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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 05 RFC 4941

IPv6 Working Group                                             T. Narten
Internet-Draft                                           IBM Corporation
Expires: March 16, 2005                                        R. Draves
                                                      Microsoft Research
                                                             S. Krishnan
                                                                Ericsson
                                                      September 15, 2004



   Privacy Extensions for Stateless Address Autoconfiguration in IPv6
                  draft-ietf-ipv6-privacy-addrs-v2-00


Status of this Memo


   By submitting this Internet-Draft, I certify that any applicable
   patent or other IPR claims of which I am aware have been disclosed,
   and any of which I become aware will be disclosed, in accordance with
   RFC 3668.


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   This Internet-Draft will expire on March 16, 2005.


Copyright Notice


   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2004).  All Rights Reserved.


Abstract


   Nodes use IPv6 stateless address autoconfiguration to generate
   addresses without the necessity of a Dynamic Host Configuration
   Protocol (DHCP) server.  Addresses are formed by combining network
   prefixes with an interface identifier.  On interfaces that contain
   embedded IEEE Identifiers, the interface identifier is typically
   derived from it.  On other interface types, the interface identifier




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   is generated through other means, for example, via random number
   generation.  This document describes an extension to IPv6 stateless
   address autoconfiguration for interfaces whose interface identifier
   is derived from an IEEE identifier.  Use of the extension causes
   nodes to generate global scope addresses from interface identifiers
   that change over time, even in cases where the interface contains an
   embedded IEEE identifier.  Changing the interface identifier (and the
   global scope addresses generated from it) over time makes it more
   difficult for eavesdroppers and other information collectors to
   identify when different addresses used in different transactions
   actually correspond to the same node.


Table of Contents


   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
     1.1   Conventions used in this document  . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     2.1   Extended Use of the Same Identifier  . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     2.2   Address Usage in IPv4 Today  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     2.3   The Concern With IPv6 Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     2.4   Possible Approaches  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   3.  Protocol Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     3.1   Assumptions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     3.2   Generation Of Randomized Interface Identifiers . . . . . . 11
       3.2.1   When Stable Storage Is Present . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
       3.2.2   In The Absence of Stable Storage . . . . . . . . . . . 12
       3.2.3   Alternate approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     3.3   Generating Temporary Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     3.4   Expiration of Temporary Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     3.5   Regeneration of Randomized Interface Identifiers . . . . . 15
     3.6   Deployment Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
   4.  Implications of Changing Interface Identifiers . . . . . . . . 18
   5.  Defined Constants  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
   6.  Future Work  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
   7.  Significant Changes from RFC 3041  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
   8.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
   9.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
   10.   References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
       Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
       Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . 26












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1.  Introduction


   Stateless address autoconfiguration [ADDRCONF] defines how an IPv6
   node generates addresses without the need for a DHCP server.  Some
   types of network interfaces come with an embedded IEEE Identifier
   (i.e., a link-layer MAC address), and in those cases stateless
   address autoconfiguration uses the IEEE identifier to generate a 64-
   bit interface identifier [ADDRARCH].  By design, the interface
   identifier is likely to be globally unique when generated in this
   fashion.  The interface identifier is in turn appended to a prefix to
   form a 128-bit IPv6 address.


   All nodes combine interface identifiers (whether derived from an IEEE
   identifier or generated through some other technique) with the
   reserved link-local prefix to generate link-local addresses for their
   attached interfaces.  Additional addresses can then be created by
   combining prefixes advertised in Router Advertisements via Neighbor
   Discovery [DISCOVERY] with the interface identifier.


   Not all nodes and interfaces contain IEEE identifiers.  In such
   cases, an interface identifier is generated through some other means
   (e.g., at random), and the resultant interface identifier is not
   globally unique and may also change over time.  The focus of this
   document is on addresses derived from IEEE identifiers, as the
   concern being addressed exists only in those cases where the
   interface identifier is globally unique and non-changing.  The rest
   of this document assumes that IEEE identifiers are being used, but
   the techniques described may also apply to interfaces with other
   types of globally unique and/or persistent identifiers.


   This document discusses concerns associated with the embedding of
   non-changing interface identifiers within IPv6 addresses and
   describes extensions to stateless address autoconfiguration that can
   help mitigate those concerns for individual users and in environments
   where such concerns are significant.  Section 2 provides background
   information on the issue.  Section 3 describes a procedure for
   generating alternate interface identifiers and global scope
   addresses.  Section 4 discusses implications of changing interface
   identifiers.  The term "global scope addresses" is used in this
   document  to collectively refer to "Global unicast addresses" as
   defined in [ADDRARCH] and "Unique local addresses" as defined in
   [ULA]


1.1  Conventions used in this document


   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].




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2.  Background


   This section discusses the problem in more detail, provides context
   for evaluating the significance of the concerns in specific
   environments and makes comparisons with existing practices.


