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IPng Working Group                                               R. Draves
Internet Draft                                          Microsoft Research
Document: draft-ietf-ipv6-router-selection-02.txt                R. Hinden
                                                                     Nokia
                                                             June 10, 2002

   Default Router Preferences, More-Specific Routes, and Load Sharing

Status of this Memo

   This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
   all provisions of Section 10 of RFC 2026 [1].

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that
   other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-
   Drafts.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six
   months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents
   at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt.

   The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.

Abstract

   This document describes two changes to Neighbor Discovery. The first
   change is an optional extension to Router Advertisement messages for
   communicating default router preferences and more-specific routes
   from routers to hosts. This improves the ability of hosts to pick an
   appropriate router, especially when the host is multi-homed and the
   routers are on different links. The preference values and specific
   routes advertised to hosts require administrative configuration;
   they are not automatically derived from routing tables. The second
   change is a mandatory modification of the conceptual sending
   algorithm to support load-sharing among equivalent routers.

1. Introduction

   Neighbor Discovery [2] specifies a conceptual model for hosts that
   includes a Default Router List and a Prefix List. Hosts send Router
   Solicitation messages and receive Router Advertisement messages from
   routers. Hosts populate their Default Router List and Prefix List
   based on information in the Router Advertisement messages. A
   conceptual sending algorithm uses the Prefix List to determine if a
   destination address is on-link and the Default Router List to select
   a router for off-link destinations.


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   In some network topologies where the host has multiple routers on
   its Default Router List, the choice of router for an off-link
   destination is important. In some situations, one router may provide
   much better performance than another for a destination. In other
   situations, choosing the wrong router may result in a failure to
   communicate. (A later section gives specific examples of these
   scenarios.)

   This document describes an optional extension to Neighbor Discovery
   Router Advertisement messages for communicating default router
   preferences and more-specific routes from routers to hosts. This
   improves the ability of hosts to pick an appropriate router for an
   off-link destination.

   Neighbor Discovery provides a Redirect message that routers can use
   to correct a host's choice of router. A router can send a Redirect
   message to a host, telling it to use a different router for a
   specific destination. However, the Redirect functionality is limited
   to a single link. A router on one link cannot redirect a host to a
   router on another link. Hence, Redirect messages do not help multi-
   homed hosts select an appropriate router.

   Multi-homed hosts are an increasingly important scenario, especially
   with IPv6. In addition to a wired network connection, like Ethernet,
   hosts may have one or more wireless connections, like 802.11 or
   Bluetooth. In addition to physical network connections, hosts may
   have virtual or tunnel network connections. For example, in addition
   to a direct connection to the public Internet, a host may have a
   tunnel into a private corporate network. Some IPv6 transition
   scenarios can add additional tunnels. For example, hosts may have
   6-over-4 [3] or configured tunnel [4] network connections.

   This document requires that the preference values and specific
   routes advertised to hosts require explicit administrative
   configuration. They are not automatically derived from routing
   tables. In particular, the preference values are not routing metrics
   and it is not recommended that routers "dump out" their entire
   routing tables to hosts.

   We use Router Advertisement messages, instead of some other protocol
   like RIP [5], because Router Advertisements are an existing
   standard, stable protocol for router-to-host communication.
   Piggybacking this information on existing message traffic from
   routers to hosts reduces network overhead. Neighbor Discovery is to
   unicast routing as Multicast Listener Discovery is to multicast
   routing. In both cases, a single simple protocol insulates the host
   from the variety of router-to-router protocols. In addition, RIP is
   unsuitable because it does not carry route lifetimes so it requires
   frequent message traffic with greater processing overheads.

   This document also describes a mandatory change in host behavior.
   Neighbor DiscoveryÆs conceptual sending algorithm is modified to
   require hosts to select randomly among equivalent routers. This

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   distributes traffic to different destinations among the routers.
   Traffic to a single destination continues to use a single router,
   because of the Destination Cache.

   The mechanisms specified here are backwards-compatible, so that
   hosts that do not implement them continue to function as well as
   they did previously.

1.1. Conventions used in this document

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED",  "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in
   this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC-2119 [6].

2. Message Formats

2.1. Preference Values

   Default router preferences and preferences for more-specific routes
   are encoded the same way.

   Preference values are encoded in two bits, as follows:
        01      High
        00      Medium (default)
        11      Low
        10      Reserved - MUST NOT be sent
   Note that implementations can treat the value as a two-bit signed
   integer.

