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Versions: (RFC 2547) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 RFC 6513

Network Working Group                             Eric C. Rosen (Editor)
Internet Draft                                       Cisco Systems, Inc.
Intended Status: Standards Track
Expires: May 30, 2010                            Rahul Aggarwal (Editor)
                                                        Juniper Networks

                                                       November 30, 2009

                     Multicast in MPLS/BGP IP VPNs

                 draft-ietf-l3vpn-2547bis-mcast-09.txt


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   material may not have granted the IETF Trust the right to allow
   modifications of such material outside the IETF Standards Process.
   Without obtaining an adequate license from the person(s) controlling
   the copyright in such materials, this document may not be modified
   outside the IETF Standards Process, and derivative works of it may
   not be created outside the IETF Standards Process, except to format
   it for publication as an RFC or to translate it into languages other
   than English.

Abstract

   In order for IP multicast traffic within a BGP/MPLS IP VPN (Virtual
   Private Network) to travel from one VPN site to another, special
   protocols and procedures must be implemented by the VPN Service
   Provider.  These protocols and procedures are specified in this
   document.



































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Table of Contents

 1          Specification of requirements  .........................   6
 2          Introduction  ..........................................   6
 2.1        Optimality vs Scalability  .............................   6
 2.1.1      Multicast Distribution Trees  ..........................   8
 2.1.2      Ingress Replication through Unicast Tunnels  ...........   9
 2.2        Overview  ..............................................   9
 2.2.1      Multicast Routing Adjacencies  .........................   9
 2.2.2      MVPN Definition  .......................................  10
 2.2.3      Auto-Discovery  ........................................  11
 2.2.4      PE-PE Multicast Routing Information  ...................  12
 2.2.5      PE-PE Multicast Data Transmission  .....................  12
 2.2.6      Inter-AS MVPNs  ........................................  13
 2.2.7      Optionally Eliminating Shared Tree State  ..............  14
 3          Concepts and Framework  ................................  14
 3.1        PE-CE Multicast Routing  ...............................  14
 3.2        P-Multicast Service Interfaces (PMSIs)  ................  15
 3.2.1      Inclusive and Selective PMSIs  .........................  16
 3.2.2      P-Tunnels Instantiating PMSIs  .........................  17
 3.3        Use of PMSIs for Carrying Multicast Data  ..............  19
 3.4        PE-PE Transmission of C-Multicast Routing  .............  21
 3.4.1      PIM Peering  ...........................................  21
 3.4.1.1    Full Per-MVPN PIM Peering Across a MI-PMSI  ............  21
 3.4.1.2    Lightweight PIM Peering Across a MI-PMSI  ..............  21
 3.4.1.3    Unicasting of PIM C-Join/Prune Messages  ...............  22
 3.4.2      Using BGP to Carry C-Multicast Routing  ................  23
 4          BGP-Based Autodiscovery of MVPN Membership  ............  23
 5          PE-PE Transmission of C-Multicast Routing  .............  26
 5.1        Selecting the Upstream Multicast Hop (UMH)  ............  26
 5.1.1      Eligible Routes for UMH Selection  .....................  27
 5.1.2      Information Carried by Eligible UMH Routes  ............  27
 5.1.3      Selecting the Upstream PE  .............................  28
 5.1.4      Selecting the Upstream Multicast Hop  ..................  30
 5.2        Details of Per-MVPN Full PIM Peering over MI-PMSI  .....  30
 5.2.1      PIM C-Instance Control Packets  ........................  31
 5.2.2      PIM C-instance RPF Determination  ......................  31
 5.3        Use of BGP for Carrying C-Multicast Routing  ...........  32
 5.3.1      Sending BGP Updates  ...................................  32
 5.3.2      Explicit Tracking  .....................................  33
 5.3.3      Withdrawing BGP Updates  ...............................  34
 5.3.4      BSR  ...................................................  34
 6          PMSI Instantiation  ....................................  35
 6.1        Use of the Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D Route  ..................  35



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 6.1.1      Sending Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D Routes  ....................  35
 6.1.2      Receiving Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D Routes  ..................  36
 6.2        When C-flows are Specifically Bound to P-Tunnels  ......  36
 6.3        Aggregating Multiple MVPNs on a Single P-tunnel  .......  36
 6.3.1      Aggregate Tree Leaf Discovery  .........................  37
 6.3.2      Aggregation Methodology  ...............................  37
 6.3.3      Demultiplexing C-multicast traffic  ....................  38
 6.4        Considerations for Specific Tunnel Technologies  .......  40
 6.4.1      RSVP-TE P2MP LSPs  .....................................  40
 6.4.2      PIM Trees  .............................................  42
 6.4.3      mLDP P2MP LSPs  ........................................  43
 6.4.4      mLDP MP2MP LSPs  .......................................  43
 6.4.5      Ingress Replication  ...................................  43
 7          Binding Specific C-flows to Specific P-Tunnels  ........  45
 7.1        General Considerations  ................................  46
 7.1.1      At the PE Transmitting the C-flow on the P-Tunnel  .....  46
 7.1.2      At the PE Receiving the C-flow from the P-Tunnel  ......  47
 7.2        Optimizing Multicast Distribution via S-PMSIs  .........  49
 7.3        Announcing the Presence of Unsolicited Flooded Data  ...  50
 7.4        Protocols for Binding C-flows to P-tunnels  ............  51
 7.4.1      Using BGP S-PMSI A-D Routes  ...........................  51
 7.4.1.1    Advertising C-flow Binding to P-Tunnel  ................  51
 7.4.1.2    Explicit Tracking  .....................................  53
 7.4.2      UDP-based Protocol  ....................................  53
 7.4.2.1    Advertising C-flow Binding to P-tunnel  ................  53
 7.4.2.2    Packet Formats and Constants  ..........................  54
 7.4.3      Aggregation  ...........................................  56
 8          Inter-AS Procedures  ...................................  56
 8.1        Non-Segmented Inter-AS P-Tunnels  ......................  57
 8.1.1      Inter-AS MVPN Auto-Discovery  ..........................  57
 8.1.2      Inter-AS MVPN Routing Information Exchange  ............  57
 8.1.3      Inter-AS P-Tunnels  ....................................  58
 8.1.3.1    PIM-Based Inter-AS P-Multicast Trees  ..................  58
 8.1.3.2    The PIM MVPN Join Attribute  ...........................  59
 8.1.3.2.1  Definition  ............................................  59
 8.1.3.2.2  Usage  .................................................  60
 8.2        Segmented Inter-AS P-Tunnels  ..........................  61
 9          Preventing Duplication of Multicast Data Packets  ......  61
 9.1        Methods for Ensuring Non-Duplication  ..................  63
 9.1.1      Discarding Packets from Wrong PE  ......................  63
 9.1.2      Single Forwarder Selection  ............................  64



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 9.1.3      Native PIM Methods  ....................................  64
 9.2        Multihomed C-S or C-RP  ................................  65
 9.3        Switching from the C-RP tree to C-S tree  ..............  65
 9.3.1      How Duplicates Can Occur  ..............................  65
 9.3.2      Solution using Source Active A-D Routes  ...............  66
10          Eliminating PE-PE Distribution of (C-*,C-G) State  .....  68
10.1        Co-locating C-RPs on a PE  .............................  69
10.1.1      Initial Configuration  .................................  70
10.1.2      Anycast RP Based on Propagating Active Sources  ........  70
10.1.2.1    Receiver(s) Within a Site  .............................  70
10.1.2.2    Source Within a Site  ..................................  70
10.1.2.3    Receiver Switching from Shared to Source Tree  .........  71
10.2        Using MSDP between a PE and a Local C-RP  ..............  71
11          Support for PIM-BIDIR C-Groups  ........................  72
11.1        The VPN Backbone Becomes the RPL  ......................  73
11.1.1      Control Plane  .........................................  73
11.1.2      Data Plane  ............................................  74
11.2        Partitioned Sets of PEs  ...............................  74
11.2.1      Partitions  ............................................  74
11.2.2      Using PE Distinguisher Labels  .........................  76
11.2.3      Partial Mesh of MP2MP P-Tunnels  .......................  76
12          Encapsulations  ........................................  77
12.1        Encapsulations for Single PMSI per P-Tunnel  ...........  77
12.1.1      Encapsulation in GRE  ..................................  77
12.1.2      Encapsulation in IP  ...................................  78
12.1.3      Encapsulation in MPLS  .................................  79
12.2        Encapsulations for Multiple PMSIs per P-Tunnel  ........  79
12.2.1      Encapsulation in GRE  ..................................  80
12.2.2      Encapsulation in IP  ...................................  80
12.3        Encapsulations Identifying a Distinguished PE  .........  80
12.3.1      For MP2MP LSP P-tunnels  ...............................  80
12.3.2      For Support of PIM-BIDIR C-Groups  .....................  81
12.4        General Considerations for IP and GRE Encaps  ..........  81
12.4.1      MTU (Maximum Transmission Unit)  .......................  81
12.4.2      TTL (Time to Live)  ....................................  82
12.4.3      Avoiding Conflict with Internet Multicast  .............  82
12.5        Differentiated Services  ...............................  83
13          Security Considerations  ...............................  83
14          IANA Considerations  ...................................  85
15          Other Authors  .........................................  85
16          Other Contributors  ....................................  85
17          Authors' Addresses  ....................................  86
18          Normative References  ..................................  87
19          Informative References  ................................  88







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1. Specification of requirements

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].


2. Introduction

   [RFC4364] specifies the set of procedures that a Service Provider
   (SP) must implement in order to provide a particular kind of VPN
   service ("BGP/MPLS IP VPN") for its customers.  The service described
   therein allows IP unicast packets to travel from one customer site to
   another, but it does not provide a way for IP multicast traffic to
   travel from one customer site to another.

   This document extends the service defined in [RFC4364] so that it
   also includes the capability of handling IP multicast traffic.  This
   requires a number of different protocols to work together.  The
   document provides a framework describing how the various protocols
   fit together, and also provides detailed specification of some of the
   protocols.  The detailed specification of some of the other protocols
   is found in pre-existing documents or in companion documents.

   A BGP/MPLS IP VPN service that supports multicast is known as a
   "Multicast VPN" or "MVPN".

   This document and the companion document [MVPN-BGP] both discuss the
   use of various BGP messages and procedures to provide MVPN support.
   While every effort has been made to ensure that the two documents are
   consistent with each other, it is possible that discrepancies have
   crept in.  In the event of any conflict or other discrepancy with
   respect to the use of BGP in support of MVPN service, [MVPN-BGP] is
   to be considered to be the authoritative document.

   Throughout this draft we will use the term "VPN-IP route" to mean a
   route that is either in the VPN-IPv4 address family [RFC4364] or in
   the VPN-IPv6 address family [RFC4659].


2.1. Optimality vs Scalability

   In a "BGP/MPLS IP VPN" [RFC4364], unicast routing of VPN packets is
   achieved without the need to keep any per-VPN state in the core of
   the SP's network (the "P routers").  Routing information from a
   particular VPN is maintained only by the Provider Edge routers (the
   "PE routers", or "PEs") that attach directly to sites of that VPN.
   Customer data travels through the P routers in tunnels from one PE to



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   another (usually MPLS Label Switched Paths, LSPs), so to support the
   VPN service the P routers only need to have routes to the PE routers.
   The PE-to-PE routing is optimal, but the amount of associated state
   in the P routers depends only on the number of PEs, not on the number
   of VPNs.

   However, in order to provide optimal multicast routing for a
   particular multicast flow, the P routers through which that flow
   travels have to hold state that is specific to that flow.  A
   multicast flow is identified by the (source, group) tuple where the
   source is the IP address of the sender and the group is the IP
   multicast group address of the destination.  Scalability would be
   poor if the amount of state in the P routers were proportional to the
   number of multicast flows in the VPNs.  Therefore, when supporting
   multicast service for a BGP/MPLS IP VPN, the optimality of the
   multicast routing must be traded off against the scalability of the P
   routers.  We explain this below in more detail.

   If a particular VPN is transmitting "native" multicast traffic over
   the backbone, we refer to it as an "MVPN".  By "native" multicast
   traffic, we mean packets that a CE sends to a PE, such that the IP
   destination address of the packets is a multicast group address, or
   the packets are multicast control packets addressed to the PE router
   itself, or the packets are IP multicast data packets encapsulated in
   MPLS.

   We say that the backbone multicast routing for a particular multicast
   group in a particular VPN is "optimal" if and only if all of the
   following conditions hold:

     - When a PE router receives a multicast data packet of that group
       from a CE router, it transmits the packet in such a way that the
       packet is received by every other PE router that is on the path
       to a receiver of that group;

     - The packet is not received by any other PEs;

     - While in the backbone, no more than one copy of the packet ever
       traverses any link.

     - While in the backbone, if bandwidth usage is to be optimized, the
       packet traverses minimum cost trees rather than shortest path
       trees.

   Optimal routing for a particular multicast group requires that the
   backbone maintain one or more source-trees that are specific to that
   flow.  Each such tree requires that state be maintained in all the P
   routers that are in the tree.



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   This would potentially require an unbounded amount of state in the P
   routers, since the SP has no control of the number of multicast
   groups in the VPNs that it supports. Nor does the SP have any control
   over the number of transmitters in each group, nor of the
   distribution of the receivers.

   The procedures defined in this document allow an SP to provide
   multicast VPN service without requiring the amount of state
   maintained by the P routers to be proportional to the number of
   multicast data flows in the VPNs.  The amount of state is traded off
   against the optimality of the multicast routing.  Enough flexibility
   is provided so that a given SP can make his own tradeoffs between
   scalability and optimality.  An SP can even allow some multicast
   groups in some VPNs to receive optimal routing, while others do not.
   Of course, the cost of this flexibility is an increase in the number
   of options provided by the protocols.

   The basic technique for providing scalability is to aggregate a
   number of customer multicast flows onto a single multicast
   distribution tree through the P routers.  A number of aggregation
   methods are supported.

   The procedures defined in this document also accommodate the SP that
   does not want to build multicast distribution trees in his backbone
   at all; the ingress PE can replicate each multicast data packet and
   then unicast each replica through a tunnel to each egress PE that
   needs to receive the data.


2.1.1. Multicast Distribution Trees

   This document supports the use of a single multicast distribution
   tree in the backbone to carry all the multicast traffic from a
   specified set of one or more MVPNs.  Such a tree is referred to as an
   "Inclusive Tree". An Inclusive Tree that carries the traffic of more
   than one MVPN is an "Aggregate Inclusive Tree".  An Inclusive Tree
   contains, as its members, all the PEs that attach to any of the MVPNs
   using the tree.

   With this option, even if each tree supports only one MVPN, the upper
   bound on the amount of state maintained by the P routers is
   proportional to the number of VPNs supported, rather than to the
   number of multicast flows in those VPNs.  If the trees are
   unidirectional, it would be more accurate to say that the state is
   proportional to the product of the number of VPNs and the average
   number of PEs per VPN.  The amount of state maintained by the P
   routers can be further reduced by aggregating more MVPNs onto a
   single tree.  If each such tree supports a set of MVPNs, (call it an



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   "MVPN aggregation set"), the state maintained by the P routers is
   proportional to the product of the number of MVPN aggregation sets
   and the average number of PEs per MVPN. Thus the state does not grow
   linearly with the number of MVPNs.

