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Versions: (draft-kewisch-vcard-in-json) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 RFC 7095

JSON data formats for vCard and iCalendar                     P. Kewisch
Internet-Draft                                                   Mozilla
Intended status: Standards Track                           July 14, 2013
Expires: January 15, 2014


                    jCard: The JSON format for vCard
                      draft-ietf-jcardcal-jcard-05

Abstract

   This specification defines "jCard", a JSON format for vCard data.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on January 15, 2014.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2013 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
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   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3



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   2.  Conventions Used in This Document . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  Converting from vCard to jCard  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     3.1.  Pre-processing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     3.2.  Properties (RFC6350 section 6)  . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
       3.2.1.  Special Cases for Properties  . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
         3.2.1.1.  The VERSION Property  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
         3.2.1.2.  Multi-valued Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
         3.2.1.3.  Grouping of Properties  . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
         3.2.1.4.  Structured Property Values  . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     3.3.  Parameters (RFC6350 Section 5)  . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       3.3.1.  VALUE parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
       3.3.2.  Multi-value Parameters  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     3.4.  Values (RFC6350 Section 4)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
       3.4.1.  Text (RFC6350 Section 4.1)  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
       3.4.2.  URI (RFC6350 Section 4.2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
       3.4.3.  Date (RFC6350 Section 4.3.1)  . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
       3.4.4.  Time (RFC6350 Section 4.3.2)  . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
       3.4.5.  Date-Time (RFC6350 Section 4.3.3) . . . . . . . . . .  13
       3.4.6.  Date and/or Time (RFC6350 Section 4.3.4)  . . . . . .  15
       3.4.7.  Timestamp (RFC6350 Section 4.3.5) . . . . . . . . . .  15
       3.4.8.  Boolean (RFC6350 Section 4.4) . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
       3.4.9.  Integer (RFC6350 Section 4.5) . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
       3.4.10. Float (RFC6350 Section 4.6) . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
       3.4.11. UTC Offset (RFC6350 Section 4.7)  . . . . . . . . . .  16
       3.4.12. Language Tag (RFC6350 Section 4.8)  . . . . . . . . .  17
     3.5.  Extensions (RFC6350 Section 6.10) . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
   4.  Converting from jCard into vCard  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
   5.  Handling Unrecognized Properties or Parameters  . . . . . . .  18
     5.1.  Converting vCard into jCard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
     5.2.  Converting jCard into vCard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
     5.3.  Examples  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
   6.  Implementation Status (to be removed prior to publication as
       an RFC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
   7.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
   8.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
     8.1.  GROUP vCard Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
     8.2.  UNKNOWN vCard Value Data Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
   9.  Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
   10. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
     10.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
     10.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
   Appendix A.  ABNF Schema  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
   Appendix B.  Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
     B.1.  Example: vCard of the author of RFC6350 . . . . . . . . .  26
       B.1.1.  vCard Data  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
       B.1.2.  jCard Data  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
   Appendix C.  Change History (to be removed prior to publication
                as an RFC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28



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   Author's Address  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  30

1.  Introduction

   The vCard data format [RFC6350] provides for the capture and exchange
   of information normally stored within an address book or directory
   application.  The vCard format has gone through multiple revisions,
   most recently vCard 4.  The purpose of this specification is to
   define "jCard", a JSON format for vCard data.  One main advantage to
   using a JSON-based format as defined in [RFC4627] over the classic
   vCard format is easier processing for JavaScript based widgets and
   libraries, especially in the scope of web-based applications.

   As certain similarities exist between vCard and the iCalendar data
   format [RFC5545], there is also an effort to define a JSON-based data
   format for calendar information called jCal [I-D.ietf-jcardcal-jcal]
   that parallels the format defined in this specification.

   The purpose of this specification is to define "jCard", a JSON format
   for vCard data.  One main advantage to using a JSON-based format as
   defined in [RFC4627] over the classic vCard format is easier
   processing for JavaScript based widgets and libraries, especially in
   the scope of web-based applications.

   The key design considerations are essentially the same as those for
   [I-D.ietf-jcardcal-jcal] and [RFC6321], that is:

      Round-tripping (converting a vCard instance to jCard and back)
      will give the same semantic result as the starting point.  For
      example, all components, properties and property parameters are
      guaranteed to be preserved.

      Ordering of elements will not necessarily be preserved.

      Preserve the semantics of the vCard data.  While a simple consumer
      can easily browse the data in jCard, a full understanding of vCard
      is still required in order to modify and/or fully comprehend the
      directory data.

      Ability to handle many extensions to the underlying vCard
      specification without requiring an update to this document.

2.  Conventions Used in This Document

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].




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   The underlying format used for jCard is JSON.  Consequently, the
   terms "object" and "array" as well as the four primitive types are to
   be interpreted as described in Section 1 of [RFC4627].

   Some examples in this document contain "partial" JSON documents used
   for illustrative purposes.  In these examples, three periods "..."
   are used to indicate a portion of the document that has been removed
   for compactness.

3.  Converting from vCard to jCard

   This section describes how vCard objects are converted to jCard using
   a simple mapping between the vCard data model and JSON elements.

   In [RFC6350], vCard objects are comprised of a set of "properties",
   "parameters" and "values".  The top level of a vCard object contains
   "properties".  A "property" has a "value" and a set of zero or more
   "parameters".  Each of these entities have a representation in jCard,
   defined in the following sections.  The representation of a vCard
   object in JSON will be named "jCard component" throughout this
   document.

