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Versions: (RFC 3567) 00 01 02 03 RFC 5304

IS-IS for IP Internets                                             T. Li
Internet-Draft                                    Redback Networks, Inc.
Obsoletes: 3567 (if approved)                                R. Atkinson
Updates: 1195 (if approved)                       Extreme Networks, Inc.
Intended status: Standards Track                           July 14, 2008
Expires: January 15, 2009


    Intermediate System to Intermediate System (IS-IS) Cryptographic
                             Authentication
                     draft-ietf-isis-rfc3567bis-03

Status of this Memo

   By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any
   applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on January 15, 2009.

Abstract

   This document describes the authentication of Intermediate System to
   Intermediate System (IS-IS) Protocol Data Units (PDUs) using the
   Hashed Message Authentication Codes - Message Digest 5 (HMAC-MD5)
   algorithm as found in RFC 2104.  IS-IS is specified in International
   Standards Organization (ISO) 10589, with extensions to support
   Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) described in RFC 1195.  The base
   specification includes an authentication mechanism that allows for
   multiple authentication algorithms.  The base specification only
   specifies the algorithm for cleartext passwords.  This document



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   replaces RFC 3567.

   This document proposes an extension to that specification that allows
   the use of the HMAC-MD5 authentication algorithm to be used in
   conjunction with the existing authentication mechanisms.


Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Authentication Procedures  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
     2.1.  Implementation Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   3.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     3.1.  Security Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     3.2.  Assurance  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     3.3.  Key Configuration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     3.4.  Other Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     3.5.  Future Directions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   4.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   5.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   6.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     6.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     6.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 11


























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1.  Introduction

   The IS-IS protocol, as specified in [ISO-10589], provides for the
   authentication of Link State PDUs (LSPs) through the inclusion of
   authentication information as part of the LSP.  This authentication
   information is encoded as a Type-Length-Value (TLV) tuple.  The use
   of IS-IS for IPv4 networks is described in [RFC1195].

   The type of the TLV is specified as 10.  The length of the TLV is
   variable.  The value of the TLV depends on the authentication
   algorithm and related secrets being used.  The first octet of the
   value is used to specify the authentication type.  Type 0 is
   reserved, type 1 indicates a cleartext password, and type 255 is used
   for routing domain private authentication methods.  The remainder of
   the TLV value is known as the Authentication Value.

   This document extends the above situation by allocating a new
   authentication type for HMAC-MD5 and specifying the algorithms for
   the computation of the Authentication Value.  This document also
   describes modifications to the base protocol to ensure that the
   authentication mechanisms described in this document are effective.

   This document is a publication of the IS-IS Working Group within the
   IETF.  This document replaces [RFC3567], which was an Informational
   RFC.  This document is on the standards track.  This document has
   revised Section 3, with the significant addition of a discussion of
   recent attacks on MD5 in Section 3.2.  This document has also added a
   substantive 'IANA Considerations' section to create a missing code
   point registry.

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].


2.  Authentication Procedures

   The authentication type used for HMAC-MD5 is 54 (0x36).  The length
   of the Authentication Value for HMAC-MD5 is 16, and the length field
   in the TLV is 17.

   The HMAC-MD5 algorithm requires a key K and text T as input
   [RFC2104].  The key K is the password for the PDU type, as specified
   in ISO 10589.  The text T is the IS-IS PDU to be authenticated with
   the Authentication Value field inside of the Authentication
   Information TLV set to zero.  Note that the Authentication Type is
   set to 54 and the length of the TLV is set to 17 before
   authentication is computed.  When LSPs are authenticated, the



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   Checksum and Remaining Lifetime fields are set to zero (0) before
   authentication is computed.  The result of the algorithm is placed in
   the Authentication Value field.

   When calculating the HMAC-MD5 result for Sequence Number PDUs, Level
   1 Sequence Number PDUs SHALL use the Area Authentication string as in
   Level 1 Link State PDUs.  Level 2 Sequence Number PDUs SHALL use the
   domain authentication string as in Level 2 Link State PDUs.  IS-IS
   HELLO PDUs SHALL use the Link Level Authentication String, which MAY
   be different from that of Link State PDUs.  The HMAC-MD5 result for
   the IS-IS HELLO PDUs SHALL be calculated after the Packet is padded
   to the MTU size, if padding is not disabled.  Implementations that
   support the optional checksum for the Sequence Number PDUs and IS-IS
   HELLO PDUs MUST NOT include the Checksum TLV.