2.1  Extended Use of the Same Identifier


   The use of a non-changing interface identifier to form addresses is a
   specific instance of the more general case where a constant
   identifier is reused over an extended period of time and in multiple
   independent activities.  Anytime the same identifier is used in
   multiple contexts, it becomes possible for that identifier to be used
   to correlate seemingly unrelated activity.  For example, a network
   sniffer placed strategically on a link across which all traffic to/
   from a particular host crosses could keep track of which destinations
   a node communicated with and at what times.  Such information can in
   some cases be used to infer things, such as what hours an employee
   was active, when someone is at home, etc.


   One of the requirements for correlating seemingly unrelated
   activities is the use (and reuse) of an identifier that is
   recognizable over time within different contexts.  IP addresses
   provide one obvious example, but there are more.  Many nodes also
   have DNS names associated with their addresses, in which case the DNS
   name serves as a similar identifier.  Although the DNS name
   associated with an address is more work to obtain (it may require a
   DNS query) the information is often readily available.  In such
   cases, changing the address on a machine over time would do little to
   address the concerns raised in this document, unless the DNS name is
   changed as well (see Section 4).


   Web browsers and servers typically exchange "cookies" with each other
   [COOKIES].  Cookies allow web servers to correlate a current activity
   with a previous activity.  One common usage is to send back targeted
   advertising to a user by using the cookie supplied by the browser to
   identify what earlier queries had been made (e.g., for what type of
   information).  Based on the earlier queries, advertisements can be
   targeted to match the (assumed) interests of the end-user.


   The use of a constant identifier within an address is of special
   concern because addresses are a fundamental requirement of
   communication and cannot easily be hidden from eavesdroppers and
   other parties.  Even when higher layers encrypt their payloads,
   addresses in packet headers appear in the clear.  Consequently, if a
   mobile host (e.g., laptop) accessed the network from several
   different locations, an eavesdropper might be able to track the
   movement of that mobile host from place to place, even if the upper




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   layer payloads were encrypted.


2.2  Address Usage in IPv4 Today


   Addresses used in today's Internet are often non-changing in practice
   for extended periods of time, especially in non-home environments
   (e.g., corporations, campuses, etc.).  In such sites, addresses are
   assigned statically and typically change infrequently.  Over the last
   few years, sites have begun moving away from static allocation to
   dynamic allocation via DHCP [DHCP].  In theory, the address a client
   gets via DHCP can change over time, but in practice servers often
   return the same address to the same client (unless addresses are in
   such short supply that they are reused immediately by a different
   node when they become free).  Thus, even within sites using DHCP,
   clients frequently end up using the same address for weeks to months
   at a time.


   For home users accessing the Internet over dialup lines, the
   situation is generally different.  Such users do not have permanent
   connections and are often assigned temporary addresses each time they
   connect to their ISP (e.g., AOL).  Consequently, the addresses they
   use change frequently over time and are shared among a number of
   different users.  Thus, an address does not reliably identify a
   particular device over time spans of more than a few minutes.


   A more interesting case concerns always-on connections (e.g., cable
   modems, ISDN, DSL, etc.) that result in a home site using the same
   address for extended periods of time.  This is a scenario that is
   just starting to become common in IPv4 and promises to become more of
   a concern as always-on internet connectivity becomes widely
   available.  Although it might appear that changing an address
   regularly in such environments would be desirable to lessen privacy
   concerns, it should be noted that the network prefix portion of an
   address also serves as a constant identifier.  All nodes at (say) a
   home, would have the same network prefix, which identifies the
   topological location of those nodes.  This has implications for
   privacy, though not at the same granularity as the concern that this
   document addresses.  Specifically, all nodes within a home would be
   grouped together for the purposes of collecting information.  This
   issue is difficult to address, because the routing prefix part of an
   address contains topology information and cannot contain arbitrary
   values.


   Finally, it should be noted that nodes that need a (non-changing) DNS
   name generally have static addresses assigned to them to simplify the
   configuration of DNS servers.  Although Dynamic DNS [DDNS] can be
   used to update the DNS dynamically, it is not yet widely deployed.
   In addition, changing an address but keeping the same DNS name does




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   not really address the underlying concern, since the DNS name becomes
   a non-changing identifier.  Servers generally require a DNS name (so
   clients can connect to them), and clients often do as well (e.g.,
   some servers refuse to speak to a client whose address cannot be
   mapped into a DNS name that also maps back into the same address).
   Section 4 describes one approach to this issue.


2.3  The Concern With IPv6 Addresses


   The division of IPv6 addresses into distinct topology and interface
   identifier portions raises an issue new to IPv6 in that a fixed
   portion of an IPv6 address (i.e., the interface identifier) can
   contain an identifier that remains constant even when the topology
   portion of an address changes (e.g., as the result of connecting to a
   different part of the Internet).  In IPv4, when an address changes,
   the entire address (including the local part of the address) usually
   changes.  It is this new issue that this document addresses.


   If addresses are generated from an interface identifier, a home
   user's address could contain an interface identifier that remains the
   same from one dialup session to the next, even if the rest of the
   address changes.  The way PPP is used today, however, PPP servers
   typically unilaterally inform the client what address they are to use
   (i.e., the client doesn't generate one on its own).  This practice,
   if continued in IPv6, would avoid the concerns that are the focus of
   this document.