   Having just three values reinforces that they are not metrics and
   more values does not appear to be necessary for reasonable
   scenarios.

2.2. Changes to Router Advertisement Message Format

   The changes from Neighbor Discovery [2] section 4.2 are as follows:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Type      |     Code      |          Checksum             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   | Cur Hop Limit |M|O|H|Prf|Resvd|       Router Lifetime         |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                         Reachable Time                        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                          Retrans Timer                        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |   Options ...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-

   Fields:


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   Prf (Default Router Preference)
               2-bit signed integer. Indicates whether or not to prefer
               this router over other default routers. If Router
               Lifetime is zero, it MUST be initialized to zero by the
               sender and MUST be ignored by the receiver. If the
               Reserved (10) value is received, the receiver should
               treat the RA as having a zero Router Lifetime.

   Resvd (Reserved)
               A 3-bit unused field. It MUST be initialized to zero by
               the sender and MUST be ignored by the receiver.

   Possible Options:

   Route Information
               These options specify prefixes that are reachable via
               the router.

   Discussion:

   Note that in addition to the preference value in the message header,
   a Router Advertisement can also contain a Route Information Option
   for ::/0, with a preference value and lifetime. Encoding a
   preference value in the Router Advertisement header has some
   advantages:

     1. It allows for a distinction between "best default router" and
     "best router for default", as described below in section 5.1.

     2. When the best default router is also the best router for
     default (which will be a common case), encoding the preference
     value in the message header is more efficient than having to send
     a separate option.

2.3. Route Information Option

   0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Type      |    Length     | Prefix Length |Resvd|Prf|Resvd|
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                        Route Lifetime                         |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   +                                                               +
   |                                                               |
   +                            Prefix                             +
   |                                                               |
   +                                                               +
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Fields:

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   Type        TBD

   Length      8-bit unsigned integer. The length of the option
               (including the Type and Length fields) in units of
               8 octets.

   Prefix Length
               8-bit unsigned integer. The number of leading bits in
               the Prefix that are valid. The value ranges from 0 to
               128.

   Prf (Route Preference)
               2-bit signed integer. Indicates whether or not to prefer
               this router for the prefix over others. If the Reserved
               (10) value is received, the Route Information Option
               MUST be ignored.

   Resvd (Reserved)
               Two 3-bit unused fields. They MUST be initialized to
               zero by the sender and MUST be ignored by the receiver.

   Route Lifetime
               32-bit unsigned integer. The length of time in seconds
               (relative to the time the packet is sent) that the
               prefix is valid for route determination. A value of all
               one bits (0xffffffff) represents infinity.

   Prefix      Variable-length field containing an IP address or a
               prefix of an IP address. The Prefix Length field
               contains the number of valid leading bits in the prefix.
               The bits in the prefix after the prefix length (if any)
               are reserved and MUST be initialized to zero by the
               sender and ignored by the receiver.

   The Length field is 1, 2, or 3 depending on Prefix Length. If Prefix
   Length is greater than 64, then Length must be 3. If Prefix Length
   is greater than 0, then Length must be 2 or 3. If Prefix Length is
   zero, then Length must be 1, 2, or 3.

   The Prefix field is 0, 8, or 16 octets depending on Length.

   Routers SHOULD NOT include in a Router Advertisement two Route
   Information Options with the same Prefix and Prefix Length. If a
   host processes a Router Advertisement carrying multiple Router
   Information Options with the same Prefix and Prefix Length, it MUST
   process one of the options (unspecified which one) and it MUST
   effectively ignore the rest. It MUST NOT retain some information
   (like preference) from one option and other information (like
   lifetime) from another option.

   Discussion:



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   There are several reasons for using a new Route Information Option,
   instead of using flag bits to overload the existing Prefix
   Information Option:

     1. Prefixes will typically only show up in one or the other kind
     of option, not both, so a new option does not introduce
     duplication.

     2. The Route Information Option is typically 16 octets while the
     Prefix Information Option is 32 octets.

     3. Using a new option may improve backwards-compatibility with
     some host implementations.

3. Conceptual Model of a Host

   There are three possible conceptual models for host implementation
   of default router preferences and more-specific routes,
   corresponding to different levels of support. We refer to these as
   host A, host B, and host C. Note that these are really classes of
   hosts, not individual hosts.