   However, as data from many multicast groups is aggregated together
   onto a single "Inclusive Tree", it is likely that some PEs will
   receive multicast data for which they have no need, i.e., some degree
   of optimality has been sacrificed.

   This document also provides procedures that enable a single multicast
   distribution tree in the backbone to be used to carry traffic
   belonging only to a specified set of one or more multicast groups,
   from one or more MVPNs. Such a tree is referred to as a "Selective
   Tree" and more specifically as an "Aggregate Selective Tree" when the
   multicast groups belong to different MVPNs.  By default, traffic from
   most multicast groups could be carried by an Inclusive Tree, while
   traffic from, e.g., high bandwidth groups could be carried in one of
   the "Selective Trees".  When setting up the Selective Trees, one
   should include only those PEs that need to receive multicast data
   from one or more of the groups assigned to the tree.  This provides
   more optimal routing than can be obtained by using only Inclusive
   Trees, though it requires additional state in the P routers.


2.1.2. Ingress Replication through Unicast Tunnels

   This document also provides procedures for carrying MVPN data traffic
   through unicast tunnels from the ingress PE to each of the egress
   PEs. The ingress PE replicates the multicast data packet received
   from a CE and sends it to each of the egress PEs using the unicast
   tunnels.  This requires no multicast routing state in the P routers
   at all, but it puts the entire replication load on the ingress PE
   router, and makes no attempt to optimize the multicast routing.


2.2. Overview

2.2.1. Multicast Routing Adjacencies

   In BGP/MPLS IP VPNs [RFC4364], each CE ("Customer Edge") router is a
   unicast routing adjacency of a PE router, but CE routers at different
   sites do not become unicast routing adjacencies of each other. This
   important characteristic is retained for multicast routing -- a CE
   router becomes a multicast routing adjacency of a PE router, but CE
   routers at different sites do not become multicast routing
   adjacencies of each other.




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   We will use the term "C-tree" to refer to a multicast distribution
   tree whose nodes include CE routers.  (See section 3.1 for further
   explication of this terminology.)

   The multicast routing protocol on the PE-CE link is presumed to be
   PIM ("Protocol Independent Multicast") [PIM-SM].  Both the ASM ("Any
   Source Multicast") and the SSM ("Source-Specific Multicast") service
   models are supported. Thus both shared C-trees and source-specific
   C-trees are supported.  Shared C-trees may be unidirectional or
   bidirectional; in the latter case the multicast routing protocol is
   presumed to be the BIDIR-PIM [BIDIR-PIM] "variant" of PIM-SM.  A CE
   router exchanges "ordinary" PIM control messages with the PE router
   to which it is attached.

   Support for PIM-DM ("Dense Mode") is outside the scope of this
   document.

   The PEs attaching to a particular MVPN then have to exchange the
   multicast routing information with each other.  Two basic methods for
   doing this are defined: (1) PE-PE PIM, and (2) BGP.  In the former
   case, the PEs need to be multicast routing adjacencies of each other.
   In the latter case, they do not.  For example, each PE may be a BGP
   adjacency of a Route Reflector (RR), and not of any other PEs.

   In order to support the "Carrier's Carrier" model of [RFC4364], mLDP
   (Label Distribution Protocol Extensions for Multipoint Label Switched
   Paths) [MLDP] may also be supported on the PE-CE interface.  The use
   of mLDP on the PE-CE interface is described in [MVPN-BGP].  The use
   of BGP on the PE-CE interface is not within the scope of this
   document.


2.2.2. MVPN Definition

   An MVPN is defined by two sets of sites, Sender Sites set and
   Receiver Sites set, with the following properties:

     - Hosts within the Sender Sites set could originate multicast
       traffic for receivers in the Receiver Sites set.

     - Receivers not in the Receiver Sites set should not be able to
       receive this traffic.

     - Hosts within the Receiver Sites set could receive multicast
       traffic originated by any host in the Sender Sites set.






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     - Hosts within the Receiver Sites set should not be able to receive
       multicast traffic originated by any host that is not in the
       Sender Sites set.

   A site could be both in the Sender Sites set and Receiver Sites set,
   which implies that hosts within such a site could both originate and
   receive multicast traffic. An extreme case is when the Sender Sites
   set is the same as the Receiver Sites set, in which case all sites
   could originate and receive multicast traffic from each other.

   Sites within a given MVPN may be either within the same, or in
   different organizations, which implies that an MVPN can be either an
   Intranet or an Extranet.

   A given site may be in more than one MVPN, which implies that MVPNs
   may overlap.

   Not all sites of a given MVPN have to be connected to the same
   service provider, which implies that an MVPN can span multiple
   service providers.

   Another way to look at MVPN is to say that an MVPN is defined by a
   set of administrative policies. Such policies determine both Sender
   Sites set and Receiver Sites set. Such policies are established by
   MVPN customers, but implemented/realized by MVPN Service Providers
   using the existing BGP/MPLS VPN mechanisms, such as Route Targets,
   with extensions, as necessary.


2.2.3. Auto-Discovery

   In order for the PE routers attaching to a given MVPN to exchange
   MVPN control information with each other, each one needs to discover
   all the other PEs that attach to the same MVPN.  (Strictly speaking,
   a PE in the Receiver Sites set need only discover the other PEs in
   the Sender Sites set and a PE in the Sender Sites set need only
   discover the other PEs in the Receiver Sites set.) This is referred
   to as "MVPN Auto-Discovery".

   This document discusses two ways of providing MVPN autodiscovery:

     - BGP can be used for discovering and maintaining MVPN membership.
       The PE routers advertise their MVPN membership to other PE
       routers using BGP. A PE is considered to be a "member" of a
       particular MVPN if it contains a VRF (Virtual Routing and
       Forwarding table, see [RFC4364]) that is configured to contain
       the multicast routing information of that MVPN.  This
       auto-discovery option does not make any assumptions about the



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       methods used for transmitting MVPN multicast data packets through
       the backbone.

     - If it is known that the PE-PE multicast control packets (i.e.,
       PIM packets) of a particular MVPN are to be transmitted through a
       non-aggregated Inclusive Tree supporting the ASM service model
       (e.g., through a Tree that is created by non-SSM PIM-SM or by
       BIDIR-PIM), and if the PEs attaching to that MVPN are configured
       with the group address corresponding to that tree, then the PEs
       can auto-discover each other simply by joining the tree and then
       multicasting PIM Hellos over the tree.


2.2.4. PE-PE Multicast Routing Information

   The BGP/MPLS IP VPN [RFC4364] specification requires a PE to maintain
   at most one BGP peering with every other PE in the network. This
   peering is used to exchange VPN routing information. The use of Route
   Reflectors further reduces the number of BGP adjacencies maintained
   by a PE to exchange VPN routing information with other PEs. This
   document describes various options for exchanging MVPN control
   information between PE routers based on the use of PIM or BGP. These
   options have different overheads with respect to the number of
   routing adjacencies that a PE router needs to maintain to exchange
   MVPN control information with other PE routers. Some of these options
   allow the retention of the unicast BGP/MPLS VPN model letting a PE
   maintain at most one BGP routing adjacency with other PE routers to
   exchange MVPN control information.  BGP also provides reliable
   transport and uses incremental updates. Another option is the use of
   the currently existing, "soft state" PIM standard [PIM-SM] that uses
   periodic complete updates.


2.2.5. PE-PE Multicast Data Transmission

   Like [RFC4364], this document decouples the procedures for exchanging
   routing information from the procedures for transmitting data
   traffic. Hence a variety of transport technologies may be used in the
   backbone. For inclusive trees, these transport technologies include
   unicast PE-PE tunnels, using encapsulation in MPLS, IP, or GRE
   ("Generic Routing Encapsulation"), multicast distribution trees
   created by PIM (either unidirectional in the SSM or ASM service
   models, or bidirectional) using IP/GRE encapsulation,
   point-to-multipoint LSPs created by RSVP-TE or mLDP, and
   multipoint-to-multipoint LSPs created by mLDP.

   In order to aggregate traffic from multiple MVPNs onto a single
   multicast distribution tree, it is necessary to have a mechanism to



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   enable the egresses of the tree to demultiplex the multicast traffic
   received over the tree and to associate each received packet with a
   particular MVPN.  This document specifies a mechanism whereby
   upstream label assignment [MPLS-UPSTREAM-LABEL] is used by the root
   of the tree to assign a label to each flow.  This label is used by
   the receivers to perform the demultiplexing. This document also
   describes procedures based on BGP that are used by the root of an
   Aggregate Tree to advertise the Inclusive and/or Selective binding
   and the demultiplexing information to the leaves of the tree.

   This document also describes the data plane encapsulations for
   supporting the various SP multicast transport options.

   The specification for aggregating traffic of multiple MVPNs onto a
   single multipoint-to-multipoint LSP or onto a single bidirectional
   multicast distribution tree is outside the scope of this document.

   The specifications for using as selective trees multicast
   distribution trees that support the ASM service model is outside the
   scope of this document.  The specification for using
   multipoint-to-multipoint LSPs as selective trees is outside the scope
   of this document.

   This document assumes that when SP multicast trees are used, traffic
   for a particular multicast group is transmitted by a particular PE on
   only one SP multicast tree. The use of multiple SP multicast trees
   for transmitting traffic belonging to a particular multicast group is
   outside the scope of this document.


2.2.6. Inter-AS MVPNs

   [RFC4364] describes different options for supporting BGP/MPLS IP
   unicast VPNs whose provider backbones contain more than one
   Autonomous System (AS).  These are known as Inter-AS VPNs. In an
   Inter-AS VPN, the ASes may belong to the same provider or to
   different providers.  This document describes how Inter-AS MVPNs can
   be supported for each of the unicast BGP/MPLS VPN Inter-AS options.
   This document also specifies a model where Inter-AS MVPN service can
   be offered without requiring a single SP multicast tree to span
   multiple ASes. In this model, an inter-AS multicast tree consists of
   a number of "segments", one per AS, which are stitched together at AS
   boundary points. These are known as "segmented inter-AS trees".  Each
   segment of a segmented inter-AS tree may use a different multicast
   transport technology.

   It is also possible to support Inter-AS MVPNs with non-segmented
   source trees that extend across AS boundaries.



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2.2.7. Optionally Eliminating Shared Tree State

   The document also discusses some options and protocol extensions that
   can be used to eliminate the need for the PE routers to distribute to
   each other the (*,G) and (*,G,RPT-bit) states that occur when the
   VPNs are creating unidirectional C-trees to support the ASM service
   model.


3. Concepts and Framework

3.1. PE-CE Multicast Routing

   Support of multicast in BGP/MPLS IP VPNs is modeled closely after
   support of unicast in BGP/MPLS IP VPNs. That is, a multicast routing
   protocol will be run on the PE-CE interfaces, such that PE and CE are
   multicast routing adjacencies on that interface.  CEs at different
   sites do not become multicast routing adjacencies of each other.

   If a PE attaches to n VPNs for which multicast support is provided
   (i.e., to n "MVPNs"), the PE will run n independent instances of a
   multicast routing protocol.  We will refer to these multicast routing
   instances as "VPN-specific multicast routing instances", or more
   briefly as "multicast C-instances". The notion of a "VRF" ("Virtual
   Routing and Forwarding Table"), defined in [RFC4364], is extended to
   include multicast routing entries as well as unicast routing entries.
   Each multicast routing entry is thus associated with a particular
   VRF.

   Whether a particular VRF belongs to an MVPN or not is determined by
   configuration.

   In this document, we will not attempt to provide support for every
   possible multicast routing protocol that could possibly run on the
   PE-CE link.  Rather, we consider multicast C-instances only for the
   following multicast routing protocols:

     - PIM Sparse Mode (PIM-SM), supporting the ASM service model

     - PIM Sparse Mode, supporting the SSM service model

     - PIM Bidirectional Mode (BIDIR-PIM), which uses bidirectional
       C-trees to support the ASM service model.

   In order to support the "Carrier's Carrier" model of [RFC4364], mLDP
   may also be supported on the PE-CE interface. The use of mLDP on the
   PE-CE interface is described in [MVPN-BGP].




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   The use of BGP on the PE-CE interface is not within the scope of this
   document.

   As the only multicast C-instances discussed by this document are
   PIM-based C-instances, we will generally use the term "PIM
   C-instances" to refer to the multicast C-instances.

   A PE router may also be running a "provider-wide" instance of PIM, (a
   "PIM P-instance"), in which it has a PIM adjacency with, e.g., each
   of its IGP neighbors (i.e., with P routers), but NOT with any CE
   routers, and not with other PE routers (unless another PE router
   happens to be an IGP adjacency).  In this case, P routers would also
   run the P-instance of PIM, but NOT a C-instance.  If there is a PIM
   P-instance, it may or may not have a role to play in support of VPN
   multicast; this is discussed in later sections.  However, in no case
   will the PIM P-instance contain VPN-specific multicast routing
   information.

   In order to help clarify when we are speaking of the PIM P-instance
   and when we are speaking of a PIM C-instance, we will also apply the
   prefixes "P-" and "C-" respectively to control messages, addresses,
   etc.  Thus a P-Join would be a PIM Join that is processed by the PIM
   P-instance, and a C-Join would be a PIM Join that is processed by a
   C-instance.  A P-group address would be a group address in the SP's
   address space, and a C-group address would be a group address in a
   VPN's address space. A C-Tree is a multicast distribution tree
   constructed and maintained by the PIM C-instances.  A C-flow is a
   stream of multicast packets with a common C-source address and a
   common C-group address.  We will use the notation "(C-S,C-G)" to
   identify specific C-flows.  If a particular C-tree is a shared tree
   (whether unidirectional or bidirectional) rather than a
   source-specific tree, we will sometimes speak of the entire set of
   flows traveling that tree, identifying the set as "(C-*,C-G)".


3.2. P-Multicast Service Interfaces (PMSIs)

   A PE must have the ability to forward multicast data packets received
   from a CE to one or more of the other PEs in the same MVPN for
   delivery to one or more other CEs.

   We define the notion of a "P-Multicast Service Interface" (PMSI).  If
   a particular MVPN is supported by a particular set of PE routers,
   then there will be one or more PMSIs connecting those PE routers
   and/or subsets thereof.  A PMSI is a conceptual "overlay" on the P
   network with the following property: a PE in a given MVPN can give a
   packet to the PMSI, and the packet will be delivered to some or all
   of the other PEs in the MVPN, such that any PE receiving the packet



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   will be able to determine the MVPN to which the packet belongs.

   As we discuss below, a PMSI may be instantiated by a number of
   different transport mechanisms, depending on the particular
   requirements of the MVPN and of the SP.  We will refer to these
   transport mechanisms as "P-tunnels".

   For each MVPN, there are one or more PMSIs that are used for
   transmitting the MVPN's multicast data from one PE to others.  We
   will use the term "PMSI" such that a single PMSI belongs to a single
   MVPN.  However, the transport mechanism that is used to instantiate a
   PMSI may allow a single P-tunnel to carry the data of multiple PMSIs.