   A more troubling case concerns mobile devices (e.g., laptops, PDAs,
   etc.) that move topologically within the Internet.  Whenever they
   move (in the absence of technology such as mobile IP [MOBILEIP]),
   they form new addresses for their current topological point of
   attachment.  This is typified today by the "road warrior" who has
   Internet connectivity both at home and at the office.  While the
   node's address changes as it moves, however, the interface identifier
   contained within the address remains the same (when derived from an
   IEEE Identifier).  In such cases, the interface identifier can be
   used to track the movement and usage of a particular machine.  For
   example, a server that logs usage information together with a source
   addresses, is also recording the interface identifier since it is
   embedded within an address.  Consequently, any data-mining technique
   that correlates activity based on addresses could easily be extended
   to do the same using the interface identifier.  This is of particular
   concern with the expected proliferation of next-generation
   network-connected devices (e.g., PDAs, cell phones, etc.) in which
   large numbers of devices are in practice associated with individual
   users (i.e., not shared).  Thus, the interface identifier embedded
   within an address could be used to track activities of an individual,
   even as they move topologically within the internet.




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   In summary, IPv6 addresses on a given interface generated via
   Stateless Autoconfiguration contain the same interface identifier,
   regardless of where within the Internet the device connects.  This
   facilitates the tracking of individual devices (and thus potentially
   users).  The purpose of this document is to define mechanisms that
   eliminate this issue, in those situations where it is a concern.


2.4  Possible Approaches


   One way to avoid some of the problems discussed above is to use DHCP
   for obtaining addresses.  With DHCP, the DHCP server could arrange to
   hand out addresses that change over time.


   Another approach, compatible with the stateless address
   autoconfiguration architecture, would be to change the interface id
   portion of an address over time and generate new addresses from the
   interface identifier for some address scopes.  Changing the interface
   identifier can make it more difficult to look at the IP addresses in
   independent transactions and identify which ones actually correspond
   to the same node, both in the case where the routing prefix portion
   of an address changes and when it does not.


   Many machines function as both clients and servers.  In such cases,
   the machine would need a DNS name for its use as a server.  Whether
   the address stays fixed or changes has little privacy implication
   since the DNS name remains constant and serves as a constant
   identifier.  When acting as a client (e.g., initiating
   communication), however, such a machine may want to vary the
   addresses it uses.  In such environments, one may need multiple
   addresses: a "public" (i.e., non-secret) server address, registered
   in the DNS, that is used to accept incoming connection requests from
   other machines, and a "temporary" address used to shield the identity
   of the client when it initiates communication.  These two cases are
   roughly analogous to telephone numbers and caller ID, where a user
   may list their telephone number in the public phone book, but disable
   the display of its number via caller ID when initiating calls.


   To make it difficult to make educated guesses as to whether two
   different interface identifiers belong to the same node, the
   algorithm for generating alternate identifiers must include input
   that has an unpredictable component from the perspective of the
   outside entities that are collecting information.  Picking
   identifiers from a pseudo-random sequence suffices, so long as the
   specific sequence cannot be determined by an outsider examining
   information that is readily available or easily determinable (e.g.,
   by examining packet contents).  This document proposes the generation
   of a pseudo-random sequence of interface identifiers via an MD5 hash.
   Periodically, the next interface identifier in the sequence is




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   generated, a new set of temporary addresses is created, and the
   previous temporary addresses are deprecated to discourage their
   further use.  The precise pseudo-random sequence depends on both a
   random component and the globally unique interface identifier (when
   available), to increase the likelihood that different nodes generate
   different sequences.














































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3.  Protocol Description


   The goal of this section is to define procedures that:


   1.  Do not result in any changes to the basic behavior of addresses
       generated via stateless address autoconfiguration [ADDRCONF].
   2.  Create additional global scope addresses based on a random
       interface identifier for use with global scope addresses.Such
       addresses would be used to initiate outgoing sessions.  These
       "random" or temporary addresses would be used for a short period
       of time (hours to days) and would then be deprecated.  Deprecated
       address can continue to be used for already established
       connections, but are not used to initiate new connections.  New
       temporary addresses are generated periodically to replace
       temporary addresses that expire, with the exact time between
       address generation a matter of local policy.
   3.  Produce a sequence of temporary global scope addresses from a
       sequence of interface identifiers that appear to be random in the
       sense that it is difficult for an outside observer to predict a
       future address (or identifier) based on a current one and it is
       difficult to determine previous addresses (or identifiers)
       knowing only the present one.
   4.  By default, generate a set of addresses from the same
       (randomized) interface identifier, one address for each prefix
       for which a global address has been generated via stateless
       address autoconfiguration.  Using the same interface identifier
       to generate a set of temporary addresses reduces the number of IP
       multicast groups a host must join.  Nodes join the solicited-node
       multicast address for each unicast address they support, and
       solicited-node addresses are dependent only on the low-order bits
       of the corresponding address.  This default behaviour was made to
       address the concern that a node that joins a large number of
       multicast groups may be required to put its interface into
       promiscuous mode, resulting in possible reduced performance.


