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Internationalized Resource Identifiers                         M. Duerst
(iri)                                           Aoyama Gakuin University
Internet-Draft                                               L. Masinter
Intended status: BCP                                               Adobe
Expires: September 10, 2012                                    A. Allawi
                                                  Diwan Software Limited
                                                           March 9, 2012

     Guidelines for Internationalized Resource Identifiers with Bi-
                   directional Characters (Bidi IRIs)


   This specification gives guidelines for selection, use, and
   presentation of International Resource Identifiers (IRIs) which
   include characters with inherent right-to-left (rtl) writing

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on September 10, 2012.

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   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
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   described in the Simplified BSD License.

   This document may contain material from IETF Documents or IETF
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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
     1.1.  Notation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
   2.  Logical Storage and Visual Presentation . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
   3.  Bidi IRI Structure  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
   4.  Input of Bidi IRIs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
   5.  Examples  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
   6.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
   7.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
   8.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
   9.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
     9.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
     9.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

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1.  Introduction

   Some UCS characters, such as those used in the Arabic and Hebrew
   scripts, have an inherent right-to-left (rtl) writing direction as
   opposed to characters, such as those in Latin scripts, that have an
   inherent left-to-right (ltr) direction.  IRIs containing rtl
   characters (called bidirectional IRIs or Bidi IRIs) require
   additional attention because of the non-trivial relation between
   their logical and visual ordering.  The logical order represents the
   order in which the characters are read and stored on computers.  The
   visual order represents the order the characters are drawn on a
   computer display or printout in the way a human expects to read them.

   Generally, alphabetic characters in scripts like Arabic and Hebrew
   are drawn rtl while numbers are drawn ltr.  Symbols, such as slash
   '/' and period '.' take their visual direction from the surrounding

   Because of this complex interaction between the logical
   representation, the visual representation, and the syntax of a Bidi
   IRI, a balance is needed between various requirements.  The main
   requirements are:

   1. user-predictable conversion between visual and logical

   2. the ability to include a wide range of characters in various parts
      of the IRI; and

   3. minor or no changes or restrictions for implementations.

1.1.  Notation

   In this document, "Bidi Notation" is used for the given Bidi IRI
   examples as follows: Lower case letters a-z stand for characters that
   are written with a left to right ordering (such as Latin characters),
   whereas upper case letters A-Z represent characters that are written
   right to left (such as Arqbic or Hebrew characters).  Numbers and
   symbols are the same.

   In this document, the key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED",
   and "OPTIONAL" are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

2.  Logical Storage and Visual Presentation

   When stored or transmitted in digital representation, Bidi IRIs MUST

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   be in full logical order and MUST conform to the IRI syntax rules
   (which includes the rules relevant to their scheme).  This ensures
   that Bidi IRIs can be processed in the same way as other IRIs.

   Bidi IRIs MUST be visually ordered by the Unicode Bidirectional
   Algorithm [UNIV6], [UNI9].  Bidi IRIs MUST be rendered in the same
   way as they would be if they were in a left-to-right embedding.

   In conformance with the Unicode Bidirectional Algorithm, embedding
   MAY be done in one of two ways:

   1. precede the IRI with U+202A, LEFT-TO-RIGHT EMBEDDING (LRE), and
      follow with U+202C, POP DIRECTIONAL FORMATTING (PDF); or

   2. use a higher-level protocol (e.g., the dir='ltr' attribute in

   Preceding and following the Bidi IRI with U+200E, LEFT-TO-RIGHT MARK
   (LRM).  Is NOT RECOMMENDED as, there are cases where this may not be
   sufficient to match full left to right embedding.

   There is no requirement to use embedding if the display is still the
   same without the embedding.  For example, a Bidi IRI in a text with
   left-to-right base directionality (such as used for English or
   Cyrillic) that is preceded and followed by whitespace and strong
   left-to-right characters does not need an embedding.  Also, a
   bidirectional relative IRI reference that only contains strong right-
   to-left characters and weak characters (such as symbols) and that
   starts and ends with a strong right-to-left character and appears in
   a text with right-to-left base directionality (such as used for
   Arabic or Hebrew) and is preceded and followed by whitespace and
   strong characters does not need an embedding.

   However, Implementers are, RECOMMENDED to use embedding in all cases
   where they are not completely sure that the display behavior is
   unaffected without the embedding.

   The Unicode Bidirectional Algorithm ([UNI9], section 4.3) permits
   higher-level protocols to influence bidirectional rendering.  Such
   changes by higher-level protocols MUST NOT be used if they change the
   rendering of IRIs.

   The bidirectional formatting characters that may be used before or
   after the IRI to ensure correct display are not themselves part of
   the IRI.  IRIs MUST NOT contain bidirectional formatting characters
   (LRM, RLM, LRE, RLE, LRO, RLO, and PDF).  They affect the visual
   rendering of the IRI but do not appear themselves.  It would
   therefore not be possible to input an IRI with such characters

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3.  Bidi IRI Structure

   The Unicode Bidirectional Algorithm is designed mainly for plain
   text.  To make sure that it does not affect the rendering of Bidi
   IRIs outside of the requirements of this document, some restrictions
   on Bidi IRIs are necessary.  These restrictions are given in terms of
   delimiters (structural characters, mostly punctuation such as "@",
   ".", ":", and "/") and components (usually consisting mostly of
   letters and digits).