   In this document we make a clear distinction between the multicast
   service (the PMSI) and its instantiation.  This allows us to separate
   the discussion of different services from the discussion of different
   instantiations of each service.  The term "P-tunnel" is used to refer
   to the transport mechanism that instantiates a service.

   PMSIs are used to carry C-multicast data traffic.  The C-multicast
   data traffic travels along a C-tree, but in the SP backbone all
   C-trees are tunneled through P-tunnels.  Thus we will sometimes talk
   of a P-tunnel carrying one or more C-trees.

   Some of the options for passing multicast control traffic among the
   PEs do so by sending the control traffic through a PMSI; other
   options do not send control traffic through a PMSI.


3.2.1. Inclusive and Selective PMSIs

   We will distinguish between three different kinds of PMSI:

     - "Multidirectional Inclusive" PMSI (MI-PMSI)

       A Multidirectional Inclusive PMSI is one that enables ANY PE
       attaching to a particular MVPN to transmit a message such that it
       will be received by EVERY other PE attaching to that MVPN.

       There is at most one MI-PMSI per MVPN.  (Though the P-tunnel or
       P-tunnels that instantiate an MI-PMSI may actually carry the data
       of more than one PMSI.)

       An MI-PMSI can be thought of as an overlay broadcast network
       connecting the set of PEs supporting a particular MVPN.






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     - "Unidirectional Inclusive" PMSI (UI-PMSI)

       A Unidirectional Inclusive PMSI is one that enables a particular
       PE, attached to a particular MVPN, to transmit a message such
       that it will be received by all the other PEs attaching to that
       MVPN.  There is at most one UI-PMSI per PE per MVPN, though the
       P-tunnel that instantiates a UI-PMSI may in fact carry the data
       of more than one PMSI.

     - "Selective" PMSI (S-PMSI).

       A Selective PMSI is one that provides a mechanism wherein a
       particular PE in an MVPN can multicast messages so that they will
       be received by a subset of the other PEs of that MVPN.  There may
       be an arbitrary number of S-PMSIs per PE per MVPN.  The P-tunnel
       that instantiates a given S-PMSI may carry data from multiple
       S-PMSIs.

   We will see in later sections the role played by these different
   kinds of PMSI.  We will use the term "I-PMSI" when we are not
   distinguishing between "MI-PMSIs" and "UI-PMSIs".


3.2.2. P-Tunnels Instantiating PMSIs

   The P-tunnels that are used to instantiate PMSIs will be referred to
   as "P-tunnels".  A number of different tunnel setup techniques can be
   used to create the P-tunnels that instantiate the PMSIs.  Among these
   are:

     - PIM

       A PMSI can be instantiated as (a set of) Multicast Distribution
       Trees created by the PIM P-instance ("P-trees").

       The multicast distribution trees that instantiate I-PMSIs may be
       either shared trees or source-specific trees.

       This document (along with [MVPN-BGP]) specifies procedures for
       identifying a particular (C-S,C-G) flow and assigning it to a
       particular S-PMSI.  Such an S-PMSI is most naturally instantiated
       as a source-specific tree.

       The use of shared trees (including bidirectional trees) to
       instantiate S-PMSIs is outside the scope of this document.

       The use of PIM-DM to create P-tunnels is not supported.




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       P-tunnels may be shared by multiple MVPNs (i.e., a given P-tunnel
       may be the instantiation of multiple PMSIs), as long as the
       tunnel encapsulation provides some means of demultiplexing the
       data traffic by MVPN.

     - MLDP

       MLDP Point-to-Multipoint (P2MP) LSPs or Multipoint-to-Multipoint
       (MP2MP) LSPs can be used to instantiate I-PMSIs.

       An S-PMSI or a UI-PMSI could be instantiated as a single mLDP
       P2MP LSP, whereas an MI-PMSI would have to be instantiated as a
       set of such LSPs (each PE in the MVPN being the root of one such
       LSP), or as a single MP2MP LSP.

       Procedures for sharing MP2MP LSPs across multiple MVPNs are
       outside the scope of this document.

       The use of MP2MP LSPs to instantiate S-PMSIs is outside the scope
       of this document.

       Section 11.2.3 discusses a way of using a partial mesh of MP2MP
       LSPs to instantiate a PMSI.  However, a full specification of the
       necessary procedures is outside the scope of this document.

     - RSVP-TE

       A PMSI may be instantiated as one or more RSVP-TE
       Point-to-Multipoint (P2MP) LSPs.  An S-PMSI or a UI-PMSI would be
       instantiated as a single RSVP-TE P2MP LSP, whereas a
       Multidirectional Inclusive PMSI would be instantiated as a set of
       such LSPs, one for each PE in the MVPN. RSVP-TE P2MP LSPs can be
       shared across multiple MVPNs.

     - A Mesh of Unicast P-Tunnels.

       If a PMSI is implemented as a mesh of unicast P-tunnels, a PE
       wishing to transmit a packet through the PMSI would replicate the
       packet, and send a copy to each of the other PEs.

       An MI-PMSI for a given MVPN can be instantiated as a full mesh of
       unicast P-tunnels among that MVPN's PEs.  A UI-PMSI or an S-PMSI
       can be instantiated as a partial mesh.

   It can be seen that each method of implementing PMSIs has its own
   area of applicability.  This specification therefore allows for the
   use of any of these methods.  At first glance, this may seem like an
   overabundance of options.  However, the history of multicast



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   development and deployment should make it clear that there is no one
   option which is always acceptable.  The use of segmented inter-AS
   trees does allow each SP to select the option which it finds most
   applicable in its own environment, without causing any other SP to
   choose that same option.

   SPECIFYING THE CONDITIONS UNDER WHICH A PARTICULAR TREE BUILDING
   METHOD IS APPLICABLE IS OUTSIDE THE SCOPE OF THIS DOCUMENT.

   The choice of the tunnel technique belongs to the sender router and
   is a local policy decision of that router. The procedures defined
   throughout this document do not mandate that the same tunnel
   technique be used for all P-tunnels going through a given provider
   backbone.  It is however expected that any tunnel technique that can
   be used by a PE for a particular MVPN is also supported by all the
   other PEs having VRFs for the MVPN.  Moreover, the use of ingress
   replication by any PE for an MVPN, implies that all other PEs MUST
   use ingress replication for this MVPN.


3.3. Use of PMSIs for Carrying Multicast Data

   Each PE supporting a particular MVPN must have a way of discovering
   the following information:

     - The set of other PEs in its AS that are attached to sites of that
       MVPN, and the set of other ASes that have PEs attached to sites
       of that MVPN.  However, if non-segmented inter-AS trees are used
       (see section 8.1), then each PE needs to know the entire set of
       PEs attached to sites of that MVPN.

     - If segmented inter-AS trees are to be used, the set of border
       routers in its AS that support inter-AS connectivity for that
       MVPN

     - If the MVPN is configured to use an MI-PMSI, the information
       needed to set up and to use the P-tunnels instantiating the
       MI-PMSI,

     - For each other PE, whether the PE supports Aggregate Trees for
       the MVPN, and if so, the demultiplexing information that must be
       provided so that the other PE can determine whether a packet that
       it received on an aggregate tree belongs to this MVPN.

   In some cases the information above is provided by means of the
   BGP-based auto-discovery procedures discussed in sections 4 and 6.1.
   In other cases, this information is provided after discovery is
   complete, by means of procedures discussed in section 7.4.  In either



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   case, the information that is provided must be sufficient to enable
   the PMSI to be bound to the identified P-tunnel, to enable the
   P-tunnel to be created if it does not already exist, and to enable
   the different PMSIs that may travel on the same P-tunnel to be
   properly demultiplexed.

   If an MVPN uses an MI-PMSI, then the information needed to identify
   the P-tunnels that instantiate the MI-PMSI has to be known to the PEs
   attached to the MVPN before any data can be transmitted on the
   MI-PMSI.  This information is either statically configured or
   auto-discovered (see section 4).  The actual process of constructing
   the P-tunnels (e.g., via PIM, RSVP-TE, or mLDP) SHOULD occur as soon
   as this information is known.

   When MI-PMSIs are used, they may serve as the default method of
   carrying C-multicast data traffic.  When we say that an MI-PMSI is
   the "default" method of carrying C-multicast data traffic for a
   particular MVPN, we mean that it is not necessary to use any special
   control procedures to bind a particular C-flow to the MI-PMSI; any
   C-flows that have not been bound to other PMSIs will be assumed to
   travel through the MI-PMSI.

   There is no requirement to use MI-PMSIs as the default method of
   carrying C-flows.  It is possible to adopt a policy in which all
   C-flows are carried on UI-PMSIs or S-PMSIs.  In this case, if an
   MI-PMSI is not used for carrying routing information it is not needed
   at all.

   Even when an MI-PMSI is used as the default method of carrying an
   MVPN's C-flows, if a particular C-flow has certain characteristics,
   it may be desirable to migrate it from the MI-PMSI to an S-PMSI.
   These characteristics, as well as the procedures for migrating a
   C-flow from an MI-PMSI to an S-PMSI, are discussed in section 7.

   Sometimes a set of C-flows are traveling the same, shared, C-tree
   (e.g., either unidirectional or bidirectional), and it may be
   desirable to move the whole set of C-flows as a unit to an S-PMSI.
   Procedures for doing this are outside the scope of this
   specification.

   Some of the procedures for transmitting C-multicast routing
   information among the PEs require that the routing information be
   sent over an MI-PMSI.  Other procedures do not use an MI-PMSI to
   transmit the C-multicast routing information.

   For a given MVPN, whether an MI-PMSI is used to carry C-multicast
   routing information is independent from whether an MI-PMSI is used as
   the default method of carrying the C-multicast data traffic.



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   As previously stated, it is possible to send all C-flows on a set of
   S-PMSIs, omitting any usage of I-PMSIs.  This prevents PEs from
   receiving data that they don't need, at the cost of requiring
   additional P-tunnels, and additional signaling to bind the C-flows to
   P-tunnels.  Cost-effective instantiation of S-PMSIs is likely to
   require Aggregate P-trees, which in turn makes it necessary for the
   transmitting PE to know which PEs need to receive which multicast
   streams. This is known as "explicit tracking", and the procedures to
   enable explicit tracking may themselves impose a cost.  This is
   further discussed in section 7.4.1.2.


3.4. PE-PE Transmission of C-Multicast Routing

   As a PE attached to a given MVPN receives C-Join/Prune messages from
   its CEs in that MVPN, it must convey the information contained in
   those messages to other PEs that are attached to the same MVPN.

   There are several different methods for doing this. As these methods
   are not interoperable, the method to be used for a particular MVPN
   must either be configured, or discovered as part of the
   auto-discovery process.


3.4.1. PIM Peering

3.4.1.1. Full Per-MVPN PIM Peering Across a MI-PMSI

   If the set of PEs attached to a given MVPN are connected via a
   MI-PMSI, the PEs can form "normal" PIM adjacencies with each other.
   Since the MI-PMSI functions as a broadcast network, the standard PIM
   procedures for forming and maintaining adjacencies over a LAN can be
   applied.

   As a result, the C-Join/Prune messages that a PE receives from a CE
   can be multicast to all the other PEs of the MVPN.  PIM "join
   suppression" can be enabled and the PEs can send Asserts as needed.

   This procedure is fully specified in section 5.2.


3.4.1.2. Lightweight PIM Peering Across a MI-PMSI

   The procedure of the previous section has the following
   disadvantages:






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     - Periodic Hello messages must be sent by all PEs.

       Standard PIM procedures require that each PE in a particular MVPN
       periodically multicast a Hello to all the other PEs in that MVPN.
       If the number of MVPNs becomes very large, sending and receiving
       these Hellos can become a substantial overhead for the PE
       routers.

     - Periodic retransmission of C-Join/Prune messages.

       PIM is a "soft-state" protocol, in which reliability is assured
       through frequent retransmissions (refresh) of control messages.
       This too can begin to impose a large overhead on the PE routers
       as the number of MVPNs grows.

   The first of these disadvantages is easily remedied.  The reason for
   the periodic PIM Hellos is to ensure that each PIM speaker on a LAN
   knows who all the other PIM speakers on the LAN are.  However, in the
   context of MVPN, PEs in a given MVPN can learn the identities of all
   the other PEs in the MVPN by means of the BGP-based auto-discovery
   procedure of section 4.  In that case, the periodic Hellos would
   serve no function, and could simply be eliminated.  (Of course, this
   does imply a change to the standard PIM procedures.)

   When Hellos are suppressed, we may speak of "lightweight PIM
   peering".

   The periodic refresh of the C-Join/Prunes is not as simple to
   eliminate.  If and when "refresh reduction" procedures are specified
   for PIM, it may be useful to incorporate them, so as to make the
   lightweight PIM peering procedures even more lightweight.

   Lightweight PIM peering is not specified in this document.


3.4.1.3. Unicasting of PIM C-Join/Prune Messages

   PIM does not require that the C-Join/Prune messages that a PE
   receives from a CE to be multicast to all the other PEs; it allows
   them to be unicast to a single PE, the one that is upstream on the
   path to the root of the multicast tree mentioned in the Join/Prune
   message. Note that when the C-Join/Prune messages are unicast, there
   is no such thing as "join suppression".  Therefore PIM Refresh
   Reduction may be considered to be a pre-requisite for the procedure
   of unicasting the C-Join/Prune messages.

   When the C-Join/Prunes are unicast, they are not transmitted on a
   PMSI at all.  Note that the procedure of unicasting the C-Join/Prunes



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   is different than the procedure of transmitting the C-Join/Prunes on
   an MI-PMSI that is instantiated as a mesh of unicast P-tunnels.

   If there are multiple PEs that can be used to reach a given C-source,
   procedures described in sections 5.1 and 9 MUST be used to ensure
   that duplicate packets do not get delivered.

   Procedures for unicasting the PIM control messages are not further
   specified in this document.


3.4.2. Using BGP to Carry C-Multicast Routing

   It is possible to use BGP to carry C-multicast routing information
   from PE to PE, dispensing entirely with the transmission of
   C-Join/Prune messages from PE to PE. This is discussed in section 5.3
   and fully specified in [MVPN-BGP].


4. BGP-Based Autodiscovery of MVPN Membership

   BGP-based autodiscovery is done by means of a new address family, the
   MCAST-VPN address family. (This address family also has other uses,
   as will be seen later.)  Any PE that attaches to an MVPN must issue a
   BGP update message containing an NLRI ("Network Layer Reachability
   Information" element) in this address family, along with a specific
   set of attributes.  In this document, we specify the information that
   must be contained in these BGP updates in order to provide
   auto-discovery.  The encoding details, along with the complete set of
   detailed procedures, are specified in a separate document [MVPN-BGP].

   This section specifies the intra-AS BGP-based autodiscovery
   procedures.  When segmented inter-AS trees are used, additional
   procedures are needed, as specified in [MVPN-BGP].  (When segmented
   inter-AS trees are not used, the inter-AS procedures are almost
   identical to the intra-AS procedures.)