       A node highly concerned about privacy MAY use different interface
       identifiers on different prefixes, resulting in a set of global
       addresses that cannot be easily tied to each other.  This may be
       useful, for example, to a mobile node using multiple wireless
       interfaces to connect to multiple independent networks.


3.1  Assumptions


   The following algorithm assumes that each interface maintains an
   associated randomized interface identifier.  When temporary addresses
   are generated, the current value of the associated randomized
   interface identifier is used.  The actual value of the identifier
   changes over time as described below, but the same identifier can be




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   used to generate more than one temporary address.


   The algorithm also assumes that for a given temporary address, an
   implementation can determine the corresponding public address from
   which it was generated.  When a temporary address is deprecated, a
   new temporary address is generated.  The specific valid and preferred
   lifetimes for the new address are dependent on the corresponding
   lifetime values in the public address.


   Finally, this document assumes that when a node initiates outgoing
   communication, temporary addresses can be given preference over
   public addresses, when the device is configured to do so.  This is
   consistent with on-going work that addresses the topic of
   source-address selection in the more general case [ADDR_SELECT] and
   also means that all connections initiated by the node can use
   temporary addresses without requiring application-specific
   enablement.  This document also assumes that an API will exist that
   allows individual applications to indicate whether they prefer to use
   temporary or public addresses and override the system defaults.

































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3.2  Generation Of Randomized Interface Identifiers


   We describe two approaches for the generation and maintenance of the
   randomized interface identifier.  The first assumes the presence of
   stable storage that can be used to record state history for use as
   input into the next iteration of the algorithm across system
   restarts.  A second approach addresses the case where stable storage
   is unavailable and there is a need to generate randomized interface
   identifiers without previous state.


3.2.1  When Stable Storage Is Present


   The following algorithm assumes the presence of a 64-bit "history
   value" that is used as input in generating a randomized interface
   identifier.  The very first time the system boots (i.e., out-of-the-
   box), a random value SHOULD be generated using techniques that help
   ensure the initial value is hard to guess [RANDOM].  Whenever a new
   interface identifier is generated, a value generated by the
   computation is saved in the history value for the next iteration of
   the algorithm.


   A randomized interface identifier is created as follows:


   1.  Take the history value from the previous iteration of this
       algorithm (or a random value if there is no previous value) and
       append to it the interface identifier generated as described in
       [ADDRARCH].
   2.  Compute the MD5 message digest [MD5] over the quantity created in
       the previous step.
   3.  Take the left-most 64-bits of the MD5 digest and set bit 6 (the
       left-most bit is numbered 0) to zero.  This creates an interface
       identifier with the universal/local bit indicating local
       significance only.
   4.  Compare the generated identifier against a list of known values
       that should not be used.  Inappropriate values include those used
       in reserved anycast addresses [RFC2526], those used by ISATAP
       [ISATAP], the value 0, and those already assigned to an address
       on the local device.  In the event that an unacceptable
       identifier has been generated, the node MUST restart the process
       at step 1 above, using the right-most 64 bits of the MD5 digest
       obtained in step 2 in place of the history value in step 1.
   5.  Save the generated identifier as the associated randomized
       interface identifier.
   6.  Take the rightmost 64-bits of the MD5 digest computed in step 2)
       and save them in stable storage as the history value to be used
       in the next iteration of the algorithm.


   MD5 was chosen for convenience, and because its particular properties




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   were adequate to produce the desired level of randomization.  IPv6
   nodes are already required to implement MD5 as part of IPsec [IPSEC],
   thus the code will already be present on IPv6 machines.


   In theory, generating successive randomized interface identifiers
   using a history scheme as above has no advantages over generating
   them at random.  In practice, however, generating truly random
   numbers can be tricky.  Use of a history value is intended to avoid
   the particular scenario where two nodes generate the same randomized
   interface identifier, both detect the situation via DAD, but then
   proceed to generate identical randomized interface identifiers via
   the same (flawed) random number generation algorithm.  The above
   algorithm avoids this problem by having the interface identifier
   (which will often be globally unique) used in the calculation that
   generates subsequent randomized interface identifiers.  Thus, if two
   nodes happen to generate the same randomized interface identifier,
   they should generate different ones on the followup attempt.


3.2.2  In The Absence of Stable Storage


   In the absence of stable storage, no history value will be available
   across system restarts to generate a pseudo-random sequence of
   interface identifiers.  Consequently, the initial history value used
   above SHOULD be generated at random.  A number of techniques might be
   appropriate.  Consult [RANDOM] for suggestions on good sources for
   obtaining random numbers.  Note that even though machines may not
   have stable storage for storing a history value, they will in many
   cases have configuration information that differs from one machine to
   another (e.g., user identity, security keys, serial numbers, etc.).
   One approach to generating a random initial history value in such
   cases is to use the configuration information to generate some data
   bits (which may remain constant for the life of the machine, but will
   vary from one machine to another), append some random data and
   compute the MD5 digest as before.


