3.1. Conceptual Data Structures for Hosts

   Host A ignores default router preferences and more-specific routes.
   Host A uses the conceptual data structures described in Neighbor
   Discovery [2].

   Host B uses a Default Router List augmented with preference values.
   Host B does not have a routing table. Host B uses the Default Router
   Preference value in the Router Advertisement header. Host B ignores
   Route Information Options.

   Host C uses a Routing Table instead of a Default Router List. (The
   Routing Table may also subsume the Prefix List, but that is beyond
   the scope of this document.) Entries in the Routing Table have a
   prefix, prefix length, preference value, lifetime, and next-hop
   router. Host C uses both the Default Router Preference value in the
   Router Advertisement header and Route Information Options.

   When host C receives a Router Advertisement, it modifies its Routing
   Table as follows. If the received route's lifetime is zero, the
   route is removed from the Routing Table if present. If a route's
   lifetime is non-zero, the route is added to the Routing Table if not
   present and the route's lifetime and preference is updated if the
   route is already present. A route is located in the Routing Table
   based on prefix, prefix length, and next-hop router. When processing
   a Router Advertisement, host C first updates a ::/0 route based on
   the Router Lifetime and Default Router Preference in the Router
   Advertisement message header. Then as host C processes Route
   Information Options in the Router Advertisement message body, it
   updates its routing table for each such option. The Router
   Preference and Lifetime values in a ::/0 Route Information Option

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   override the preference and lifetime values in the Router
   Advertisement header.

   For example, suppose a host receives a Router Advertisement from
   router X with a Router Lifetime of 100 seconds and Default Router
   Preference of Medium. The body of the Router Advertisement contains
   a Route Information Option for ::/0 with a Route Lifetime of 200
   seconds and a Route Preference of Low. After processing the Router
   Advertisement, host A will have an entry for router X in its Default
   Router List with lifetime 100 seconds. If host B receives the same
   Router Advertisement, it will have an entry in its Default Router
   List for router X with Medium preference and lifetime 100 seconds.
   Host C will have an entry in its Routing Table for ::/0 -> router X,
   with Low preference and lifetime 200 seconds. Host C MAY have a
   transient state, during processing of the Router Advertisement, in
   which it has an entry in its Routing Table for ::/0 -> router X with
   Medium preference and lifetime 100 seconds.

3.2. Conceptual Sending Algorithm for Hosts

   Host A uses the conceptual sending algorithm described in Neighbor
   Discovery [2], modified slightly to support load sharing as
   described in section 3.5.

   When host B does next-hop determination and consults its Default
   Router List, it primarily prefers reachable routers over non-
   reachable routers and secondarily uses the router preference values.

   When host C does next-hop determination and consults its Routing
   Table for an off-link destination, it first prefers reachable
   routers over non-reachable routers, second uses longest-matching-
   prefix, and third uses route preference values.

   If there are no routes matching the destination (i.e., no default
   routes and no more-specific routes), then if host C has a single
   interface then it SHOULD assume the destination is on-link to that
   interface. If host C has multiple interfaces then it SHOULD discard
   the packet and report a Destination Unreachable / No Route To
   Destination error to the upper layer.

3.3. Destination Cache Management

   When host C processes a Router Advertisement and updates its
   conceptual Routing Table, it SHOULD invalidate or remove Destination
   Cache Entries and redo next-hop determination for destinations
   affected by the Routing Table changes. The host MAY implement this
   requirement by flushing its entire Destination Cache.

3.4. Router Reachability Probing

   When a host avoids using a non-reachable router X and instead uses
   another router Y, and the host would have used router X if router X
   were reachable, then the host SHOULD probe router X's reachability

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   by sending a Neighbor Solicitation. A host MUST NOT probe a router's
   reachability in the absence of useful traffic that the host would
   have sent to the router if it were reachable. In any case, these
   probes MUST be rate-limited to no more than one per minute per
   router.

   This requirement allows the host to discover when router X becomes
   reachable and to start using router X at that point. Otherwise, the
   host might not notice router XÆs reachability and continue to use
   the less-desirable router Y.

3.5. Host Load Sharing

   Sometimes a host has a choice of multiple "equivalent" routers for a
   destination. We say that two routers are equivalent for a
   destination if they have the same reachability, the same matching
   prefix length (if the host supports a Routing Table), and the same
   preference values (if the host supports preference values).

   When a host chooses from multiple equivalent routers, it MUST choose
   randomly.

