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Versions: (draft-eronen-ipsec-ikev2-ipv6-config) 00 01 02 03 RFC 5739

Network Working Group                                          P. Eronen
Internet-Draft                                                     Nokia
Intended status: Standards Track                             J. Laganier
Expires: May 22, 2009                                   DOCOMO Euro-Labs
                                                               C. Madson
                                                           Cisco Systems
                                                       November 18, 2008


                      IPv6 Configuration in IKEv2
                draft-ietf-ipsecme-ikev2-ipv6-config-00

Status of this Memo

   By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any
   applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on May 22, 2009.















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Abstract

   When IKEv2 is used for remote VPN access (client to VPN gateway), the
   gateway assigns the client an IP address from the internal network
   using IKEv2 configuration payloads.  The configuration payloads
   specified in RFC 4306 work well for IPv4, but make it difficult to
   use certain features of IPv6.  This document describes the
   limitations of current IKEv2 configuration payloads for IPv6, and
   explores possible solutions that would allow IKEv2 to set up full-
   featured virtual IPv6 interfaces.









































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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction and Problem Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   2.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   3.  Current Limitations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     3.1.  Multiple Prefixes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     3.2.  Link-Local Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     3.3.  Receiving Multicast Traffic  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     3.4.  Interface Identifier Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     3.5.  Sharing VPN Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     3.6.  Additional Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   4.  Design Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     4.1.  Main Requirements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     4.2.  Desirable Non-Functional Properties  . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     4.3.  Implementation Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     4.4.  Non-Goals  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   5.  Solution Discussion  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     5.1.  Link Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     5.2.  Distributing Prefix Information  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     5.3.  Unique Address Allocation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     5.4.  Layer 3 Access Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     5.5.  Other Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
   6.  Solution Sketch  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     6.1.  Initial Exchanges  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     6.2.  Reauthentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
     6.3.  Creating CHILD_SAs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
     6.4.  Multicast  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
     6.5.  Relationship to Neighbor Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
     6.6.  Relationship to Existing IKEv2 Payloads  . . . . . . . . . 19
   7.  Payload Formats  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
     7.1.  INTERNAL_IP6_LINK Configuration Attribute  . . . . . . . . 21
     7.2.  INTERNAL_IP6_PREFIX Configuration Attribute  . . . . . . . 21
     7.3.  LINK_ID Notify Payload . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
   8.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
   9.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
   10. Acknowledgments  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
   11. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
     11.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
     11.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
   Appendix A.  Alternative Solution Sketches . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
     A.1.  Version -00 Sketch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
     A.2.  Router Aggregation Sketch #1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
     A.3.  Router Aggregation Sketch #2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
     A.4.  IPv4-like Sketch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
     A.5.  Sketch Based on RFC 3456 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
   Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 36




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1.  Introduction and Problem Statement

   In typical remote access VPN use (client to VPN gateway), the client
   needs an IP address in the network protected by the security gateway.
   IKEv2 includes a feature called "configuration payloads" that allows
   the gateway to dynamically assign a temporary address to the client
   [IKEv2].

   For IPv4, the message exchange would look as follows:

      Client      Gateway
     --------    ---------

      HDR(IKE_SA_INIT), SAi1, KEi, Ni  -->

               <--  HDR(IKE_SA_INIT), SAr1, KEr, Nr, [CERTREQ]

      HDR(IKE_AUTH),
      SK { IDi, CERT, [CERTREQ], AUTH, [IDr],
           CP(CFG_REQUEST) =
              { INTERNAL_IP4_ADDRESS(),
                INTERNAL_IP4_DNS() }, SAi2,
           TSi = (0, 0-65535, 0.0.0.0-255.255.255.255),
           TSr = (0, 0-65535, 0.0.0.0-255.255.255.255) }  -->

             <--  HDR(IKE_AUTH),
                  SK { IDr, CERT, AUTH,
                       CP(CFG_REPLY) =
                          { INTERNAL_IP4_ADDRESS(192.0.2.234),
                            INTERNAL_IP4_DNS(10.11.22.33) },
                       SAr2,
                       TSi = (0, 0-65535, 192.0.2.234-192.0.2.234),
                       TSr = (0, 0-65535, 0.0.0.0-255.255.255.255) }

                       Figure 1: IPv4 configuration

   The IPv4 case has been implemented by various vendors, and in general
   works well.  IKEv2 also defines almost identical configuration
   payloads for IPv6:












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      Client      Gateway
     --------    ---------

      HDR(IKE_AUTH),
      SK { IDi, CERT, [CERTREQ], AUTH, [IDr],
           CP(CFG_REQUEST) =
              { INTERNAL_IP6_ADDRESS(),
                INTERNAL_IP6_DNS() }, SAi2,
           TSi = (0, 0-65535,
                  0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0 -
                  FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF),
           TSr = (0,
                  0-65535, 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0 -
                  FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF) }  -->

             <--  HDR(IKE_AUTH),
                  SK { IDr, CERT, AUTH,
                       CP(CFG_REPLY) =
                          { INTERNAL_IP6_ADDRESS(2001:DB8:0:1:2:3:4:5,
                                                 64),
                            INTERNAL_IP6_DNS(2001:DB8:9:8:7:6:5:4) },
                       SAr2,
                       TSi = (0, 0-65535,
                              2001:DB8:0:1:2:3:4:5 -
                              2001:DB8:0:1:2:3:4:5),
                       TSr = (0, 0-65535,
                              0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0: -
                              FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF) }

                       Figure 2: IPv6 configuration

   In other words, IPv6 is basically treated as IPv4 with larger
   addresses.  As noted in [RFC4718], this does not fully follow the
   "normal IPv6 way of doing things".  The IPsec tunnels are not full-
   featured "interfaces" in the IPv6 addressing architecture [IPv6Addr]
   sense.  For example, they do not necessarily have link-local
   addresses, and this may complicate the use of protocols that assume
   them.

   This document describes what exactly are the limitations of current
   IKEv2 configuration payloads for IPv6, and explores possible
   solutions that would allow IKEv2-based VPNs to set up full-featured
   virtual IPv6 interfaces.








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2.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [KEYWORDS].

   When messages containing IKEv2 payloads are described, optional
   payloads are shown in brackets (for instance, "[FOO]"), and a plus
   sign indicates that a payload can be repeated one or more times (for
   instance, "FOO+").