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3.2.3  Alternate approaches


   Please note that there are other approaches to generate random
   interface identifiers, albeit with different goals and applicability.
   One such approach is CGA [CGA], which generates a random interface
   identifier based on the public key of the node.  The goal of CGAs is
   to prove ownership of an address and to prevent spoofing and stealing
   of existing IPv6 addresses.  The CGA random interface identifier
   generation algorithm may not be suitable for privacy addresses
   because of the following properties


   o  It requires the node to have a public key.  This means that the
      node can still be identified by its public key
   o  The random interface identifier process is computationally
      intensive and hence discourages frequent regeneration


3.3  Generating Temporary Addresses


   [ADDRCONF] describes the steps for generating a link-local address
   when an interface becomes enabled as well as the steps for generating
   addresses for other scopes.  This document extends [ADDRCONF] as
   follows.  When processing a Router Advertisement with a Prefix
   Information option carrying a global scope prefix for the purposes of
   address autoconfiguration (i.e., the A bit is set), the node MUST
   perform the following steps:


   1.  Process the Prefix Information Option as defined in [ADDRCONF],
       either creating a new public address or adjusting the lifetimes
       of existing addresses, both public and temporary.  When adjusting
       the lifetime of an existing temporary address, there are two
       cases to consider:
       A.  In some cases, the lifetimes in a received option will be
           shorter than the lifetimes of an existing temporary addresses
           derived from the prefix given in the option.  This
           corresponds to the case where the lifetimes have been
           reconfigured by a system administrator to have a shorter
           lifetime.  Perform the following procedure to determine how
           to update the lifetime of the temporary address:
       B.
           +  If the received Valid Lifetime is greater than 2 hours
              update the lifetime of the temporary address to the
              received lifetime.
           +  If the RemainingLifetime of the temporary address is less
              than or equal to 2 hours ignore the received option.
           +  Otherwise set the valid lifetime to 2 hours.
       C.  These steps are necessary to prevent a denial of service
           attack where a bogus advertisement contains prefixes with
           very small Valid Lifetimes




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       D.  In many cases, the lifetime of a received option will extend
           the lifetime of a public address.  For example, a site might
           advertise short lifetimes (on the order of hours or minutes)
           that are effectively extended with each new RA.  In such
           cases, the lifetimes of temporary addresses should be
           extended, subject to the overall constraint that no temporary
           addresses should ever remain "valid" or "preferred" for a
           time longer than (TEMP_VALID_LIFETIME-DESYNC_FACTOR) or
           (TEMP_PREFERRED_LIFETIME-DESYNC_FACTOR) respectively.  The
           configuration variables TEMP_VALID_LIFETIME and
           TEMP_PREFERRED_LIFETIME correspond to approximate target
           lifetimes for temporary addresses.
       One way an implementation can satisfy the above constraints is to
       associate with each temporary address a creation time (called
       CREATION_TIME) that indicates the time at which the address was
       created.  When updating the preferred lifetime of an existing
       temporary address, it would be set to expire at whichever time is
       earlier: the time indicated by the received lifetime or
       (CREATION_TIME + TEMP_PREFERRED_LIFETIME - DESYNC_FACTOR).  A
       similar approach can be used with the valid lifetime.
   2.  When a new public address is created as described in [ADDRCONF]
       (because the prefix advertised does not match the prefix of any
       address already assigned to the interface, and the Valid Lifetime
       in the option is not zero), the node SHOULD also create a new
       temporary address.
   3.  When creating a temporary address, the lifetime values MUST be
       derived from the corresponding public address as follows:
       *  Its Valid Lifetime is the lower of the Valid Lifetime of the
          public address or TEMP_VALID_LIFETIME
       *  Its Preferred Lifetime is the lower of the Preferred Lifetime
          of the public address or
          TEMP_PREFERRED_LIFETIME-DESYNC_FACTOR.
   4.  A temporary address is created only if this calculated Preferred
       Lifetime is greater than REGEN_ADVANCE time units.  In
       particular, an implementation MUST NOT create a temporary address
       with a zero Preferred Lifetime.
   5.  New temporary addresses MUST be created by appending the
       interface's current randomized interface identifier to the prefix
       that was used to generate the corresponding public address.
   6.  The node MUST Perform duplicate address detection (DAD) on the
       generated temporary address.  If DAD indicates the address is
       already in use, the node MUST generate a new randomized interface
       identifier as described in Section 3.2 above, and repeat the
       previous steps as appropriate up to 5 times.  If after 5
       consecutive attempts no non-unique address was generated, the
       node MUST log a system error and MUST NOT attempt to generate
       temporary addresses for that interface.  Note that DAD MUST be
       performed on every unicast address generated from this randomized




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       interface identifier.


