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KARP Working Group                                           G. Lebovitz
Internet-Draft
Intended status: Informational                                 M. Bhatia
Expires: March 31, 2013                                   Alcatel-Lucent
                                                      September 27, 2012


    Keying and Authentication for Routing Protocols (KARP) Overview,
                       Threats, and Requirements
                    draft-ietf-karp-threats-reqs-06

Abstract

   Different routing protocols employ different mechanisms for securing
   protocol packets on the wire.  While most already have some method
   for accomplishing cryptographic message authentication, in many cases
   the existing methods are dated, vulnerable to attack, and employ
   cryptographic algorithms that have been deprecated.  The "Keying and
   Authentication for Routing Protocols" (KARP) effort aims to overhaul
   and improve these mechanisms.

   This document does not contain protocol specifications.  Instead, it
   defines the areas where protocol specification work is needed and a
   set of requirements for KARP design teams to follow.  RFC 6518,
   "Keying and Authentication for Routing Protocols (KARP) Design
   Guidelines" is a companion to this document; KARP design teams will
   use them together to review and overhaul routing protocols.  These
   two documents reflect the input of both the IETF Security Area and
   IETF Routing Area in order to form a mutually agreeable work plan.

   This document has three main parts.  The first part provides an
   overview of the KARP effort.  The second part lists the threats from
   RFC 4593 (Generic Threats To Routing Protocols) that are in scope for
   attacks against routing protocol transport systems.  This includes
   any mechanisms built into the routing protocols themselves, to
   authenticate packets.  The third part enumerates the requirements
   that routing protocol specifications must meet when addressing those
   threats for RFC 6518's "Work Phase 1", the update to a routing
   protocol's existing transport security.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-



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   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on March 31, 2013.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2012 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
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   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
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   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.




























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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     1.1.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     1.2.  Requirements Language  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8

   2.  KARP Effort Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     2.1.  KARP Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     2.2.  Incremental Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     2.3.  Goals  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     2.4.  Non-Goals  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     2.5.  Audience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

   3.  Threats  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     3.1.  Threat Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
       3.1.1.  OUTSIDERS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
       3.1.2.  Unauthorized Key Holder  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
         3.1.2.1.  Terminated Employee  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
       3.1.3.  BYZANTINE  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
     3.2.  Threat Actions In Scope  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
     3.3.  Threat Actions Out of Scope  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

   4.  Requirements for KARP Work Phase 1, the Update to a
       Routing      Protocol's Existing Transport Security  . . . . . 21

   5.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

   6.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

   7.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

   8.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
     8.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
     8.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32















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1.  Introduction

   In March 2006 the Internet Architecture Board (IAB) held a workshop
   on the topic of "Unwanted Internet Traffic".  The report from that
   workshop is documented in [RFC4948].  Section 8.1 of that document
   states "A simple risk analysis would suggest that an ideal attack
   target of minimal cost but maximal disruption is the core routing
   infrastructure."  Section 8.2 calls for "[t]ightening the security of
   the core routing infrastructure."  Four main steps were identified
   for that tightening:

   o  Create secure mechanisms and practices for operating routers.

   o  Clean up the Internet Routing Registry repository (IRR), and
      securing both the database and the access, so that it can be used
      for routing verification.

   o  Create specifications for cryptographic validation of routing
      message content.

   o  Secure the routing protocols' packets on the wire

   The first bullet is being addressed in the OPSEC working group.  The
   second bullet should be addressed through liaisons with those running
   the IRR's globally.  The third bullet is being addressed in other
   efforts within the IETF.  For example, BGP message content validity
   is being addressed in the SIDR working group.

   This document addresses the last item in the list above, securing the
   transmission of routing protocol packets on the wire.  More
   precisely, it focuses on securing the transport systems employed by
   routing protocols, including any mechanisms built into the protocols
   themselves to authenticate packets.  This effort is referred to as
   Keying and Authentication for Routing Protocols, or "KARP".  KARP is
   concerned with issues and techniques for protecting the messages
   between directly communicating peers.  This may overlap with, but is
   strongly distinct from, protection designed to ensure that routing
   information is properly authorized relative to the source of the
   information.  Such assurances are provided by other mechanisms and
   are outside the scope of this document.

   This document is one of two that together form the guidance and
   instructions for KARP design teams working to overhaul routing
   protocol transport security.  The other document is the KARP Design
   Guide [RFC6518].

   This document does not contain protocol specifications.  Instead, its
   goal is to define the areas where protocol specification work is



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   needed and to provide a set of requirements for KARP design teams to
   follow as they update a routing protocol's existing transport
   security (see[RFC6518], Section 4.1's "Work Phase 1").

   This document has three main parts.  The first part, found in Section
   2, provides an overview of the KARP effort.  Section 3 lists the
   threats from [RFC4593], (Generic Threats To Routing Protocols), that
   are in scope for per-packet authentication for routing protocol
   transport systems.  Therefore, this document does not contain a
   complete threat model; it simply points to the parts of the governing
   threat model that KARP design teams must address, and explicitly
   states which parts are out of scope for KARP design teams.  Section 4
   enumerates the requirements that routing protocol specifications must
   meet when addressing those threats related to KARP's "Work Phase 1",
   the update to a routing protocol's existing transport security.
   ("Work Phase 2", a framework and usage of a KMP, will be addressed in
   a future document[s]).

   This document uses the terminology "on the wire" to refer to the
   information used by routing protocols' transport systems.  This term
   is widely used in IETF RFCs, but is used in several different ways.
   In this document, it is used to refer both to information exchanged
   between routing protocol instances, and to underlying protocols that
   may also need to be protected in specific circumstances.  Individual
   protocol analysis documents will need to be more specific in their
   use of this phrase.

1.1.  Terminology

   Within the scope of this document, the following words, when
   beginning with a capital letter, or spelled in all capitals, hold the
   meanings described immediately following each term.  If the same word
   is used uncapitalized, then it is intended to have its common English
   definition.

      Identifier

      The type and value used by a peer of an authenticated message
      exchange to signify who it is to another peer.  The Identifier is
      used by the receiver as an index into a table containing further
      information about the peer that is required to continue processing
      the message, for example a Security Association (SA) or keys.