   This document uses the term "virtual interface" when describing how
   the client uses the IPv6 address(es) assigned by the gateway.  While
   existing IPsec documents do not use this term, it is not a new
   concept.  In order to use the address assigned by the VPN gateway,
   current VPN clients already create a local "virtual interface" (as
   only addresses assigned to interfaces can be used, e.g., as source
   addresses for TCP connections).  Note that this definition of
   "interface" is not necessarily identical with what some particular
   implementation calls "interface".































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3.  Current Limitations

   This section explores the limitations of the current IPv6
   configuration mechanism.

   The IKEv2 specification does not always fully describe the semantics
   associated with configuration payloads, only their on-the-wire
   format.  This section assumes the semantics implied by Figure 2.  It
   is possible that many of the limitations described here could be
   solved by specifying additional semantics for these configuration
   payloads.

3.1.  Multiple Prefixes

   In Figure 2 only a single IPv6 address (from a single prefix) is
   assigned.  The specification does allow the client to include
   multiple INTERNAL_IP6_ADDRESS attributes in its request, but the
   gateway cannot assign more addresses than the client requested.

   Multiple prefixes are useful for site renumbering, host-based site
   multihoming [SHIM6], and unique local IPv6 addresses [RFC4193].  In
   all of these cases, the gateway has better information on how many
   different addresses (from different prefixes) the client should be
   assigned.

3.2.  Link-Local Addresses

   The IPv6 addressing architecture [IPv6Addr] specifies that "IPv6
   addresses of all types are assigned to interfaces, not nodes. [..]
   All interfaces are required to have at least one Link-Local unicast
   address".

   Currently, the virtual interface created by IKEv2 configuration
   payloads does not have link-local addresses.  This violates
   [IPv6Addr] and prevents the use of protocols that require link-local
   addresses, such as [MLDv2] and [DHCPv6]

3.3.  Receiving Multicast Traffic

   Even if MLD would work, the traffic selectors negotiated in Figure 2
   do not allow receiving multicast traffic.

3.4.  Interface Identifier Selection

   In the message exchange shown in Figure 2, the gateway chooses the
   interface ID used by the client.  It is also possible for the client
   to request a specific interface ID; the gateway then chooses the
   prefix part.



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   This approach complicates the use of Cryptographically Generates
   Addresses [CGA].  With CGAs, the interface ID cannot be calculated
   before the prefix is known.  The client could first obtain a non-CGA
   address to determine the prefix, and then send a separate CFG_REQUEST
   to obtain a CGA address with the same prefix.  However, this approach
   requires that the IKEv2 software component provides an interface to
   the component managing CGAs; an ugly implementation dependency that
   would be best avoided.

   Similar concerns apply to other cases where the client has some
   interest in what interface ID is being used, such as Hash-Based
   Addresses [HBA] and privacy addresses [RFC4941].

   Without CGAs and HBAs, VPN clients are not able to fully use IPv6
   features such as [SHIM6] or enhanced Mobile IPv6 route optimization
   [RFC4866].

3.5.  Sharing VPN Access

   Some VPN clients may want to share the VPN connection with other
   devices (e.g., from a cell phone to a laptop, or vice versa) via some
   local area network connection (such as Wireless LAN or Bluetooth).

   It is to be determined how common this use case would actually be;
   e.g., how likely it is that security policies would allow this.

   Quite obviously sharing of VPN access requires more than one address
   (unless NAT is used).  However, the current model where each address
   is requested separately is probably complex to integrate with a local
   area network that uses stateless address autoconfiguration.  Thus,
   obtaining a whole prefix for the VPN client, and advertising that to
   the local link (something resembling [NDProxy]) would be preferable.
   With DHCPv6 prefix delegation [RFC3633], even [NDProxy] and
   associated multi-link subnet issues would be avoided.

3.6.  Additional Information

   The original 3GPP standards for IPv6 assigned a single IPv6 address
   to each mobile phone, resembling current IKEv2 payloads.  [RFC3314]
   describes the problems with this approach, and caused 3GPP to change
   the specifications to assign unique /64 prefix(es) for each phone.

   If the VPN client is assigned IPv6 address(es) from prefix(es) that
   are shared with other VPN clients, this results in some kind of
   multi-link subnet.  [Multilink] describes issues associated with
   multi-link subnets, and recommends that they should be avoided.





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4.  Design Goals

4.1.  Main Requirements

   o  A VPN client can obtain several addresses from a given prefix; the
      interface IDs can be selected by the client, and may depend on the
      prefix.

   o  A VPN client can be assigned multiple prefixes for use on the
      client-gateway link.  The client does not have to know beforehand
      how many prefixes are needed.

   o  The solution should avoid periodic messages over the VPN tunnel.

   o  The solution should avoid Duplicate Address Detection (DAD) over
      the VPN tunnel.

   o  Multicast works.  That is, the client is able to send multicast
      packets (tunneled to the gateway via unicast), join multicast
      groups using [MLDv2], and receive multicast packets (tunneled from
      the gateway to the client via unicast).

   o  It should be possible to share the VPN access over a local area
      network connection, without requiring anything special from other
      hosts in the local network (beyond minimal IPv6 node requirements
      specified in [RFC4294]).

   o  Re-authentication works: the client can start a new IKE SA and
      continue using the same "virtual link" (with same addresses,
      etc.).

   o  Compatibility with other IPsec uses: Configuring a virtual IPv6
      link should not prevent the peers from using IPsec/IKEv2 for other
      uses.

   o  Compatibility with current IPv6 configuration: Although the
      current IPv6 mechanism is not widely implemented, new solutions
      should not preclude its use (e.g., by defining incompatible
      semantics for the existing payloads).

   o  Compatibility with current IPv4 configuration: it should be
      possible to use the existing IPv4 configuration mechanism within
      the same IKE SA.

   o  (Optional/To be determined) When the client is also a router (to
      some local network), it should be able to use DHCPv6 prefix
      delegation [RFC3633] over the virtual link.




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4.2.  Desirable Non-Functional Properties

   Note that the following desirable properties may be somewhat
   conflicting.

   o  Re-use existing mechanisms, such as [AUTOCONF] and [DHCPv6] as
      much as possible; as explained in [IPConfig], creating IKEv2-
      specific mechanisms should be avoided.

   o  Avoid the Not Invented Here (NIH) syndrome: There were several
      proposals how to do IP address configuration in IKEv2, and the
      IPsec WG chose one of them.  Any significant changes should be
      motivated by real technical needs, not by dislike of the proposal
      that was chosen.

