are documented in [Dixon00].

Change Log
   Version -01
   - removed everything related to the AH-protocol
   - added instructions on how to use the encapsulation with
     some other key management protocol than IKE
   Version -02
   - changed to using 4-byte non-ESP marker, removed all references
     to using this with other key management protocols
   - TCP checksum handling for transport mode related discussion
     modified
   - copied tunnel mode security considerations from the
     earlier draft-huttunen-ipsec-esp-in-udp-00.txt draft,
     added transport mode considerations

1. Introduction

   This draft defines methods to encapsulate and decapsulate ESP
   packets inside UDP packets for the purpose of traversing NATs.
   The UDP port numbers are the same as used by IKE traffic, as
   defined in [Kiv02].

   It is up to the need of the clients whether transport mode
   or tunnel mode is to be supported. L2TP/IPsec clients MUST support
   transport mode since [RFC 3193] defines that L2TP/IPsec MUST use
   transport mode], and IPsec tunnel mode clients MUST support tunnel
   mode.

   An IKE implementation supporting this draft MUST NOT use the
   ESP SPI field zero for ESP packets. (XXX To be changed to
   an IANA allocated SPI value later.) This ensures that
   IKE packets and ESP packets can be distinguished from each other.

   UDP encapsulation of ESP packets as defined in this document is
   written in terms of IPv4 headers. There is no technical reason
   why an IPv6 header could not be used as the outer header and/or
   as the inner header.

2. Packet Formats

2.1  UDP-encapsulated ESP Header Format

 0                   1                   2                   3
 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|        Source Port            |      Destination Port         |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|           Length              |           Checksum            |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                      ESP header [RFC 2406]                    |
~                                                               ~
|                                                               |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

The UDP header is a standard [RFC 768] header, where
- Source Port and Destination Port are the same as used by
  floated IKE traffic.
- Checksum is zero.

The SPI field in the ESP header must not be zero. (XXX To be
changed to an IANA allocated SPI value later.)

2.2  Floated IKE Header Format

 0                   1                   2                   3
 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|        Source Port            |      Destination Port         |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|           Length              |           Checksum            |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                       Non-ESP Marker                          |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                      IKE header [RFC 2409]                    |
~                                                               ~
|                                                               |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

The UDP header is a standard [RFC 768] header, and is used
as defined in [Kiv02].

Non-ESP Marker is 4 bytes of zero aligning with the SPI field
of an ESP packet. (XXX To be changed to an IANA allocated SPI
value later.)

2.3 NAT-keepalive Packet Format

 0                   1                   2                   3
 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|        Source Port            |      Destination Port         |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|           Length              |           Checksum            |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|    0xFF       |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

The UDP header is a standard [RFC 768] header, where
- Source Port and Destination Port are the same as used by floated
  IKE traffic.
- Checksum is zero.

The sender SHOULD use a one octet long payload with the value 0xFF.
The receiver SHOULD ignore a received NAT-keepalive packet.

3. Encapsulation and Decapsulation Procedures

3.1 Auxiliary Procedures

3.1.1 Tunnel Mode Decapsulation NAT Procedure

When a tunnel mode has been used to transmit packets, the inner
IP header can contain addresses that are not suitable for the
current network. This procedure defines how these addresses are
to be converted to suitable addresses for the current network.

Depending on local policy, one of the following MUST be done:
a) If a valid source IP address space has been defined in the policy
   for the encapsulated packets from the peer, check that the source
   IP address of the inner packet is valid according to the policy.
b) If an address has been assigned for the remote peer, check
   that the source IP address used in the inner packet is the
   same as the IP address assigned.
c) NAT is performed for the packet, making it suitable for transport
   in the local network.

3.1.2 Transport Mode Decapsulation NAT Procedure

When a transport mode has been used to transmit packets, contained
TCP or UDP headers will contain incorrect checksums due to the change
of parts of the IP header during transit. This procedure defines how
to fix these checksums.