      Identity Authentication







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      Once the identity is verified, then there must be a cryptographic
      proof of that identity, that the peer really is who it asserts to
      be.  Proof of identity can be arranged among peers in a few ways,
      for example symmetric and asymmetric pre-shared keys, or an
      asymmetric key contained in a certificate.  Certificates can be
      used in ways that requires no additional supporting systems
      external to the routers themselves.  An example of this would be
      using self signed certificates and a flat file list of "approved
      thumbprints".  The use of these different identity verification
      mechanisms vary in ease of deployment, ease of ongoing management,
      startup effort, security strength, and consequences from loss of
      secrets from one part of the system to the rest of the system.
      For example, they differ in resistance to a security breach, and
      the effort required to recover in the event of such a breach.  The
      point here is that there are options, many of which are quite
      simple to employ and deploy.

      KDF (Key derivation function)

      A KDF is a function in which an input key and other input data is
      used to generate keying material that can be employed by
      cryptographic algorithms.  The key that is input to a KDF is
      called a key derivation key.  KDFs can be used to generate one or
      more keys from either (i) a random or pseudorandom seed value or
      (ii) result of the Diffie-Hellman exchange or (iii) a non-uniform
      random source (e.g., from a non-deterministic random bit
      generator) or (iv) a pre-shared key which may or may not be
      memorable by a human.

      KMP (Key Management Protocol)

      A protocol to establish a shared symmetric key between a pair (or
      among a group) of users.  It determines how secret keys are made
      available to the users and in some cases also determines how the
      secret keys are generated.  In some routing protocols traffic keys
      are derived by the routing protocol from a master key.  In this
      case, KMP is responsible for the master key generation and for
      determining when it should be renewed.  In other cases, there are
      only traffic keys (and no master key), and in such a case KMP is
      responsible for the traffic key generation and renewal mechanism.

      KMP Function

      Any KMP used in the general KARP solution framework







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      Peer Key

      Keys that are used among peers as a basis for identifying one
      another.  These keys may or may not be connection-specific,
      depending on how they were established, and what forms of identity
      and identity authentication mechanism are used in the system.  A
      peer key generally would be provided by a KMP and would later be
      used to derive fresh traffic keys.

      PSK (Pre-Shared Key)

      A key used to communicate with one or more peers in a secure
      configuration.  Always distributed out-of-band prior to a first
      connection.

      Routing Protocol

      When used with capital "R" and "P" in this document the term
      refers the Routing Protocol for which work is being done to its
      packets on the wire.

      SA (Security Association)

      A relationship established between two or more entities to enable
      them to protect data they exchange.  Examples of attributes that
      may be associated with an SA include: Identifier, PSK, Traffic
      Key, cryptographic algorithms, key lifetimes.

      Threat Source

      A threat source is a motivated, capable adversary.

      Traffic Key

      The key (or one of a set of keys) used for protecting the routing
      protocol traffic.  A traffic key should not be a fixed value in a
      device configuration.  A traffic key should be known only to the
      participants in a connection, so that a compromise of a stored key
      (possibly available to a terminated or turned employee) does not
      result in disclosure of traffic keys.  If a server or other data
      store is stolen or compromised, the attackers gain no access to
      current traffic keys.  They may gain access to key derivation
      material, like a PSK, but not current traffic keys in use.

   Additional terminology specific to threats are listed and defined
   below in the Threats Section 3 section.





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1.2.  Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC2119 [RFC2119].

   When used in lower case, these words convey their typical use in
   common language, and are not to be interpreted as described in
   RFC2119 [RFC2119].










































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2.  KARP Effort Overview

2.1.  KARP Scope

   Three basic principles are possible to secure any piece of data as it
   is transmitted over the wire: confidentiality, authenticity, and
   integrity.  The focus for the KARP working group will be message
   authentication and message integrity only.  This work explicitly
   excludes, at this point in time, confidentiality.  Non-repudiation is
   also excluded as a goal at this time.  Since the objective of most
   routing protocols is to broadly advertise the routing topology,
   routing protocol packets are commonly sent in the clear;
   confidentiality is not normally required for routing protocols.
   However, ensuring that routing peers are authentically identified,
   and that no rogue peers or unauthenticated packets can compromise the
   stability of the routing environment is critical, and thus in scope.
   Confidentiality and non-repudiation may be addressed in future work.

   OSPF [RFC5709], IS-IS [RFC5310], LDP [RFC5036], and RIP [RFC2453]
   [RFC4822] already incorporate mechanisms for cryptographically
   authenticating and integrity checking the messages on the wire.
   Products with these mechanisms have been produced, code has been
   written, and have been optimized for these existing security
   mechanisms.  Rather than turn away from these mechanisms, this
   document aims to enhance them, updating them to modern and secure
   levels.

   Therefore, the scope of KARP's roadmap of work includes:

   o  Making use of existing routing protocol transport security
      mechanisms, where they have been specified, and enhancing or
      updating them as necessary for modern cryptographic best
      practices.  [RFC6518], Section 4.1 labels this KARP's "Work Phase
      1."

   o  Developing a framework for using automatic key management in order
      to ease deployment, lower cost of operation, and allow for rapid
      responses to security breaches.  [RFC6518], Section 4.1 labels
      this KARP's "Work Phase 2."

   o  Specifying an automated key management protocol that may be
      combined with Routing Protocol mechanisms.  [RFC6518], Section 4.1
      labels this KARP's "Work Phase 2."

   Neither this document nor [RFC6518] contain protocol specifications.
   Instead, they define the areas where protocol specification work is
   needed and set a direction, a set of requirements, and priorities for
   addressing that specification work.



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   There are a set of threats to routing protocols that are considered
   in-scope for KARP, and a set considered out-of- scope.  These are
   described in detail in the Threats (Section 3) section below.