3.4  Expiration of Temporary Addresses


   When a temporary address becomes deprecated, a new one MUST be
   generated.  This is done by repeating the actions described in
   Section 3.3, starting at step 3).  Note that, except for the
   transient period when a temporary address is being regenerated, in
   normal operation at most one temporary address corresponding to a
   public address should be in a non-deprecated state at any given time.
   Note that if a temporary address becomes deprecated as result of
   processing a Prefix Information Option with a zero Preferred
   Lifetime, then a new temporary address MUST NOT be generated.  The
   Prefix Information Option will also deprecate the corresponding
   public address.  To insure that a preferred temporary address is
   always available, a new temporary address SHOULD be regenerated
   slightly before its predecessor is deprecated.  This is to allow
   sufficient time to avoid race conditions in the case where generating
   a new temporary address is not instantaneous, such as when duplicate
   address detection must be run.  The node SHOULD start the address
   regeneration process REGEN_ADVANCE time units before a temporary
   address would actually be deprecated.


   As an optional optimization, an implementation MAY remove a
   deprecated temporary address that is not in use by applications or
   upper-layers.  For TCP connections, such information is available in
   control blocks.  For UDP-based applications, it may be the case that
   only the applications have knowledge about what addresses are
   actually in use.  Consequently, one may need to use heuristics in
   deciding when an address is no longer in use (e.g., the default
   TEMP_VALID_LIFETIME suggested above).


3.5  Regeneration of Randomized Interface Identifiers


   The frequency at which temporary addresses changes depends on how a
   device is being used (e.g., how frequently it initiates new
   communication) and the concerns of the end user.  The most egregious
   privacy concerns appear to involve addresses used for long periods of
   time (weeks to months to years).  The more frequently an address
   changes, the less feasible collecting or coordinating information
   keyed on interface identifiers becomes.  Moreover, the cost of
   collecting information and attempting to correlate it based on
   interface identifiers will only be justified if enough addresses
   contain non-changing identifiers to make it worthwhile.  Thus, having
   large numbers of clients change their address on a daily or weekly
   basis is likely to be sufficient to alleviate most privacy concerns.


   There are also client costs associated with having a large number of




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   addresses associated with a node (e.g., in doing address lookups, the
   need to join many multicast groups, etc.).  Thus, changing addresses
   frequently (e.g., every few minutes) may have performance
   implications.


   Nodes following this specification SHOULD generate new temporary
   addresses on a periodic basis.  This can be achieved automatically by
   generating a new randomized interface identifier at least once every
   (TEMP_PREFERRED_LIFETIME - REGEN_ADVANCE - DESYNC_FACTOR) time units.
   As described above, generating a new temporary address REGEN_ADVANCE
   time units before a temporary address becomes deprecated produces
   addresses with a preferred lifetime no larger than
   TEMP_PREFERRED_LIFETIME.  The value DESYNC_FACTOR is a random value
   (different for each client) that ensures that clients don't
   synchronize with each other and generate new addresses at exactly the
   same time.  When the preferred lifetime expires, a new temporary
   address MUST be generated using the new randomized interface
   identifier.


   Because the precise frequency at which it is appropriate to generate
   new addresses varies from one environment to another, implementations
   SHOULD provide end users with the ability to change the frequency at
   which addresses are regenerated.  The default value is given in
   TEMP_PREFERRED_LIFETIME and is one day.  In addition, the exact time
   at which to invalidate a temporary address depends on how
   applications are used by end users.  Thus, the default value given of
   one week (TEMP_VALID_LIFETIME) may not be appropriate in all
   environments.  Implementations SHOULD provide end users with the
   ability to override both of these default values.


   Finally, when an interface connects to a new link, a new randomized
   interface identifier SHOULD be generated immediately together with a
   new set of temporary addresses.  If a device moves from one ethernet
   to another, generating a new set of temporary addresses from a
   different randomized interface identifier ensures that the device
   uses different randomized interface identifiers for the temporary
   addresses associated with the two links, making it more difficult to
   correlate addresses from the two different links as being from the
   same node.  The process by which a node can determine whether a link
   change has occurred is described by Detecting Network Attachment
   [DNA]


3.6  Deployment Considerations


   Devices implementing this specification MUST provide a way for the
   end user to explicitly enable or disable the use of temporary
   addresses.  In addition, a site might wish to disable the use of
   temporary addresses in order to simply network debugging and




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   operations.  Consequently, implementations SHOULD provide a way for
   trusted system administrators to enable or disable the use of
   temporary addresses.


   The use of temporary addresses may cause unexpected difficulties with
   some applications.  As described below, some servers refuse to accept
   communications from clients for which they cannot map the IP address
   into an DNS name.  In addition, some applications may not behave
   robustly if temporary addresses are used and an address expires
   before the application has terminated, or if it opens multiple
   sessions, but expects them to all use the same addresses.
   Consequently, the use of temporary addresses SHOULD be disabled by
   default in order to minimize potential disruptions.  Individual
   applications, which have specific knowledge about the normal duration
   of connections, MAY override this as appropriate.


