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KERBEROS WORKING GROUP                                         Johansson
Internet-Draft                                                     SUNET
Intended status: Standards Track                        January 14, 2013
Expires: July 18, 2013


              An information model for Kerberos version 5
                     draft-ietf-krb-wg-kdc-model-16

Abstract

   This document describes an information model for Kerberos version 5
   from the point of view of an administrative service.  There is no
   standard for administrating a kerberos 5 KDC.  This document
   describes the services exposed by an administrative interface to a
   KDC.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
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   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on July 18, 2013.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2013 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
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   described in the Simplified BSD License.



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   This document may contain material from IETF Documents or IETF
   Contributions published or made publicly available before November
   10, 2008.  The person(s) controlling the copyright in some of this
   material may not have granted the IETF Trust the right to allow
   modifications of such material outside the IETF Standards Process.
   Without obtaining an adequate license from the person(s) controlling
   the copyright in such materials, this document may not be modified
   outside the IETF Standards Process, and derivative works of it may
   not be created outside the IETF Standards Process, except to format
   it for publication as an RFC or to translate it into languages other
   than English.


Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Requirements notation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   3.  Information model demarcation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   4.  Information model specification  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     4.1.  Principal  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
       4.1.1.  Principal: Attributes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
       4.1.2.  Principal: Associations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     4.2.  KeySet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
       4.2.1.  KeySet: Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
       4.2.2.  KeySet: Associations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     4.3.  Key  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
       4.3.1.  Key: Attributes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
       4.3.2.  Key: Associations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
       4.3.3.  Key: Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     4.4.  Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
       4.4.1.  Policy: Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
       4.4.2.  Mandatory-to-implement Policy  . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   5.  Implementation Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     5.1.  LDAP backend to KDC  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     5.2.  LDAP frontend to KDC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     5.3.  SOAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     5.4.  Netconf  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   6.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
   7.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
   8.  Acknowledgments  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
   9.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
     9.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
     9.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
   Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18







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1.  Introduction

   The Kerberos version 5 authentication service described in [RFC4120]
   describes how a Key Distribution Center (KDC) provides authentication
   to clients.  The standard does not stipulate how a KDC is managed and
   several "kadmin" servers have evolved.  This document describes the
   services required to administer a KDC and the underlying information
   model assumed by a kadmin-type service.

   The information model is written in terms of "attributes" and
   "services" or "interfaces" but the use of these particular words must
   not be taken to imply any particular modeling paradigm.  Neither an
   object oriented model nor an LDAP [RFC4510] schema is intended.  The
   author has attempted to describe in natural language the intended
   semantics and syntax of the components of the model.  An LDAP schema
   (for instance) based on this model will be more precise in the
   expression of the syntax while preserving the semantics of this
   model.

   Implementations of this document MAY decide to change the names used
   (e.g. principalName).  If so an implementation MUST provide a name to
   name mapping to this document.  In particular schema languages may
   have different conventions for caseing, eg camelCase vs use of '_'
   and '-' to separate 'words' in a name.  Implementations MUST call out
   such conventions explicitly.

   Implementations of this document MUST be able to support default
   values for attributes as well as the ability to specify syntax for
   attribute values.






















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2.  Requirements notation

   This document uses the standard key words ("MUST", "MUST NOT",
   "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT",
   "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL") that are defined in [RFC2119]
   but with modifications to those definitions as described below.  The
   reason for this (which was discussed extensively in the kerberos WG)
   is as follows:

   This document describes an information model for kerberos 5 but does
   not directly describe any mapping onto a particular schema- or
   modelling language.  Hence an implementation of this model consists
   of a mapping to such a language - e.g. an LDAP or SQL schema.  The
   standard normative key word therefore require precise definition:

   The terms MUST or REQUIRED means that schema implementing this model
   must have a way to represent a feature (i.e that it is mandatory to
   implement in schema) but that unless otherwise specified the feature
   may represent an optional element in the chosen schema definition
   language.