   The following syntax rules from the ABNF of [RFC3987bis] correspond
   to components for the purpose of Bidi behavior: iuserinfo, ireg-name,
   isegment, isegment-nz, isegment-nz-nc, ireg-name, iquery, and

   Specifications that define the syntax of any of the above components
   MAY divide them further and define smaller parts to be components
   according to this document.  As an example, the restrictions of
   [RFC3490] on bidirectional domain names correspond to treating each
   label of a domain name as a component for schemes with ireg-name as a
   domain name.  Even where the components are not defined formally, it
   may be helpful to think about some syntax in terms of components and
   to apply the relevant restrictions.  For example, for the usual name/
   value syntax in query parts, it is convenient to treat each name and
   each value as a component.  As another example, the extensions in a
   resource name can be treated as separate components.

   For each component, the following restrictions apply:

   1. A component SHOULD NOT use both right-to-left and left-to-right

   2. A component using right-to-left characters SHOULD start and end
      with right-to-left characters.

   The above restrictions are given as "SHOULD"s, rather than as
   "MUST"s.  For IRIs that are never presented visually, they are not
   relevant.  However, for IRIs in general, they are very important to
   ensure consistent conversion between visual presentation and logical
   representation, in both directions.

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   Note:  In some components, the above restrictions may actually be
      strictly enforced.  For example, [RFC3490] requires that these
      restrictions apply to the labels of a host name for those schemes
      where ireg-name is a host name.  In some other components (for
      example, path components) following these restrictions may not be
      too difficult.  For other components, such as parts of the query
      part, it may be very difficult to enforce the restrictions because
      the values of query parameters may be arbitrary character

   If the above restrictions cannot be satisfied otherwise, the affected
   component can always be mapped to URI notation using the general
   percent-encoding of IRI components, as described in [RFC3987bis].
   Please note that the whole component has to be mapped (see also
   Example 9 below).

4.  Input of Bidi IRIs

   Bidi input methods MUST generate Bidi IRIs in logical order while
   rendering them according to Section 2.  During input, rendering
   SHOULD be updated after every new character is input to avoid end-
   user confusion.

5.  Examples

   This section gives examples of Bidi IRIs in Bidi Notation.  It shows
   legal IRIs with the relationship between their logical and visual
   representation and explains how certain phenomena in this
   relationship may look strange to somebody not familiar with
   bidirectional behavior, but familiar to users of Arabic and Hebrew.
   It also shows what happens if the restrictions given in Section 3 are
   not followed.  The examples below can be seen at [BidiEx], in Arabic,
   Hebrew, and Bidi Notation variants.

   To read the bidi text in the examples, read the visual representation
   from left to right until you encounter a block of rtl text.  Read the
   rtl block (including slashes and other special characters) from right
   to left, then continue at the next unread ltr character.

   Example 1: A single component with rtl characters is inverted:
   Logical representation: "http://ab.CDEFGH.ij/kl/mn/op.html"
   Visual representation: "http://ab.HGFEDC.ij/kl/mn/op.html"
   Components can be read one by one, and each component can be read in
   its natural direction.

   Example 2: More than one consecutive component with rtl characters is

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   inverted as a whole:
   Logical representation: "http://ab.CDE.FGH/ij/kl/mn/op.html"
   Visual representation: "http://ab.HGF.EDC/ij/kl/mn/op.html"
   A sequence of rtl components is read rtl, in the same way as a
   sequence of rtl words is read rtl in a bidi text.

   Example 3: All components of an IRI (except for the scheme) are rtl.
   All rtl components are inverted overall:
   Logical representation: "http://AB.CD.EF/GH/IJ/KL?MN=OP;QR=ST#UV"
   Visual representation: "http://VU#TS=RQ;PO=NM?LK/JI/HG/FE.DC.BA"
   The whole IRI (except the scheme) is read rtl.  Delimiters between
   rtl components stay between the respective components; delimiters
   between ltr and rtl components don't move.

   Example 4: Each of several sequences of rtl components is inverted on
   its own:
   Logical representation: "http://AB.CD.ef/gh/IJ/KL.html"
   Visual representation: "http://DC.BA.ef/gh/LK/JI.html"
   Each sequence of rtl components is read rtl, in the same way as each
   sequence of rtl words in an ltr text is read rtl.

   Example 5: Example 2, applied to components of different kinds:
   Logical representation: "http://ab.cd.EF/GH/ij/kl.html"
   Visual representation: "http://ab.cd.HG/FE/ij/kl.html"
   The inversion of the domain name label and the path component may be
   unexpected, but it is consistent with other bidi behavior.  For
   reassurance that the domain component really is "ab.cd.EF", it may be
   helpful to read aloud the visual representation following the Unicode
   Bidirectional Algorithm.  After "http://ab.cd." one reads the RTL
   block "E-F-slash-G-H", which corresponds to the logical

   Example 6: Same as Example 5, with more rtl components:
   Logical representation: "http://ab.CD.EF/GH/IJ/kl.html"
   Visual representation: "http://ab.JI/HG/FE.DC/kl.html"
   The inversion of the domain name labels and the path components may
   be easier to identify because the delimiters also move.