   If a very small number of nodes(say only one) use a given prefix for
   extended   periods of time, just changing the interface identifier
   part of the prefix  may not be sufficient to ensure privacy, since
   the prefix acts as a constant identifier.  The procedures described
   in this document are most effective when the prefix is reasonably non
   static or is used by a fairly large number of nodes






























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4.  Implications of Changing Interface Identifiers


   The IPv6 addressing architecture goes to some lengths to ensure that
   interface identifiers are likely to be globally unique where easy to
   do so.  The widespread use of temporary addresses may result in a
   significant fraction of Internet traffic not using addresses in which
   the interface id portion is globally unique.  Consequently, usage of
   the algorithms in this document may complicate providing such a
   future flexibility, if global uniqueness is necessary.


   The desires of protecting individual privacy vs.  the desire to
   effectively maintain and debug a network can conflict with each
   other.  Having clients use addresses that change over time will make
   it more difficult to track down and isolate operational problems.
   For example, when looking at packet traces, it could become more
   difficult to determine whether one is seeing behavior caused by a
   single errant machine, or by a number of them.


   Some servers refuse to grant access to clients for which no DNS name
   exists.  That is, they perform a DNS PTR query to determine the DNS
   name, and may then also perform an AAAA query on the returned name to
   verify that the returned DNS name maps back into the address being
   used.  Consequently, clients not properly registered in the DNS may
   be unable to access some services.  As noted earlier, however, a
   node's DNS name (if non-changing) serves as a constant identifier.
   The wide deployment of the extension described in this document could
   challenge the practice of inverse-DNS-based "authentication," which
   has little validity, though it is widely implemented.  In order to
   meet server challenges, nodes could register temporary addresses in
   the DNS using random names (for example a string version of the
   random address itself).


   Use of the extensions defined in this document may complicate
   debugging and other operational troubleshooting activities.
   Consequently, it may be site policy that temporary addresses should
   not be used.  Consequently, implementations must provide a method for
   the end user or trusted administrator to override the use of
   temporary addresses.














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5.  Defined Constants


   Constants defined in this document include:


   TEMP_VALID_LIFETIME -- Default value: 1 week.  Users should be able
   to override the default value.


   TEMP_PREFERRED_LIFETIME -- Default value: 1 day.  Users should be
   able to override the default value.


   REGEN_ADVANCE -- 5 seconds


   MAX_DESYNC_FACTOR -- 10 minutes.  Upper bound on DESYNC_FACTOR.


   DESYNC_FACTOR -- A random value within the range 0 -
   MAX_DESYNC_FACTOR.  It is computed once at system start (rather than
   each time it is used) and must never be greater than
   (TEMP_VALID_LIFETIME - REGEN_ADVANCE).


































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6.  Future Work


   An implementation might want to keep track of which addresses are
   being used by upper layers so as to be able to remove a deprecated
   temporary address from internal data structures once no upper layer
   protocols are using it (but not before).  This is in contrast to
   current approaches where addresses are removed from an interface when
   they become invalid [ADDRCONF], independent of whether or not upper
   layer protocols are still using them.  For TCP connections, such
   information is available in control blocks.  For UDP-based
   applications, it may be the case that only the applications have
   knowledge about what addresses are actually in use.  Consequently, an
   implementation generally will need to use heuristics in deciding when
   an address is no longer in use (e.g., as is suggested in Section
   3.4).


   The determination as to whether to use public vs.  temporary
   addresses can in some cases only be made by an application.  For
   example, some applications may always want to use temporary
   addresses, while others may want to use them only in some
   circumstances or not at all.  Suitable API extensions will likely
   need to be developed to enable individual applications to indicate
   with sufficient granularity their needs with regards to the use of
   temporary addresses.  Recommendations on DNS practices to avoid the
   problem described in Section 4 when reverse DNS lookups fail may be
   needed.


   While this document discusses ways of obscuring a user's permanent IP
   address, the method described is believed to be ineffective against
   sophisticated forms of traffic analysis.  To increase effectiveness,
   one may need to consider use of more advanced techniques, such as
   Onion Routing [ONION].


   Open Issues


   1) Implementations should allow system administrators to configure
   the use of temporary addresses.  We've considered the possibility of
   using Router Advertisements to configure a host's use of temporary
   addresses, but that has a major drawback: in some situations (for
   example a home user receiving RAs from an ISP's router), the
   administrator of the host and the administrator of the router may
   have different opinions about the use of temporary addresses.  Any
   configuration mechanism that disables the use of temporary addresses
   without input from the user MUST ensure that the host's administrator
   has authorized the disabling.