   However MUST also means that a KDC or administrative interface
   implementing this information model MUST provide the feature and
   associated behavior consistent with schema.

   For instance, principalLastFailedAuthentication (cf below) represents
   the last time an authentication failed for a principal.  In an LDAP
   schema (for instance) this may be represented as an optional
   attribute even though all KDCs implementing this specification must
   support this attribute.

   The terms MAY or OPTIONAL means that the feature is optional to
   implement by a KDC or administrative interface implementing this
   information model.  It also means that the feature is optional to
   implement in schema.

   Implementors of schema should be aware that unless there is a way to
   represent critical but optional elements in the schema definition
   language confusion may arise when optional elements are used but not
   understood by all implementations in a particular deployment.

   The expression "MUST NOT be OPTIONAL" means that a feature is
   mandatory to implement ("MUST" cf above) and that additionally it
   must not be marked optional in the schema language.  In particular
   this means that the feature is both mandatory to implement and must
   be present in all representations of the object to which it applies.

   The term SHOULD or RECOMMENDED means that the consequences of not



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   implementing the feature as if it was described with the "MUST"
   keyword must be carefully weighed before choosing a different course.
   In particular this implies that interoperability concerns may arise
   from not following the recommended practice in schema that implements
   this model.

   The context will determine if the "SHOULD" key word applies to
   schema, or to underlying behaviour of the KDC or both.  For instance,
   principalIsDisabled (cf below) SHOULD default to FALSE implies both a
   recommendation for the behaviour of KDCs aswell as a rekommendation
   for the representation of that behaviour in schema.








































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3.  Information model demarcation

   The information model specified in the next chapter describes
   objects, properties of those objects and relations between those
   objects.  These elements comprise an abstract view of the data
   represented in a KDC.  It is important to understand that the
   information model is not a schema.  In particular the way objects are
   compared for equality beyond that which is implied by the
   specification of a syntax is not part of this specification.  Nor is
   ordering specified between elements of a particular syntax.

   Further work on Kerberos will undoubtedly prompt updates to this
   information model to reflect changes in the functions performed by
   the KDC.  Such extensions to the information model should always use
   a normative reference to the relevant RFCs detailing the change in
   KDC function.

   This model describes a number of elements related to password policy
   management.  Not all of the elements in this model are unique to
   Kerberos; an LDAP implementation of this model should incorporate
   existing LDAP schema where functional overlap exists, rather than
   defining additional Kerberos-specific elements.





























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4.  Information model specification

4.1.  Principal

   The fundamental entity stored in a KDC is the principal.  The
   Principal is associated to keys and generalizes the "user" concept.
   The Principal MUST be implemented in full and MUST NOT be OPTIONAL in
   an implementation

4.1.1.  Principal: Attributes

4.1.1.1.  principalName

   The principalName MUST uniquely identify the Principal within the
   administrative context of the KDC.  The principalName MUST be
   equivalent to the string representation of the Principal name
   (section 2.1.1 of [RFC1964]) including, if applicable for the name
   type, the realm.

   The attribute MAY be multi-valued if the implementation supports
   aliases and/or enterprise names.  In that case exactly one of the
   principalName values MAY be designated the canonical principalName
   and if the implementation supports enctypes which require salt then
   exactly one of the values of principalName MAY be designated as the
   canonical salting principalName.

   Implementations (i.e. schema) that support enterprise names and/or
   aliases SHOULD provide for efficient lookup of Principal objects
   based on alias/enterprise name.

4.1.1.2.  principalNotUsedBefore

   The Principal MUST NOT be used before this date.  The syntax of the
   attribute MUST be Internet Date/Time Format from [RFC3339].  The
   attribute MUST be single-valued.

4.1.1.3.  principalNotUsedAfter

   The Principal MUST NOT be used after this date.  The syntax of the
   attribute MUST be Internet Date/Time Format from [RFC3339].  The
   attribute MUST be single-valued.

4.1.1.4.  principalIsDisabled

   A boolean attribute used to disable a Principal.  The attribute
   SHOULD default to boolean FALSE.