   BGP-based autodiscovery uses a particular kind of MCAST-VPN route
   known as an "auto-discovery routes", or "A-D route".  In particular,
   it uses two kinds of "A-D routes", the "Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D Route"
   and the "Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D Route".  (There are also additional
   kinds of A-D routes, such as the Source Active A-D routes which are
   used for purposes that go beyond auto-discovery.  These are discussed
   in subsequent sections.)

   The Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D Route is used only when segmented inter-AS
   P-tunnels are used, as specified in [MVPN-BGP].




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   The "Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D route" is originated by the PEs that are
   (directly) connected to the site(s) of an MVPN.  It is distributed to
   other PEs that attach to sites of the MVPN.  If segmented Inter-AS
   P-Tunnels are used, then the Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D routes are not
   distributed outside the AS where they originate; if segmented
   Inter-AS P-Tunnels are not used, then the Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D routes
   are, despite their name, distributed to all PEs attached to the VPN,
   no matter what AS the PEs are in.

   The NLRI of an Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D route must contain the following
   information:

     - The route type (i.e., Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D route)

     - The IP address of the originating PE

     - An RD ("Route Distinguisher", [RFC4364]) configured locally for
       the MVPN.  This is an RD that can be prepended to that IP address
       to form a globally unique VPN-IP address of the PE.

   Intra-AS I-PMSI  A-D routes carry the following attributes:

     - Route Target Extended Communities attribute.

       One or more of these MUST be carried by each Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D
       route.  If any other PE has one of these Route Targets configured
       for import into a VRF, it treats the advertising PE as a member
       in the MVPN to which the VRF belongs. This allows each PE to
       discover the PEs that belong to a given MVPN.  More specifically
       it allows a PE in the Receiver Sites set to discover the PEs in
       the Sender Sites set of the MVPN and the PEs in the Sender Sites
       set of the MVPN to discover the PEs in the Receiver Sites set of
       the MVPN. The PEs in the Receiver Sites set would be configured
       to import the Route Targets advertised in the BGP A-D routes by
       PEs in the Sender Sites set. The PEs in the Sender Sites set
       would be configured to import the Route Targets advertised in the
       BGP A-D routes by PEs in the Receiver Sites set.

     - PMSI tunnel attribute.

       This attribute is present whenever the MVPN uses an MI-PMSI, or
       when it uses a UI-PMSI rooted at the originating router. It
       contains the following information:

         * tunnel technology, which may be one of the following:






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             + Bidirectional multicast tree created by BIDIR-PIM,

             + Source-specific multicast tree crated by PIM-SM,
               supporting the SSM service model,

             + A set of trees (one shared tree and a set of source
               trees) PIM-SM, supporting the ASM service model,

             + Point-to-multipoint LSP created by RSVP-TE,

             + Point-to-multipoint LSP created by mLDP,

             + multipoint-to-multipoint LSP created by mLDP

             + unicast tunnel

         * P-tunnel identifier

           Before a P-tunnel can be constructed to instantiate the
           I-PMSI, the PE must be able to create a unique identifier for
           the tunnel.  The syntax of this identifier depends on the
           tunnel technology used.

           Each PE attaching to a given MVPN must be configured with
           information specifying the allowable encapsulations to use
           for that MVPN, as well as the particular one of those
           encapsulations that the PE is to identify in the PMSI Tunnel
           Attribute of the I-PMSI Intra-AS A-D routes that it
           originates.

         * Multi-VPN aggregation capability and demultiplexor value.

           This specifies whether the P-tunnel is capable of aggregating
           I-PMSIs from multiple MVPNs.  This will affect the
           encapsulation used.  If aggregation is to be used, a
           demultiplexor value to be carried by packets for this
           particular MVPN must also be specified.  The demultiplexing
           mechanism and signaling procedures are described in section
           6.

     - PE Distinguisher Labels Attribute

       Sometimes it is necessary for one PE to advertise an
       upstream-assigned MPLS label that identifies another PE.  Under
       certain circumstances to be discussed later, a PE that is the
       root of a multicast P-tunnel will bind an MPLS label value to one
       or more of the PEs that belong to the P-tunnel, and will
       distribute these label bindings using Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D routes.



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       Specification of when this must be done is provided in sections
       6.4.4 and 11.2.2.  We refer to these as "PE Distinguisher
       Labels".

       Note that, as specified in [MPLS-UPSTREAM-LABEL], PE
       Distinguisher Label values are unique only in the context of the
       IP address identifying the root of the P-tunnel; they are not
       necessarily unique per tunnel.


5. PE-PE Transmission of C-Multicast Routing

   As a PE attached to a given MVPN receives C-Join/Prune messages from
   its CEs in that MVPN, it must convey the information contained in
   those messages to other PEs that are attached to the same MVPN.  This
   is known as the "PE-PE transmission of C-multicast routing
   information".

   This section specifies the procedures used for PE-PE transmission of
   C-multicast routing information.  Not every procedure mentioned in
   section 3.4 is specified here.  Rather, this section focuses on two
   particular procedures:

     - Full PIM Peering.

       This procedure is fully specified herein.

     - Use of BGP to distribute C-multicast routing

       This procedure is described herein, but the full specification
       appears in [MVPN-BGP].

   Those aspects of the procedures that apply to both of the above are
   also specified fully herein.

   Specification of other procedures is outside the scope of this
   document.


5.1. Selecting the Upstream Multicast Hop (UMH)

   When a PE receives a C-Join/Prune message from a CE, the message
   identifies a particular multicast flow as belonging either to a
   source-specific tree (S,G) or to a shared tree (*,G).  Throughout
   this section, we use the term C-root to refer to S, in the case of a
   source-specific tree, or to the Rendezvous Point (RP) for G, in the
   case of (*,G).  If the route to the C-root is across the VPN
   backbone, then the PE needs to find the "upstream multicast hop"



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   (UMH) for the (S,G) or (*,G) flow. The "upstream multicast hop" is
   either the PE at which (S,G) or (*,G) data packets enter the VPN
   backbone, or else is the Autonomous System Border Router (ASBR) at
   which those data packets enter the local AS when traveling through
   the VPN backbone.  The process of finding the upstream multicast hop
   for a given C-root is known as "upstream multicast hop selection".


5.1.1. Eligible Routes for UMH Selection

   In the simplest case, the PE does the upstream hop selection by
   looking up the C-root in the unicast VRF associated with the PE-CE
   interface over which the C-Join/Prune was received.  The route that
   matches the C-root will contain the information needed to select the
   upstream multicast hop.

   However, in some cases, the CEs may be distributing to the PEs a
   special set of routes that are to be used exclusively for the purpose
   of upstream multicast hop selection, and not used for unicast routing
   at all.  For example, when BGP is the CE-PE unicast routing protocol,
   the CEs may be using SAFI 2 to distribute a special set of routes
   that are to be used for, and only for, upstream multicast hop
   selection.  When OSPF [OSPF] is the CE-PE routing protocol, the CE
   may use an MT-ID ("Multi-Topology Identifier") [OSPF-MT]of 1 to
   distribute a special set of routes that are to be used for, and only
   for, upstream multicast hop selection .  When a CE uses one of these
   mechanisms to distribute to a PE a special set of routes to be used
   exclusively for upstream multicast hop selection, these routes are
   distributed among the PEs using SAFI 129, as described in [MVPN-BGP].

   Whether the routes used for upstream multicast hop selection are (a)
   the "ordinary" unicast routes or (b) a special set of routes that are
   used exclusively for upstream multicast hop selection, is a matter of
   policy.  How that policy is chosen, deployed, or implemented is
   outside the scope of this document.  In the following, we will simply
   refer to the set of routes that are used for upstream multicast hop
   selection, the "Eligible UMH routes", with no presumptions about the
   policy by which this set of routes was chosen.


5.1.2. Information Carried by Eligible UMH Routes

   Every route that is eligible for UMH selection SHOULD carry a VRF
   Route Import Extended Community [MVPN-BGP].  However, if BGP is used
   to distribute C-multicast routing information, or if the route is
   from a VRF that belongs to a multi-AS VPN as described in option b of
   section 10 of [RFC4364], then the route MUST carry a VRF Route Import
   Extended Community.  This attribute identifies the PE that originated



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   the route.

   If BGP is used for carrying C-multicast routes, OR if "Segmented
   Inter-AS Tunnels" are used, then every UMH route MUST also carry a
   Source AS Extended Community [MVPN-BGP].

   These two attributes are used in the upstream multicast hop selection
   procedures described below.


5.1.3. Selecting the Upstream PE

   The first step in selecting the upstream multicast hop for a given
   C-root is to select the upstream PE router for that C-root.

   The PE that received the C-Join message from a CE looks in the VRF
   corresponding to the interfaces over which the C-Join was received.
   It finds the Eligible UMH route that is the best match for the C-root
   specified in that C-Join.  Call this the "Installed UMH Route".

   Note that the outgoing interface of the Installed UMH Route may be
   one of the interfaces associated with the VRF, in which case the
   upstream multicast hop is a CE and the route to the C-root is not
   across the VPN backbone.

   Consider the set of all VPN-IP routes that are: (a) eligible to be
   imported into the VRF (as determined by their Route Targets), (b) are
   eligible to be used for upstream multicast hop selection, and (c)
   have exactly the same IP prefix (not necessarily the same RD) as the
   installed UMH route.

   For each route in this set, determine the corresponding upstream PE
   and upstream RD.  If a route has a VRF Route Import Extended
   Community, the route's upstream PE is determined from it. If a route
   does not have a VRF Route Import Extended Community, the route's
   upstream PE is determined from the route's BGP next hop attribute.
   In either case, the upstream RD is taken from the route's NLRI.

   This results in a set of triples of <route, upstream PE, upstream
   RD>.

   Call this the "UMH Route Candidate Set."  Then the PE MUST select a
   single route from the set to be the "Selected UMH Route".  The
   corresponding upstream PE is known as the "Selected Upstream PE", and
   the corresponding upstream RD is known as the "Selected Upstream RD".

   There are several possible procedures that can be used by a PE to
   select a single route from the candidate set.



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   The default procedure, which MUST be implemented, is to select the
   route whose corresponding upstream PE address is numerically highest,
   where a 32-bit IP address is treated as a 32 bit unsigned integer.
   Call this the "default upstream PE selection".  For a given C-root,
   provided that the routing information used to create the candidate
   set is stable, all PEs will have the same default upstream PE
   selection.  (Though different default upstream PE selections may be
   chosen during a routing transient.)

   An alternative procedure that MUST be implemented, but which is
   disabled by default, is the following.  This procedure ensures that,
   except during a routing transient, each PE chooses the same upstream
   PE for a given combination of C-root and C-G.

      1. The PEs in the candidate set are numbered from lower to higher
         IP address, starting from 0.

      2. The following hash is performed:

           - A bytewise exclusive-or of all the bytes in the C-root
             address and the C-G address is performed.

           - The result is taken modulo n, where n is the number of PEs
             in the candidate set.  Call this result N.

   The selected upstream PE is then the one that appears in position N
   in the list of step 1.

   Other hashing algorithms are allowed as well, but not required.

   The alternative procedure allows a form of "equal cost load
   balancing".  Suppose, for example, that from egress PEs PE3 and PE4,
   source C-S can be reached, at equal cost, via ingress PE PE1 or
   ingress PE PE2.  The load balancing procedure makes it possible for
   PE1 to be the ingress PE for (C-S,C-G1) data traffic while PE2 is the
   ingress PE for (C-S,C-G2) data traffic.

   Another procedure, which SHOULD be implemented, is to use the
   Installed UMH Route as the Selected UMH Route.  If this procedure is
   used, the result is likely to be that a given PE will choose the
   upstream PE that is closest to it, according to the routing in the SP
   backbone.  As a result, for a given C-root, different PEs may choose
   different upstream PEs.  This is useful if the C-root is an anycast
   address, and can also be useful if the C-root is in a multihomed site
   (i.e., a site that is attached to multiple PEs).  However, this
   procedure is more likely to lead to steady state duplication of
   traffic unless (a) PEs discard data traffic that arrives from the
   "wrong" upstream PE, or (b) data traffic is carried only in



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   non-aggregated S-PMSIs .  This issue is discussed at length in
   section 9.

   General policy-based procedures for selecting the UMH route are
   allowed, but not required and are not further discussed in this
   specification.


5.1.4. Selecting the Upstream Multicast Hop

   In certain cases, the selected upstream multicast hop is the same as
   the selected upstream PE.  In other cases, the selected upstream
   multicast hop is the ASBR that is the "BGP next hop" of the Selected
   UMH Route.

   If the selected upstream PE is in the local AS, then the selected
   upstream PE is also the selected upstream multicast hop.  This is the
   case if any of the following conditions holds:

     - The selected UMH route has a Source AS Extended Community, and
       the Source AS is the same as the local AS,

     - The selected UMH route does not have a Source AS Extended
       Community, but the route's BGP next hop is the same as the
       upstream PE.

   Otherwise, the selected upstream multicast hop is an ASBR.  The
   method of determining just which ASBR it is depends on the particular
   inter-AS signaling method being used (PIM or BGP), and on whether
   segmented or non-segmented inter-AS tunnels are used.  These details
   are presented in later sections.


5.2. Details of Per-MVPN Full PIM Peering over MI-PMSI

   When an MVPN uses an MI-PMSI, the C-instances of that MVPN can treat
   the MI-PMSI as a LAN interface, and form full PIM adjacencies with
   each other over that "LAN interface".

   The use of PIM when an MI-PMSI is not in use is outside the scope of
   this document.

   To form full PIM adjacencies, the PEs execute the standard PIM
   procedures on the "LAN interface", including the generation and
   processing of PIM Hello, Join/Prune, Assert, DF (Designated
   Forwarder) election, and other PIM control packets. These are
   executed independently for each C-instance.  PIM "join suppression"
   SHOULD be enabled.



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5.2.1. PIM C-Instance Control Packets

   All PIM C-Instance control packets of a particular MVPN are addressed
   to the ALL-PIM-ROUTERS (224.0.0.13) IP destination address, and
   transmitted over the MI-PMSI of that MVPN.  While in transit in the
   P-network, the packets are encapsulated as required for the
   particular kind of P-tunnel that is being used to instantiate the
   MI-PMSI.  Thus the C-instance control packets are not processed by
   the P routers, and MVPN-specific PIM routes can be extended from site
   to site without appearing in the P routers.

   As specified in section 5.1.2, when a PE distributes VPN-IP routes
   that are eligible for use as UMH routes, the PE MUST include a VRF
   Route Import Extended Community with each route.  For a given MVPN, a
   single such IP address MUST be used, and that same IP address MUST be
   used as the source address in all PIM control packets for that MVPN.

   Note that BSR ("Bootstrap Router Mechanism for PIM") [BSR] messages
   are treated the same as PIM C-instance control packets, and BSR
   processing is regarded as an integral part of the PIM C-instance
   processing.


5.2.2. PIM C-instance RPF Determination

   Although the MI-PMSI is treated by PIM as a LAN interface, unicast
   routing is NOT run over it, and there are no unicast routing
   adjacencies over it.  It is therefore necessary to specify special
   procedures for determining when the MI-PMSI is to be regarded as the
   "RPF Interface" for a particular C-address.