   To authenticate an incoming PDU, a system should save the values of
   the Authentication Value field, the Checksum and the Remaining
   Lifetime field, set these fields to zero, compute authentication, and
   then restore the values of these fields.

   An implementation that implements HMAC-MD5 authentication and
   receives HMAC-MD5 Authentication Information MUST discard the PDU if
   the Authentication Value is incorrect.

   An implementation MAY have a transition mode where it includes HMAC-
   MD5 Authentication Information in PDUs but does not verify the HMAC-
   MD5 authentication information.  This is a transition aid for
   networks in the process of deploying authentication.

   An implementation MAY check a set of passwords when verifying the
   Authentication Value.  This provides a mechanism for incrementally
   changing passwords in a network.

   An implementation that does not implement HMAC-MD5 authentication MAY
   accept a PDU that contains the HMAC-MD5 Authentication Type.  ISes
   (routers) that implement HMAC-MD5 authentication and initiate LSP
   purges MUST remove the body of the LSP and add the authentication
   TLV.  ISes implementing HMAC-MD5 authentication MUST NOT accept
   unauthenticated purges.  ISes MUST NOT accept purges that contain
   TLVs other than the authentication TLV.  These restrictions are
   necessary to prevent a hostile system from receiving an LSP, setting
   the Remaining Lifetime field to zero, and flooding it, thereby
   initiating a purge without knowing the authentication password.

2.1.  Implementation Considerations

   There is an implementation issue just after password rollover on an
   IS-IS router that might benefit from additional commentary.



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   Immediately after password rollover on the router, the router or IS-
   IS process may restart.  If this happens, this causes the LSP
   Sequence Number to restart from the value 1 using the new password.
   However, neighbors will reject those new LSPs because the Sequence
   Number is smaller.  The router can not increase its own LSP Sequence
   Number because it fails to authenticate its own old LSP that
   neighbors keep sending to it.  So the router can not update its LSP
   Sequence Number to its neighbors until all the neighbors time out all
   of the original LSPs.  One possible solution to this problem is for
   the IS-IS process to detect if any inbound LSP with an authentication
   failure has the local System ID and also has a higher Sequence Number
   than the IS-IS process has.  In this event, the IS-IS process SHOULD
   increase its own LSP Sequence Number accordingly and re-flood the
   LSPs.  However, as this scenario could also be triggered by an active
   attack by an adversary, it is recommended that a counter also be kept
   on this case to mitigate the risk from such an active attack.


3.  Security Considerations

   This document enhances the security of the IS-IS routing protocol.
   Because a routing protocol contains information that need not be kept
   secret, privacy is not a requirement.  However, authentication of the
   messages within the protocol is of interest, to reduce the risk of an
   adversary compromising the routing system by deliberately injecting
   false information into the routing system.

3.1.  Security Limitations

   The technology in this document provides an authentication mechanism
   for IS-IS.  The mechanism described here is not perfect and does not
   need to be perfect.  Instead, this mechanism represents a significant
   increase in the work function of an adversary attacking the IS-IS
   protocol, while not causing undue implementation, deployment, or
   operational complexity.  It provides improved security against
   passive attacks, as defined in [RFC1704], when compared to cleartext
   password authentication.

   This mechanism does not prevent replay attacks; however, in most
   cases, such attacks would trigger existing mechanisms in the IS-IS
   protocol that would effectively reject old information.  Denial of
   service attacks are not generally preventable in a useful networking
   protocol [DoS].

   The mechanisms in this document do not provide protection against
   compromised, malfunctioning, or misconfigured routers.  Such routers
   can, either accidentally or deliberately, cause malfunctions
   affecting the whole routing domain.  The reader is encouraged to



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   consult [RFC4593] for a more comprehensive description of threats to
   routing protocols.

3.2.  Assurance

   Users need to understand that the quality of the security provided by
   this mechanism depends completely on the strength of the implemented
   authentication algorithms, the strength of the key being used, and
   the correct implementation of the security mechanism in all
   communicating IS-IS implementations.  This mechanism also depends on
   the IS-IS Authentication Key being kept confidential by all parties.
   If any of these are incorrect or insufficiently secure, then no real
   security will be provided to the users of this mechanism.