2.2.  Incremental Approach

   This document also serves as an agreement between the Routing Area
   and the Security Area about the priorities and work plan for
   incrementally delivering the above work.  The principle of "crawl,
   walk, run" will be employed.  Thus routing protocol authentication
   mechanisms may not go immediately from their current state to a state
   reflecting the best possible, most modern security practices.  This
   point is important as there will be times when the best-security-
   possible will give way to vastly-improved-over-current-security-but-
   admittedly-not-yet-best-security-possible, in order that incremental
   progress toward a more secure Internet may be achieved.  As such,
   this document will call out places where agreement has been reached
   on such trade offs.

   Incremental steps will need to be taken for a few very practical
   reasons.  First, there are a considerable number of deployed routing
   devices in operating networks that will not be able to run the most
   modern cryptographic mechanisms without significant and unacceptable
   performance penalties.  The roadmap for any routing protocol MUST
   allow for incremental improvements on existing operational devices.
   Second, current routing protocol performance on deployed devices has
   been achieved over the last 20 years through extensive tuning of
   software and hardware elements, and is a constant focus for
   improvement by vendors and operators alike.  The introduction of new
   security mechanisms affects this performance balance.  The
   performance impact of any incremental security improvement will need
   to be weighed by the community, and introduced in such a way that
   allows the vendor and operator community a path to adoption that
   upholds reasonable performance metrics.  Therefore, certain
   specification elements may be introduced carrying the "SHOULD"
   guidance, with the intention that the same mechanism will carry a
   "MUST" in a future release of the specification.  This approach gives
   the vendors and implementors the guidance they need to tune their
   software and hardware appropriately over time.  Last, some security
   mechanisms require the build out of other operational support
   systems, and this will take time.

   An example where these three reasons were at play in an incremental
   improvement roadmap was seen in the improvement of BGP's [RFC4271]
   security via the TCP Authentication Option (TCP-AO) [RFC5925] effort.
   It would have been ideal, and reflected best common security
   practice, to have a fully specified key management protocol for
   negotiating TCP-AO's keying material, e.g., using certificates for



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   peer authentication.  However, in the spirit of incremental
   deployment, the IETF first addressed issues like cryptographic
   algorithm agility, replay attacks, and TCP session resetting in the
   base TCP-AO protocol, and then later began work to layer key
   management on top of it.

2.3.  Goals

   The goals and general guidance for the KARP work follow.

   1.  Provide authentication and integrity protection for messages on
       the wire for existing routing protocols.

   2.  Define a path to incrementally improve security of the routing
       infrastructure as explained in Section 2.2.

   3.  Ensure that the improved security solutions are deployable on
       current routing infrastructure.  This requires consideration of
       the current state of processing power available on routers in the
       network today.

   4.  Operational deployability - A solution's acceptability also will
       be measured by how deployable the solution is by operator teams,
       with consideration for their deployment processes and
       infrastructures.  Specifically, KARP design teams will try to
       make these solutions fit as well as possible into current
       operational practices and router deployment methodologies.  Doing
       so will depend heavily on operator input during KARP design
       efforts.  Hopefully, operator input will lead to a more
       deployable solution, which will, in turn, lead to more production
       deployments.  Deployment of incrementally more secure routing
       infrastructure in the Internet is the final measure of success.
       Measurably, in reports like [ISR2008], we would like to see an
       increase in the number of surveyed respondents who report
       deploying the updated authentication and integrity mechanisms in
       their networks, as well as a sharp rise in usage for the total
       percentage of their network's routers.

       Interviews with operators show several points about routing
       security.  First, according to [ISR2008], over 70% of operators
       have deployed transport connection protection via TCP-MD5
       [RFC3562] on their exterior Border Gateway Protocol (eBGP)
       sessions.  Over 55% also deploy TCP-MD5 on their interior Border
       Gateway Protocol (iBGP connections, and 50% make use of TCP-MD5
       offered on some other internal gateway protocol (IGP).  The same
       survey states that "a considerable increase was observed over
       previous editions of the survey for use of TCP MD5 with external
       peers (eBGP), internal peers (iBGP) and MD5 extensions for IGPs."



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       Though the data is not captured in the report, the authors
       believe anecdotally that of those who have deployed TCP-MD5
       somewhere in their network, only about 25-30% of the routers in
       their network are deployed with the authentication enabled.  None
       report using IPsec [RFC4301] to protect the routing protocol, and
       this was a decline from the few that reported doing so in the
       previous year's report.  Anecdotal evidence from operators using
       MD5 shows that almost all report using one, manually-distributed
       key throughout the entire network.  These same operators report
       that the single key has not been changed since it was originally
       installed, sometimes five or more years ago.  When asked why,
       particularly for the case of protecting BGP sessions using TCP
       MD5, the following reasons are often given:

       A. Changing the keys triggers a TCP reset, and thus bounces the
          links/adjacencies, undermining Service Level Agreements
          (SLAs).

       B. For external peers, the difficulty of coordination with the
          other organization is an issue.  Once they find the correct
          contact at the other organization (not always so easy), the
          coordination function is serialized and on a per peer/AS
          basis.  The coordination is very cumbersome and tedious to
          execute in practice.

       C. Keys must be changed at precisely the same time, or at least
          within 60 seconds (as supported by two major vendors) in order
          to limit connectivity outage duration.  This is incredibly
          difficult to do, operationally, especially between different
          organizations.

       D. Key change is perceived as a relatively low priority compared
          to other operational issues.

       E. Lack of staff to implement the changes on a device-by-device
          basis.

       F. There are three use cases for operational peering at play
          here: peers and interconnection with other operators, iBGP and
          other routing sessions within a single operator, and operator-
          to-customer devices.  All three have very different
          properties, and all are reported as cumbersome to manage
          securely.  One operator reported that the same key is used for
          all customer premise equipment (CPE).  The same operator
          reported that if the customer mandated it, a unique key could
          be created, although the last time this occurred it created
          such an operational headache that the administrators now
          usually tell customers that the option doesn't even exist, to



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          avoid the difficulties.  These customer-unique keys are never
          changed, unless the customer demands so.  The main threat here
          is that a terminated employee from such an operator who had
          access to the one (or several) keys used for authentication in
          these environments could wage an attack.  Alternatively, the
          operator could offer the keys to others who would wage the
          attack.  In either case, the attacker could then bring down
          many of the adjacencies, causing destabilization to the
          routing system.