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7.  Significant Changes from RFC 3041


   This section summarizes the changes in this document relative to RFC
   3041 that an implementer of RFC 3041 should be aware of.
   1.  Added wording to exclude certain interface identifiers from the
        range of acceptable interface identifiers.  Interface IDs such
        as 0, those for reserved anycast addresses [RFC2526], etc.
   2.  Added a configuration knob that provides the end user with a way
        to enable or disable the use of temporary addresses.
   3.  Under RFC 3041, RAs with short lifetimes (e.g., 1 hour) that
        always send the same lifetime for long periods of time (e.g.,
        days to weeks) resulted in temporary addresses being created
        with lifetimes of only 1 hour.  Additional rules were added to
        increase the Lifetime of temporary addresses when the advertised
        lifetimes were short.
   4.  DAD is now run on all temporary addresses, not just the first one
        generated from an interface identifier.
   5.  Changed the default setting for usage of temporary addresses to
        be disabled.
   6.  Added a security considerations section to highlight the ingress
        filtering issues which can be caused by the use of temporary
        addresses as described in this document
   7.  Removed references to site-local addresses
   8.  Added a check for denial of service attacks using low valid
        lifetimes in router advertisements
   9.  Changed the document to use RFC2119 language
   10.  The node is now allowed to generate different interface
        identifiers for different prefixes, if it so desires.
   11.  DAD is now performed on all unicast addresses created from the
        same interface identifier instead of just the first one






















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8.  Security Considerations


   Ingress filtering is being deployed as a means of preventing the use
   of spoofed source addresses in Distributed Denial of Service(DDoS)
   attacks.  In a network with a large number of nodes, new temporary
   addresses are created at a fairly high rate.  This might make it
   difficult for ingress filtering mechanisms to distinguish between
   legitimately changing temporary addresses and spoofed source
   addresses which "in-prefix"(They use a topologically correct prefix
   and non-existent interface ID).  This can be addressed by using
   access control mechanisms on a per address basis on the network
   egress point.








































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9.  Acknowledgements


   The authors would like to acknowledge the contributions of the ipv6
   working group and, in particular, Ran Atkinson, Matt Crawford, Steve
   Deering, Allison Mankin, Peter Bieringer, Jari Arkko, Pekka Nikander,
   Pekka Savola, and Francis Dupont for their detailed comments.


10  References


   [ADDRARCH]
              Hinden, R. and S. Deering, "IP Version 6 Addressing
              Architecture", RFC 2373, July 1998.


   [ADDRCONF]
              Thomson, S. and T. Narten, "IPv6 Stateless Address
              Autoconfiguration", RFC 2462, December 1998.


   [ADDR_SELECT]
              Draves, R., "Default Address Selection for Internet
              Protocol version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 3484, February 2003.


   [CGA]      Aura, T., "Cryptographically Generated Addresses (CGA)",
              draft-ietf-send-cga-06 (work in progress), April 2004.


   [COOKIES]  Kristol, D. and L. Montulli, "HTTP State Management
              Mechanism", RFC 2965, October 2000.


   [DDNS]     Vixie, P., Thomson, S., Rekhter, Y. and J. Bound, "Dynamic
              Updates in the Domain Name System (DNS UPDATE)", RFC 2136,
              April 1997.


   [DHCP]     Droms, R., "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol", RFC
              2131, March 1997.


   [DISCOVERY]
              Narten, T., Nordmark, E. and W. Simpson, "Neighbor
              Discovery for IP Version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 2461, December
              1998.


   [DNA]      Choi, J. and G. Daley, "Detecting Network Attachment in
              IPv6 Goals", draft-ietf-dna-goals-01 (work in progress),
              September 2004.


   [IPSEC]    Kent, S. and R. Atkinson, "Security Architecture for the
              Internet Protocol", RFC 2401, November 1998.


   [ISATAP]   Templin, F., Gleeson, T., Talwar, M. and D. Thaler,
              "Intra-Site Automatic Tunnel Addressing Protocol




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              (ISATAP)", draft-ietf-ngtrans-isatap-22 (work in
              progress), May 2004.


   [MD5]      Rivest, R., "The MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm", RFC 1321,
              April 1992.


   [MOBILEIP]
              Perkins, C., "IP Mobility Support", RFC 2002, October
              1996.


   [ONION]    Reed, MGR., Syverson, PFS. and DMG. Goldschlag, "Proxies
              for Anonymous Routing",  Proceedings of the 12th Annual
              Computer Security Applications Conference, San Diego, CA,
              December 1996.


   [RANDOM]   Eastlake, D., Crocker, S. and J. Schiller, "Randomness
              Recommendations for Security", RFC 1750, December 1994.


   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", RFC 2119, March 1997.


   [RFC2526]  Johnson, D. and S. Deering, "Reserved IPv6 Subnet Anycast
              Addresses", RFC 2526, March 1999.


   [ULA]      Hinden, R. and B. Haberman, "Unique Local IPv6 Unicast
              Addresses", draft-ietf-ipv6-unique-local-addr-05 (work in
              progress), June 2004.



Authors' Addresses


   Thomas Narten
   IBM Corporation
   P.O. Box 12195
   Research Triangle Park, NC
   USA


   EMail: narten@raleigh.ibm.com



   Richard Draves
   Microsoft Research
   One Microsoft Way
   Redmond, WA
   USA


   EMail: richdr@microsoft.com





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   Suresh Krishnan
   Ericsson
   8400 Decarie Blvd.
   Town of Mount Royal, QC
   Canada


   EMail: suresh.krishnan@ericsson.com













































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