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4.1.1.5.  principalLastCredentialChangeTime

   This single-valued attribute contains the time of the last successful
   change of credential (e.g. password or private key) associated with
   this Principal.  The syntax of the attribute MUST be Internet Date/
   Time Format from [RFC3339].

4.1.1.6.  principalCreateTime

   This single-valued attribute contains the time and date when this
   Principal was created.  The syntax of the attribute MUST be Internet
   Date/Time Format from [RFC3339].

4.1.1.7.  principalModifyTime

   This single-valued attribute contains the time and date when this
   Principal was last modified excluding credentials change.  The syntax
   of the attribute MUST be Internet Date/Time Format from [RFC3339].

4.1.1.8.  principalMaximumTicketLifetime

   This single-valued attribute contains the time in seconds
   representing the maximum lifetime for tickets issued for this
   Principal.

4.1.1.9.  principalMaximumRenewableTicketLifetime

   This single-valued attribute contains the delta time in seconds
   representing the maximum amount of time a ticket may be renewed for
   this Principal.

4.1.1.10.  principalAllowedEnctype

   This OPTIONAL multi-valued attribute lists the enctypes allowed for
   this principal.  If empty or absent any enctype supported by the
   implementation is allowed for this Principal.

   This attribute is intended as a policy attribute and restricts all
   uses of enctypes including server, client, and session keys.  Data
   models MAY choose to use policy objects in order to represent more
   complex decision mechanisms.

4.1.2.  Principal: Associations

   Each Principal MAY be associated with 0 or more KeySet and MAY be
   associated with 0 or more Policies.  The KeySet is represented as an
   object in this model since it has attributes associated with it (the
   key version number).  In typical situations the Principal is



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   associated with exactly 1 KeySet but implementations MUST NOT assume
   this case, i.e. an implementation of this standard MUST be able to
   handle the general case of multiple KeySet associated with each
   principal.  Multiple KeySets may for instance be useful when
   performing a key rollover for a principal.

4.2.  KeySet

   In Kerberos principals are associated with zero or more symmetric
   secret keys, and each key has a key version number (kvno) and
   enctype.  In this model we group keys by kvno into KeySet objects.  A
   Principal can have zero or more KeySet objects associated with it,
   each of which MUST have one or more keys.  Each KeySet is associated
   with exactly one principal.  Schemas derived from this model MAY lack
   a direct analogue of KeySet as described in this document.

   It is expected that most Kerberos implementations will use a special-
   purpose interface for setting and changing Principal passwords and
   keys.

   If a server supports an enctype for a Principal that enctype must be
   present in at least one key for the Principal in question.  For any
   given enctype a KeySet MUST NOT contain more than one Key with that
   enctype.

   The security of Kerberos 5 depends absolutely on the confidentiality
   and integrity of the Key objects stored in the KDC.  Implementations
   of this standard MUST facilitate, to the extent possible, an
   administrator's ability to place more restrictive access controls on
   KeySets than on other Principal data, and to arrange for more secure
   backup for KeySets.

4.2.1.  KeySet: Attributes

4.2.1.1.  kvno

   Also knowns as the key version number.  This is a single-valued
   attribute containing a non-negative integer.  This number is
   incremembed by one each time a key in the KeySet is changed.

4.2.2.  KeySet: Associations

   To each KeySet MUST be associated a set of 1 or more Keys.

4.3.  Key

   Implementations of this model MUST NOT REQUIRE keys to be
   represented.



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4.3.1.  Key: Attributes

4.3.1.1.  keyEncryptionType

   The enctype SHOULD be represented as an enumeration of the enctypes
   supported by the KDC using the string name ("encryption type") of the
   enctype from the IANA registry of Kerberos Encryption Type Numbers.
   One example is 'aes128-cts-hmac-sha1-96'.

4.3.1.2.  keyValue

   The binary representation of the key data.  This MUST be a single-
   valued octet string.

4.3.1.3.  keySaltValue

   The binary representation of the key salt.  This MUST be a single-
   valued octet string.