   5.  Whatever mechanisms KARP specifies need to be easier to deploy
       than the current methods, and should provide obvious operational
       efficiency gains along with significantly better security.  This
       combination of value may be enough to drive much broader
       adoption.

   6.  Address the threats enumerated below in the "Threats" section
       (Section 3) for each routing protocol.  Not all threats may be
       able to be addressed in the first specification update for any
       one protocol.  Roadmaps will be defined so that both the security
       area and the routing area agree on how the threats will be
       addressed completely over time.

   7.  Create a re-usable architecture, framework, and guidelines for
       various IETF working groups who will address these security
       improvements for various Routing Protocols.  The crux of the KARP
       work is to re-use the architecture, guidelines and the framework
       as much as possible across relevant Routing Protocols.  For
       example, designers should aim to re-use the key management
       protocol that will be defined for BGP, which will establish keys
       for TCP-AO, for as many other routing protocols with similar
       characteristics and properties as possible.

   8.  Bridge any gaps between IETF Routing and IETF Security Areas by
       recording agreements on work items, roadmaps, and guidance from
       the cognizant Area Directors and the Internet Architecture Board
       (IAB).

2.4.  Non-Goals

   The following two goals are considered out-of-scope for this effort:

   o  Confidentiality of the packets on the wire.  Once this roadmap is
      realized, we may revisit work on confidentiality.

   o  Message content validity (routing database validity).  This work
      is being addressed in other IETF efforts.  For example, BGP
      message content validity is being addressed in the SIDR working



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      group.

2.5.  Audience

   The audience for this document includes:

   o  Routing Area working group chairs and participants - These people
      are charged with updated Routing Protocol specifications.  Any and
      all cryptographic authentication work on these specifications will
      occur in Routing Area working groups, in close partnership with
      the Security Area.  Co-advisors from the Security Area may often
      be named for these partnership efforts.

   o  Security Area reviewers of routing area documents - These people
      are tasked by the Security Area Directors to perform reviews on
      routing protocol specifications as they pass through working group
      last call or IESG review.  Their particular attention to the use
      of cryptographic authentication and newly specified security
      mechanisms for the routing protocols is appreciated.  They also
      help to ensure that incremental security improvements are being
      made, in line with this roadmap.

   o  Security Area engineers - These people partner with routing area
      authors/designers on the security mechanisms in routing protocol
      specifications.  Some of these security area engineers will be
      assigned by the Security Area Directors, while others will be
      interested parties in the relevant working groups.

   o  Operators - The operators are a key audience for this work, as the
      work is considered to have succeeded only if operators deploy the
      technology.  It is anticipated that deployment will take place
      only if operators perceive that the improved security offered by
      the Routing Protocol updates warrant the complexity and cost of
      deployment and operation.  Conversely, the work will be considered
      a failure if operators do not deploy it, either due to lack of
      perceived value or due to perceived operational complexity.  As a
      result, the GROW and OPSEC WGs should be kept squarely in the loop
      as well.













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3.  Threats

   This document uses the definition of "threat" from RFC4949 [RFC4949]:
   "a potential for violation of security, which exists when there is a
   circumstance, capability, action, or event that could breach security
   and cause harm."

   This section defines the threats that are in scope for the KARP
   effort.  It also lists those threats that are explicitly out of scope
   for the KARP effort.  Threats are discussed assuming that no
   protection (i.e., message authentication and message integrity) has
   been applied to routing protocol messages.

   This document leverages the "Generic Threats to Routing Protocols"
   model, [RFC4593].  Specifically, the threats below were derived by
   reviewing [RFC4593], analyzing the KARP problem space relative to it,
   and listing the threats that are applicable to the KARP design teams'
   work.  This document categorizes [RFC4593] threats into those in
   scope and those out of scope for KARP.  Each in-scope threat is
   discussed below, and its applicability to the KARP problem space is
   described.  As such, the following text intentionally is not a
   comprehensive threat analysis.  Rather it describes the applicability
   of the existing threat analysis [RFC4593] to KARP.

   Note: terms from [RFC4593] appear capitalized below -- e.g.
   OUTSIDERS -- so as to make explicit the term's origin, and to enable
   rapid cross referencing to the source RFC.

   For convenience, a terse definition of most [RFC4593] terms is
   offered here.  Those interested in a more thorough description of
   routing protocol threat sources, motivations, consequences and
   actions will want to read [RFC4593] before continuing here.

3.1.  Threat Sources

3.1.1.  OUTSIDERS

   One of the threats that will be addressed in this roadmap are those
   where the source is an OUTSIDER.  An OUTSIDER attacker may reside
   anywhere in the Internet, have the ability to send IP traffic to the
   router, may be able to observe the router's replies, and may even
   control the path for a legitimate peer's traffic.  OUTSIDERS are not
   legitimate participants in the routing protocol.  The use of message
   authentication and integrity protection specifically aims to identify
   packets originating from OUTSIDERS.

   KARP design teams will consider two specific use cases of OUTSIDERS:
   those on-path, and those off-path.



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   o  On-Path - These attackers have control of a network resource or a
      tap that sits along the path between two routing peers.  A "Man-
      in-the-Middle" (MitM) is an on-path attacker.  From this vantage
      point, the attacker can conduct either active or passive attacks.
      An active attack occurs when the attacker places packets on the
      network as part of the attack.  One active MitM attack relevant to
      KARP, an active wiretapping attack, occurs when the attacker
      tampers with packets moving between two legitimate router peers in
      such a way that both peers think they are talking to each other
      directly, when in fact they are actually talking to the attacker.
      Protocols conforming to this roadmap will use cryptographic
      mechanisms to detect MitM attacks and reject packets from such
      attacks (i.e. discard them as being not authentic).  Passive on-
      path attacks occur when the attacker silently gathers data and
      analyses it to gain advantage.  Passive activity by an on-path
      attacker may lead to an active attack.

   o  Off-Path - These attackers sit on some network outside of that
      over which runs the packets between two routing peers.  The source
      may be one or several hops away.  Off-path attackers can launch
      active attacks, such as SPOOFING or denial-of-service (DoS)
      attacks, to name a few.