4.3.  Implementation Considerations

   The solution should have clean implementation dependencies.  In
   particular, it should not require significant modifications to the
   core IPv6 stack (typically part of the operating system), or require
   the IKE implementor to re-implement parts of the IPv6 stack (to,
   e.g., have access or control to functionality that is currently not
   exposed by public interfaces of the IPv6 stack).

4.4.  Non-Goals

   Mobile IPv6 already defines how it interacts with IPsec/IKEv2
   [RFC4877], and the intent of this document is not to change that
   interaction in any way.






















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5.  Solution Discussion

   Assigning a new IPv6 address to the client creates a new "virtual
   IPv6 interface", and "virtual link" between the client and the
   gateway.  We will assume that the virtual link has the following
   properties:

   o  The link and its interfaces are created and destroyed by the IKEv2
      process.

   o  The IPv6 addresses and prefixes are assigned to the link and its
      interfaces by IKEv2 messages, and are removed once they are no
      longer used by any IKE SA.  An IKEv2 implementation may delay
      removal of the IPv6 addresses and prefixes for a period of time to
      allow upper layer protocol communications (e.g., a TCP connection)
      to survive an IKE SA re-authentication that would use the same
      addresses and prefixes.

   o  The link is not an IPsec SA; at any time, there can be zero or
      more IPsec SAs covering traffic on this link.

   o  The link is not a single IKE SA; to support reauthentication, it
      must be possible to identify the same link in another IKE SA.

   o  It is TBD whether a single IKE SA needs to support multiple
      virtual links.  (Possibly not; if multiple virtual links are
      needed, multiple IKE_SAs could be used.)

   o  Not all IPsec-protected traffic between the peers is necessarily
      related to the virtual link (although in the simplest VPN client-
      to-gateway scenario it will be).

   Given these assumptions and the goals described in the previous
   section, it seems that the most important design choices to be made
   are the following:

   o  What link/subnet model is used: in other words, the relationships
      between VPN clients, IPv6 subnet prefixes, and link-local traffic
      (especially link-local multicast).

   o  How information about the IPv6 prefix(es) is distributed from the
      gateway to the clients.

   o  How to ensure unique IPv6 addresses for each client, and keep
      forwarding state up-to-date accordingly..

   o  How layer 3 access control is done; in other words, where the
      mechanisms for preventing address spoofing by clients are placed



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      architecturally.

   Each of these is discussed next in turn.

5.1.  Link Model

   There are at least three main choices how to organize the
   relationships between VPN clients, IPv6 subnet prefixes, and link-
   local traffic:

   o  Point-to-point link model: each VPN client is assigned one or more
      IPv6 prefixes; these prefixes are not shared with other clients,
      and there is no link-local traffic between different VPN clients
      connected to the same gateway.

   o  Multi-access link model: multiple VPN clients share the same IPv6
      prefix.  Link-local multicast packets sent by one VPN client will
      be received by other VPN clients (VPN gateway will forward the
      packets, possibly with MLD snooping to remove unnecessary
      packets).

   o  "Router aggregation" link model: one form of "multi-link" subnet
      [Multilink] where multiple VPN clients share the same IPv6 prefix.
      Link-local multicast will not be received by other VPN clients.

   In the multi-access link model, VPN clients who are idle (i.e., not
   currently sending or receiving application traffic) could receive
   significant amounts of multicast packets from other clients
   (depending on how many other clients are connected).  This is
   especially undesirable when the clients are battery-powered; for
   example, a PDA which keeps the VPN connection to corporate intranet
   active 24/7.  For this reason, we will not consider the multi-access
   link model in the rest of this document.

5.2.  Distributing Prefix Information

   Some types of addresses, such as CGAs, require knowledge about the
   prefix before an address can be generated.  The prefix information
   could be distributed to clients in the following ways:

   o  IKEv2 messages (Configuration Payloads).

   o  Router Advertisement messages (sent over the IPsec tunnel).

   o  DHCPv6 messages (sent over the IPsec tunnel).






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5.3.  Unique Address Allocation

   In the "multi-access" and "router aggregation" link models (where a
   single IPv6 prefix is shared between multiple VPN clients) mechanisms
   are needed to ensure that one VPN client does not use an address
   already used by some other client.  Also, the VPN gateway has to know
   which client is using which addresses in order to correctly forward
   traffic.

   The main choices seem to be the following:

   o  Clients receive the address(es) they are allowed to use in IKEv2
      messages (Configuration Payloads).  In this case, keeping track of
      which client is using which address is trivial.

   o  Clients receive the address(es) they are allowed to use in DHCPv6
      messages sent over the IPsec tunnel.  In case the DHCPv6 server is
      not integrated with the VPN gateway, the gateway may need to work
      as a relay agent to keep track of which client is using which
      address (and update its forwarding state accordingly).

   o  Clients can use stateless address autoconfiguration to configure
      addresses and perform Duplicate Address Detection (DAD).  This is
      easy to do in multi-access link model, and can be made to work
      with router aggretation link model if the VPN gateway traps NS
      messages and spoofs NA replies.  The gateway keeps track of which
      client is using which address (and updates its forwarding state
      accordingly) by trapping these NS/NA messages.

   In the point-to-point link model, the client can simply use any
   address from the prefix, and the VPN gateway only needs to know which
   client is using which prefix in order to forward packets correctly.

5.4.  Layer 3 Access Control

   It is almost always desirable to prevent one VPN client from sending
   packets with a source address that is used by another VPN client.  In
   order to correctly forward packets destined to clients, the VPN
   gateway obviously has to know which client is using which address;
   the question is therefore where, architecturally, the mechanisms for
   ingress filtering are placed.

   o  Layer 3 access control enforced by IPsec SAD/SPD: the addresses/
      prefixes assigned to a VPN client are reflected in the traffic
      selectors used in IPsec Security Association and Security Policy
      Database entries, as negotiated in IKEv2.





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   o  The ingress filtering capability could be placed outside IPsec;
      the traffic selectors in SAD/SPD entries would cover traffic that
      would be dropped later by ingress filtering.

   The former approach is used by the current IPv4 solution.

5.5.  Other Considerations

   VPN gateway state

      In some combinations of design choices, the amount of state
      information required in the VPN gateway depends not only on the
      number of clients, but also on the number of addresses used by one
      client.  With privacy addresses and potentially some uses of
      Cryptographically Generated Addresses (CGAs), a single client
      could have a large number of different addresses (especially if
      different privacy addresses are used with different destinations).