   This has the effect of distributing load for new destinations among
   the equivalent routers. Note that traffic to a single destination
   will use a single router as long as the Destination Cache Entry for
   the destination is not deleted. Random selection, instead of round-
   robin, is used to avoid synchronization issues.

3.6. Example

   For example: suppose host C has five entries in its Routing Table:
        ::/0 -> router W with Medium preference
        2001::/16 -> router X with Medium preference
        3ffe::/16 -> router Y1 with High preference
        3ffe::/16 -> router Y2 with High preference
        3ffe::/16 -> router Z with Low preference
   and host C is sending to 3ffe::1, an off-link destination. If all
   routers are reachable, then the host will choose randomly between
   routers Y1 and Y2. If routers Y1 and Y2 are not reachable, then
   router Z will be chosen and the reachability of routers Y1 and Y2
   will be probed. If routers Y1, Y2, and Z are not reachable, then
   router W will be chosen and the reachability of routers Y1, Y2, and
   Z will be probed. If routers W, Y1, Y2, and Z are all not reachable,
   then host C should round-robin among Y1 and Y2 while probing the
   reachability of W and Z. Router X will never be chosen because its
   prefix does not match the destination.

4. Router Configuration

   Routers should not advertise preferences or routes by default. In
   particular, they should not "dump out" their entire routing table to
   hosts. Routers MAY have a configuration mode where a filter is


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   applied to their routing table to obtain the routes that are
   advertised to hosts.

   The preference values (both Default Router Preferences and Route
   Preferences) should not be routing metrics or automatically derived
   from metrics: the preference values should be configured. The High
   and Low (non-default) preference values should only be used when
   someone with knowledge of both routers and the network topology
   configures them explicitly. For example, it could be a common
   network administrator, or it could be a customer request to
   different administrators managing the routers.

   As one exception to this general rule, the administrator of a router
   that does not have a connection to the internet, or is connected
   through a firewall that blocks general traffic, may configure the
   router to advertise a Low Default Router Preference.

   An administrator of a router may configure the router to advertise
   specific routes for directly connected subnets and any shorter
   prefixes (eg, site, NLA, or TLA prefixes) for networks to which the
   router belongs.

   For example, if a home user sets up a tunnel into a firewalled
   corporate network, the access router on the corporate network end of
   the tunnel can advertise itself as a default router, but with a Low
   preference. Furthermore the corporate router can advertise a
   specific route for the corporate site prefix. The net result is that
   destinations in the corporate network will be reached via the
   tunnel, and general internet destinations will be reached via the
   home ISP. Without these mechanisms, the home machine might choose to
   send internet traffic into the corporate network or corporate
   traffic into the internet, leading to communication failure because
   of the firewall.

   Routers SHOULD NOT send more than 17 Route Information Options in
   Router Advertisements per link. This arbitrary bound is meant to
   reinforce that relatively few and carefully selected routes should
   be advertised to hosts.

5. Examples

5.1. Best Default Router vs Best Route for Default

   The best default router is not quite the same thing as the best
   router for default. The best default router is the router that will
   generate the fewest number of redirects for the host's traffic. The
   best router for default is the router with the best route toward the
   wider internet.

   For example, suppose a situation where you have a link with two
   routers X and Y. Router X is the best for 2002::/16. (It's your 6to4
   site gateway.) Router Y is the best for ::/0. (It connects to the
   native IPv6 internet.) Router X forwards native IPv6 traffic to

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   router Y; router Y forwards 6to4 traffic to router X. But most
   traffic from this site is sent to 2002:/16 destinations. In this
   scenario, router X is the best default router and router Y is the
   best router for default.

   To make host A work well, both routers should advertise themselves
   as default routers. In particular, if router Y goes down host A
   should send traffic to router X to maintain 6to4 connectivity, so
   router X as well as router Y needs to be a default router.
   To make host B work well, router X should in addition advertise
   itself with a High default router preference. This will cause host B
   to prefer router X, minimizing the number of redirects.

   To make host C work well, router X should in addition advertise the
   ::/0 route with Low preference and the 2002::/16 route with Medium
   preference. Host C will end up with three routes in its routing
   table: ::/0 -> router X (Low), ::/0 -> router Y (Medium), 2002::/16
   -> router X (Medium). It will send 6to4 traffic to router X and
   other traffic to router Y. Host C will not cause any redirects.