4.3.1.4.  keyStringToKeyParameter

   This MUST be a single-valued octet string representing an opaque
   parameter associated with the enctype.  This parameter is specified
   in the "string-to-key" method in section 3 of [RFC3961].

4.3.1.5.  keyNotUsedBefore

   This key MUST NOT be used before this date.  The syntax of the
   attribute MUST be semantically equivalent with the standard ISO date
   format.  This MUST be a single-valued attribute.

4.3.1.6.  keyNotUsedAfter

   This key MUST NOT be used after this date.  The syntax of the
   attribute MUST be semantically equivalent with the standard ISO date
   format.  This MUST be a single-valued attribute.

4.3.1.7.  keyIsDisabled

   This is a boolean attribute which SHOULD be set to false by default.
   If this attribute is true the key MUST NOT be used.  This is used to
   temporarily disable a key.

4.3.2.  Key: Associations

   None





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4.3.3.  Key: Remarks

   The security of the keys is an absolute requirement for the operation
   of Kerberos 5.  If keys are implemented adequate protection from
   unauthorized modification and disclosure MUST be available and
   REQUIRED by the implementation.

4.4.  Policy

   Implementations SHOULD implement policy but MAY allow them to be
   OPTIONAL.  The Policy should be thought of as a 'typed hole'. i.e. an
   opaque binary value paired with an identifier of type of data
   contained in the binary value.  Both attributes (type and value) must
   be present.

4.4.1.  Policy: Attributes

4.4.1.1.  policyIdentifier

   The policyIdentifier MUST be globally unique.  Possible types of
   identifiers include:

      An Object Identifier (OID) [RFC4517]

      A URI [RFC3986]

      A UUID [RFC4122]

   Implementations of this specification are expected to assign globally
   unique identifiers to the list of standard policy below in accordance
   with best-practice for identifier-management for the schema-language
   used.

4.4.1.2.  policyIsCritical

   This boolean attribute indicates that the KDC MUST be able to
   correctly interpret and apply this policy for the Principal to be
   used.

4.4.1.3.  policyContent

   This is an optional single opaque binary value used to store a
   representation of the policy.  In general a policy cannot be fully
   expressed using attribute-value pairs.  The policyContent is OPTIONAL
   in the sense that an implementation MAY use it to store an opaque
   value for those policy-types which are not directly representable in
   that implementation.




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4.4.1.4.  policyUse

   This is an optional single enumerated string value used to describe
   the use of the policy.  Implementations SHOULD provide this attribute
   and MUST (if the attribute is implemented) describe the enumerated
   set of possible values.  The intent is that this attribute be useful
   in providing an initial context-based filtering.

4.4.2.  Mandatory-to-implement Policy

   All implementations that represent Policy objects MUST be able to
   represent the policies listed in this section.  Implementations are
   not required to use the same underlying data-representation for the
   policyContent binary value but SHOULD use the same OIDs as the
   policyIdentifier.  In general the expression of policy may require a
   Turing-complete language.  This specification does not attempt to
   model policy expression language.

4.4.2.1.  Password Quality Policy

   Password quality policy controls the requirements placed by the KDC
   on new passwords.

4.4.2.2.  Password Management Policy

   Password management policy controls how passwords are changed.

4.4.2.3.  Keying Policy

   A keying policy specifies the association of enctypes with new
   principals, e.g. when a Principal is created one of the applicable
   keying policies is used to determine the set of keys to associate
   with the principal.

4.4.2.4.  Ticket Flag Policy

   A ticket flag policy specifies the ticket flags allowed for tickets
   issued for a principal.













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5.  Implementation Scenarios

   There are several ways to implement an administrative service for
   Kerberos 5 based on this information model.  In this section we list
   a few of them.