3.1.2.  Unauthorized Key Holder

   This threat source exists when an unauthorized entity somehow manages
   to gain access to keying material.  Using this material, the attacker
   could send packets that pass the authenticity checks based on message
   authentication codes (MACs).  The resulting traffic might appear to
   come from router A, destined to router B, and thus the attacker could
   impersonate an authorized peer.  The attacker could then adversely
   affect network behavior by sending bogus messages that appear to be
   authentic.  The attack source possessing the unauthorized keys could
   be on-path, off-path, or both.

   The obvious mitigation for an unauthorized key holder is to change
   the keys currently in use by the legitimate routing peers.  This
   mitigation can be either reactive or pro-active.  Reactive mitigation
   occurs when keys are changed only after one has discovered that the
   previous keys fell into the possession of unauthorized users.  The
   reactive mitigation case is highlighted here in order to explain a
   common operational situation where new keying material will need to
   be put in place with little or no advanced warning.  In such a case
   new keys must be able to be installed and put into use very quickly,
   and with little operational expense.  Pro-active mitigation occurs
   when an operator assumes that unauthorized possession will occur from
   time to time without being discovered, and the operator moves to new
   keying material in order to cut short an attacker's window of



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   opportunity to use the stolen keys effectively.

   KARP design teams can address this type of attack by creating
   specifications that make it practical for the operator to quickly
   change keys without disruption to the routing system, and with
   minimal operational overhead.  Operators can further mitigate threats
   from unauthorized key holders by regularly changing keys.

3.1.2.1.  Terminated Employee

   A terminated employee is an important example of an "unauthorized key
   holder".  Staff attrition is a reality in routing operations, and so
   regularly causes the potential for a threat source.  The threat
   source risk arises when a network operator who had been granted
   access to keys ceases to be an employee.  If new keys are deployed
   immediately, the situation of a terminated employee can become an
   "unauthorized key holder, pro-active" case, as described above,
   rather than an "unauthorized key holder, reactive mitigation" case.
   It behooves the operator to change the keys, to enforce the
   revocation of authorization of the old keys, in order to minimize the
   threat source's window of opportunity.

   A terminated employee is a valid unauthorized key holder threat
   source for KARP, and designs should address the associated threats.
   For example,new keys must be able to be installed and made
   operational in the routing protocols very quickly, with zero impact
   to the routing system, and with little operational expense.  The
   threat actions associated with a terminated employee also motivate
   the need to roll the keys quickly, also with little operational
   expense.

3.1.3.  BYZANTINE

   According to [RFC4593] , Section 3.1.1.2, BYZANTINE "attackers are
   faulty, misconfigured, or subverted routers, i.e., legitimate
   participants in the routing protocol" whose messages cause routing to
   malfunction.

   [RFC4593] goes on to say that "[s]ome adversaries can subvert
   routers, or the management workstations used to control these
   routers.  These Byzantine failures represent the most serious form of
   attack capability in that they result in emission of bogus traffic by
   legitimate routers."

   [RFC4593] explains that "[d]eliberate attacks are mimicked by
   failures that are random and unintentional.  In particular, a
   Byzantine failure in a router may occur because the router is faulty
   in hardware or software or is misconfigured," and thus routing



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   malfunctions unintentionally.  Though not malicious, such occurrences
   still disrupt network operation.

   Whether faulty, misconfigured, or subverted, Byzantine routers have
   an empowered position from which to provide believable yet bogus
   routing messages that are damaging to the network.

3.2.  Threat Actions In Scope

   These THREAT ACTIONS are in scope for KARP:

   o  SPOOFING - when an unauthorized device assumes the identity of an
      authorized one.  Spoofing is special in that it can be used to
      carry out other threat actions causing other threat consequences.
      SPOOFING can be used, for example, to inject malicious routing
      information that causes the disruption of network services.
      SPOOFING can also be used to cause a neighbor relationship to form
      that subsequently denies the formation of the relationship with
      the legitimate router.

   o  DoS attacks

      1.  At the transport layer - This occurs when an attacker sends
          packets aimed at halting or preventing the underlying protocol
          over which the routing protocol runs.  The attacker could use
          SPOOFING, FALSIFICATION and INTERFERENCE (see below) to
          produce the DoS attack.  For example, BGP running over TLS
          will still not solve the problem of being able to send a
          spoofed TCP FIN or TCP RST and causing the BGP session to go
          down.  Since this attack depends on spoofing, operators are
          encouraged to deploy proper authentication mechanisms to
          prevent such attacks.  Specification work should ensure that
          Routing Protocols can operate over transport sub-systems in a
          fashion that is resilient to such DoS attacks.

      2.  Using the authentication mechanism - This includes an attacker
          causing INTERFERENCE, which is inhibiting the exchanges of
          legitimate routers.  The attack is often perpetrated by
          sending packets that confuse or overwhelm a security mechanism
          itself.  An example is initiating an overwhelming load of
          spoofed routing protocol packets that contain a MAC (i.e,
          INSERTING MESSAGES), so that the receiver needs to spend the
          processing cycles to check the MAC, only to discard the
          spoofed packet, consuming substantial CPU resources.  Other
          types of INTERFERENCE include: REPLAYING OUT-DATED PACKETS,
          CORRUPTING MESSAGES, and BREAKING SYNCHRONIZATION.





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   o  FALSIFICATION - an action whereby an attacker sends false routing
      information.  This document is only targeting FALSIFICATION from
      OUTSIDERS as may occur from tampering with packets in flight, or
      sending entirely false messages.  FALSIFICATION from BYZANTINES
      (see the Threats Out of Scope section below) are not addressed by
      the KARP effort.

   o  Brute Force Attacks Against Password/Keys - This includes either
      online or offline attacks where attempts are made repeatedly using
      different keys/passwords until a match is found.  While it is
      impossible to make brute force attacks on keys completely
      unsuccessful, proper design can make such attacks much harder to
      succeed.  For example, current guidance for the security strength
      of an algorithm with a particular key length should be deemed
      acceptable for a period of 10 years.  (Section 10 of [SP.800-131A]
      is one source for guidance).  Using per session keys is another
      widely used method for reducing the number of brute force attacks
      as this would make it difficult to guess the keys.