   Note that when host C processes the Router Advertisement from router
   X, the Low preference for ::/0 overrides the High default router
   preference. If the ::/0 specific route were not present, then host C
   would apply the High default router preference to its ::/0 route to
   router X.

5.2. Multi-Homed Host and Isolated Network

   Here's another scenario: a multi-homed host is connected to the
   6bone/internet via router X on one link and to an isolated network
   via router Y on another link. The multi-homed host might have a
   tunnel into a fire-walled corporate network, or it might be directly
   connected to an isolated test network.

   In this situation, a multi-homed host A (which has no default router
   preferences or more-specific routes) will have no way to choose
   between the two routers X and Y on its Default Router List. Users of
   the host will see unpredictable connectivity failures, depending on
   the destination address and the choice of router.

   A multi-homed host C in this same situation can correctly choose
   between routers X and Y, if the routers are configured
   appropriately. For example, router X on the isolated network should
   advertise a Route Information Option for the isolated network
   prefix. It might not advertise itself as a default router at all
   (zero Router Lifetime), or it might advertise itself as a default
   router with Low preference. Router Y should advertise itself as a
   default router with Medium preference.

6. Security Considerations

   A malicious node could send Router Advertisement messages,
   specifying High Default Router Preference or carrying specific

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   routes, with the effect of pulling traffic away from legitimate
   routers. However, a malicious node could easily achieve this same
   effect in other ways. For example, it could fabricate Router
   Advertisement messages with zero Router Lifetime from the other
   routers, causing hosts to stop using the other routes. Hence, this
   document has no new appreciable impact on Internet infrastructure
   security.

References

   1  S. Bradner, "The Internet Standards Process -- Revision 3", BCP
      9, RFC 2026, October 1996.

   2  T. Narten, E. Nordmark, W. Simpson. "Neighbor Discovery for IP
      Version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 2461, December 1998.

   3  B. Carpenter, K. Moore. "Connection of IPv6 Domains via IPv4
      Clouds", RFC 3056, February 2001.

   4  R. Gilligan, E. Nordmark. "Transition Mechanisms for IPv6 Hosts
      and Routers", RFC 1933, April 1996.

   5  G. Malkin, R. Minnear. "RIPng for IPv6", RFC 2080 , January 1997.

   6  S. Bradner, "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
      Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

Acknowledgments

   The authors would like to acknowledge the contributions of Balash
   Akbari, Steve Deering, Robert Elz, Tony Hain, Christian Huitema,
   JINMEI Tatuya, Erik Nordmark, Pekka Savola, Dave Thaler, and Brian
   Zill. The packet diagrams are derived from Neighbor Discovery [2].
   The description of host load sharing is derived from Bob Hinden's
   draft on the subject.

Author's Addresses

   Richard Draves
   Microsoft Research
   One Microsoft Way
   Redmond, WA 98052
   Phone: +1 425 706 2268
   Email: richdr@microsoft.com

   Robert M. Hinden
   Nokia
   313 Fairchild Drive
   Mountain View, CA 94043
   Phone: +1 650 625 2004
   Email: hinden@iprg.nokia.com



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Revision History

Changes from draft-ietf-ipv6-router-selection-01

   Added Bob Hinden as co-author.

   Various clarifications and textual improvements.

   Slightly simplified the specification of round-robining in next-hop
   determination, relying on router-reachability probing in some cases.

   Clarified that router reachability probing only happens when the
   host is sending packets that would have gone to that router if it
   were reachable.

   Changed load sharing to a mandatory requirement and added supporting
   text to the title, abstract, and introduction.

Changes from draft-ietf-ipngwg-router-selection-00

   Specified reachability probing of otherwise more-preferred but
   currently unreachable routers.

   Changed the requirement of Destination Cache invalidation, from MAY
   to SHOULD, but allowing flushing of the entire Destination Cache.

   Added a section specifying load sharing among equivalent routers.

Changes from draft-draves-ipngwg-router-selection-01

   Specified receiver processing when the Reserved preference value is
   seen.

   Specified that routers SHOULD NOT send more than 17 Route
   Information Options.

   Added discussion of Destination Cache invalidation, allowing but not
   requiring it.

   Removed references to the fourth conceptual host model, host D.

Changes from draft-draves-ipngwg-router-selection-00

   Made the option variable length. Must ignore prefix bits past prefix
   length.

   Added more allowable router configuration scenarios, weakening the
   requirement that one administrator must coordinate the configuration
   of all relevant routers.





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