   Since Dobbertin's attacks on MD5 [Dobb96a] [Dobb96b] [Dobb98] were
   first published a dozen years ago, there have been growing concerns
   about the effectiveness of the compression function within MD5.  More
   recent work by Wang and Yu [WY05] accentuates these concerns.
   However, despite these research results, there are no published
   attacks at present on either Keyed-MD5 or HMAC-MD5.  A recent paper
   by Bellare [Bell06a] [Bell06b] provides new proofs for the security
   of HMAC that require fewer assumptions than previous published proofs
   for HMAC.  Those proofs indicate that the published issues with MD5
   (and separately with SHA-1) do not create an attack on HMAC-MD5 (or
   HMAC SHA-1).  Most recently, Fouque and others [FLN07] have published
   new attacks on NMAC-MD4, HMAC-MD4, and NMAC-MD5.  However, their
   attacks are non-trivial computationally and they have not found an
   equivalent attack on HMAC-MD5.  So, despite the published issues with
   the MD5 algorithm, there is no currently published attack that
   applies to HMAC-MD5 as used in this IS-IS specification.  As with any
   cryptographic technique, there is the possibility of the discovery of
   future attacks against this mechanism.

3.3.  Key Configuration

   It should be noted that the key configuration mechanism of routers
   may restrict the possible keys that may be used between peers.  It is
   strongly recommended that an implementation be able to support at
   minimum a key composed of a string of printable ASCII of 80 bytes or
   less, as this is current practice.

3.4.  Other Considerations

   Changes to the authentication mechanism described here (primarily: to
   add a Key-ID field such as OSPFv2 and RIPv2 have) were considered at
   some length, but ultimately were rejected.  The mechanism here was
   already widely implemented in 1999.  As of this writing, this
   mechanism is fairly widely deployed within the users interested in



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   cryptographic authentication of IS-IS.  The improvement provided by
   the proposed revised mechanism was not large tnough to justify the
   change, given the installed base and lack of operator interest in
   deploying a revised mechanism.

   If and when a key management protocol appears that is both widely
   implemented and easily deployed to secure routing protocols such as
   IS-IS, a different authentication mechanism that is designed for use
   with that key management schema could be added if desired.

3.5.  Future Directions

   If a stronger authentication were believed to be required, then the
   use of a full digital signature [RFC2154] would be an approach that
   should be seriously considered.  It was rejected for this purpose at
   this time because the computational burden of full digital signatures
   is believed to be much higher than is reasonable given the current
   threat environment in operational commercial networks.

   If and when additional authentication mechanisms are defined, for
   example to provide a cryptographically stronger hash function, it
   will also be necessary to define mechanisms to allow graceful
   transition from the existing mechanisms (as defined in this document)
   to any future mechanism.


4.  Acknowledgements

   The authors would like to thank (in alphabetical order) Stephen
   Farrell, Dave Katz, Steven Luong, Tony Przygienda, Nai-Ming Shen, and
   Henk Smit for their comments and suggestions on this document.


5.  IANA Considerations

   This document requests that IANA create a new code point registry to
   administer the Authentication Type code points for TLV 10.  This
   registry would be part of the existing IS-IS code points registry as
   established by [RFC3563] and [RFC3359].  This registry should be
   managed using the Designated Expert policy as described in [RFC5226]
   and will be called IS-IS Authentication Type Codes.

   The values in the IS-IS Authentication Type Codes registry should be
   recorded in decimal and should only be approved after a designated
   expert, appointed by the IESG area director, has been consulted.  The
   intention is that any allocation will be accompanied by a published
   RFC.  However, the Designated Expert can approve allocations once it
   seems clear that an RFC will be published, allowing for the



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   allocation of values prior to the document being approved for
   publication as an RFC.  New items should be documented in a publicly
   and freely available specification.  We should also have the
   provision of allowing external specifications to allocate and use the
   IS-IS Authentication Type Codes maintained by this registry.

   Initial values for the IS-IS Authentication Type Codes registry are
   given below; future assignments are to be made through Expert Review.
   Assignments consist of an authentication type name and its associated
   value.