   The PE follows the procedures of section 5.1 to determine the
   selected UMH route.  If that route is NOT a VPN-IP route learned from
   BGP as described in [RFC4364], or if that route's outgoing interface
   is one of the interfaces associated with the VRF, then ordinary PIM
   procedures for determining the RPF interface apply.

   However, if the selected UMH route is a VPN-IP route whose outgoing
   interface is not one of the interfaces associated with the VRF, then
   PIM will consider the RPF interface to be the MI-PMSI associated with
   the VPN-specific PIM instance.

   Once PIM has determined that the RPF interface for a particular
   C-root is the MI-PMSI, it is necessary for PIM to determine the "RPF
   neighbor" for that C-root.  This will be one of the other PEs that is
   a PIM adjacency over the MI-PMSI.  In particular, it will be the
   "selected upstream PE" as defined in section 5.1.




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5.3. Use of BGP for Carrying C-Multicast Routing

   It is possible to use BGP to carry C-multicast routing information
   from PE to PE, dispensing entirely with the transmission of
   C-Join/Prune messages from PE to PE. This section describes the
   procedures for carrying intra-AS multicast routing information.
   Inter-AS procedures are described in section 8.  The complete
   specification of both sets of procedures and of the encodings can be
   found in [MVPN-BGP].


5.3.1. Sending BGP Updates

   The MCAST-VPN address family is used for this purpose.  MCAST-VPN
   routes used for the purpose of carrying C-multicast routing
   information are distinguished from those used for the purpose of
   carrying auto-discovery information by means of a "route type" field
   which is encoded into the NLRI.  The following information is
   required in BGP to advertise the MVPN routing information.  The NLRI
   contains:

     - The type of C-multicast route.

       There are two types:

         * source tree join

         * shared tree join

     - The C-Group address.

     - The C-Source address. (In the case of a shared tree join, this is
       the address of the C-RP.)

     - The Selected Upstream RD corresponding to the C-root address
       (determined by the procedures of section 5.1).

   Whenever a C-multicast route is sent, it must also carry the Selected
   Upstream Multicast Hop corresponding to the C-root address
   (determined by the procedures of section 5.1). The selected upstream
   multicast hop must be encoded as part of a Route Target Extended
   Community, to facilitate the optional use of filters which can
   prevent the distribution of the update to BGP speakers other than the
   upstream multicast hop.  See section 10.1.3 of [MVPN-BGP] for the
   details.

   There is no C-multicast route corresponding to the PIM function of
   pruning a source off the shared tree when a PE switches from a



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   (C-*,C-G) tree to a (C-S,C-G) tree.  Section 9 of this document
   specifies a mandatory procedure that ensures that if any PE joins a
   (C-S,C-G) source tree, all other PEs that have joined or will join
   the (C-*,C-G) shared tree will also join the (C-S,C-G) source tree.
   This eliminates the need for a C-multicast route that prunes C-S off
   the (C-*,C-G) shared tree when switching from (C-*, C-G) to (C-S,C-G)
   tree.


5.3.2. Explicit Tracking

   Note that the upstream multicast hop is NOT part of the NLRI in the
   C-multicast BGP routes.  This means that if several PEs join the same
   C-tree, the BGP routes they distribute to do so are regarded by BGP
   as comparable routes, and only one will be installed.  If a route
   reflector is being used, this further means that the PE that is used
   to reach the C-source will know only that one or more of the other
   PEs have joined the tree, but it won't know which one.  That is, this
   BGP update mechanism does not provide "explicit tracking".  Explicit
   tracking is not provided by default because it increases the amount
   of state needed and thus decreases scalability.  Also, as
   constructing the C-PIM messages to send "upstream" for a given tree
   does not depend on knowing all the PEs that are downstream on that
   tree, there is no reason for the C-multicast route type updates to
   provide explicit tracking.

   There are some cases in which explicit tracking is necessary in order
   for the PEs to set up certain kinds of P-trees.  There are other
   cases in which explicit tracking is desirable in order to determine
   how to optimally aggregate multicast flows onto a given aggregate
   tree.  As these functions have to do with the setting up of
   infrastructure in the P-network, rather than with the dissemination
   of C-multicast routing information, any explicit tracking that is
   necessary is handled by sending a particular type of A-D route known
   as "Leaf A-D routes".

   Whenever a PE sends an A-D route with a PMSI Tunnel attribute, it can
   set a bit in the PMSI Tunnel attribute indicating "Leaf Information
   Required".  A PE that installs such an A-D route MUST respond by
   generating a a Leaf A-D route, indicating that it needs to join (or
   be joined to) the specified PMSI tunnel. Details can be found in
   [MVPN-BGP].









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5.3.3. Withdrawing BGP Updates

   A PE removes itself from a C-multicast tree (shared or source) by
   withdrawing the corresponding BGP update.

   If a PE has pruned a C-source from a shared C-multicast tree, and it
   needs to "unprune" that source from that tree, it does so by
   withdrawing the route that pruned the source from the tree.


5.3.4. BSR

   BGP does not provide a method for carrying the control information of
   BSR packets received by a PE from a CE.  BSR is supported by
   transmitting the BSR control messages from one PE in an MVPN to all
   the other PEs in that MVPN.

   When a PE needs to transmit a BSR message for a particular MVPN to
   other PEs, it must put its own IP address into the BSR message as the
   IP source address.  As specified in section 5.1.2, when a PE
   distributes VPN-IP routes that are eligible for use as UMH routes,
   the PE MUST include a VRF Route Import Extended Community with each
   route.  For a given MVPN, a single such IP address MUST be used, and
   that same IP address MUST be used as the source address in all BSR
   packets that the PE transmits to other PEs.

   The BSR message may be transmitted over any PMSI that will deliver
   the message to all the other PEs in the MVPN.  If no such PMSI has
   been instantiated yet, then an appropriate P-tunnel must be
   advertised, and the C-flow whose C-source address is the address of
   the PE itself, and whose multicast group is ALL-PIM-ROUTERS
   (224.0.0.13), must be bound to it.  This can be done using the
   procedures described in sections 7.3 and 7.4.  Note that this is NOT
   meant to imply that the other PIM control packets from the PIM
   C-instance are to be transmitted to the other PEs.

   When a PE receives a BSR message for a particular MVPN from some
   other PE, the PE accepts the message only if the IP source address in
   that message is the selected upstream PE (see section 5.1.3) for the
   IP address of the Bootstrap router.  Otherwise the PE simply discards
   the packet.  If the PE accepts the packet, it does normal BSR
   processing on it, and may forward a BSR message to one or more CEs as
   a result.








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6. PMSI Instantiation

   This section provides the procedures for using P-tunnels to
   instantiate a PMSI.  It describes the procedures for setting up and
   maintaining the P-tunnels, as well as for sending and receiving
   C-data and/or C-control messages on the P-tunnels.  Procedures for
   binding particular C-flows to particular P-tunnels are however
   discussed in section 7.

   PMSIs can be instantiated either by P-multicast trees or by PE-PE
   unicast tunnels.  In the latter case, the PMSI is said to be
   instantiated by "ingress replication."

   This specification supports a number of different methods for setting
   up P-multicast trees, and these are detailed below.  A P-tunnel may
   support a single VPN (a non-aggregated P-multicast tree), or multiple
   VPNs (an aggregated P-multicast tree).


6.1. Use of the Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D Route

6.1.1. Sending Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D Routes

   When a PE is provisioned to have one or more VRFs that provide MVPN
   support, the PE announces its MVPN membership information using
   Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D routes, as discussed in section 4 and detailed in
   section 9.1.1 of [MVPN-BGP].  (Under certain conditions, detailed in
   [MVPN-BGP], the Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D route may be omitted.)

   Generally, the Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D route will have a PMSI Tunnel
   Attribute that identifies a P-tunnel that is being used to
   instantiate the I-PMSI.  Section 9.1.1 of [MVPN-BGP] details certain
   conditions under which the PMSI Tunnel Attribute may be omitted (or
   in which a PMSI Tunnel Attribute with the "no tunnel information
   present" bit may be sent).

   As a special case, when (a) C-PIM control messages are to be sent
   through an MI-PMSI, and (b) the MI-PMSI is instantiated by a P-tunnel
   technique for which each PE needs to know only a single P-tunnel
   identifier per VPN, then the use of the Intra-As I-PMSI A-D Routes
   MAY be omitted, and static configuration of the tunnel identifier
   used instead.  However, this is not recommended for long-term use,
   and in all other cases, the Intra-AS A-D routes MUST be used.

   The PMSI tunnel attribute MAY contain an upstream-assigned MPLS
   label, assigned by the PE originating the Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D route.
   If this label is present, the P-tunnel can be carrying data from
   several MVPNs.  The label is used on the data packets traveling



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   through the tunnel to identify the MVPN to which those data packets
   belong.  (The specified label identifies the packet as belonging to
   the MVPN that is identified by the RTs of the Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D
   route.)

   See section 12.2 for details on how to place the label in the
   packet's label stack.

   The Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D Route may contain a "PE Distinguisher Labels"
   Attribute.  This contains a set of bindings between upstream-assigned
   labels and PE addresses.  The PE that originated the route may use
   this to bind an upstream-assigned label to one or more of the other
   PEs that belong to the same MVPN.  The way in which PE Distinguisher
   Labels are used is discussed in sections 6.4.1, 6.4.2, 6.4.4, 11.2.2,
   and 12.3.


6.1.2. Receiving Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D Routes

   When a PE receives an Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D route for a particular MVPN
   depends on the particular P-tunnel technology that is being used by
   that MVPN.  If the P-tunnel technology requires tunnels to be built
   by means of receiver-initiated joins, the PE SHOULD join the tunnel
   immediately.


6.2. When C-flows are Specifically Bound to P-Tunnels

   This situation is discussed in section 7.


6.3. Aggregating Multiple MVPNs on a Single P-tunnel

   When a P-multicast tree is shared across multiple MVPNs it is termed
   an "Aggregate Tree". The procedures described in this document allow
   a single SP multicast tree to be shared across multiple MVPNs. Unless
   otherwise specified a P-multicast tree technology supports
   aggregation.

   All procedures that are specific to multi-MVPN aggregation are
   OPTIONAL and are explicitly pointed out.

   Aggregate Trees allow a single P-multicast tree to be used across
   multiple MVPNs, so that state in the SP core grows per-set-of-MVPNs
   and not per MVPN.  Depending on the congruence of the aggregated
   MVPNs, this may result in trading off optimality of multicast
   routing.




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   An Aggregate Tree can be used by a PE to provide an UI-PMSI or
   MI-PMSI service for more than one MVPN. When this is the case the
   Aggregate Tree is said to have an inclusive mapping.


6.3.1. Aggregate Tree Leaf Discovery

   BGP MVPN membership discovery (section 4) allows a PE to determine
   the different Aggregate Trees that it should create and the MVPNs
   that should be mapped onto each such tree. The leaves of an Aggregate
   Tree are determined by the PEs, supporting aggregation, that belong
   to all the MVPNs that are mapped onto the tree.

   If an Aggregate Tree is used to instantiate one or more S-PMSIs, then
   it may be desirable for the PE at the root of the tree to know which
   PEs (in its MVPN) are receivers on that tree.  This enables the PE to
   decide when to aggregate two S-PMSIs, based on congruence (as
   discussed in the next section).  Thus explicit tracking may be
   required.  Since the procedures for disseminating C-multicast routes
   do not provide explicit tracking, a type of A-D route known as a
   "Leaf A-D Route" is used.  The PE that wants to assign a particular
   C-multicast flow to a particular Aggregate Tree can send an A-D route
   which elicits Leaf A-D routes from the PEs that need to receive that
   C-multicast flow.  This provides the explicit tracking information
   needed to support the aggregation methodology discussed in the next
   section. For more details on Leaf A-D routes please refer to
   [MVPN-BGP].


6.3.2. Aggregation Methodology

   This document does not specify the mandatory implementation of any
   particular set of rules for determining whether or not the PMSIs of
   two particular MVPNs are to be instantiated by the same Aggregate
   Tree.  This determination can be made by implementation-specific
   heuristics, by configuration, or even perhaps by the use of offline
   tools.

   It is the intention of this document that the control procedures will
   always result in all the PEs of an MVPN to agree on the PMSIs which
   are to be used and on the tunnels used to instantiate those PMSIs.

   This section discusses potential methodologies with respect to
   aggregation.

   The "congruence" of aggregation is defined by the amount of overlap
   in the leaves of the customer trees that are aggregated on a SP tree.
   For Aggregate Trees with an inclusive mapping the congruence depends



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   on the overlap in the membership of the MVPNs that are aggregated on
   the tree. If there is complete overlap i.e. all MVPNs have exactly
   the same sites, aggregation is perfectly congruent. As the overlap
   between the MVPNs that are aggregated reduces, i.e. the number of
   sites that are common across all the MVPNs reduces, the congruence
   reduces.

   If aggregation is done such that it is not perfectly congruent a PE
   may receive traffic for MVPNs to which it doesn't belong. As the
   amount of multicast traffic in these unwanted MVPNs increases
   aggregation becomes less optimal with respect to delivered traffic.
   Hence there is a tradeoff between reducing state and delivering
   unwanted traffic.

   An implementation should provide knobs to control the congruence of
   aggregation. These knobs are implementation dependent. Configuring
   the percentage of sites that MVPNs must have in common to be
   aggregated, is an example of such a knob. This will allow a SP to
   deploy aggregation depending on the MVPN membership and traffic
   profiles in its network.  If different PEs or servers are setting up
   Aggregate Trees this will also allow a service provider to engineer
   the maximum amount of unwanted MVPNs that a particular PE may receive
   traffic for.


6.3.3. Demultiplexing C-multicast traffic

   If a P-multicast tree is associated with only one MVPN, determining
   the P-multicast tree on which a packet was received is sufficient to
   determine the packet's MVPN. All that the egress PE needs to know is
   the MVPN the P-multicast tree is associated with.

   When multiple MVPNs are aggregated onto one P-Multicast tree,
   determining the tree over which the packet is received is not
   sufficient to determine the MVPN to which the packet belongs.  The
   packet must also carry some demultiplexing information to allow the
   egress PEs to determine the MVPN to which the packet belongs.  Since
   the packet has been multicast through the P network, any given
   demultiplexing value must have the same meaning to all the egress
   PEs.  The demultiplexing value is a MPLS label that corresponds to
   the multicast VRF to which the packet belongs. This label is placed
   by the ingress PE immediately beneath the P-Multicast tree header.
   Each of the egress PEs must be able to associate this MPLS label with
   the same MVPN.  If downstream label assignment were used this would
   require all the egress PEs in the MVPN to agree on a common label for
   the MVPN. Instead the MPLS label is upstream assigned
   [MPLS-UPSTREAM-LABEL]. The label bindings are advertised via BGP
   updates originated by the ingress PEs.



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   This procedure requires each egress PE to support a separate label
   space for every other PE. The egress PEs create a forwarding entry
   for the upstream assigned MPLS label, allocated by the ingress PE, in
   this label space. Hence when the egress PE receives a packet over an
   Aggregate Tree, it first determines the tree that the packet was
   received over. The tree identifier determines the label space in
   which the upstream assigned MPLS label lookup has to be performed.
   The same label space may be used for all P-multicast trees rooted at
   the same ingress PE, or an implementation may decide to use a
   separate label space for every P-multicast tree.