   Virtual link identifier

      Reauthentication requires a way to uniquely identify the virtual
      link when a second IKE SA is created.  Some possible alternatives
      are the IKE SPIs of the IKE SA where the virtual link was
      "created" (assuming we can't have multiple virtual links within
      the same IKE SA), a new identifier assigned when the link is
      created, or any unique prefix or address that remains assigned to
      the link for its entire lifetime.  Currently, Section 6 proposes
      that the gateway assigns a new IKEv2 Link ID when the link is
      created.  The client treats the Link ID as an opaque octet string;
      the gateway uses it to identify relevant local state when
      reauthentication is done.

      Note that the link is not uniquely identified by the IKE peer
      identities (because IDi is often a user identity that can be used
      on multiple hosts at the same time), or the outer IP addresses of
      the peers (due to NAT Traversal and [MOBIKE]).

   Prefix lifetime

      Prefixes could remain valid either for the lifetime of the IKE SA,
      until explicitly cancelled, or for an explicitly specified time.
      Currently, Section 6 proposes that prefixes remain valid for the
      lifetime of the IKE SA (and its continuations via rekeying, but
      not reauthentication).  If necessary, the VPN gateway can thus add
      or remove prefixes by triggering reauthentication.  It is assumed
      that adding or removing prefixes is a relatively rare situation,
      and thus this draft does not currently specify more complex
      solutions (such as explicit prefix lifetimes, or use of CFG_SET/



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      CFG_ACK).

   Compatibility with other IPsec uses

      Compatibility with other IPsec uses probably requires that when a
      CHILD_SA is created, both peers can determine whether the CHILD_SA
      applies to the virtual interface (at the end of the virtual link),
      or the real interfaces IKEv2 messages are being sent over.  This
      is required to select the correct SPD to be used for traffic
      selector narrowing and SA authorization in general.

      One straight-forward solution would be to add an extra payload to
      CREATE_CHILD_SA requests, containing the virtual link identifier.
      Requests not containing this payload would refer to the real link
      (over which IKEv2 messages are being sent).

      Another solution is to require that the peer requesting a CHILD_SA
      proposes traffic selectors that identify the link.  For example,
      if TSi includes the peer's "outer" IP address, it's probably
      related to the real interface, not the virtual one.  Or if TSi
      includes any of the prefixes assigned by the gateway (or the link-
      local or multicast prefix), it is probably related to the virtual
      interface.

      These heuristics can work in many situations, but have proved
      inadequate in the context of IPv6-in-IPv4 tunnels [RFC4891] and
      Provider Provisioned VPNs [VLINK] [RFC3884], and Mobile IPv6
      [RFC4877].  Thus, currently Section 6 proposes including the
      virtual link identifier in all CREATE_CHILD_SA requests that apply
      to the virtual interface.

   Example about other IPsec uses:

      If a VPN gateway receives a CREATE_CHILD_SA request associated
      with a physical Ethernet interface, requesting SA for (TSi=FE80::
      something, dst=*), it would typically reject the request (or in
      other words, narrow it to an empty set) because it doesn't have
      SPD/PAD entries that would allow joe.user@example.com to request
      such CHILD_SAs.

      (However, it might have SPD/PAD entries that would allow
      "neighboring-router.example.com" to create such SAs, for
      protecting e.g. some routing protocol that uses link-local
      addresses.)

      However, the virtual interface created when joe.user@example.com
      authenticated and sent INTERNAL_IP6_LINK would have a different
      SPD/PAD, which would allow joe.user@example.com to create this SA.



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6.  Solution Sketch

   This solution is basically a combination of (1) point-to-point link
   model, (2) prefix information distributed in IKEv2 messages, and (3)
   access control enforced by IPsec SAD/SPD.

   (Second preliminary version, based on discussions with Tero Kivinen.)

6.1.  Initial Exchanges

   1) During IKE_AUTH, the client sends a new configuration attribute,
   INTERNAL_IP6_LINK, which requests a virtual link to be configured.
   The attribute contains the client's interface ID for link-local
   address (other addresses may use other interface IDs).  Typically,
   the client would also ask for DHCPv6 server address; this is used
   only for configuration, not address assignment.

   To handle backward compatibility between a client that supports the
   extended address configuration mechanism hereby specified and a VPN
   gateway that does not, this specification RECOMMENDS that the VPN
   client includes as well the INTERNAL_IP6_ADDRESS configuration
   attribute to allow graceful fallback to the existing address
   configuration mechanism specified in the IKEv2 specification [IKEv2],
   unless it knows for sure that the VPN gateway supports the extended
   mechanism hereby specified (e.g., via configuration.)

      CP(CFG_REQUEST) =
         { INTERNAL_IP6_LINK(Client's Link-Local Interface ID)
           INTERNAL_IP6_ADDRESS()
           INTERNAL_IP6_DHCP() }
      TSi = (0, 0-65535, 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0 -
             FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF)
      TSr = (0, 0-65535, 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0 -
             FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF)  -->

   To handle backward compatibility between a VPN gateway that supports
   the extended address configuration mechanism hereby specified and a
   client that does not, if the client has not sent the
   INTERNAL_IP6_LINK configuration attribute the VPN gateway MUST NOT
   include the INTERNAL_IP6_LINK configuration attribute in its reply
   and should fallback to the address configuration mechanism specified
   in the IKEv2 specification [IKEv2].

   If the client has sent the INTERNAL_IP6_LINK configuration attribute,
   the VPN gateway SHOULD ignore any INTERNAL_IP6_ADDRESS configuration
   attribute present in the request.

   The VPN gateway MUST choose for itself a link-local interface



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   identifier different than the client's one, i.e., accept the link-
   local interface identifier proposed by the client.  In case the VPN
   gateway cannot accept the link-local interface identifier the client
   proposed, the VPN gateway MUST fail the IPv6 address assignment by
   including a NOTIFY payload with the INTERNAL_ADDRESS_FAILURE message,
   i.e., the IKE_SA can be created but no CHILD_SA will be created.

   The VPN Gateway then replies with an INTERNAL_IP6_LINK configuration
   attribute that contains the IKEv2 Link ID (which will be used for
   reauthentication and CREATE_CHILD_SA messages), the client's link
   local interface identier, and zero or more INTERNAL_IP6_PREFIX
   attributes.  The traffic selectors proposed by the initiator are also
   narrowed to contain only the assigned prefixes, and the client link-
   local address formed from the well-known link-local subnet prefix and
   the client link-local interface identifier.