3.3.  Threat Actions Out of Scope

   BYZANTINE sources -- be they faulty, misconfigured, or subverted --
   are out of scope for this roadmap.  KARP works to cryptographically
   ensure that received routing messages originated from authorized
   peers, and that the message was not altered in transit.  Formation of
   a bogus message by a valid and authorized peer falls outside the KARP
   scope.  Any of the attacks described in the above section
   (Section 3.2) that may be levied by a BYZANTINE source are therefore
   also out of scope, e.g.  FALSIFICATION from BYZANTINE sources, or
   unauthorized message content by a legitimate authorized peer.

   In addition, these other attack actions are out of scope for this
   work:

   o  SNIFFING (passive wiretapping) - passive observation of route
      message contents in flight.  Data confidentiality, as achieved by
      data encryption, is the common mechanism for preventing SNIFFING.
      While useful, especially to prevent the gathering of data needed
      to perform an off-path packet injection attack, data encryption is
      out-of-scope for KARP.

   o  INTERFERENCE due to:

      A.  NOT FORWARDING PACKETS - cannot be prevented with
          cryptographic authentication.  Note: If sequence numbers with
          sliding windows are used in the solution (as is done, for
          example, in BFD [RFC5880]), a receiver can at least detect the
          occurrence of this attack.



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      B.  DELAYING MESSAGES - cannot be prevented with cryptographic
          authentication.  Note: Timestamps can be used to detect
          delays.

      C.  DENIAL OF RECEIPT - cannot be prevented with cryptographic
          authentication

      D.  UNAUTHORIZED MESSAGE CONTENT - the work of the IETF's SIDR
          working group
          (http://www.ietf.org/html.charters/sidr-charter.html).

      E.  DoS attacks not involving the routing protocol.  For example,
          a flood of traffic that fills the link ahead of the router, so
          that the router is rendered unusable and unreachable by valid
          packets is NOT an attack that KARP will address.  Many such
          examples could be contrived.



































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4.  Requirements for KARP Work Phase 1, the Update to a Routing
    Protocol's Existing Transport Security

   The KARP Design Guide [RFC6518], Section 4.1 describes two distinct
   work phases for the KARP effort.  This section addresses requirements
   for the first work phase only, "Work Phase 1", the update to a
   routing protocol's existing transport security.  "Work Phase 2", a
   framework and usage of a KMP, will be addressed in a future
   document(s).

   The following list of requirements SHOULD be addressed by a KARP Work
   Phase 1 security update to any Routing Protocol (according to section
   4.1 of the KARP Design Guide [RFC6518]document).  IT IS RECOMMENDED
   that any Work Phase 1 security update to a Routing Protocol contain a
   section of the specification document that describes how each of the
   following requirements are met.  It is further RECOMMENDED that
   justification be presented for any requirements that are NOT
   addressed.

   1.   Clear definitions of which elements of the transmitted data
        (frame, packet, segment, etc.) are protected by an
        authentication/integrity mechanism

   2.   Strong cryptographic algorithms, as defined and accepted by the
        IETF security community, MUST be specified.  The use of non-
        standard or unpublished algorithms MUST be avoided.

   3.   Algorithm agility for the cryptographic algorithms used in the
        authentication MUST be specified, and protocol specifications
        MUST be clear how new algorithms are specified and used within
        the protocol.  This requirement exists because research
        identifying weaknesses in cryptographic algorithms can cause the
        security community to reduce confidence in some algorithms.
        Breaking a cipher isn't a matter of if, but when it will occur.
        Having the ability to specify alternate algorithms (algorithm
        agility) within the protocol specification to support such an
        event is essential.  Additionally, more than one algorithm MUST
        be specified.  Mandating support for two algorithms provides
        both redundancy, and a mechanism for enacting that redundancy.

   4.   Secure use of PSKs, offering both operational convenience and a
        baseline level of security, MUST be specified.

   5.   Routing Protocols (or the transport or network mechanism
        protecting routing protocols) SHOULD be able to detect and
        reject replayed messages.  For non-TCP based protocols like OSPF
        [RFC2328], IS-IS [RFC1195] , etc., two routers are said to have
        a session up if they are able to exchange protocol packets.



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        Packets captured from one session MUST not be able to be re-sent
        and accepted during a later session.  Additionally, replay
        mechanisms MUST work correctly even in the presence of routing
        protocol packet prioritization by the router.

        There is a specific case of replay attack combined with spoofing
        that must be addressed.  In several routing protocols (e.g.,
        OSPF [RFC2328], IS-IS [RFC1195], BFD [RFC5880], RIP [RFC2453],
        etc.), all speakers share the same key (K) on a broadcast
        segment.  The ability to run a MAC operation with K is used for
        (group level) authentication and message integrity, and
        (currently) no other identity validation check is performed.  It
        is important that an integrity check associated with a message
        fail if an attacker has re-addressed it to appear that it was
        originated by a different origin.

   6.   A change of security parameters MUST force a change of session
        traffic keys.  The specific security parameters for the various
        routing protocols will differ, and will be defined by each
        protocols design team.  Some examples may include: master key,
        key lifetime, cryptographic algorithm, etc.  If one of these
        configured parameters changes, then a new session traffic key
        MUST immediately be established using the updated parameters.
        The routing protocol security mechanisms MUST support this
        behavior.

   7.   Security mechanisms MUST specify a means to affect intra-session
        re-keying without disrupting a routing session.  This should be
        accomplished without data loss, if possible.  Keys may need to
        be changed periodically based on policy, or when an
        administrator who had access to the keys leaves an organization.
        A re-keying mechanism enables the operators to execute the
        change without productivity loss.