Depending on local policy, one of the following MUST be done:
a) If the protocol header after the ESP header is a TCP/UDP
   header and the peer's real source IP address has been received
   according to [Kiv02], incrementally recompute the TCP/UDP checksum:
   - subtract the IP source address in the received packet
     from the checksum
   - add the real IP source address received via IKE to the checksum
b) If the protocol header after the ESP header is a TCP/UDP
   header, recompute the checksum field in the TCP/UDP header.
c) If the protocol header after the ESP header is an UDP
   header, zero the checksum field in the UDP header. If the protocol
   header after the ESP header is a TCP header, and there is an
   option to flag to the stack that TCP checksum does not need to
   be computed, then that flag MAY be used.  This SHOULD only be done
   for transport mode, and if the packet is integrity protected.  Tunnel
   mode TCP checksums MUST be verified.
   [This is not a violation to the spirit of section 4.2.2.7 in RFC 1122
   because a checksum is being generated by the sender, and verified
   by the receiver.  That checksum is the integrity over the packet
   performed by IPsec.]

In addition an implementation MAY fix any contained protocols that
have been broken by NAT.

3.2 Transport Mode ESP Encapsulation

              BEFORE APPLYING ESP/UDP
         ----------------------------
   IPv4  |orig IP hdr  |     |      |
         |(any options)| TCP | Data |
         ----------------------------

              AFTER APPLYING ESP/UDP
         -------------------------------------------------------
   IPv4  |orig IP hdr  | UDP | ESP |     |      |   ESP   | ESP|
         |(any options)| Hdr | Hdr | TCP | Data | Trailer |Auth|
         -------------------------------------------------------
                                   |<----- encrypted ---->|
                             |<------ authenticated ----->|

1) Ordinary ESP encapsulation procedure is used.
2) A properly formatted UDP header is inserted where shown.
3) The Total Length, Protocol and Header Checksum fields in the
   IP header are edited to match the resulting IP packet.

3.3 Transport Mode ESP Decapsulation

1) The UDP header is removed from the packet.
2) The Total Length, Protocol and Header Checksum fields in the
   new IP header are edited to match the resulting IP packet.
3) Ordinary ESP decapsulation procedure is used.
4) Transport mode decapsulation NAT procedure is used.


3.4 Tunnel Mode ESP Encapsulation

              BEFORE APPLYING ESP/UDP
         ----------------------------
   IPv4  |orig IP hdr  |     |      |
         |(any options)| TCP | Data |
         ----------------------------

              AFTER APPLYING ESP/UDP
     --------------------------------------------------------------
IPv4 |new h.| UDP | ESP |orig IP hdr  |     |      |   ESP   | ESP|
     |(opts)| Hdr | Hdr |(any options)| TCP | Data | Trailer |Auth|
     --------------------------------------------------------------
                        |<------------ encrypted ----------->|
                  |<------------- authenticated ------------>|

1) Ordinary ESP encapsulation procedure is used.
2) A properly formatted UDP header is inserted where shown.
3) The Total Length, Protocol and Header Checksum fields in the
   new IP header are edited to match the resulting IP packet.


3.5 Tunnel Mode ESP Decapsulation

1) The UDP header is removed from the packet.
2) The Total Length, Protocol and Header Checksum fields in the
   new IP header are edited to match the resulting IP packet.
3) Ordinary ESP decapsulation procedure is used.
4) Tunnel mode decapsulation NAT procedure is used.

4. NAT Keepalive Procedure

The sole purpose of sending NAT-keepalive packets is to keep
NAT mappings alive for the duration of a connection between
the peers. Reception of NAT-keepalive packets MUST NOT be
used to detect liveness of a connection.

A peer MAY send a NAT-keepalive packet if there exists one
or more phase I or phase II SAs between the peers, or such
an SA has existed at most N minutes earlier. N is a locally
configurable parameter with a default value of 5 minutes.

A peer SHOULD send a NAT-keepalive packet if a need to send such
packets is detected according to [Kiv02] and if no other packet to
the peer has been sent in M seconds. M is a locally configurable
parameter with a default value of 20 seconds.

5. Security Considerations

5.1 DoS

   On some systems ESPUDP may have DoS attack consequences,
   especially if ordinary operating system UDP-functionality is
   being used. It may be recommended not to open an ordinary UDP-port
   for this.

5.2 Tunnel Mode Conflict

   Implementors are warned that it is possible for remote peers to
   negotiate entries that overlap in a GW, an issue affecting tunnel
   mode.