3.1.  Pre-processing

   vCard uses a line folding mechanism to limit lines of data to a
   maximum line length (typically 72 characters) to ensure maximum
   likelihood of preserving data integrity as it is transported via
   various means (e.g., email) - see Section 3.2 of [RFC6350].  Prior to
   converting vCard data into jCard all folded lines MUST be unfolded.

   vCard data uses an "escape" character sequence for text values and
   property parameter values.  See Section 3.4 of [RFC6350] as well as
   [RFC6868].  When such text elements are converted into jCard, the
   vCard escaping MUST be removed first.  The only escaping that may be
   applied is any escaping mandated by JSON.

   One key difference in the formatting of values used in vCard and
   jCard is that in jCard the specification uses date/time values
   aligned with the extended format of [ISO.8601.2004].  The sections of
   this document describing the various date and time formats contain
   more information on the use of the complete representation, reduced
   accuracy or truncated representation.









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3.2.  Properties (RFC6350 section 6)

   Each individual vCard property is represented in jCard by an array
   with three fixed elements, followed by one or more additional
   elements, depending on if the property is a multi-value property as
   described in Section 3.3 of [RFC6350].

   The array consists of the following fixed elements:

   1.  The name of the property as a string, but in lowercase.

   2.  An object containing the parameters as described in Section 3.3.

   3.  The type identifier string of the value, in lowercase.

   The remaining elements of the array are used for the value of the
   property.  For single-value properties, the array MUST have exactly
   four elements, for multi-valued properties as described in
   Section 3.2.1.2 there can be any number of additional elements.

   The array describing the property can then be inserted into the array
   designated for properties in the jCard component.

   Example:

   ["vcard",
     [
       ["version", {}, "text", "4.0"],
       ["fn", {}, "text", "John Doe"],
       ["gender", {}, "text", "M"],
       ...
     ]
   ]


   The property parameters in the second element of the property array
   associate a set of parameter names with their respective value.
   Parameters are further described in Section 3.3.

   To allow for a cleaner implementation, the parameter object MUST be
   present even if there are no parameters.  In this case, an empty
   object MUST be used.

   As described in Section 3.2.1.4, it is important for a parser check
   the data type of the value even if it is assumed to be a string in
   most cases.  The value could turn out to be a structured value, in
   which case the data type is an array.




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3.2.1.  Special Cases for Properties

   This section describes some properties that have special handling
   when converting to jCard.

3.2.1.1.  The VERSION Property

   The vCard format is versioned.  [RFC6350] defines the VERSION
   property to be mandatory, therefore a "version" property MUST also be
   specified in a jCard component.  Similarly, the value of the version
   property MUST be "4.0".

3.2.1.2.  Multi-valued Properties

   Various vCard properties defined in [RFC6350], for example the
   "CATEGORIES" property, are defined as multi-valued properties.  In
   jCal these properties are added as further members of the array
   describing the property.

   Note that additional multi-valued properties may be added in
   extensions to the iCalendar format.

   Example:

   ["vcard",
     [
       ["categories", {}, "text", "computers", "cameras"],
       ...
     ]
   ]


3.2.1.3.  Grouping of Properties

   [RFC6350] Section 3.3 defines a grouping construct that is used to
   group related properties together.  To eliminate the need for an
   extra group syntax in jCard, thus unifying the general syntax with
   that of jCal, this specification introduces a "group" parameter, that
   holds the group name.  The parameter MUST NOT be used in vCard as per
   [RFC6350], it is merely registered to reserve the parameter, avoiding
   collisions.

   Namespace:  <empty>

   Parameter name:  GROUP

   Purpose:  To simplify the jCard format.




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   Description:  The GROUP parameter is reserved for the exclusive use
      of the jCard format RFCTODO.  It MUST NOT be used in plain vCard
      [RFC6350], nor in xCard [RFC6351].

   Format definition:  (Not applicable)

   Example:  As this registration serves as a reservation of the GROUP
      parameter so that it is not used in vCard, there is no applicable
      vCard example.  For examples of its usage in jCard, see RFCTODO

3.2.1.3.1.  Group Conversion Rules

   In jCard, the parameter's value is a single opaque string.
   Conversion rules are as follows:

   o  From vCard to jCard, the group construct (see [RFC6350],
      Section 3.3, Page 7) is removed.  In its place, the GROUP
      parameter is added (lowercased, as any other parameter).  Its
      value is a string corresponding to the group name.  The name's
      case MUST be preserved intact.

   o  From jCard to vCard, the reverse procedure is performed.  The
      GROUP parameter MUST NOT appear in the resulting vCard.

   Example:

   CONTACT.FN:Mr. John Q. Public\, Esq.


   is equivalent to:

   [ "fn", { "group": "CONTACT" }, "text", "Mr. John Q. Public, Esq." ]


3.2.1.4.  Structured Property Values

   The vCard specification defines properties with structured values,
   for example GENDER or ADR.  A structured value is defined as a value
   that contains multiple text components, delimited by the SEMICOLON
   character.  In jCard, the property value is an array containing one
   element for each text component.

   vCard Example:

   ADR:;;123 Main Street;Any Town;CA;91921-1234;U.S.A.






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   jCard Example:

   ["adr", {}, "text",
     [
     "", "", "123 Main Street",
     "Any Town", "CA", "91921-1234", "U.S.A."
     ]
   ]


   Some vCard properties, for example ADR, also allow a structured value
   element that itself has multiple values.  In this case, the element
   of the array describing the structured value is itself an array with
   one element for each of the component's multiple values.

   vCard Example:

   ADR:;;My Street,Left Side,Second Shack;Hometown;PA;18252;U.S.A.


   jCard Example:

   ["adr", {}, "text",
     [
     "", "",
     ["My Street", "Left Side", "Second Shack"],
     "Hometown", "PA", "18252", "U.S.A."
     ]
   ]


   In both cases, the array element values MUST have the primitive type
   that matches the jCard type identifier.  In [RFC6350], there are only
   structured text values and thus only JSON strings are used.
   Extensions may for example define structured number or boolean
   values, where JSON number or boolean types MUST be used.