   8.   Re-keying SHOULD be supported in such a way that it can occur
        during a session without the peer needing to use multiple keys
        to validate a given packet.  The rare exception will occur if a
        routing protocol's design team can find no other way to re-key
        and still adhere to the other requirements in this section.  The
        specification SHOULD include a key identifier, which allows
        receivers to choose the correct key (or determine that they are
        not in possession of the correct key).

   9.   New mechanisms MUST resist DoS attacks described as in-scope in
        Section 3.2.  Routers protect the control plane by implementing
        mechanisms to reject completely or rate limit traffic not
        required at the control plane level (i.e., unwanted traffic).
        Typically line rate packet filtering capabilities look at



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        information at the IP and transport (TCP or UDP) headers, but do
        not include higher layer information.  Therefore the new
        mechanisms shouldn't hide nor encrypt the information carried in
        the IP and transport layers in control plane packets.

   10.  Mandatory cryptographic algorithms and mechanisms MUST be
        specified for each routing protocol security mechanism.
        Further, the protocol specification MUST define default security
        mechanism settings for all implementations to use when no
        explicit configuration is provided.  To understand the need for
        this requirement, consider the case where a routing protocol
        mandates 3 different cryptographic algorithms for a MAC
        operation.  If company A implements algorithm 1 as the default
        for this protocol, while company B implements algorithm 2 as the
        default, then two operators who enable the security mechanism
        with no explicit configuration other than a PSK will experience
        a connection failure.  It is not enough that each implementation
        implement the 3 mandatory algorithms; one default must further
        be specified in order to gain maximum out-of-the-box
        interoperability.

   11.  For backward compatibility reasons, manual keying MUST be
        supported.

   12.  The specification MUST consider and allow for future use of a
        KMP.

   13.  The authentication mechanism in a Routing Protocol MUST be
        decoupled from the key management system used.  The
        authentication protocol MUST include a specification for
        agreeing on keying material.  This will accommodate both manual
        keying and the use of KMPs.

   14.  Convergence times of the Routing Protocols SHOULD NOT be
        materially affected.  Changes in the convergence time will be
        immediately verifiable by convergence performance test beds
        already in use (e.g. those maintained by router vendors, service
        providers, and researchers).  An increase in convergence time in
        excess of 5% is likely to be considered to have materially
        affected convergence by network operators.  A number of other
        facts can also change convergence over time (e.g., speed of
        processors used on individual routing peers, processing power
        increases due to Moore's law, implementation specifics), and the
        effect of an authentication mechanism on Routing Protocols will
        need to take these into account by implementors.  Protocol
        designers should consider the impact on convergence times as a
        function of both the total number of protocol packets that must
        be exchanged and the required computational processing of



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        individual messages in the specification, understanding that the
        operator community's threshold for increase of convergence times
        is very low, as stated above.

   15.  The changes to or addition of security mechanisms SHOULD NOT
        cause a refresh of route advertisements or cause additional
        route advertisements to be generated.

   16.  Router implementations provide prioritized treatment for certain
        protocol packets.  For example, OSPF HELLO packets and ACKs are
        prioritized for processing above other OSPF packets.  The
        security mechanism SHOULD NOT interfere with the ability to
        observe and enforce such prioritization.  Any effect on such
        priority mechanisms MUST be explicitly documented and justified.
        Replay protection mechanisms provided by the routing protocols
        MUST work even if certain protocol packets are offered
        prioritized treatment.

   17.  The Routing Protocol MUST send minimal information regarding the
        authentication mechanisms and associated parameters in its
        protocol packets.  This keeps the Routing Protocols as clean and
        focused as possible, and loads security negotiations into the
        KMP as much as possible.  Another reason is to avoid exposing
        any security negotiation information unnecessarily to possible
        attackers on the path.

   18.  Routing Protocols that rely on the IP header (or information
        separate from routing protocol payload) to identify the neighbor
        that originated the packet, MUST either protect the IP header or
        provide some other means to authenticate the neighbor.
        [RFC6039] describes some attacks that motivate this requirement.

   19.  Every new KARP-developed security mechanisms MUST support
        incremental deployment.  It will not be feasible to deploy a new
        Routing Protocol authentication mechanism throughout a network
        instantaneously.  Indeed, it may not actually be feasible to
        deploy such a mechanism to all routers in a large autonomous
        system (AS) in a bounded timeframe.  Proposed solutions MUST
        support an incremental deployment method that provides some
        benefit for those who participate.  Because of this, there are
        several requirements that any proposed KARP mechanism should
        consider.

        A.  The Routing Protocol security mechanism MUST enable each
            router to configure use of the security mechanism on a per-
            peer basis where the communication is peer-to-peer
            (unicast).




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        B.  Every new KARP-developed security mechanism MUST provide
            backward compatibility with respect to message formatting,
            transmission, and processing of routing information carried
            through a secure and non-secure security environment.
            Message formatting in a fully secured environment MAY be
            handled in a non-backward compatible fashion though care
            must be taken to ensure that routing protocol packets can
            traverse intermediate routers that don't support the new
            format.

        C.  In an environment where both secured and non-secured routers
            are interoperating, a mechanism MUST exist for secured
            systems to identify whether a peer intended the messages to
            be secured.

        D.  In an environment where secured service is in the process of
            being deployed, a mechanism MUST exist to support a
            transition free of service interruption (caused by the
            deployment per se).

   20.  The introduction of mechanisms to improve routing security may
        increase the processing performed by a router.  Since most of
        the currently deployed routers do not have hardware to
        accelerate cryptographic operations, these operations could
        impose a significant processing burden under some circumstances.
        Thus proposed solutions SHOULD be evaluated carefully with
        regard to the processing burden they may impose, since
        deployment may be impeded if network operators perceive that a
        solution will impose a processing burden which either incurs
        substantial capital expense, or threatens to degrade router
        performance.

   21.  New authentication and security mechanisms should not rely on
        systems external to the routing system (the equipment that is
        performing forwarding) in order for the routing system to be
        secure.  In order to ensure the rapid initialization and/or
        return to service of failed nodes it is important to reduce
        reliance on these external systems to the greatest extent
        possible.  Proposed solutions SHOULD NOT require connections to
        external systems, beyond those directly involved in peering
        relationships, in order to return to full service.  It is
        however acceptable for the proposed solutions to require post
        initialization synchronization with external systems in order to
        fully synchronize security associations.