      CP(CFG_REPLY) =
         { INTERNAL_IP6_LINK(Client's Link-Local Interface ID,
                             IKEv2 Link ID)
           INTERNAL_IP6_PREFIX(Prefix1/64),
           [INTERNAL_IP6_PREFIX(Prefix2/64),...],
           [INTERNAL_IP6_DHCP(Address) ]
      TSi = ((0, 0-65535,
              FE80::<Client's Interface ID> -
              FE80::<Client's Interface ID>)
             (0, 0-65535,
              Prefix1::0 -
              Prefix1::FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF),
             [(0, 0-65535,
               Prefix2::0 -
               Prefix2::FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF), ...])
      TSr = (0, 0-65535,
             0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0 -
             FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF)

   At this point, the client can configure 1) its link-local address
   from the well-known link-local subnet prefix (FE80::/64) and the
   assigned client's link-local interface identifier, and 2) other non-
   link-local unicast addresses from the assigned prefixes and any
   proper interface identifier [IPv6Addr].  The VPN gateway MUST NOT
   simultaneously assign the same prefixes to any other client, and MUST
   NOT itself configure addresses from these prefixes.  Thus, the client
   does not have to perform Duplicate Address Detection (DAD).  (This
   approach is based on [IPv6PPP].)

   The prefixes remain valid through the lifetime of the IKE SA (and its
   continuations via rekeying).  If the VPN gateway needs to remove a
   prefix it has previously assigned, or assign a new prefix, it can do



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   so by triggering reauthentication.

   2) The client also contacts the DHCPv6 server.  This is the
   RECOMMENDED way to obtain additional configuration parameters (such
   as the DNS server), as it allows easier extensibility and more
   options (such as the domain search list for DNS).

6.2.  Reauthentication

   When the client performs reauthentication (and wants to continue
   using the same "virtual link"), it includes the IKEv2 Link ID given
   by the gateway in the INTERNAL_IP6_LINK attribute.

      CP(CFG_REQUEST) =
         { INTERNAL_IP6_LINK(Client's Link Local Interface ID,
                             IKEv2 Link ID)
           INTERNAL_IP6_DHCP() }
      TSi = (0, 0-65535, 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0 -
             FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF)
      TSr = (0, 0-65535, 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0 -
             FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF)  -->

   The gateway uses the Link ID to look up relevant local state,
   verifies that the authenticated peer identity associated with the
   link is correct, and continues the handshake as usual.

6.3.  Creating CHILD_SAs

   As described in the previous section, both peers need to be able to
   determine whether a CHILD_SA applies to the virtual interfaces, or
   the real interfaces IKEv2 messages are being sent over.

   Currently, this document proposes using an explicit indication
   instead of relying on heuristics: the peers MUST include a LINK_ID
   notification, containing the IKEv2 Link ID, in all CREATE_CHILD_SA
   requests, including rekeys, that are related to the virtual link.
   The LINK_ID notification is not included in the CREATE_CHILD_SA
   response, or when doing IKE_SA rekeying.

6.4.  Multicast

   (The details of multicast use are to-be-determined.)

   One way would be to create an SA for receiving multicast packets:







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      TSi = (0, 0-65535,
             FF00:0:0:0:0:0:0:0 -
             FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF)
      TSr = (0, 0-65535,
             0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0 -
             FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF) -->

      <--
      TSi = (0, 0-65535,
             FF00:0:0:0:0:0:0:0 -
             FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF)
      TSr = (0, 0-65535,
             0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0 -
             FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF)

   ...and then use MLD as usual.

6.5.  Relationship to Neighbor Discovery

   Neighbor Discovery [IPv6ND] specifies the following mechanisms:

   Router Discovery, Prefix Discovery, Parameter Discovery,and Address
   Autoconfiguration are not used, as the necessary functionality is
   implemented in IKEv2 layer.

   Address Resolution, Next-hop Determination, and Redirect are not
   used, as the virtual link does not have link-local addresses, and is
   a point-to-point link.

   Neighbor Unreachability Detection could be used, but is a bit
   redundant given IKEv2 Dead Peer Detection.

   Duplicate Address Detection is not needed, because this is a point-
   to-point link, where the VPN gateway does not assign any addresses
   from the global unicast prefixes, and link-local interface identifier
   is negotiated separately.

6.6.  Relationship to Existing IKEv2 Payloads

   The mechanism described in this document is not intended to be used
   at the same time as the existing INTERNAL_IP6_ADDRESS attribute.  For
   compatibility with gateways implementing only INTERNAL_IP6_ADDRESS,
   the VPN client MAY include attributes for both mechanisms in
   CFG_REQUEST.  The capabilities and preferences of the VPN gateway
   will then determine which is used.

   All other attributes except INTERNAL_IP6_ADDRESS (and
   INTENAL_ADDRESS_EXPIRY) from [IKEv2] remain valid, including the



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   somewhat confusingly named INTERNAL_IP6_SUBNET (see Section 6.3 of
   [RFC4718] for discussion).

















































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7.  Payload Formats

7.1.  INTERNAL_IP6_LINK Configuration Attribute

   The INTERNAL_IP6_LINK configuration attribute is formatted as
   follows:

                        1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   !R|         Attribute Type      !            Length             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                      Client's Link-Local                      |
   |                         Interface ID                          |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   ~                        IKEv2 Link ID                          ~
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   o  Reserved (1 bit) - See [IKEv2].

   o  Attribute Type (15 bits) - INTERNAL_IP6_LINK (TBD1).

   o  Length (2 octets) - Length in octets of the Value field (Client's
      Link-Local Interface ID and IKEv2 Link ID); 8 or more.

   o  Link-Local Interface ID (8 octets) - The Interface ID used for
      link-local address (by the party that sent this attribute).

   o  IKEv2 Link ID (variable length) - The link ID (may be empty when
      the client does not yet know the link ID).

7.2.  INTERNAL_IP6_PREFIX Configuration Attribute

   The INTERNAL_IP6_PREFIX configuration attribute is formatted as
   follows:














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                        1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   !R|         Attribute Type      !            Length             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   |                            Prefix                             |
   |                                                               |
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   | Prefix Length |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   o  Reserved (1 bit) - See [IKEv2].

   o  Attribute Type (15 bits) - INTERNAL_IP6_PREFIX (TBD2).

   o  Length (2 octets) - Length in octets of the Value field; in this
      case, 17.

   o  Prefix (16 octets) - An IPv6 prefix assigned to the virtual link.
      The low order bits of the prefix field which are not part of the
      prefix MUST be set to zero by the sender and MUST be ignored by
      the receiver.

   o  Prefix Length (1 octets) - The length of the prefix in bits;
      usually 64.