   If a multi-valued text component is changed to hold only one value,
   the text component SHOULD be represented as a single primitive value,
   dropping the array completely.  Nevertheless, a more simple
   implementation might choose to retain the array, with a single
   primitive value as its element.

   Similarly, structured values that consist of two text components with
   one being optional (for example, GENDER) can be represented as a
   single text value.  Therefore, parsers of jCard data SHOULD check
   even known property values for structured information by considering
   the JSON data type of the value, which can be an array or a primitive



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   value.  This is especially important for languages where accessing
   array members is done by the same construct as accessing characters
   of a string.

   Examples:

   ["gender", {}, "text", ["F", "grrrl"] ],
   ["gender", {}, "text", "M" ]


   Per [RFC6350] Section 6.3.1, the component separator MUST be
   specified even if the component value is missing.  Similarly, the
   jCard array containing the structured data MUST contain all required
   elements, even if they are empty.

   vCard Example:

   ADR;LABEL="123 Maple Ave\nSuite 901\nVancouver BC\nA1B 2C9\nCan
    ada":;;;;;;


   jCard Example:

   ["adr",
    {"label":"123 Maple Ave\nSuite 901\nVancouver BC\nA1B 2C9\nCanada"},
    "text",
    ["", "", "", "", "", "", ""]
   ]


3.3.  Parameters (RFC6350 Section 5)

   Property parameters are represented as a JSON object where each key-
   value pair represents the vCard parameter name and its value.  The
   name of the parameter MUST be in lowercase, the original case of the
   parameter value MUST be preserved.  For example, the "LANG" property
   parameter is represented in jCard by the "lang" key.  Any new vCard
   parameters added in the future will be converted in the same way.

   Example:

   ["vcard",
     [
       ["role", { "lang": "tr" }, "text", "roca"],
       ...
     ]
   ]




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3.3.1.  VALUE parameter

   vCard defines a "VALUE" property parameter (Section 5.2 of
   [RFC6350]).  This property parameter MUST NOT be added to the
   parameters object.  Instead, the value type is always explicitly
   mentioned in the third element of the array describing the property.
   Thus, when converting from vCard to jCard, any "VALUE" property
   parameters are skipped.  When converting from jCard into vCard, the
   appropriate "VALUE" property parameter MUST be included in the vCard
   property if the value type is not "unknown" or the default value type
   for that property.  See Section 5 for information on handling unknown
   value types.

3.3.2.  Multi-value Parameters

   In [RFC6350], some parameters allow using a COMMA-separated list of
   values.  To ease processing in jCard, the value to such parameters
   MUST be represented in an array containing the separated values.  The
   array elements MUST be string values.  Single-value parameters SHOULD
   be represented using a single string value, although a more simple
   implementation might prefer an array with one string element.  An
   example for a such parameter is the vCard "SORT-AS" parameter, more
   such parameters may be added in extensions.

   DQUOTE characters used to encapsulate the separated values MUST NOT
   be added to the jCard parameter value.

   Example 1:

   ["vcard",
     [
       ["n",
        { "sort-as": ["Harten", "Rene"] },
        "text",
        "van der Harten;Rene,J.;Sir;R.D.O.N."
       ],
       ["fn", {}, "text", "Rene van der Harten"]
       ...
     ]
   ]


3.4.  Values (RFC6350 Section 4)

   The type of a vCard value is explicitly mentioned in the third
   element of the array describing a jCard property.  The actual values
   of the property can be found in the fourth and following elements of
   the array.



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3.4.1.  Text (RFC6350 Section 4.1)

   Description:  vCard "TEXT" property values are represented by a
      property with the type identifier "text".  The value elements are
      JSON strings.  For details on structured text values, see
      Section 3.2.1.4.

   Example:

   ["kind", {}, "text", "group"]


3.4.2.  URI (RFC6350 Section 4.2)

   Description:  vCard "URI" property values are represented by a
      property with the type identifier "uri".  The value elements are
      JSON strings.

   Example:

   ["source", {}, "uri", "ldap://ldap.example.com/cn=babs%20jensen"]


3.4.3.  Date (RFC6350 Section 4.3.1)

   Description:  vCard "DATE" property values are represented by a
      property with the type identifier "date".  The value elements are
      JSON strings with the same date value specified by [RFC6350], but
      represented using the extended format specified in
      [ISO.8601.2004], Section 4.1.2.  If the complete representation is
      not used, the same date format restrictions regarding reduced
      accuracy, truncated representation and expanded representation
      noted in [RFC6350] Section 4.1.2.3 apply.  Whenever the extended
      format is not applicable, the basic format MUST be used.

   ABNF Schema:

   date-complete = year "-" month "-" day ;YYYY-MM-DD

   date-noreduc = date-complete
              / "--" month "-" day; --MM-DD
              / "---" day; ---DDD

   date = date-noreduc
      / year; YYYY
      / year "-" month ; YYYY-MM
      / "--" month; --MM




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   Examples:

   ["bday", {}, "date", "1985-04-12"],
   ["bday", {}, "date", "1985-04"],
   ["bday", {}, "date", "1985"],
   ["bday", {}, "date", "--04-12"],
   ["bday", {}, "date", "---12"]


   This table contains possible conversions between the vCard DATE
   format its jCard date.  This information is just an example and not a
   formal specification of the syntax.  The specification can be found
   in [ISO.8601.2000] and [ISO.8601.2004]:

                   +-----------+----------+------------+
                   |           | vCard    | jCard      |
                   +-----------+----------+------------+
                   | Complete  | 19850412 | 1985-04-12 |
                   |           |          |            |
                   | Reduced   | 1985-04  | 1985-04    |
                   |           |          |            |
                   | Reduced   | 1985     | 1985       |
                   |           |          |            |
                   | Truncated | --0412   | --04-12    |
                   |           |          |            |
                   | Truncated | --04     | --04       |
                   |           |          |            |
                   | Truncated | ---12    | ---12      |
                   +-----------+----------+------------+


3.4.4.  Time (RFC6350 Section 4.3.2)

   Description:  vCard "TIME" property values are represented by a
      property with the type identifier "time".  The value elements are
      JSON strings with the same time value specified by [RFC6350], but
      represented using the extended format specified in
      [ISO.8601.2004], Section 4.2.  If the complete representation is
      not used, the same time format restrictions regarding reduced
      accuracy, decimal fraction and truncated representation noted in
      [RFC6350] Section 4.3.2 apply.  Whenever the extended format is
      not applicable, the basic format MUST be used.  The seconds value
      of 60 MUST only be used to account for positive "leap" seconds and
      the midnight hour is always represented by 00, never 24.
      Fractions of a second are not supported by this format.  Contrary
      to [I-D.ietf-jcardcal-jcal], UTC offsets are permitted within a
      time value.




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   ABNF Schema:

   time-notrunc =  hour [":" minute [":" second]] [zone]

   time = time-notrunc
      / "-" minute ":" second [zone]; -mm:ss
      / "-" minute [zone]; -mm
      / "--" second [zone]; --ss


   Examples:

   ["x-time-local", {}, "time", "12:30:00"],
   ["x-time-utc", {}, "time", "12:30:00Z"],
   ["x-time-offset", {}, "time", "12:30:00-08:00"],
   ["x-time-reduced", {}, "time", "23"],
   ["x-time-truncated", {}, "time", "-30"]


   This table contains possible conversions between the vCard TIME
   format its jCard time.  This information is just an example and not a
   formal specification of the syntax.  The specification can be found
   in [ISO.8601.2000] and [ISO.8601.2004]:

                     +-----------+--------+----------+
                     |           | vCard  | jCard    |
                     +-----------+--------+----------+
                     | Complete  | 232050 | 23:20:50 |
                     |           |        |          |
                     | Reduced   | 2320   | 23:20    |
                     |           |        |          |
                     | Reduced   | 23     | 23       |
                     |           |        |          |
                     | Truncated | -2050  | -20:50   |
                     |           |        |          |
                     | Truncated | -20    | -20      |
                     |           |        |          |
                     | Truncated | --50   | --50     |
                     +-----------+--------+----------+


   Also, all combinations may have any zone designator appended, as in
   the complete representation.

3.4.5.  Date-Time (RFC6350 Section 4.3.3)

   Description:  vCard "DATE-TIME" property values are represented by a
      property with the type identifier "date-time".  The value elements



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      are JSON strings with the same date value specified by [RFC6350],
      but represented using the extended format specified in
      [ISO.8601.2004], Section 4.3.  If the complete representation is
      not used, the same date and time format restrictions as in
      Section 3.4.4 and Section 3.4.3 apply.  Just as in [RFC6350],
      truncation of the date part is permitted.

   Example:

   ["anniversary", {}, "date-time", "2013-02-14T12:30:00"],
   ["anniversary", {}, "date-time", "2013-01-10T19:00:00Z"],
   ["anniversary", {}, "date-time", "2013-08-15T09:45:00+01:00"],
   ["anniversary", {}, "date-time", "---15T09:45:00+01:00"]


   This table contains possible conversions between the vCard DATE-TIME
   format its jCard date-time.  This information is just an example and
   not a formal specification of the syntax.  The specification can be
   found in [ISO.8601.2000] and [ISO.8601.2004]:

   +----------------+----------------------+---------------------------+
   | Representation | vCard                | jCard                     |
   +----------------+----------------------+---------------------------+
   | Complete       | 19850412T232050      | 1985-04-12T23:20:50       |
   |                |                      |                           |
   | Complete       | 19850412T232050Z     | 1985-04-12T23:20:50Z      |
   |                |                      |                           |
   | Complete       | 19850412T232050+0400 | 1985-04-12T23:20:50+04:00 |
   |                |                      |                           |
   | Complete       | 19850412T232050+04   | 1985-04-12T23:20:50+04    |
   |                |                      |                           |
   | Reduced        | 19850412T2320        | 1985-04-12T23:20          |
   |                |                      |                           |
   | Reduced        | 19850412T23          | 1985-04-12T23             |
   |                |                      |                           |
   | Truncated and  | --0412T2320          | --04-12T23:20             |
   | Reduced        |                      |                           |
   |                |                      |                           |
   | Truncated and  | --04T2320            | --04T23:20                |
   | Reduced        |                      |                           |
   |                |                      |                           |
   | Truncated and  | ---12T2320           | ---12T23:20               |
   | Reduced        |                      |                           |
   |                |                      |                           |
   | Truncated and  | --0412T2320          | --04-12T23:20             |
   | Reduced        |                      |                           |
   |                |                      |                           |
   | Truncated and  | --04T23              | --04T23                   |



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   | Reduced        |                      |                           |
   +----------------+----------------------+---------------------------+


   As specified in [ISO.8601.2000], the date component shall not be
   represented with reduced accuracy and the time component shall not be
   truncated.  Also, all combinations may have any zone designator
   appended, as in the complete representation.

3.4.6.  Date and/or Time (RFC6350 Section 4.3.4)

   Description:  vCard "DATE-AND-OR-TIME" property values are
      represented by a property with the type identifier "date-and-or-
      time".  The value elements are either a date-time (Section 3.4.5),
      a date (Section 3.4.3) or a time (Section 3.4.4) value.  Just as
      in [RFC6350] Section 4.3.4, a stand-alone time value MUST always
      be preceded by a "T".