   Example 7: A single rtl component includes digits:
   Logical representation: "http://ab.CDE123FGH.ij/kl/mn/op.html"
   Visual representation: "http://ab.HGF123EDC.ij/kl/mn/op.html"
   Numbers are written ltr in all cases but are treated as an additional
   embedding inside a run of rtl characters.  This is completely
   consistent with usual bidirectional text.

   Example 8 (not allowed): Numbers are at the start or end of an rtl
   Logical representation: "http://ab.cd.ef/GH1/2IJ/KL.html"

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   Visual representation: "http://ab.cd.ef/LK/JI1/2HG.html"
   The sequence "1/2" is interpreted by the Bidirectional Algorithm as a
   fraction, fragmenting the components and leading to confusion.  There
   are other characters that are interpreted in a special way close to
   numbers; in particular, "+", "-", "#", "$", "%", ",", ".", and ":".

   Example 9 (not allowed): The numbers in the previous example are
   Logical representation: "http://ab.cd.ef/GH%31/%32IJ/KL.html",
   Visual representation: "http://ab.cd.ef/LK/JI%32/%31HG.html"

   Example 10 (allowed but not recommended):
   Logical representation: "http://ab.CDEFGH.123/kl/mn/op.html"
   Visual representation: "http://ab.123.HGFEDC/kl/mn/op.html"
   Components consisting of only numbers are allowed (it would be rather
   difficult to prohibit them), but these may interact with adjacent RTL
   components in ways that are not easy to predict.

   Example 11 (allowed but not recommended):
   Logical representation: "http://ab.CDEFGH.123ij/kl/mn/op.html"
   Visual representation: "http://ab.123.HGFEDCij/kl/mn/op.html"
   Components consisting of numbers and left-to-right characters are
   allowed, but these may interact with adjacent RTL components in ways
   that are not easy to predict.

6.  IANA Considerations

   This document makes no changes to IANA registries.

7.  Security Considerations

   Confusion can occur with bidirectional IRIs, if the restrictions in
   Section 3 are not followed.  The same visual representation may be
   interpreted as different logical representations, and vice versa.  It
   is also very important that a correct Unicode bidirectional
   implementation be used.

8.  Acknowledgements

   This document was derived from [RFC3987] and [RFC3987bis] and the
   acknowledgments of those documents apply.

9.  References

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9.1.  Normative References

   [ASCII]    American National Standards Institute, "Coded Character
              Set -- 7-bit American Standard Code for Information
              Interchange", ANSI X3.4, 1986.

              International Organization for Standardization, "ISO/IEC
              10646:2003: Information Technology - Universal Multiple-
              Octet Coded Character Set (UCS)", ISO Standard 10646,
              December 2003.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC3490]  Faltstrom, P., Hoffman, P., and A. Costello,
              "Internationalizing Domain Names in Applications (IDNA)",
              RFC 3490, March 2003.

   [RFC3491]  Hoffman, P. and M. Blanchet, "Nameprep: A Stringprep
              Profile for Internationalized Domain Names (IDN)",
              RFC 3491, March 2003.

              Duerst, M., Masinter, L., and M. Suignard,
              "Internationalized Resource Identifiers (IRIs)",
              August 2011,

   [UNI9]     Davis, M., "The Unicode Bidirectional Algorithm", Unicode
              Standard Annex #9, March 2004,

   [UNIV6]    The Unicode Consortium, "The Unicode Standard, Version
              6.0.0 (Mountain View, CA, The Unicode Consortium, 2011,
              ISBN 978-1-936213-01-6)", October 2010.

9.2.  Informative References

   [BidiEx]   "Examples of Bidi IRIs",

   [RFC3987]  Duerst, M. and M. Suignard, "Internationalized Resource
              Identifiers (IRIs)", RFC 3987, January 2005.

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Authors' Addresses

   Martin Duerst
   Aoyama Gakuin University
   5-10-1 Fuchinobe
   Sagamihara, Kanagawa  229-8558

   Phone: +81 42 759 6329
   Fax:   +81 42 759 6495
   Email: duerst@it.aoyama.ac.jp
   URI:   http://www.sw.it.aoyama.ac.jp/D%C3%BCrst/

   Larry Masinter
   345 Park Ave
   San Jose, CA  95110

   Phone: +1-408-536-3024
   Email: masinter@adobe.com
   URI:   http://larry.masinter.net

   Adil Allawi
   Diwan Software Limited
   37-39 Peckham Road
   London  SE5 8UH
   United Kingdom

   Phone: +44 7718 785850
   Fax:   +44 20 72525444
   Email: adil@diwan.com
   URI:   http://ironymark.diwan.com/

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