   A full specification of the procedures to support aggregation on
   shared trees or on MP2MP LSPs is outside the scope of this document.

   The encapsulation format is either MPLS or MPLS-in-something (e.g.
   MPLS-in-GRE [MPLS-IP]). When MPLS is used, this label will appear
   immediately below the label that identifies the P-multicast tree.
   When MPLS-in-GRE is used, this label will be the top MPLS label that
   appears when the GRE header is stripped off.

   When IP encapsulation is used for the P-multicast Tree, whatever
   information that particular encapsulation format uses for identifying
   a particular tunnel is used to determine the label space in which the
   MPLS label is looked up.

   If the P-multicast tree uses MPLS encapsulation, the P-multicast tree
   is itself identified by an MPLS label.  The egress PE MUST NOT
   advertise IMPLICIT NULL or EXPLICIT NULL for that tree.  Once the
   label representing the tree is popped off the MPLS label stack, the
   next label is the demultiplexing information that allows the proper
   MVPN to be determined.

   This specification requires that, to support this sort of
   aggregation, there be at least one upstream-assigned label per MVPN.
   It does not require that there be only one.  For example, an ingress
   PE could assign a unique label to each (C-S,C-G).  (This could be
   done using the same technique this is used to assign a particular
   (C-S,C-G) to an S-PMSI, see section 7.4.)

   When an egress PE receives a C-multicast data packet over a
   P-multicast tree, it needs to forward the packet to the CEs that have
   receivers in the packet's C-multicast group.  In order to do this the
   egress PE needs to determine the P-tunnel on which the packet was
   received. The PE can then determine the MVPN that the packet belongs
   to and if needed do any further lookups that are needed to forward
   the packet.





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6.4. Considerations for Specific Tunnel Technologies

   While it is believed that the architecture specified in this document
   places no limitations on the protocols used for setting up and
   maintaining P-tunnels, the only protocols that have been explicitly
   considered are PIM-SM (both the SSM and ASM service models are
   considered, as are bidirectional trees), RSVP-TE, mLDP, and BGP.
   (BGP's role in the setup and maintenance of P-tunnels is to "stitch"
   together the Intra-AS segments of a segmented Inter-AS P-tunnel.)


6.4.1. RSVP-TE P2MP LSPs

   If an I-PMSI is to be instantiated as one or more non-segmented
   P-tunnels, where the P-tunnels are RSVP-TE P2MP LSPs, then only the
   PEs which are at the head ends of those LSPs will ever include the
   PMSI Tunnel attribute in their Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D routes. (These
   will be the PEs in the "Sender Sites set".)

   If an I-PMSI is to be instantiated as one or more segmented
   P-tunnels, where some of the Intra-AS segments of these tunnels are
   RSVP-TE P2MP LSPs, then only a PE or ASBR which is at the head end of
   one of these LSPs will ever include the PMSI Tunnel attribute in its
   Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route.

   Other PEs send Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D routes without PMSI Tunnel
   attributes.  (These will be the PEs that are in the "Receiver Sites"
   but not in the "Sender Sites set".)  As each "Sender Site" PE
   receives an Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D route from a PE in the Receiver Sites
   set, it adds the PE originating that Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D route to the
   set of receiving PEs for the P2MP LSP.  The PE at the headend MUST
   then use RSVP-TE [RSVP-P2MP] signaling to add the receiver PEs to the
   P-tunnel.

   When RSVP-TE P2MP LSPs are used to instantiate S-PMSIs, and a
   particular C-flow is to be bound to the LSP, it is necessary to use
   explicit tracking so that the head end of the LSP knows which PEs
   need to receive data from the specified C-flow.  If the binding is
   done using S-PMSI A-D routes (see section 7.4.1), the "Leaf
   Information Required" bit MUST be set in the PMSI Tunnel attribute.

   RSVP-TE P2MP LSPs can optionally support aggregation of multiple
   MVPNs.

   If an RSVP-TE P2MP TE LSP Tunnel is used for only a single MVPN, the
   mapping between the LSP and the MVPN can either be configured, or can
   be deduced from the procedures used to announce the LSP (e.g., from
   the RTs in the A-D route that announced the LSP).  If the LSP is used



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   for multiple MVPNs, the set of MVPNs using it (and the corresponding
   MPLS labels) are inferred from the PMSI tunnel attributes that
   specify the LSP.

   If an RSVP-TE P2MP LSP is being used to carry a set of C-flows
   traveling along a bidirectional C-Tree, using the procedures of
   section 11.2, the head end MUST include the PE Distinguisher Labels
   attribute in its I-PMSI Intra-AS A-D route or S-PMSI A-D route, and
   MUST provide an upstream-assigned label for each PE that it has
   selected as the upstream PE for the C-tree's RPA ("Rendezvous Point
   Address").  See section 11.2 for details.

   A PMSI Tunnel attribute specifying an RSVP-TE P2MP LSP contains the
   following information:
     - The type of the tunnel is set to RSVP-TE P2MP Tunnel

     - RSVP-TE P2MP Tunnel's SESSION Object

     - Optionally RSVP-TE P2MP LSP's SENDER_TEMPLATE Object. This object
       is included when it is desired to identify a particular P2MP TE
       LSP.

   Demultiplexing the C-multicast data packets at the egress PE follows
   procedures described in section 6.3.3. As specified in section 6.3.3
   an egress PE MUST NOT advertise IMPLICIT NULL or EXPLICIT NULL for a
   RSVP-TE P2MP LSP that is carrying traffic for one or more MVPNs.

   If (and only if) a particular RSVP-TE P2MP LSP is possibly carrying
   data from multiple MVPNs, the following special procedures apply:

     - A packet in a particular MVPN, when transmitted into the LSP,
       must carry the MPLS label specified in the PMSI tunnel attribute
       that announced that LSP as a P-tunnel for that for that MVPN.

     - Demultiplexing the C-multicast data packets at the egress PE is
       done by means of the MPLS label that rises to the top of the
       stack after the corresponding to the P2MP LSP is popped off.

   It is possible that at the time a PE learns, via an A-D route with a
   PMSI Tunnel attribute, that it needs to receive traffic on a
   particular RSVP-TE P2MP LSP, the signaling to set up the LSP will not
   have been completed.  In this case, the PE needs to wait for the
   RSVP-TE signaling to take place before it can modify its forwarding
   tables as directed by the A-D route.

   It is also possible that the signaling to set up an RSVP-TE P2MP LSP
   will be completed before a given PE learns, via a PMSI Tunnel
   attribute, of the use to which that LSP will be put.  The PE MUST



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   discard any traffic received on that LSP until that time.

   In order for the egress PE to be able to discard such traffic it
   needs to know that the LSP is associated with an MVPN and that the
   A-D route that binds the LSP to an MVPN or to a particular a C-flow
   has not yet been received.  This is provided by extending [RSVP-P2MP]
   with [RSVP-OOB].


6.4.2. PIM Trees

   When the P-tunnels are PIM trees, the PMSI Tunnel attribute contains
   enough information to allow each other PE in the same MVPN to use
   P-PIM signaling to join the P-tunnel.

   If an I-PMSI is to be instantiated as one or more PIM trees, then the
   PE that is at the root of a given PIM tree sends an Intra-AS I-PMSI
   A-D route containing a PMSI Tunnel attribute that contains all the
   information needed for other PEs to join the tree.

   If PIM trees are to be used to instantiate an MI-PMSI, each PE in the
   MVPN must send an Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D route containing such a PMSI
   Tunnel attribute.

   If a PMSI is to be instantiated via a shared tree, the PMSI Tunnel
   attribute identifies the a P-group address.  The RP or RPA
   corresponding to the P-group address is not specified.  It must of
   course be known to all the PEs.  It is presupposed that the PEs use
   one of the methods for automatically learning the RP-to-group
   correspondences (e.g., Bootstrap Router Protocol [BSR]), or else that
   the correspondence are configured.

   If a PMSI is to be instantiated via a source-specific tree, the PMSI
   Tunnel attribute identifies the PE router that is the root of the
   tree, as well as a P-group address.  The PMSI Tunnel attribute always
   specifies whether the PIM tree is to be a unidirectional shared tree,
   a bidirectional shared tree, or a source-specific tree.

   If PIM trees are being used to instantiate S-PMSIs, the above
   procedures assume that each PE router has a set of group P-addresses
   that it can use for setting up the PIM-trees.  Each PE must be
   configured with this set of P-addresses.  If the P-tunnels are
   source-specific trees, then the PEs may be configured with
   overlapping sets of group P-addresses.  If the trees are not
   source-specific, then each PE must be configured with a unique set of
   group P-addresses (i.e., having no overlap with the set configured at
   any other PE router).  The management of this set of addresses is
   thus greatly simplified when source-specific trees are used, so the



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   use of source-specific trees is strongly recommended whenever
   unidirectional trees are desired.

   Specification of the full set of procedures for using bidirectional
   PIM trees to instantiate S-PMSIs are outside the scope of this
   document.

   Details for constructing the PMSI Tunnel Attribute identifying a PIM
   tree can be found in [MVPN-BGP].


6.4.3. mLDP P2MP LSPs

   When the P-tunnels are mLDP P2MP trees, each Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D
   route has a PMSI Tunnel attribute containing enough information to
   allow each other PE in the same MVPN to use mLDP signaling to join
   the P-tunnel.  The tunnel identifier consists of the root node
   address, along with the Generic LSP Identifier value.

   An mLDP P2MP LSP may be used to carry traffic of multiple VPNs, if
   the PMSI Tunnel Attribute specifying it contains a non-zero MPLS
   label.

   If an mLDP P2MP LSP is being used to carry the set of flows traveling
   along a particular bidirectional C-tree, using the procedures of
   section 11.2, the root of the LSP MUST include the PE Distinguisher
   Labels attribute in its Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D route or S-PMSI A-D
   route, and MUST provide an upstream-assigned label for the PE that it
   has selected the upstream PE for the C-tree's RPA.  See section 11.2
   for details.


6.4.4. mLDP MP2MP LSPs

   Specification of the procedures for assigning C-flows to mLDP MP2MP
   LSPs that serve as P-tunnels is outside the scope of this document.


6.4.5. Ingress Replication

   As described in section 3, a PMSI can be instantiated using Unicast
   Tunnels between the PEs that are participating in the MVPN. In this
   mechanism the ingress PE replicates a C-multicast data packet
   belonging to a particular MVPN and sends a copy to all or a subset of
   the PEs that belong to the MVPN. A copy of the packet is tunneled to
   a remote PE over a Unicast Tunnel to the remote PE. IP/GRE Tunnels or
   MPLS LSPs are examples of unicast tunnels that may be used.  The same
   Unicast Tunnel can be used to transport packets belonging to



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   different MVPNs

   In order for a PE to use Unicast P-Tunnels to send a C-multicast data
   packet for a particular MVPN to a set of remote PEs, the remote PEs
   must be able to correctly decapsulate such packets and to assign each
   one to the proper MVPN. This requires that the encapsulation used for
   sending packets through the P-tunnel have demultiplexing information
   which the receiver can associate with a particular MVPN.

   If ingress replication is being used to instantiate the PMSIs for an
   MVPN, the PEs announce this as part of the BGP based MVPN membership
   auto-discovery process, described in section 4.  The PMSI tunnel
   attribute specifies ingress replication, and also specifies a
   downstream-assigned MPLS label.  This label will be used to identify
   that a particular packet belongs to the MVPN that the Intra-AS I-PMSI
   A-D route belongs to (as inferred from its RTs.)  If PE1 specifies a
   particular label value for a particular MVPN, then any other PE
   sending PE1 a packet for that MVPN through a unicast P-tunnel must
   put that label on the packet's label stack.  PE1 then treats that
   label as the demultiplexor value identifying the MVPN in question.

   Ingress replication may be used to instantiate any kind of PMSI.
   When ingress replication is done, it is RECOMMENDED, except in the
   one particular case mentioned in the next paragraph, that explicit
   tracking be done, and that the data packets of a particular C-flow
   only get sent to those PEs that need to see the packets of that
   C-flow.  There is never any need to use the procedures of section 7.4
   for binding particular C-flows to particular P-tunnels.

   The particular case in which there is no need for explicit tracking
   is the case where ingress replication is being used to create a
   one-hop ASBR-ASBR Inter-AS segment of an segmented Inter-AS P-tunnel.

   Section 9.1 specifies three different methods that can be used to
   prevent duplication of multicast data packets.  Any given deployment
   must use at least one of those methods.  Note that the method
   described in section 9.1.1 ("Discarding Packets from the Wrong PE")
   presupposes that the egress PE of a P-tunnel can, upon receiving a
   packet from the P-tunnel, determine the identity of the PE that
   transmitted the packet into the P-tunnel. SPs that use ingress
   replication to instantiate their PMSIs are cautioned against the use
   for this purpose of unicast P-tunnel technologies that do not allow
   the egress PE to identify the ingress PE (e.g., MP2P LSPs for which
   penultimate-hop-popping is done).  Deployment of ingress replication
   with such a P-tunnel technology MUST NOT be done unless it is known
   that the deployment relies entirely on the procedures of section
   9.1.2 or 9.1.3 for duplicate prevention.




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7. Binding Specific C-flows to Specific P-Tunnels

   As discussed previously, Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D routes may (or may not)
   have PMSI tunnel attributes, identifying P-tunnels that can be used
   as the default P-tunnels for carrying C-multicast traffic, i.e., for
   carrying C-multicast traffic that has not been specifically bound to
   another P-tunnel.

   If none of the Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D routes originated by a particular
   PE for a particular MVPN carry PMSI tunnel attributes at all (or if
   the only PMSI tunnel attributes they carry have type "No tunnel
   information present"), then there are no default P-tunnels for that
   PE to use when transmitting C-multicast traffic in that MVPN to other
   PEs.  In that case, all such C-flows must be assigned to specific
   P-tunnels using one of the mechanisms specified in section 7.4.  That
   is, all such C-flows are carried on P-tunnels that instantiate
   S-PMSIs.

   There are other cases where it may be either necessary or desirable
   to use the mechanisms of section 7.4 to identify specific C-flows and
   bind them to or unbind them from specific P-tunnels.  Some possible
   cases are:

     - The policy for a particular MVPN is to send all C-data on
       S-PMSIs, even if the Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D routes carry PMSI tunnel
       attributes.  (This is another case where all C-data is carried on
       S-PMSIs; presumably the I-PMSIs are used for control
       information.)

     - It is desired to optimize the routing of the particular C-flow,
       which may already be traveling on an I-PMSI, by sending it
       instead on an S-PMSI.

     - If a particular C-flow is traveling on an S-PMSI, it may be
       considered desirable to move it to an I-PMSI (i.e., optimization
       of the routing for that flow may no longer be considered
       desirable)

     - It is desired to change the encapsulation used to carry the
       C-flow, e.g., because one now wants to aggregate it on a P-tunnel
       with flows from other MVPNs.