   Example:

   ["bday", {}, "date-and-or-time", "2013-02-14T12:30:00"],
   ["bday", {}, "date-and-or-time", "---22T14:00"]
   ["bday", {}, "date-and-or-time", "1985"],
   ["bday", {}, "date-and-or-time", "T12:30"]


3.4.7.  Timestamp (RFC6350 Section 4.3.5)

   Description:  vCard "TIMESTAMP" property values are represented by a
      property with the type identifier "timestamp".  The value elements
      are JSON strings with the same timestamp value specified by
      [RFC6350], but represented using the extended format and complete
      representation specified in [ISO.8601.2004], Section 4.3.2.

   Example:

   ["rev", {}, "timestamp", "2013-02-14T12:30:00"],
   ["rev", {}, "timestamp", "2013-02-14T12:30:00Z"],
   ["rev", {}, "timestamp", "2013-02-14T12:30:00-05"],
   ["rev", {}, "timestamp", "2013-02-14T12:30:00-05:00"]


   This table contains possible conversions between the vCard TIMESTAMP
   format its jCard timestamp.  This information is just an example and
   not a formal specification of the syntax.  The specification can be
   found in [ISO.8601.2000] and [ISO.8601.2004]:





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   +----------------+----------------------+---------------------------+
   | Representation | vCard                | jCard                     |
   +----------------+----------------------+---------------------------+
   | Complete       | 19850412T232050      | 1985-04-12T23:20:50       |
   |                |                      |                           |
   | Complete       | 19850412T232050Z     | 1985-04-12T23:20:50Z      |
   |                |                      |                           |
   | Complete       | 19850412T232050+0400 | 1985-04-12T23:20:50+04:00 |
   |                |                      |                           |
   | Complete       | 19850412T232050+04   | 1985-04-12T23:20:50+04    |
   +----------------+----------------------+---------------------------+


3.4.8.  Boolean (RFC6350 Section 4.4)

   Description:  vCard "BOOLEAN" property values are represented by a
      property with the type identifier "boolean".  The value element is
      a JSON boolean value.

   Example:

   ["x-non-smoking", {}, "boolean", true]


3.4.9.  Integer (RFC6350 Section 4.5)

   Description:  vCard "INTEGER" property values are represented by a
      property with the type identifier "integer".  The value elements
      are JSON primitive number values.

   Examples:

   ["x-karma-points", {}, "integer", 42]


3.4.10.  Float (RFC6350 Section 4.6)

   Description:  vCard "FLOAT" property values are represented by a
      property with the type identifier "float".  The value elements are
      JSON primitive number values.

   Example:

   ["x-grade", {}, "float", 1.3]


3.4.11.  UTC Offset (RFC6350 Section 4.7)




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   Description:  vCard "UTC-OFFSET" property values are represented by a
      property with the type identifier "utc-offset".  The value
      elements are JSON strings with the same UTC offset value specified
      by [RFC6350], with the exception that the hour and minute
      components are separated by a ":" character, for consistency with
      the [ISO.8601.2004] timezone offset, extended format.

   Example:

   // Note: [RFC6350] mentions use of utc-offset
   // for the TZ property as NOT RECOMMENDED
   ["tz", {}, "utc-offset", "-05:00"]


3.4.12.  Language Tag (RFC6350 Section 4.8)

   Description:  vCard "LANGUAGE-TAG" property values are represented by
      a property with the type identifier "language-tag".  The value
      elements are JSON strings containing a single language-tag, as
      defined in [RFC5646].

   Example:

   ["lang", {}, "language-tag", "de"]


3.5.  Extensions (RFC6350 Section 6.10)

   vCard extension properties and property parameters (those with an
   "X-" prefix in their name) are handled in the same way as other
   properties and property parameters: the property is represented by an
   array, the property parameter represented by an object.  The property
   or parameter name uses the same name as for the vCard extension, but
   in lowercase.  For example, the "X-FOO" property in vCard turns into
   the "x-foo" jCard property.  See Section 5 for how to deal with
   default values for unrecognized extension properties or property
   parameters.

4.  Converting from jCard into vCard

   When converting property and property parameter values, the names
   SHOULD be converted to uppercase.  Although vCard names are case
   insensitive, common practice is to keep them all uppercase following
   the actual definitions in [RFC6350].

   Character escaping and line folding MUST be applied to the resulting
   vCard data as required by [RFC6350] and [RFC6868].




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   When converting to vCard, the VALUE parameter MUST be added to
   properties whose default value type is unknown.  The VALUE parameter
   MAY be omitted for properties using the default value type.

5.  Handling Unrecognized Properties or Parameters

   In vCard, properties can have one or more value types as specified by
   their definition, with one of those values being defined as the
   default.  When a property uses its default value type, the "VALUE"
   property parameter does not need to be specified on the property.
   For example, "BDAY"'s default value type is "date-and-or-time", so
   "VALUE=date-and-or-time" need not be set as a property parameter.
   However, "BDAY" also allows a "text" value to be specified, and if
   that is used, "VALUE=text" has to be set as a property parameter.

   When new properties are defined or "X-" properties used, a vCard to
   jCard converter might not recognize them, and not know what the
   appropriate default value types are, yet they need to be able to
   preserve the values.  A similar issue arises for unrecognized
   property parameters.

   In jCard, a new "unknown" property value type is introduced.  Its
   purpose is to allow preserving unknown property values when round-
   tripping between jCard and vCard.  To avoid collisions, this
   specification reserves the UNKNOWN property value type in vCard.  It
   MUST NOT be used in any vCard as specified by [RFC6350], nor any
   extensions to it.