7.3.  LINK_ID Notify Payload

   The LINK_ID notification is included in CREATE_CHILD_SA requests to
   indicate that the SA being created is related to the virtual link.
   If this notification is not included, the CREATE_CHILD_SA requests is
   related to the physical interface.

   The Notify Message Type for LINK_ID is TBD3.  The Protocol ID and SPI
   Size fields are set to zero.  The data associated with this
   notification is the IKEv2 Link ID returned in the
   INTERNAL_IP6_LINK_ID configuration attribute.












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8.  IANA Considerations

   This document defines two new IKEv2 configuration attributes, whose
   values are to be allocated (have been allocated) from the "IKEv2
   Configuration Payload Attribute Types" namespace [IKEv2]:

                                       Multi-
      Value    Attribute Type          Valued  Length         Reference
      ------   ----------------------  ------  -------------  ---------
      TBD1     INTERNAL_IP6_LINK         NO    8 or more      [this doc]
      TBD2     INTERNAL_IP6_PREFIX       YES   17 octets      [this doc]

   This document also defines one new IKEv2 notification, whose value is
   to be allocated (has been allocated) from the "IKEv2 Notify Message
   Types - Status Types" namespace [IKEv2]:

      Value   Notify Messages - Status Types   Reference
      ------  -------------------------------  ---------
      TBD3    LINK_ID                          [this doc]

   This document does not create any new namespaces to be maintained by
   IANA.





























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9.  Security Considerations

   To be written.  (The security consideration should be pretty much the
   same as for current configuration payloads.)

   Assigning each client a unique prefix makes using randomized
   interface identifiers [RFC4941] ineffective from privacy point of
   view: the client is still uniquely identified by the prefix.  In some
   environments, it may be preferable to assign a VPN client the same
   prefixes each time a VPN connection is established; other
   environments may prefer assigning a different prefix every time for
   privacy reasons.  (This is basically a similar trade-off as in Mobile
   IPv6 -- using the same Home Address forever is simpler than changing
   it often, but has privacy implications.)





































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10.  Acknowledgments

   The author would like to thank Patrick Irwin, Tero Kivinen, Julien
   Laganier, Chinh Nguyen, Mohan Parthasarathy, Yaron Sheffer, Hemant
   Singh, Dave Thaler, Yinghzhe Wu, and Fan Zhao for their valuable
   comments.

   Many of the challenges associated with IPsec-protected "virtual
   interfaces" have been identified before: for example, in the context
   of protecting IPv6-in-IPv4 tunnels with IPsec [RFC4891], Provider
   Provisioned VPNs [VLINK] [RFC3884], and Mobile IPv6 [RFC4877].  Some
   of the limitations of assigning a single IPv6 address were identified
   in [RFC3314].






































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11.  References

11.1.  Normative References

   [IKEv2]    Kaufman, C., "Internet Key Exchange (IKEv2) Protocol",
              RFC 4306, December 2005.

   [IPv6Addr]
              Hinden, R. and S. Deering, "IP Version 6 Addressing
              Architecture", RFC 4291, February 2006.

   [KEYWORDS]
              Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", RFC 2119, March 1997.

11.2.  Informative References

   [AUTOCONF]
              Thomson, S., Narten, T., and T. Jinmei, "IPv6 Stateless
              Address Autoconfiguration", RFC 4862, September 2007.

   [CGA]      Aura, T., "Cryptographically Generated Addresses (CGA)",
              RFC 3972, March 2006.

   [DHCPv6]   Droms, R., Bound, J., Volz, B., Lemon, T., Perkins, C.,
              and M. Carney, "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for
              IPv6 (DHCPv6)", RFC 3315, July 2003.

   [HBA]      Bagnulo, M., "Hash Based Addresses (HBA)",
              draft-ietf-shim6-hba-05 (work in progress), December 2007.

   [IPConfig]
              Aboba, B., Thaler, D., and L. Andersson, "Principles of
              Internet Host Configuration", draft-iab-ip-config-04 (work
              in progress), May 2008.

   [IPv6ND]   Narten, T., Nordmark, E., Simpson, W., and H. Soliman,
              "Neighbor Discovery for IP version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 4861,
              September 2007.

   [IPv6PPP]  Varada, S., Haskins, D., and E. Allen, "IP Version 6 over
              PPP", RFC 5072, September 2007.

   [MLDv2]    Vida, R. and L. Costa, "Multicast Listener Discovery
              Version 2 (MLDv2) for IPv6", RFC 3810, June 2004.

   [MOBIKE]   Eronen, P., "IKEv2 Mobility and Multihoming Protocol
              (MOBIKE)", RFC 4555, June 2006.



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   [Multilink]
              Thaler, D., "Multi-Link Subnet Issues", RFC 4903,
              June 2007.

   [NDProxy]  Thaler, D., Talwar, M., and C. Patel, "Neighbor Discovery
              Proxies (ND Proxy)", RFC 4389, April 2006.

   [RFC3314]  Wasserman, M., "Recommendations for IPv6 in Third
              Generation Partnership Project 3GPP) Standards", RFC 3314,
              September 2002.

   [RFC3456]  Patel, B., Aboba, B., Kelly, S., and V. Gupta, "Dynamic
              Host Configuration Protocol (DHCPv4) Configuration of
              IPsec Tunnel Mode", RFC 3456, January 2003.

   [RFC3633]  Troan, O. and R. Droms, "IPv6 Prefix Options for Dynamic
              Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) version 6", RFC 3633,
              December 2003.

   [RFC3884]  Touch, J., Eggert, L., and Y. Wang, "Use of IPsec
              Transport Mode for Dynamic Routing", RFC 3884,
              September 2004.

   [RFC4193]  Hinden, R. and B. Haberman, "Unique Local IPv6 Unicast
              Addresses", RFC 4193, October 2005.

   [RFC4294]  Loughney, J., Ed., "IPv6 Node Requirements", RFC 4294,
              April 2006.

   [RFC4718]  Eronen, P. and P. Hoffman, "IKEv2 Clarifications and
              Implementation Guidelines", RFC 4718, October 2006.

   [RFC4866]  Arkko, J., Vogt, C., and W. Haddad, "Enhanced Route
              Optimization for Mobile IPv6", RFC 4866, May 2007.

   [RFC4877]  Devarapalli, V. and F. Dupont, "Mobile IPv6 Operation with
              IKEv2 and the Revised IPsec Architecture", RFC 4877,
              April 2007.