        If authentication and security mechanisms rely on systems
        external to the routing system, then there MUST be one or more
        options available to avoid circular dependencies.  It is not



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        acceptable to have a routing protocol (e.g., unicast routing)
        depend upon correct operation of a security protocol that, in
        turn, depends upon correct operation of the same instance of
        that routing protocol (i.e., the unicast routing).  However, it
        is acceptable to have operation of a routing protocol (e.g.,
        multicast routing) depend upon operation of a security protocol,
        which depends upon an independent routing protocol (e.g.,
        unicast routing).  Similarly it would be okay to have the
        operation of a routing protocol depend upon a security protocol,
        which in turn uses an out of band network to exchange
        information with remote systems.








































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5.  Security Considerations

   This document is mostly about security considerations for the KARP
   efforts, both threats and requirements for addressing those threats.
   More detailed security considerations were placed in the Security
   Considerations section of the KARP Design Guide [RFC6518]document.

   The use of a group key between a set of Routing Protocol peers has
   special security considerations.  Possession of the group key itself
   is used for identity validation, and no other identity check is used.
   Under these conditions an attack exists where one peer masquerades as
   a neighbor by using the neighbor's source IP address.  This type of
   attack has been well documented in the group keying problem space,
   and it's non-trivial to solve.  Solutions exist within the group
   keying realm, but they come with significant increases in complexity
   and computational intensity.



































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6.  IANA Considerations

   This document has no actions for IANA.
















































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7.  Acknowledgements

   The majority of the text for version -00 of this document was taken
   from "Roadmap for Cryptographic Authentication of Routing Protocol
   Packets on the Wire", draft-lebovitz-karp-roadmap, authored by
   Gregory M. Lebovitz.

   Brian Weis provided significant assistance in handling the many
   comments that came back during IESG review, including making textual
   edits.

   We would like to thank the following people for their thorough
   reviews and comments: Brian Weis, Yoshifumi Nishida, Stephen Kent,
   Vishwas Manral, Barry Leiba, Sean Turner, Uma Chunduri.

   Author Gregory M. Lebovitz was employed at Juniper Networks, Inc. for
   much of the time he worked on this document, though not at the time
   of its publishing.  Thus Juniper sponsored much of this effort.

































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8.  References

8.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC4593]  Barbir, A., Murphy, S., and Y. Yang, "Generic Threats to
              Routing Protocols", RFC 4593, October 2006.

   [RFC4948]  Andersson, L., Davies, E., and L. Zhang, "Report from the
              IAB workshop on Unwanted Traffic March 9-10, 2006",
              RFC 4948, August 2007.

8.2.  Informative References

   [ISR2008]  McPherson, D. and C. Labovitz, "Worldwide Infrastructure
              Security Report", October 2008,
              <http://www.arbornetworks.com/dmdocuments/ISR2008_US.pdf>.

   [RFC1195]  Callon, R., "Use of OSI IS-IS for routing in TCP/IP and
              dual environments", RFC 1195, December 1990.

   [RFC2328]  Moy, J., "OSPF Version 2", STD 54, RFC 2328, April 1998.

   [RFC2453]  Malkin, G., "RIP Version 2", STD 56, RFC 2453,
              November 1998.

   [RFC3562]  Leech, M., "Key Management Considerations for the TCP MD5
              Signature Option", RFC 3562, July 2003.

   [RFC4271]  Rekhter, Y., Li, T., and S. Hares, "A Border Gateway
              Protocol 4 (BGP-4)", RFC 4271, January 2006.

   [RFC4301]  Kent, S. and K. Seo, "Security Architecture for the
              Internet Protocol", RFC 4301, December 2005.

   [RFC4303]  Kent, S., "IP Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)",
              RFC 4303, December 2005.

   [RFC4822]  Atkinson, R. and M. Fanto, "RIPv2 Cryptographic
              Authentication", RFC 4822, February 2007.

   [RFC4949]  Shirey, R., "Internet Security Glossary, Version 2",
              RFC 4949, August 2007.

   [RFC5036]  Andersson, L., Minei, I., and B. Thomas, "LDP
              Specification", RFC 5036, October 2007.



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Internet-Draft   KARP Overview, Threats and Requirements  September 2012


   [RFC5310]  Bhatia, M., Manral, V., Li, T., Atkinson, R., White, R.,
              and M. Fanto, "IS-IS Generic Cryptographic
              Authentication", RFC 5310, February 2009.

   [RFC5709]  Bhatia, M., Manral, V., Fanto, M., White, R., Barnes, M.,
              Li, T., and R. Atkinson, "OSPFv2 HMAC-SHA Cryptographic
              Authentication", RFC 5709, October 2009.

   [RFC5880]  Katz, D. and D. Ward, "Bidirectional Forwarding Detection
              (BFD)", RFC 5880, June 2010.

   [RFC5925]  Touch, J., Mankin, A., and R. Bonica, "The TCP
              Authentication Option", RFC 5925, June 2010.

   [RFC6039]  Manral, V., Bhatia, M., Jaeggli, J., and R. White, "Issues
              with Existing Cryptographic Protection Methods for Routing
              Protocols", RFC 6039, October 2010.

   [RFC6518]  Lebovitz, G. and M. Bhatia, "Keying and Authentication for
              Routing Protocols (KARP) Design Guidelines", RFC 6518,
              February 2012.

   [SP.800-131A]
              Barker, E. and A. Roginsky, "Transitions: Recommendation
              for Transitioning the Use of Cryptographic Algorithms and
              Key Lengths", United States of America, National Institute
              of Science and Technology, NIST Special Publication
              800-131A, January 2011.























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Authors' Addresses

   Gregory Lebovitz
   Aptos, California  95003
   USA

   Email: gregory.ietf@gmail.com


   Manav Bhatia
   Alcatel-Lucent
   Bangalore,
   India

   Phone:
   Email: manav.bhatia@alcatel-lucent.com



































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