   Value name:  UNKNOWN

   Purpose:  To allow preserving property values whose default value
      type is not known during round-tripping between jCard and vCard.

   Format definition:  (Not applicable)

   Description:  The UNKNOWN value data type is reserved for the
      exclusive use of the jCard format RFCTODO.  It MUST NOT be used in
      plain vCard [RFC6350].

   Example:  As this registration serves as a reservation of the UNKNOWN
      type so that it is not used in vCard, there is no applicable vCard
      example.  For examples of its usage in jCard, see RFCTODO









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5.1.  Converting vCard into jCard

   Any property that does not include a "VALUE" property parameter and
   whose default value type is not known, MUST be converted to a
   primitive JSON string.  The content of that string is the unprocessed
   value text.  Also, value type MUST be set to "unknown".

   To correctly implement this format, it is critical that if the
   default type is not known that the type "unknown" is used.  If this
   requirement is ignored and for example "text" is used, additional
   escaping may occur which breaks round-tripping values.

   Any unrecognized property parameter MUST be converted to a string
   value, with its content set to the property parameter value text,
   treated as if it were a "TEXT" value.

5.2.  Converting jCard into vCard

   Since jCard always explicitly specifies the value type, it can always
   be converted to vCard using the VALUE parameter.

   If the value type specified in jCard matches the default value type
   in vCard, the VALUE parameter MAY be omitted.

   If the value type specified in jCard is set to "unknown", the value
   MUST be taken over in vCard without processing.  In this case, the
   VALUE parameter MUST NOT be specified.

5.3.  Examples

   The following is an example of an unrecognized vCard property (that
   uses an "URI" value as its default), and the equivalent jCard
   representation of that property.

   vCard:

   X-COMPLAINT-URI:mailto:abuse@example.org


   jCard:

   ["x-complaint-uri", {}, "unknown", "mailto:abuse@example.org"]


   The following is an example of how to cope with jCard data where the
   parser was unable to identify the type.  Note how the "unknown" value
   type is not added to the vCard data and escaping, aside from standard
   JSON string escaping, is not processed.



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   jCard:

   ["x-coffee-data", {}, "unknown", "Stenophylla;Guinea\\,Africa"]


   vCard:

   X-COFFEE-DATA:Stenophylla;Guinea\,Africa


   The following is an example of a jCard property (where the
   corresponding vCard property uses a "INTEGER" value as its default),
   and the equivalent vCard representation of that property.  It is
   assumed that the parser has knowledge of the default data type for
   the "x-karma-points" property.

   jCard:

   ["x-karma-points", {}, "integer", 95]


   vCard:

   X-KARMA-POINTS:95


   The following is an example of an unrecognized vCard property
   parameter (that uses a "FLOAT" value as its default) specified on a
   recognized vCard property, and the equivalent jCard representation of
   that property and property parameter.

   vCard:

   GENDER;X-PROBABILITY=0.8:M


   jCard:

   ["gender", { "x-probability": "0.8" }, "text", "M"]


6.  Implementation Status (to be removed prior to publication as an RFC)

   This section describes libraries known to implement this draft as per
   [I-D.sheffer-running-code].

   1.  ICAL.js - Philipp Kewisch, James Lal.  A JavaScript parser for
       iCalendar (rfc5545)



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       Source:  https://github.com/mozilla-comm/ical.js/

       Maturity:  alpha (for jCard)

       Coverage:  Currently geared towards jCal, therefore not all
             formats are supported.  Includes an online validator.  (as
             of rev 847c67c501, 2013-02-14)

       Licensing:  MPL, Mozilla Public License 2.0

   2.  Py Calendar - Cyrus Daboo.  iCalendar/vCard Library

       Source:  https://svn.calendarserver.org/repository/calendarserver
             /PyCalendar/branches/json/

       Maturity:  production

       Coverage:  All aspects of this draft, up to version 01.

       Licensing:  Apache License, Version 2.0

   3.  ez-vcard - Michael Angstadt.  A vCard parser library written in
       Java

       Source:  https://code.google.com/p/ez-vcard/

       Maturity:  production

       Coverage  All aspects of this draft.

       Licensing:  New BSD License

   Additionally, interoperability testing of this draft is an ongoing
   effort under members of calconnect, the Calendaring and Scheduling
   Consortium.  CalDAV Vendors are looking into supporting this draft.

7.  Security Considerations

   For security considerations specific to calendar data, see Section 9
   of [RFC6350].  Since this specification is a mapping from vCard, no
   new security concerns are introduced related to calendar data.

   The use of JSON as a format does have security risks.  Section 7 of
   [RFC4627] discusses these risks.

8.  IANA Considerations





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   This document defines a MIME media type for use with vCard in JSON
   data.  This media type SHOULD be used for the transfer of calendaring
   data in JSON.

   Type name:  application

   Subtype name:  vcard+json

   Required parameters:  none

   Optional parameters:  version as defined for the text/vcard media
      type in [RFC6350].

   Encoding considerations:  Same as encoding considerations of
      application/json as specified in [RFC4627].

   Security considerations:  See Section 7.

   Interoperability considerations:  This media type provides an
      alternative format for vCard data based on JSON.

   Published specification:  This specification.

   Applications which use this media type:  Applications that currently
      make use of the text/vcard media type can use this as an
      alternative.  Similarly, Applications that use the application/
      json media type to transfer directory data can use this to further
      specify the content.

   Person & email address to contact for further information:
      vcarddav@ietf.org

   Intended usage:  COMMON

   Restrictions on usage:  There are no restrictions on where this media
      type can be used.

   Author:  See the "Author's Address" section of this document.