   [RFC4891]  Graveman, R., Parthasarathy, M., Savola, P., and H.
              Tschofenig, "Using IPsec to Secure IPv6-in-IPv4 Tunnels",
              RFC 4891, May 2007.

   [RFC4941]  Narten, T., Draves, R., and S. Krishnan, "Privacy
              Extensions for Stateless Address Autoconfiguration in
              IPv6", RFC 4941, September 2007.

   [SHIM6]    Nordmark, E. and M. Bagnulo, "Shim6: Level 3 Multihoming



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              Shim Protocol for IPv6", draft-ietf-shim6-proto-10 (work
              in progress), February 2008.

   [VLINK]    Duffy, M., "Framework for IPsec Protected Virtual Links
              for PPVPNs", draft-duffy-ppvpn-ipsec-vlink-00 (work in
              progress), October 2002.













































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Appendix A.  Alternative Solution Sketches

A.1.  Version -00 Sketch

   The -00 version of this draft contained the following solution
   sketch, which is basically a combination of (1) point-to-point link
   model, (2) prefix information distributed in Neighbor Advertisements,
   and (3) access control enforced outside IPsec.

   1) During IKE_AUTH, client sends a new configuration attribute,
   INTERNAL_IP6_LINK_ID, which requests a virtual link to be created.
   The attribute contains the client's interface ID for link-local
   address (other addresses may use other interface IDs).

      CP(CFG_REQUEST) =
         { INTERNAL_IP6_LINK_ID(Link-Local Interface ID) }
      TSi = (0, 0-65535, 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0 -
             FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF)
      TSr = (0, 0-65535, 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0 -
             FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF)  -->

   The VPN gateway replies with its own link-local interface ID (which
   MUST be different from the client's) and an IKEv2 Link ID (which will
   be used for reauthentication).

     CP(CFG_REPLY) =
        { INTERNAL_IP6_LINK_ID(Link-Local Interface ID, IKEv2 Link ID) }
     TSi = (0, 0-65535, 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0 -
            FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF)
     TSr = (0, 0-65535, 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0 -
            FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF)

   At this point, both peers configure the virtual interface with the
   link-local addresses.

   2) The next step is IPv6 stateless address autoconfiguration; that
   is, Router Solicitation and Router Advertisement messages sent over
   the IPsec SA.

     ESP(Router Solicitation:
         src=:
         dst=FF02:0:0:0:0:0:0:2)  -->

     <-- ESP(Router Advertisement:
             src=FE80::<Gateway's Interface ID>
             dst=FF02:0:0:0:0:0:0:1,
             Prefix1, [Prefix2...])




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   After receiving the Router Advertisement, the client can configure
   unicast addresses from the advertised prefixes, using any interface
   ID.  The VPN gateway MUST NOT simultaneously assign the same prefixes
   to any other client, and MUST NOT itself configure addresses from
   these prefixes.  Thus, the client does not have to perform Duplicate
   Address Detection (DAD).

   3) Reauthentication works basically the same way as in Section 6.2;
   the client includes the IKEv2 Link ID in the INTERNAL_IP6_LINK_ID
   attribute.

   4) Creating and rekeying IPsec SAs works basically the same way as in
   Section 6.3; the client includes the IKEv2 Link ID in those CHILD_SA
   requests that are related to the virtual link.

   Comments: This was changed in -01 draft based on feedback from VPN
   vendors: while the solution looks nice on paper, it is claimed to be
   unneccessarily complex to implement when the IKE implementation and
   IPv6 stack are from different companies.  Furthermore, enforcing
   access control outside IPsec is a significant architectural change
   compared to current IPv4 solutions.

A.2.  Router Aggregation Sketch #1

   The following solution was sketched during the IETF 70 meeting in
   Vancouver together with Hemant Singh.  It combines the (1) router
   aggregation link model, (2) prefix information distributed in IKEv2
   messages, (3) unique address allocation with stateless address
   autoconfiguration (with VPN gateway trapping NS messages and spoofing
   NA replies), and (4) access control enforced (partly) outside IPsec.

   1) During IKE_AUTH, the client sends a new configuration attribute,
   INTERNAL_IP6_LINK_ID, which requests a virtual link to be created.
   The attribute contains the client's interface ID for link-local
   address (other addresses may use other interface IDs).

      CP(CFG_REQUEST) =
         { INTERNAL_IP6_LINK_ID(Link-Local Interface ID) }
      TSi = (0, 0-65535, 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0 -
             FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF)
      TSr = (0, 0-65535, 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0 -
             FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF)  -->

   The VPN gateway replies with its own link-local interface ID (which
   MUST be different from the client's), an IKEv2 Link ID (which will be
   used for reauthentication and CREATE_CHILD_SA messages), and zero or
   more INTERNAL_IP6_PREFIX attributes.  The traffic selectors proposed
   by the initiator are also narrowed to contain only the assigned



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   prefixes (and the link-local prefix).

      CP(CFG_REPLY) =
         { INTERNAL_IP6_LINK_ID(Link-Local Interface ID, IKEv2 Link ID),
           INTERNAL_IP6_PREFIX(Prefix1/64),
           [INTERNAL_IP6_PREFIX(Prefix2/64),...],
           INTERNAL_IP6_DHCP(Address) ]
      TSi = ((0, 0-65535,
              FE80::<Client's Interface ID> -
              FE80::<Client's Interface ID>)
             (0, 0-65535,
              Prefix1::0 -
              Prefix1::FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF),
             [(0, 0-65535,
               Prefix2::0 -
               Prefix2::FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF), ...])
      TSr = (0, 0-65535,
             0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0 -
             FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF)

   2) The client now configures tentative unicast addresses from the
   prefixes given by the gateway, and performs Duplicate Address
   Detection (DAD) for them.

   The Neighbor Solicitation messages are processed by the VPN gateway:
   if the target address is already in use by some other VPN client, the
   gateway replies with a Neighbor Advertisement.  If the target address
   is not already in use, the VPN gateway notes that it is now being
   used by this client, and updates its forwarding state accordingly.

   Comments: The main disadvantages of this solution are non-standard
   processing of NS messages (which are used to update the gateway's
   forwarding state), and performing access control partly outside
   IPsec.

A.3.  Router Aggregation Sketch #2

   This is basically similar to the version -00 sketch described with
   above, but uses router aggregation link model.  In other words, it
   combines (1) router aggregation link model, (2) prefix information
   distributed in Neighbor Advertisements, (3) unique address allocation
   with stateless address autoconfiguration (with VPN gateway trapping
   NS messages and spoofing NA replies), and (4) access control enforced
   outside IPsec.