5.1.  LDAP backend to KDC

   Given an LDAP schema implementation of this information model it
   would be possible to build an administrative service by back-ending
   the KDC to a directory server where principals and keys are stored.
   Using the security mechanisms available on the directory server keys
   are protected from access by anyone apart from the KDC.
   Administration of the principals, policy, and other non-key data is
   done through the directory server while the keys are modified using
   the set/change password protocol
   [I-D.ietf-krb-wg-kerberos-set-passwd].

5.2.  LDAP frontend to KDC

   An alternative way to provide a directory interface to the KDC is to
   implement an LDAP-frontend to the KDC which exposes all non-key
   objects as entries and attributes.  As in the example above all keys
   are modified using the set/change password protocol
   [I-D.ietf-krb-wg-kerberos-set-passwd].  In this scenario the
   implementation would typically not use a traditional LDAP
   implementation but treat LDAP as an access protocol to data in the
   native KDC database.

5.3.  SOAP

   Given an XML schema implementation of this information model it would
   be possible to build a SOAP interface to the KDC.  This demonstrates
   the value of creating an abstract information model which is mappable
   to multiple schema representations.

5.4.  Netconf

   Given a YAML implementation of this information model it would be
   possible to create a Netconf-based interface to the KDC, enabling
   management of the KDC from standard network management applications.










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6.  Security Considerations

   This document describes an abstract information model for Kerberos 5.
   The Kerberos 5 protocol depends on the security of the keys stored in
   the KDC.  The model described here assumes that keys MUST NOT be
   transported in the clear over the network and furthermore that keys
   are treated as write-only attributes that SHALL only be modified
   (using the administrative interface) by the change-password protocol
   [I-D.ietf-krb-wg-kerberos-set-passwd].

   Exposing the object model of a KDC typically implies that objects can
   be modified and/or deleted.  In a KDC not all principals are created
   equal, so that for instance deleting krbtgt/EXAMPLE.COM@EXAMPLE.COM
   effectively disables the EXAMPLE.COM realm.  Hence access control is
   paramount to the security of any implementation.  This document does
   not mandate access control.  This only implies that access control is
   beyond the scope of the standard information model, i.e. that access
   control may not be accessible via any protocol based on this model.
   If access control objects are exposed via an extension to this model
   the presence of access control may in itself provide points of attack
   by giving away information about principals with elevated rights etc.






























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7.  IANA Considerations

   This document has no IANA actions.
















































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8.  Acknowledgments

   The author wishes to extend his thanks to Love Hoernquist-Aestrand
   and Sam Hartman for their important contributions to this document.















































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9.  References

9.1.  Normative References

   [RFC1964]  Linn, J., "The Kerberos Version 5 GSS-API Mechanism",
              RFC 1964, June 1996.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC3339]  Klyne, G., Ed. and C. Newman, "Date and Time on the
              Internet: Timestamps", RFC 3339, July 2002.

   [RFC3961]  Raeburn, K., "Encryption and Checksum Specifications for
              Kerberos 5", RFC 3961, February 2005.

   [RFC3986]  Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform
              Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66,
              RFC 3986, January 2005.

   [RFC4120]  Neuman, C., Yu, T., Hartman, S., and K. Raeburn, "The
              Kerberos Network Authentication Service (V5)", RFC 4120,
              July 2005.

   [RFC4122]  Leach, P., Mealling, M., and R. Salz, "A Universally
              Unique IDentifier (UUID) URN Namespace", RFC 4122,
              July 2005.

   [RFC4517]  Legg, S., "Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP):
              Syntaxes and Matching Rules", RFC 4517, June 2006.

9.2.  Informative References

   [I-D.ietf-krb-wg-kerberos-set-passwd]
              Williams, N., "Kerberos Set/Change Key/Password Protocol
              Version 2", draft-ietf-krb-wg-kerberos-set-passwd-08 (work
              in progress), November 2008.

   [RFC4510]  Zeilenga, K., "Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
              (LDAP): Technical Specification Road Map", RFC 4510,
              June 2006.










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Author's Address

   Leif Johansson
   Swedish University Network
   Thulegatan 11
   Stockholm

   Email: leifj@sunet.se
   URI:   http://www.sunet.se










































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