   Change controller:  IETF

8.1.  GROUP vCard Parameter

   IANA has added the following entry to the vCard Parameters registry,
   defined in Section 10.3.2 of [RFC6350].

           +-----------+-----------+--------------------------+
           | Namespace | Parameter | Reference                |



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           +-----------+-----------+--------------------------+
           |           | GROUP     | RFCTODO, Section 3.2.1.3 |
           +-----------+-----------+--------------------------+


8.2.  UNKNOWN vCard Value Data Type

   IANA has added the following entry to the vCard Data Types registry,
   defined in Section 10.3.3 of [RFC6350].

                 +-----------------+--------------------+
                 | Value Data Type | Reference          |
                 +-----------------+--------------------+
                 | UNKNOWN         | RFCTODO, Section 5 |
                 +-----------------+--------------------+


9.  Acknowledgments

   The author would like to thank the following for their valuable
   contributions: Cyrus Daboo, Mike Douglass, William Gill, Erwin Rehme,
   and Dave Thewlis.  Simon Perreault, Michael Angstadt, Peter Saint-
   Andre, Bert Greevenbosch, Javier Godoy.  This specification
   originated from the work of the XML-JSON technical committee of the
   Calendaring and Scheduling Consortium.

10.  References

10.1.  Normative References

   [I-D.ietf-jcardcal-jcal]
              Kewisch, P., Daboo, C., and M. Douglass, "jCal: The JSON
              format for iCalendar", draft-ietf-jcardcal-jcal-00 (work
              in progress), March 2013.

   [ISO.8601.2000]
              International Organization for Standardization, ""Data
              elements and interchange formats -- Information
              interchange -- Representation of dates and times" ", ISO
              8601, 12 2000.

   [ISO.8601.2004]
              International Organization for Standardization, ""Data
              elements and interchange formats -- Information
              interchange -- Representation of dates and times" ", ISO
              8601, 12 2004.





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   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC5234]  Crocker, D. and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax
              Specifications: ABNF", STD 68, RFC 5234, January 2008.

   [RFC5545]  Desruisseaux, B., "Internet Calendaring and Scheduling
              Core Object Specification (iCalendar)", RFC 5545,
              September 2009.

   [RFC5646]  Phillips, A. and M. Davis, "Tags for Identifying
              Languages", BCP 47, RFC 5646, September 2009.

   [RFC6321]  Daboo, C., Douglass, M., and S. Lees, "xCal: The XML
              Format for iCalendar", RFC 6321, August 2011.

   [RFC6350]  Perreault, S., "vCard Format Specification", RFC 6350,
              August 2011.

   [RFC6351]  Perreault, S., "xCard: vCard XML Representation", RFC
              6351, August 2011.

   [RFC6868]  Daboo, C., "Parameter Value Encoding in iCalendar and
              vCard", RFC 6868, February 2013.

10.2.  Informative References

   [I-D.sheffer-running-code]
              Sheffer, Y. and A. Farrel, "Improving Awareness of Running
              Code: the Implementation Status Section", draft-sheffer-
              running-code-02 (work in progress), January 2013.

   [RFC4627]  Crockford, D., "The application/json Media Type for
              JavaScript Object Notation (JSON)", RFC 4627, July 2006.

   [calconnect-artifacts]
              The Calendaring and Scheduling Consortium, "Code Artifacts
              and Schemas", ,
              <http://www.calconnect.org/artifacts.shtml>.

Appendix A.  ABNF Schema

   Below is an ABNF schema as per [RFC5234] for vCard in JSON.  ABNF
   Symbols not described here are taken from [RFC4627].  The schema is
   non-normative and given for reference only.

   The numeric section numbers given in the comments refer to section in
   [RFC6350].  Additional semantic restrictions apply, especially



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   regarding the allowed properties and sub-components per component.
   Details on these restrictions can be found in this document and
   [RFC6350].

   Additional schemas may be available on the internet at
   [calconnect-artifacts].

   ; A jCard component uses the name "vcard" and a properties array.
   ; Restrictions to which properties and may be specified are to
   ; be taken from RFC6350.
   jcardobject = begin-array
                 DQUOTE component-name DQUOTE value-separator
                 properties-array
                 end-array

   ; A jCard property consists of the name string, parameters object,
   ; type string and one or more values as specified in this document.
   property = begin-array
              DQUOTE property-name DQUOTE value-separator
              params-object value-separator
              DQUOTE type-name DQUOTE
              propery-value *(value-separator property-value)
              end-array
   properties-array = begin-array
                      [ property *(value-separator property) ]
                      end-array

   ; Property values depend on the type-name. Aside from the value types
   ; mentioned here, extensions may make use of other JSON value types.
   property-value = simple-prop-value / structured-prop-value
   simple-prop-value = string / number / true / false
   structured-prop-value =
       begin-array
       [ structured-element *(value-separator structured-element) ]
       end-array

   ; Each structured element may have multiple values if
   ; semantically allowed
   structured-element = simple-prop-value / structured-multi-prop
   structured-multi-prop =
       begin-array
       [ simple-prop-value *(value-separator simple-prop-value) ]
       end-array

   ; The jCard params-object is a JSON object which follows the semantic
   ; guidelines described in this document.
   params-object = begin-object
                   [ params-member *(value-separator params-member) ]



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                   end-object
   params-member = DQUOTE param-name DQUOTE name-separator param-value
   param-value = string / param-multi
   param-multi = begin-array
                 [ string *(value-separtor string) ]
                 end-array

   ; The type MUST be a valid type as described by this document. New
   ; value types can be added by extensions.
   type-name = "text" / "uri" / "date" / "time" / "date-time" /
               "boolean" / "integer" / "float" / "utc-offset" /
               "language-tag" / x-type

   ; Property, parameter and type names MUST be lowercase. Additional
   ; semantic restrictions apply as described by this document and
   ; RFC6350.
   component-name = lowercase-name
   property-name = lowercase-name
   param-name = lowercase-name
   x-type = lowercase-name
   lowercase-name = 1*(%x61-7A / DIGIT / "-")


Appendix B.  Examples

   This section contains an example of a vCard object with its jCard
   representation.