          +----+            \ /
          |    |-------------|----\
          +----+            / \    \
          Ari's           NAT 1     \
          Laptop                     \
         10.1.2.3                     \
          +----+            \ /        \       +----+          +----+
          |    |-------------|----------+------|    |----------|    |
          +----+            / \                +----+          +----+
          Bob's           NAT 2                  GW            Suzy's
          Laptop                                               Server
         10.1.2.3

   Because GW will now see two possible SAs that lead to 10.1.2.3, it
   can become confused where to send packets coming from Suzy's server.
   Implementators MUST devise ways of preventing such a thing from
   occurring; either by disallowing conflicting connections or by
   other means.

5.3 Transport Mode Conflict

   Another similar issue may occur in transport mode, with 2 clients
   behind the same NAT talking to the same server.

          +----+
          |    |
          +----+ \
          Ari's   \
          Laptop   \
         10.1.2.3   \
          +----+    \ /                +----+
          |    |-----+-----------------|    |
          +----+    / \                +----+
          Bob's     NAT                Server
          Laptop
         10.1.2.4

   Now, transport SAs on the server will look like:
   To Ari: S to NAT, <traffic desc1>, UDP encap <4500, Y>
   To Bob: S to NAT, <traffic desc2>, UDP encap <4500, Z>

   <traffic desc> is the protocol and port information.
   The UDP encap ports are the ports used in UDP encapsulated
   ESP format of section 2.1.

   If the <traffic desc1> overlaps <traffic desc2>, then
   simple filter lookups may not be sufficient to determine
   which SA needs to be used to send traffic.  Implementations
   MUST handle this situation, either by disallowing
   conflicting connections, or by other means.

6.  Intellectual Property Rights

The IETF has been notified of intellectual property rights claimed in
regard to some or all of the specification contained in this document.
For more information consult the online list of claimed rights.

SSH Communications Security Corp has notified the working group of one
or more patents or patent applications that may be relevant to this
internet-draft. SSH Communications Security Corp has already given a
licence for those patents to the IETF. For more information consult the
online list of claimed rights.

7.  Acknowledgments

Thanks to Joern Sierwald, Tamir Zegman, Larry DiBurro, Tatu Ylonen
and Santeri Paavolainen who contributed to the previous drafts
about NAT traversal.

8.  References

[RFC 768] Postel, J., "User Datagram Protocol", August 1980

[RFC 1122] R. Braden (Editor), "Requirements for Internet Hosts
-- Communication Layers", October 1989

[RFC-2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to indicate
Requirement Levels", March 1997

[RFC 2406] Kent, S., "IP Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)",
November 1998

[RFC 2409] D. Harkins, D. Carrel, "The Internet Key Exchange
(IKE)", November 1998

[RFC 3193] Patel, B. et. al, "Securing L2TP using IPsec",
November 2001

[Dixon00] Dixon, W. et. al.,
draft-ietf-ipsec-udp-encaps-justification-00.txt,
"IPSec over NAT Justification for UDP Encapsulation", June 2001

[Kiv02] Kivinen, T. et. al., draft-ietf-ipsec-nat-t-ike-02.txt,
"Negotiation of NAT-Traversal in the IKE", April 2002


9.  Authors' Addresses

    Ari Huttunen
    F-Secure Corporation
    Tammasaarenkatu 7
    FIN-00181 HELSINKI
    Finland
    E-mail: Ari.Huttunen@F-Secure.com

    William Dixon
    Microsoft
    One Microsoft Way
    Redmond WA 98052
    E-mail: wdixon@microsoft.com

    Brian Swander
    Microsoft
    One Microsoft Way
    Redmond WA 98052
    E-mail: briansw@microsoft.com

    Tero Kivinen
    SSH Communications Security Corp
    Fredrikinkatu 42
    FIN-00100 HELSINKI
    Finland
    E-mail: kivinen@ssh.fi

    Markus Stenberg
    SSH Communications Security Corp
    Fredrikinkatu 42
    FIN-00100 HELSINKI
    Finland
    E-mail: mstenber@ssh.com

    Victor Volpe
    Cisco Systems
    124 Grove Street
    Suite 205
    Franklin, MA 02038
    E-mail: vvolpe@cisco.com

    Larry DiBurro
    Nortel Networks
    80 Central Street
    Boxborough, MA 01719
    ldiburro@nortelnetworks.com


Html markup produced by rfcmarkup 1.108, available from http://tools.ietf.org/tools/rfcmarkup/