   +---------------------------------------------+-------+-------------+
   | Authentication Type Code                    | Value | Reference   |
   +---------------------------------------------+-------+-------------+
   | Reserved                                    | 0     | [ISO-10589] |
   | Cleartext Password                          | 1     | [ISO-10589] |
   | ISO 10589 Reserved                          | 2     | [ISO-10589] |
   | HMAC-MD5 Authentication                     | 54    |             |
   | Routeing Domain private authentication      | 255   | [ISO-10589] |
   | method                                      |       |             |
   +---------------------------------------------+-------+-------------+


6.  References

6.1.  Normative References

   [ISO-10589]
              ISO, "Intermediate System to Intermediate System Intra-
              Domain Routeing Exchange Protocol for use in Conjunction
              with the Protocol for Providing the Connectionless-mode
              Network Service (ISO 8473)", International Standard 10589:
              2002, Second Edition, 2002.

   [RFC2104]  Krawczyk, H., Bellare, M., and R. Canetti, "HMAC: Keyed-
              Hashing for Message Authentication", RFC 2104,
              February 1997.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

6.2.  Informative References

   [Bell06a]  Bellare, M., "New Proofs for NMAC and HMAC: Security
              without Collision-Resistance", Preliminary Version, in
              Proceedings of Crypto 2006, Lecture Notes in Computer
              Science Vol. 4117, August 2006.




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   [Bell06b]  Bellare, M., "New Proofs for NMAC and HMAC: Security
              without Collision-Resistance", August 2006,
              <http://www-cse.ucsd.edu/users/mihir/papers/
              hmac-new.html>.

   [DoS]      Voydock, V. and S. Kent, "Security Mechanisms in High-
              level Networks", ACM Computing Surveys Vol. 15, No. 2,
              June 1983.

   [Dobb96a]  Dobbertin, H., "Cryptanalysis of MD5 Compress", EuroCrypt
              Rump Session 1996, May 1996.

   [Dobb96b]  Dobbertin, H., "The Status of MD5 After a Recent Attack",
              CryptoBytes Vol. 2, No. 2, 1996.

   [Dobb98]   Dobbertin, H., "Cryptanalysis of MD4", Journal of
              Cryptology Vol. 11, No. 4, 1998.

   [FLN07]    Fouque, P., Leurent, G., and P. Nguyen, "Full Key-Recovery
              Attacks on HMAC/NMAC-MD5 and NMAC-MD5", Proceedings of
              Crypto 2007, August 2007.

   [RFC1195]  Callon, R., "Use of OSI IS-IS for routing in TCP/IP and
              dual environments", RFC 1195, December 1990.

   [RFC1704]  Haller, N. and R. Atkinson, "On Internet Authentication",
              RFC 1704, October 1994.

   [RFC2154]  Murphy, S., Badger, M., and B. Wellington, "OSPF with
              Digital Signatures", RFC 2154, June 1997.

   [RFC3359]  Przygienda, T., "Reserved Type, Length and Value (TLV)
              Codepoints in Intermediate System to Intermediate System",
              RFC 3359, August 2002.

   [RFC3563]  Zinin, A., "Cooperative Agreement Between the ISOC/IETF
              and ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1/Sub Committee 6
              (JTC1/SC6) on IS-IS Routing Protocol Development",
              RFC 3563, July 2003.

   [RFC3567]  Li, T. and R. Atkinson, "Intermediate System to
              Intermediate System (IS-IS) Cryptographic Authentication",
              RFC 3567, July 2003.

   [RFC4593]  Barbir, A., Murphy, S., and Y. Yang, "Generic Threats to
              Routing Protocols", RFC 4593, October 2006.

   [RFC5226]  Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an



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              IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226,
              May 2008.

   [WY05]     Wang, X. and H. Yu, "How to Break MD5 and Other Hash
              Functions", Proceedings of EuroCrypt 2005, Lecture Notes
              in Computer Science Vol. 3494, 2005.


Authors' Addresses

   Tony Li
   Redback Networks, Inc.
   300 Holger Way
   San Jose, CA  95134
   USA

   Phone: +1 408 750 5160
   Email: tony.li@tony.li


   Ran J. Atkinson
   Extreme Networks, Inc.
   3585 Monroe St.
   Santa Clara, CA  95051
   USA

   Phone: +1 408 579 2800
   Email: rja@extremenetworks.com























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Full Copyright Statement

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