B.1.  Example: vCard of the author of RFC6350

B.1.1.  vCard Data

   BEGIN:VCARD
   VERSION:4.0
   FN:Simon Perreault
   N:Perreault;Simon;;;ing. jr,M.Sc.
   BDAY:--0203
   ANNIVERSARY:20090808T1430-0500
   GENDER:M
   LANG;PREF=1:fr
   LANG;PREF=2:en
   ORG;TYPE=work:Viagenie
   ADR;TYPE=work:;Suite D2-630;2875 Laurier;
    Quebec;QC;G1V 2M2;Canada
   TEL;VALUE=uri;TYPE="work,voice";PREF=1:tel:+1-418-656-9254;ext=102
   TEL;VALUE=uri;TYPE="work,cell,voice,video,text":tel:+1-418-262-6501
   EMAIL;TYPE=work:simon.perreault@viagenie.ca
   GEO;TYPE=work:geo:46.772673,-71.282945



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   KEY;TYPE=work;VALUE=uri:
    http://www.viagenie.ca/simon.perreault/simon.asc
   TZ:-0500
   URL;TYPE=home:http://nomis80.org
   END:VCARD


B.1.2.  jCard Data

   ["vcard",
     [
       ["version", {}, "text", "4.0"],
       ["fn", {}, "text", "Simon Perreault"],
       ["n",
         {},
         "text",
         ["Perreault", "Simon", "", "", ["ing. jr", "M.Sc."]]
       ],
       ["bday", {}, "date-and-or-time", "--02-03"],
       ["anniversary",
         {},
         "date-and-or-time",
         "2009-08-08T14:30:00-05:00"
       ],
       ["gender", {}, "text", "M"],
       ["lang", { "pref": "1" }, "language-tag", "fr"],
       ["lang", { "pref": "2" }, "language-tag", "en"],
       ["org", { "type": "work" }, "text", "Viagenie"],
       ["adr",
          { "type": "work" },
          "text",
          [
           "",
           "Suite D2-630",
           "2875 Laurier",
           "Quebec",
           "QC",
           "G1V 2M2",
           "Canada"
          ]
       ],
       ["tel",
         { "type": ["work", "voice"], "pref": "1" },
         "uri",
         "tel:+1-418-656-9254;ext=102"
       ],
       ["tel",
         { "type": ["work", "cell", "voice", "video", "text"] },



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         "uri",
         "tel:+1-418-262-6501"
       ],
       ["email",
         { "type": "work" },
         "text",
         "simon.perreault@viagenie.ca"
       ],
       ["geo", { "type": "work" }, "uri", "geo:46.772673,-71.282945"],
       ["key",
         { "type": "work" },
         "uri",
         "http://www.viagenie.ca/simon.perreault/simon.asc"
       ],
       ["tz", {}, "utc-offset", "-05:00"],
       ["url", { "type": "home" }, "uri", "http://nomis80.org"]
     ]
   ]


Appendix C.  Change History (to be removed prior to publication as an
             RFC)

   draft-kewisch-vcard-in-json-01

      *  Added ABNF and improved references in date/time related
         sections

      *  Changes to wording in "vCard Stream" section

      *  Changes to wording about VALUE parameter when converting to
         vCard

      *  Corrected missing "type" parameter and separator in example

      *  Minor wording corrections

   draft-ietf-jcardcal-jcard-00

      *  Pubication as a WG draft

   draft-ietf-jcardcal-jcard-01

      *  Changed grouping syntax to use new GROUP parameter and added
         respective IANA section

      *  Added timestamp and date-and-or-time types instead of
         converting them from date/time/date-time



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Internet-Draft                   jCard                         July 2013


      *  Added a further sentence on preprocessing and escaping to
         clarify that JSON escaping must be used

      *  Described how to handle structured text values and structured
         text components with multiple values.

      *  Corrections and additions to the ABNF Section, adaptions to
         example

   draft-ietf-jcardcal-jcard-02

      *  Made more clear that complete representation is not mandatory

      *  Added sheffer-running-code section

      *  Changed handling of unknown property parameter types

      *  Minor corrections to sections regarding dates, fixing typos

   draft-ietf-jcardcal-jcard-03

      *  Add LABEL property example and description

      *  Added acknowledgements

      *  More typos fixed

   draft-ietf-jcardcal-jcard-04

      *  Added reference to rfc6868

      *  Various editorial changes per jcardcal issue tracker

      *  Resolved a few MAY/SHOULD conflicts

      *  Put the VERSION property into its own section

      *  Improved GROUP/UNKNOWN registrations by only putting vcard
         related information into the registration template

      *  Removed vcard stream construct.

      *  Added reference to RFC6868 for both directions

      *  Corrected some examples and ABNF

   draft-ietf-jcardcal-jcard-05




Kewisch                 Expires January 15, 2014               [Page 29]

Internet-Draft                   jCard                         July 2013


      *  Updated UNKNOWN registration text to match with jCal text.

Author's Address

   Philipp Kewisch
   Mozilla Corporation
   650 Castro Street, Suite 300
   Mountain View, CA  94041
   USA

   EMail: mozilla@kewis.ch
   URI:   http://www.mozilla.org/






































Kewisch                 Expires January 15, 2014               [Page 30]


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