   Note that if Full PIM Peering over an MI-PMSI (section 5.2) is being
   used, then from the perspective of the PIM state machine, the
   "interface" connecting the PEs to each other is the MI-PMSI, even if
   some or all of the C-flows are being sent on S-PMSIs.  That is, from
   the perspective of the C-PIM state machine, when a C-flow is being
   sent or received on an S-PMSI, the output or input interface



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   (respectively) is considered to be the MI-PMSI.

   Section 7.1 discusses certain general considerations that apply
   whenever a specified C-flow is bound to a specified P-tunnel using
   the mechanisms of section 7.4.  This includes the case where the
   C-flow is moved from one P-tunnel to another, as well as the case
   where the C-flow is initially bound to an S-PMSI P-tunnel.

   Section 7.2 discusses the specific case of using the mechanisms of
   section 7.4 as a way of optimizing multicast routing by switching
   specific flows from one P-tunnel to another.

   Section 7.3 discusses the case where the mechanisms of section 7.4
   are used to announce the presence of "unsolicited flooded data" and
   to assign such data to a particular P-tunnel.

   Section 7.4 specifies the protocols for assigning specific C-flows to
   specific P-tunnels.   These protocols may be used to assign a C-flow
   to a P-tunnel initially, or to switch a flow from one P-tunnel to
   another.

   Procedures for binding to a specified P-tunnel the set of C-flows
   traveling along a specified C-tree (or for so binding a set of
   C-flows that share some relevant characteristic), without identifying
   each flow individually, are outside the scope of this document.


7.1. General Considerations

7.1.1. At the PE Transmitting the C-flow on the P-Tunnel

   The decision to bind a particular C-flow (designated as (C-S,C-G)) to
   a particular P-tunnel, or to switch a particular C-flow to a
   particular P-tunnel, is always made by the PE that is to transmit the
   C-flow onto the P-tunnel.

   Whenever a PE moves a particular C-flow from one P-tunnel, say P1, to
   another, say P2, care must be taken to ensure that there is no steady
   state duplication of traffic.  At any given time, the PE transmits
   the C-flow either on P1 or on P2, but not on both.

   When a particular PE, say PE1, decides to bind a particular C-flow to
   a particular P-tunnel, say P2, the following procedures MUST be
   applied:







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     - PE1 must issue the required control plane information to signal
       that the specified C-flow is now bound to P-tunnel P2 (see
       section 7.4).

     - If P-tunnel P2 needs to be constructed from the root downwards,
       PE1 must initiate the signaling to construct P2.  This is only
       required if P2 is an RSVP-TE P2MP LSP.

     - If the specified C-flow is currently bound to a different
       P-tunnel, say P1, then:

         * PE1 MUST wait for a "switch-over" delay before sending
           traffic of the C-flow on P-tunnel P2.  It is RECOMMENDED to
           allow this delay to be configurable.

         * Once the "switch-over" delay has elapsed, PE1 MUST send
           traffic for the C-flow on P2, and MUST NOT send it on P1.  In
           no case is any C-flow packet sent on both P-tunnels.

   When a C-flow is switched from one P-tunnel to another, the purpose
   of running a switch-over timer is to minimize packet loss without
   introducing packet duplication.  However, jitter may be introduced
   due to the difference in transit delays between the old and new
   P-tunnels.

   For best effect, the switch-over timer should be configured to a
   value that is "just long enough" (a) to allow all the PEs to learn
   about the new binding of C-flow to P-tunnel, and (b) to allow the PEs
   to construct the P-tunnel, if it doesn't already exist.

   If, after such a switch, the "old" P-tunnel P1 is no longer needed,
   it SHOULD be torn down and the resources supporting it freed.  The
   procedures for "tearing down" a P-tunnel are specific to the P-tunnel
   technology.

   Procedures for binding sets of C-flows traveling along specified
   C-trees (or sets of C-flows sharing any other characteristic) to a
   specified P-tunnel (or for moving them from one P-tunnel to another)
   are outside the scope of this document.


7.1.2. At the PE Receiving the C-flow from the P-Tunnel

   Suppose that a particular PE, say PE1, learns, via the procedures of
   section 7.4, that some other PE, say PE2, has bound a particular
   C-flow, designated as (C-S,C-G), to a particular P-tunnel, say P2.
   Then PE1 must determine whether it needs to receive (C-S,C-G) traffic
   from PE2.



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   If BGP is being used to distribute C-multicast routing information
   from PE to PE, the conditions under which PE1 needs to receive
   (C-S,C-G) traffic from PE2 are specified in section 12.3 of
   [MVPN-BGP].

   If PIM over an MI-PMSI is being used to distribute C-multicast
   routing from PE to PE, PE1 needs to receive (C-S,C-G) traffic from
   PE2 if one or more of the following conditions holds:

     - PE1 has (C-S,C-G) state such that PE2 is PE1's Upstream PE for
       (C-S,C-G), and PE1 has downstream neighbors ("non-null olist")
       for the (C-S,C-G) state.

     - PE1 has (C-*,C-G) state with an upstream PE (not necessarily PE2)
       and with downstream neighbors ( "non-null olist"), but PE1 does
       not have (C-S,C-G) state.

     - Native PIM methods are being used to prevent steady-state packet
       duplication, and PE1 has either (C-*,C-G) or (C-S,C-G) state such
       that the MI-PMSI is one of the downstream interfaces.  Note that
       this includes the case where PE1 is itself sending (C-S,C-G)
       traffic on an S-PMSI.  (In this case, PE1 needs to receive the
       (C-S,C-G) traffic from PE2 in order to allow the PIM Assert
       mechanism to function properly.)

   Irrespective of whether BGP or PIM is being used to distribute
   C-multicast routing information, once PE1 determines that it needs to
   receive (C-S,C-G) traffic from PE2, the following procedures MUST be
   applied:

     - PE1 MUST take all necessary steps to be able to receive the
       (C-S,C-G) traffic on P2.

         * If P2 is a PIM tunnel or an mLDP LSP, PE1 will need to use
           PIM or mLDP (respectively) to join P2 (unless it is already
           joined to P2).

         * PE1 may need to modify the forwarding state for (C-S,C-G) to
           indicate that (C-S,C-G) traffic is to be accepted on P2.  If
           P2 is an Aggregate Tree, this also implies setting up the
           demultiplexing forwarding entries based on the inner label as
           described in section 6.3.3

     - If PE1 was previously receiving the (C-S,C-G) C-flow on another
       P-tunnel, say P1, then:






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         * PE1 MAY run a switch-over timer, and until it expires, SHOULD
           accept traffic for the given C-flow on both P1 and P2;

         * If, after such a switch, the "old" P-tunnel P1 is no longer
           needed, it SHOULD be torn down and the resources supporting
           it freed.  The procedures for "tearing down" a P-tunnel are
           specific to the P-tunnel technology.

     - If PE1 later determines that it no longer needs to receive any of
       the C-multicast data that is being sent on a particular P-tunnel,
       it may initiate signaling (specific to the P-unnel technology) to
       remove itself from that tunnel.



7.2. Optimizing Multicast Distribution via S-PMSIs

   Whenever a particular multicast stream is being sent on an I-PMSI, it
   is likely that the data of that stream is being sent to PEs that do
   not require it.  If a particular stream has a significant amount of
   traffic, it may be beneficial to move it to an S-PMSI that includes
   only those PEs that are transmitters and/or receivers (or at least
   includes fewer PEs that are neither).

   If explicit tracking is being done, S-PMSI creation can also be
   triggered on other criteria.  For instance there could be a "pseudo
   wasted bandwidth" criteria: switching to an S-PMSI would be done if
   the bandwidth multiplied by the number of uninterested PEs (PE that
   are receiving the stream but have no receivers) is above a specified
   threshold. The motivation is that (a) the total bandwidth wasted by
   many sparsely subscribed low-bandwidth groups may be large, and (b)
   there's no point to moving a high-bandwidth group to an S-PMSI if all
   the PEs have receivers for it.

   Switching a (C-S,C-G) stream to an S-PMSI may require the root of the
   S-PMSI to determine the egress PEs that need to receive the (C-S,C-G)
   traffic.  This is true in the following cases:

     - If the P-tunnel is a source initiated tree, such as a RSVP-TE
       P2MP Tunnel, the PE needs to know the leaves of the tree before
       it can instantiate the S-PMSI.

     - If a PE instantiates multiple S-PMSIs, belonging to different
       MVPNs, using one P-multicast tree, such a tree is termed an
       Aggregate Tree with a selective mapping. The setting up of such
       an Aggregate Tree requires the ingress PE to know all the other
       PEs that have receivers for multicast groups that are mapped onto
       the tree.



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   The above two cases require that explicit tracking be done for the
   (C-S, C-G) stream.  The root of the S-PMSI MAY decide to do explicit
   tracking of this stream only after it has determined to move the
   stream to an S-PMSI, or it MAY have been doing explicit tracking all
   along.

   If the S-PMSI is instantiated by a P-multicast tree, the PE at the
   root of the tree must signal the leaves of the tree that the
   (C-S,C-G) stream is now bound to the S-PMSI. Note that the PE could
   create the identity of the P-multicast tree prior to the actual
   instantiation of the P-tunnel.

   If the S-PMSI is instantiated by a source-initiated P-multicast tree
   (e.g., an RSVP-TE P2MP tunnel), the PE at the root of the tree must
   establish the source-initiated P-multicast tree to the leaves.  This
   tree MAY have been established before the leaves receive the S-PMSI
   binding, or MAY be established after the leaves receives the binding.
   The leaves MUST NOT switch to the S-PMSI until they receive both the
   binding and the tree signaling message.


7.3. Announcing the Presence of Unsolicited Flooded Data

   A PE may receive "unsolicited" data from a CE, where the data is
   intended to be flooded to the other PEs of the same MVPN and then on
   to other CEs.  By "unsolicited", we mean that the data is to be
   delivered to all the other PEs of the MVPN, even though those PEs may
   not have sent any control information indicating that they need to
   receive that data.

   For example, if the BSR [BSR] is being used within the MVPN, BSR
   control messages may be received by a PE from a CE.  These need to be
   forwarded to other PEs, even though no PE ever issues any kind of
   explicit signal saying that it wants to receive BSR messages.

   If a PE receives a BSR message from a CE, and if the CE's MVPN has an
   MI-PMSI, then the PE can just send BSR messages on the appropriate
   P-tunnel.  Otherwise, the PE MUST announce the binding of a
   particular C-flow to a particular P-tunnel, using the procedures of
   section 7.4.  The particular C-flow in this case would be
   (C-IPaddress_of_PE, ALL-PIM-ROUTERS).  The P-tunnel identified by the
   procedures of section 7.4 may or may not be one that was previously
   identified in the PMSI tunnel attribute of an I-PMSI A-D route.
   Further procedures for handling BSR may be found in sections 5.2.1
   and 5.3.4.

   Analogous procedures may be used for announcing the presence of other
   sorts of unsolicited flooded data, e.g., dense mode data or data from



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   proprietary protocols that presume messages can be flooded.  However,
   a full specification of the procedures for traffic other than BSR
   traffic is outside the scope of this document.


7.4. Protocols for Binding C-flows to P-tunnels

   We describe two protocols for binding C-flows to P-tunnels.

   These protocols can be used for moving C-flows from I-PMSIs to
   S-PMSIs, as long as the S-PMSI is instantiated by a P-multicast tree.
   (If the S-PMSI is instantiated by means of ingress replication, the
   procedures of section 6.4.5 suffice.)

   These protocols can also be used for other cases in which it is
   necessary to bind specific C-flows to specific P-tunnels.


7.4.1. Using BGP S-PMSI A-D Routes

   Not withstanding the name of the mechanism "S-PMSI A-D Routes", the
   mechanism to be specified in this section may be used any time it is
   necessary to advertise a binding of a C-flow to a particular
   P-tunnel.


7.4.1.1. Advertising C-flow Binding to P-Tunnel

   The ingress PE informs all the PEs that are on the path to receivers
   of the (C-S,C-G) of the binding of the P-tunnel to the (C-S,C-G). The
   BGP announcement is done by sending update for the MCAST-VPN address
   family.  An S-PMSI A-D route is used, containing the following
   information:

      1. IP address of the originating PE

      2. The RD configured locally for the MVPN. This is required to
         uniquely identify the (C-S,C-G) as the addresses could overlap
         between different MVPNs.  This is the same RD value used in the
         auto-discovery process.

      3. The C-S address.

      4. The C-G address.







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      5. A PE MAY use a single P-tunnel to aggregate two or more
         S-PMSIs.  If the PE already advertised unaggregated S-PMSI
         auto-discovery routes for these S-PMSIs, then a decision to
         aggregate them requires the PE to re-advertise these routes.
         The re-advertised routes MUST be the same as the original ones,
         except for the PMSI tunnel attribute. If the PE has not
         previously advertised S-PMSI auto-discovery routes for these
         S-PMSIs, then the aggregation requires the PE to advertise
         (new) S-PMSI auto-discovery routes for these S-PMSIs.  The PMSI
         Tunnel attribute in the newly advertised/re-advertised routes
         MUST carry the identity of the P-tunnel that aggregates the
         S-PMSIs.

         If all these aggregated S-PMSIs belong to the same MVPN, and
         this MVPN uses PIM as its C-multicast routing protocol, then
         the corresponding S-PMSI A-D routes MAY carry an MPLS upstream
         assigned label [MPLS-UPSTREAM-LABEL]. Moreover, in this case
         the labels MUST be distinct on a per MVPN basis, and MAY be
         distinct on a per route basis.

         If all these aggregated S-PMSIs belong to the MVPN(s) that use
         mLDP as its C-multicast routing protocol, then the
         corresponding S-PMSI A-D routes MUST carry an MPLS upstream
         assigned label [MPLS-UPSTREAM-LABEL], and these labels MUST be
         distinct on a per route (per mLDP FEC) basis, irrespective of
         whether the aggregated S-PMSIs belong to the same or different
         MVPNs.

   When a PE distributes this information via BGP, it must include the
   following:

      1. An identifier for the particular P-tunnel to which the stream
         is to be bound.  This identifier is a structured field that
         includes the following information:

           * The type of tunnel

           * An identifier for the tunnel.  The form of the identifier
             will depend upon the tunnel type.  The combination of
             tunnel identifier and tunnel type should contain enough
             information to enable all the PEs to "join" the tunnel and
             receive messages from it.

      2. Route Target Extended Communities attribute. This is used as
         described in section 4.






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7.4.1.2. Explicit Tracking

   If the PE wants to enable explicit tracking for the specified flow,
   it also indicates this in the A-D route it uses to bind the flow to a
   particular P-tunnel.  Then any PE that receives the A-D route will
   respond with a "Leaf A-D Route" in which it identifies itself as a
   receiver of the specified flow.  The Leaf A-D route will be withdrawn
   when the PE is no longer a receiver for the flow.

   If the PE needs to enable explicit tracking for a flow without at the
   same time binding the flow to a specific P-tunnel, it can do so by
   sending an S-PMSI A-D route whose NLRI identifies the flow and whose
   PMSI Tunnel attribute has its tunnel type value set to "no tunnel
   information present" and its "leaf information required" bit set to
   1.  This will elicit the Leaf A-D Routes.  This is useful when the PE
   needs to know the receivers before selecting a P-tunnel.