   1) During IKE_AUTH, client sends a new configuration attribute,
   INTERNAL_IP6_LINK_ID, which requests a virtual link to be created.
   The attribute contains the client's interface ID for link-local



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   address (other addresses may use other interface IDs).

      CP(CFG_REQUEST) =
         { INTERNAL_IP6_LINK_ID(Link-Local Interface ID) }
      TSi = (0, 0-65535, 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0 -
             FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF)
      TSr = (0, 0-65535, 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0 -
             FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF)  -->

   The VPN gateway replies with its own link-local interface ID (which
   MUST be different from the client's) and an IKEv2 Link ID (which will
   be used for reauthentication).

     CP(CFG_REPLY) =
        { INTERNAL_IP6_LINK_ID(Link-Local Interface ID, IKEv2 Link ID) }
     TSi = (0, 0-65535, 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0 -
            FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF)
     TSr = (0, 0-65535, 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0 -
            FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF)

   At this point, both peers configure the virtual interface with the
   link-local addresses.

   2) The next step is IPv6 stateless address autoconfiguration; that
   is, Router Solicitation and Router Advertisement messages sent over
   the IPsec SA.

     ESP(Router Solicitation:
         src=:
         dst=FF02:0:0:0:0:0:0:2)  -->

     <-- ESP(Router Advertisement:
             src=FE80::<Gateway's Interface ID>
             dst=FF02:0:0:0:0:0:0:1,
             Prefix1, [Prefix2...])

   3) The client now configures tentative unicast addresses from the
   prefixes given by the gateway, and performs Duplicate Address
   Detection (DAD) for them.

   The Neighbor Solicitation messages are processed by the VPN gateway:
   if the target address is already in use by some other VPN client, the
   gateway replies with a Neighbor Advertisement.  If the target address
   is not already in use, the VPN gateway notes that it is now being
   used by this client, and updates its forwarding state accordingly.

   Comments: The main disadvantages of this solution are non-standard
   processing of NS messages (which are used to update the gateway's



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   forwarding state), and performing access control outside IPsec.

A.4.  IPv4-like Sketch

   This sketch resembles the current IPv4 configuration payloads, and it
   combines (1) router aggregation link model, (2) prefix information
   distributed in IKEv2 messages, (3) unique address allocation with
   IKEv2 messages, and (4) access control enforced by IPsec SAD/SPD.

   1) During IKE_AUTH, the client sends a new configuration attribute,
   INTERNAL_IP6_LINK_ID, which requests a virtual link to be created.
   The attribute contains the client's interface ID for link-local
   address (other addresses may use other interface IDs).

      CP(CFG_REQUEST) =
         { INTERNAL_IP6_LINK_ID(Link-Local Interface ID) }
      TSi = (0, 0-65535,
             0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0 -
             FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF)
      TSr = (0, 0-65535,
             0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0 -
             FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF)  -->

   The VPN gateway replies with its own link-local interface ID (which
   MUST be different from the client's), an IKEv2 Link ID (which will be
   used for reauthentication and CREATE_CHILD_SA messages), and zero or
   more INTERNAL_IP6_ADDRESS2 attributes.  Each attribute contains one
   address from a particular prefix.

      CP(CFG_REPLY) =
         { INTERNAL_IP6_LINK_ID(Link-Local Interface ID, IKEv2 Link ID),
           INTERNAL_IP6_ADDRESS2(Prefix1+Client's Interface ID1),
           [INTERNAL_IP6_ADDRESS2(Prefix2+Client's Interface ID2),...],
      TSi = ((0, 0-65535,
              FE80::<Client's Link-Local Interface ID> -
              FE80::<Client's Link-Local Interface ID>)
             (0, 0-65535,
              Prefix1::<Client's Interface ID1> -
              Prefix1::<Client's Interface ID1>),
             [(0, 0-65535,
               Prefix2::<Client's Interface ID2> -
               Prefix2::<Client's Interface ID2>), ...])
      TSr = (0, 0-65535,
             0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0 -
             FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF)

   Since the VPN gateway keeps track of address uniqueness, there is no
   need to perform Duplicate Address Detection.



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   2) If the client wants additional addresses later (for example, with
   specific interface ID), it requests them in a separate
   CREATE_CHILD_SA exchange.  For example:

      CP(CFG_REQUEST) =
         { INTERNAL_IP6_ADDRESS2(Prefix1+Client's Interface ID3) }
      TSi = (0, 0-65535,
             Prefix1::0 -
             Prefix1::FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF>),
      TSr = (0, 0-65535,
             0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0 -
             FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF)  -->

   If the requested address is not currently in use by some other
   client, the VPN gateway simply returns the same address, and traffic
   selectors narrowed appropriately.

      CP(CFG_REQUEST) =
         { INTERNAL_IP6_ADDRESS2(Prefix1+Client's Interface ID3) }
      TSi = ((0, 0-65535,
              Prefix1::<Client's Interface ID3> -
              Prefix1::<Client's Interface ID3>),
      TSr = (0, 0-65535,
             0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0 -
             FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF)

   Comments: The main advantage of this solution is that it's quite
   close to the current IPv4 way of doing things.  By adding explicit
   link creation (with Link ID for reauthentication/SPD selection, and
   link-local addresses), and slightly changing the semantics (and also
   name) of INTERNAL_IP6_ADDRESS attribute (can return more attributes
   than was asked), we get much of the needed functionality.

   The biggest disadvantages are probably potentially complex
   implementation dependency for interface ID selection (see
   Section 3.4), and the multi-link subnet model.

A.5.  Sketch Based on RFC 3456

   For completeness: a solution modeled after [RFC3456] would combine
   (1) router aggregation link model, (2) prefix information
   distribution and unique address allocation with DHCPv6, and (3)
   access control enforced by IPsec SAD/SPD.








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Authors' Addresses

   Pasi Eronen
   Nokia Research Center
   P.O. Box 407
   FIN-00045 Nokia Group
   Finland

   Email: pasi.eronen@nokia.com


   Julien Laganier
   DOCOMO Communications Laboratories Europe GmbH
   Landsberger Strasse 312
   Munich  D-80687
   Germany

   Phone: +49 89 56824 231
   Email: julien.laganier.IETF@googlemail.com


   Cheryl Madson
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   510 MacCarthy Drive
   Milpitas, CA
   USA

   Email: cmadson@cisco.com























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Full Copyright Statement

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   contained in BCP 78, and except as set forth therein, the authors
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