7.4.2. UDP-based Protocol

   This procedure carries its control messages in UDP, and requires that
   the MVPN has an MI-PMSI that can be used to carry the control
   messages.


7.4.2.1. Advertising C-flow Binding to P-tunnel

   In order for a given PE to move a particular C-flow to a particular
   P-tunnel, an "S-PMSI Join message" is sent periodically on the
   MI-PMSI.  (Notwithstanding the name of the mechanism, the mechanism
   may be used to bind a flow to any P-tunnel.)  The S-PMSI Join is a
   UDP-encapsulated message whose destination address is ALL-PIM-ROUTERS
   (224.0.0.13), and whose destination port is 3232.

   The S-PMSI Join Message contains the following information:

     - An identifier for the particular multicast stream that is to be
       bound to the P-tunnel.  This can be represented as an (S,G) pair.

     - An identifier for the particular P-tunnel to which the stream is
       to be bound.  This identifier is a structured field that includes
       the following information:

         * The type of tunnel used to instantiate the S-PMSI







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         * An identifier for the tunnel.  The form of the identifier
           will depend upon the tunnel type.  The combination of tunnel
           identifier and tunnel type should contain enough information
           to enable all the PEs to "join" the tunnel and receive
           messages from it.

         * If (and only if) the identified P-tunnel is aggregating
           several S-PMSIs, any demultiplexing information needed by the
           tunnel encapsulation protocol to identify a particular
           S-PMSI.

   If the policy for the MVPN is that traffic is sent/received by
   default over an MI-PMSI, then traffic for a particular C-flow can be
   switched back to the MI-PMSI simply by ceasing to send S-PMSI Joins
   for that C-flow.

   Note that an S-PMSI Join that is not received over a PMSI (e.g., one
   that is received directly from a CE) is an illegal packet that MUST
   be discarded.


7.4.2.2. Packet Formats and Constants

   The S-PMSI Join message is encapsulated within UDP, and has the
   following type/length/value (TLV) encoding:


        0                   1                   2                   3
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |     Type      |            Length           |     Value       |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                               .                               |
       |                               .                               |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Type (8 bits)

   Length (16 bits): the total number of octets in the Type, Length, and
   Value fields combined

   Value (variable length)

   Currently only one type of S-PMSI Join is defined.  A type 1 S-PMSI
   Join is used when the S-PMSI tunnel is a PIM tunnel that is used to
   carry a single multicast stream, where the packets of that stream
   have IPv4 source and destination IP addresses.




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        0                   1                   2                   3
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |     Type      |           Length            |    Reserved     |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                           C-source                            |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                           C-group                             |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                           P-group                             |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Type (8 bits): 1

   Length (16 bits): 16

   Reserved (8 bits):  This field SHOULD be zero when transmitted, and
   MUST be ignored when received.

   C-Source (32 bits): the IPv4 address of the traffic source in the
   VPN.

   C-Group (32 bits): the IPv4 address of the multicast traffic
   destination address in the VPN.

   P-Group (32 bits): the IPv4 group address that the PE router is going
   to use to encapsulate the flow (C-Source, C-Group).

   The P-group identifies the S-PMSI P-tunnel, and the (C-S,C-G)
   identifies the multicast flow that is carried in the P-tunnel.

   The protocol uses the following constants.

   [S-PMSI_DELAY]:

       once an S-PMSI Join message has been sent, the PE router that is
       to transmit onto the S-PMSI will delay this amount of time before
       it begins using the S-PMSI.  The default value is 3 seconds.

   [S-PMSI_TIMEOUT]:

       if a PE (other than the transmitter) does not receive any packets
       over the S-PMSI P-tunnel for this amount of time, the PE will
       prune itself from the S-PMSI P-tunnel, and will expect (C-S,C-G)
       packets to arrive on an I-PMSI.  The default value is 3 minutes.
       This value must be consistent among PE routers.

   [S-PMSI_HOLDOWN]:



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       if the PE that transmits onto the S-PMSI does not see any
       (C-S,C-G) packets for this amount of time, it will resume sending
       (C-S,C-G) packets on an I-PMSI.

       This is used to avoid oscillation when traffic is bursty.  The
       default value is 1 minute.

   [S-PMSI_INTERVAL]
       the interval the transmitting PE router uses to periodically send
       the S-PMSI Join message.  The default value is 60 seconds.


7.4.3. Aggregation

   S-PMSIs can be aggregated on a P-multicast tree. The S-PMSI to
   (C-S,C-G) binding advertisement supports aggregation. Furthermore the
   aggregation procedures of section 6.3 apply. It is also possible to
   aggregate both S-PMSIs and I-PMSIs on the same P-multicast tree.


8. Inter-AS Procedures

   If an MVPN has sites in more than one AS, it requires one or more
   PMSIs to be instantiated by inter-AS P-tunnels.  This document
   describes two different types of inter-AS P-tunnel:

      1. "Segmented Inter-AS P-tunnels"

         A segmented inter-AS P-tunnel consists of a number of
         independent segments that are stitched together at the ASBRs.
         There are two types of segment, inter-AS segments and intra-AS
         segments.  The segmented inter-AS P-tunnel consists of
         alternating intra-AS and inter-AS segments.

         Inter-AS segments connect adjacent ASBRs of different ASes;
         these "one-hop" segments are instantiated as unicast P-tunnels.

         Intra-AS segments connect ASBRs and PEs that are in the same
         AS.  An intra-AS segment may be of whatever technology is
         desired by the SP that administers the that AS.  Different
         intra-AS segments may be of different technologies.

         Note that the intra-AS segments of inter-AS P-tunnels form a
         category of P-tunnels that is distinct from simple intra-AS
         P-tunnels; we will rely on this distinction later (see Section
         9).

         A segmented inter-AS P-tunnel can be thought of as a tree that



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         is rooted at a particular AS, and that has as its leaves the
         other ASes that need to receive multicast data from the root
         AS.

      2. "Non-segmented Inter-AS P-tunnels"

         A non-segmented inter-AS P-tunnel is a single P-tunnel that
         spans AS boundaries.  The tunnel technology cannot change from
         one point in the tunnel to the next, so all ASes through which
         the P-tunnel passes must support that technology.  In essence,
         AS boundaries are of no significance to a non-segmented
         inter-AS P-tunnel.

   Section 10 of [RFC4364] describes three different options for
   supporting unicast Inter-AS BGP/MPLS IP VPNs, known as options A, B,
   and C.  We describe below how both segmented and non-segmented
   inter-AS trees can be supported when option B or option C is used.
   (Option A does not pass any routing information through an ASBR at
   all, so no special inter-AS procedures are needed.)


8.1. Non-Segmented Inter-AS P-Tunnels

   In this model, the previously described discovery and tunnel setup
   mechanisms are used, even though the PEs belonging to a given MVPN
   may be in different ASes.


8.1.1. Inter-AS MVPN Auto-Discovery

   The previously described BGP-based auto-discovery mechanisms work "as
   is" when an MVPN contains PEs that are in different Autonomous
   Systems.  However, please note that, if non-segmented Inter-AS
   P-Tunnels are to be used, then the "Intra-AS" I-PMSI A-D routes MUST
   be distributed across AS boundaries!


8.1.2. Inter-AS MVPN Routing Information Exchange

   When non-segmented inter-AS P-tunnels are used, MVPN C-multicast
   routing information may be exchanged by means of PIM peering across
   an MI-PMSI, or by means of BGP carrying C-multicast routes.

   When PIM peering is used to distribute the C-multicast routing
   information, a PE that sends C-PIM Join/Prune messages for a
   particular (C-S,C-G) must be able to identify the PE that is its PIM
   adjacency on the path to S.  This is the "selected upstream PE"
   described in section 5.1.



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   If BGP (rather than PIM) is used to distribute the C-multicast
   routing information, and if option b of section 10 of [RFC4364] is in
   use, then the C-multicast routes will be installed in the ASBRs along
   the path from each multicast source in the MVPN to each multicast
   receiver in the MVPN.  If option b is not in use, the C-multicast
   routes are not installed in the ASBRs.  The handling of the
   C-multicast routes in either case is thus exactly analogous to the
   handling of unicast VPN-IP routes in the corresponding case.


8.1.3. Inter-AS P-Tunnels

   The procedures described earlier in this document can be used to
   instantiate either an I-PMSI or an S-PMSI with inter-AS P-tunnels.
   Specific tunneling techniques require some explanation.

   If ingress replication is used, the inter-AS PE-PE P-tunnels will use
   the inter-AS tunneling procedures for the tunneling technology used.

   Procedures in [RSVP-P2MP] are used for inter-AS RSVP-TE P2MP
   P-Tunnels.

   Procedures for using PIM  to set up the P-tunnels are discussed in
   the next section.


8.1.3.1. PIM-Based Inter-AS P-Multicast Trees

   When PIM is used to set up an inter-AS P-multicast tree, the PIM
   Join/Prune messages used to join the tree contain the IP address of
   the upstream PE.  However, there are two special considerations that
   must be taken into account:

     - It is possible that the P routers within one or more of the ASes
       will not have routes to the upstream PE.  For example, if an AS
       has a "BGP-free core", the P routers in an AS will not have
       routes to addresses outside the AS.

     - If the PIM Join/Prune message must travel through several ASes,
       it is possible that the ASBRs will not have routes to he PE
       routers.  For example, in an inter-AS VPN constructed according
       to "option b" of section 10 of [RFC4364], the ASBRs do not
       necessarily have routes to the PE routers.

   If either of these two conditions obtains, then "ordinary" PIM
   Join/Prune messages cannot be routed to the upstream PE.  Therefore,
   in that case the PIM Join/Prune messages MUST contain the "PIM MVPN
   Join Attribute".  This allows the multicast distribution tree to be



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   properly constructed even if routes to PEs in other ASes do not exist
   in the given AS's IGP, and even if the routes to those PEs do not
   exist in BGP.  The use of an PIM MVPN Join Attribute in the PIM
   messages allows the inter-AS trees to be built.

   The use of the PIM MVPN Join Attribute allows the following
   information needs to be added to the PIM Join/Prune messages: a
   "Proxy Address", which contains the address of the next ASBR on the
   path to the upstream PE.  When the PIM Join/Prune arrives at the ASBR
   that is identified by the "proxy address", that ASBR must change the
   proxy address to identify the next hop ASBR.

   This information allows the PIM Join/Prune to be routed through an AS
   even if the P routers of that AS do not have routes to the upstream
   PE.  However, this information is not sufficient to enable the ASBRs
   to route the Join/Prune if the ASBRs themselves do not have routes to
   the upstream PE.

   However, even if the ASBRs do not have routes to the upstream PE, the
   procedures of this draft ensure that they will have Inter-AS I-PMSI
   A-D routes that lead to the upstream PE.  If non-segmented inter-AS
   P-tunnels are being used, the ASBRs (and PEs) will have Intra-AS
   I-PMSI A-D routes that have been distributed inter-AS.

   So rather than having the PIM Join/Prune messages routed by the ASBRs
   along a route to the upstream PE, the PIM Join/Prune messages MUST be
   routed along the path determined by the Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D routes.

   If the only Intra-AS A-D route for a given MVPN is the "Intra-AS
   I-PMSI Route", the PIM Join/Prunes will be routed along that.
   However, if the PIM Join/Prune message is for a particular P-group
   address, and there is an "Intra-AS S-PMSI Route" specifying that
   particular P-group address as the P-tunnel for a particular S-PMSI,
   then the PIM Join/Prunes MUST be routed along the path determined by
   those Intra-AS A-D routes.

   The basic format of a PIM Join Attribute is specified in
   [PIM-ATTRIB].  The details of the PIM MVPN Join Attribute are
   specified in the next section.


8.1.3.2. The PIM MVPN Join Attribute

8.1.3.2.1. Definition

   In [PIM-ATTRIB], the notion of a "join attribute" is defined, and a
   format for included join attributes in PIM Join/Prune messages is
   specified.  We now define a new join attribute, which we call the



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   "MVPN Join Attribute".



    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |F|E| Attr_Type | Length        |     Proxy IP address
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                                    |      RD
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-.......


    The Attr_Type field of the MVPN Join Attribute is set to 1.

    The F bit is set to 0.

    Two information fields are carried in the MVPN Join attribute:

      - Proxy: The IP address of the node towards which the PIM
        Join/Prune message is to be forwarded.  This will either be an
        IPv4 or an IPv6 address, depending on whether the PIM Join/Prune
        message itself is IPv4 or IPv6.

      - RD: An eight-byte RD.  This immediately follows the proxy IP
        address.

    The PIM message also carries the address of the upstream PE.

    In the case of an intra-AS MVPN, the proxy and the upstream PE are
    the same.  In the case of an inter-AS MVPN, proxy will be the ASBR
    that is the exit point from the local AS on the path to the upstream
    PE.


8.1.3.2.2. Usage

   When a PE router creates a PIM Join/Prune message in order to set up
   an inter-AS I-PMSI, it does so as a result of having received a
   particular Intra-AS A-D route. It includes an MVPN Join attribute
   whose fields are set as follows:

     - If the upstream PE is in the same AS as the local PE, then the
       proxy field contains the address of the upstream PE.  Otherwise,
       it contains the address of the BGP next hop on the route to the
       upstream PE.





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     - The RD field contains the RD from the NLRI of the Intra-AS A-D
       route.

     - The upstream PE field contains the address of the PE that
       originated the Intra-AS A-D route (obtained from the NLRI of that
       route).

   When a PIM router processes a PIM Join/Prune message with an MVPN
   Join Attribute, it first checks to see if the proxy field contains
   one of its own addresses.

   If not, the router uses the proxy IP address in order to determine
   the RPF interface and neighbor.  The MVPN Join Attribute must be
   passed upstream, unchanged.

   If the proxy address is one of the router's own IP addresses, then
   the router looks in its BGP routing table for an Intra-AS A-D route
   whose NLRI consists of the upstream PE address prepended with the RD
   from the Join attribute.  If there is no match, the PIM message is
   discarded.  If there is a match the IP address from the BGP next hop
   field of the matching route is used in order to determine the RPF
   interface and neighbor. When the PIM Join/Prune is forwarded
   upstream, the proxy field is replaced with the address of the BGP
   next hop, and the RD and upstream PE fields are left unchanged.

   The use of non-segmented inter-AS trees constructed via BIDIR-PIM is
   outside the scope of this document.


8.2. Segmented Inter-AS P-Tunnels

   The procedures for setting up and maintaining Segmented Inter-AS
   Inclusive and Selective P-Tunnels may be found in [MVPN-BGP].



9. Preventing Duplication of Multicast Data Packets

   Consider the case of an egress PE that receives packets of a
   particular C-flow,(C-S,C-G), over a non-aggregated S-PMSI.  The
   procedures described so far will never cause the PE to receive
   duplicate copies of any packet in that stream.  It is possible that
   the (C-S,C-G) stream is carried in more than one S-PMSI; this may
   happen when the site that contains C-S is multihomed to more than one
   PE.  However, a PE that needs to receive (C-S,C-G) packets only joins
   one of these S-PMSIs, and so only receives one copy of each packet.

   However, if the data packets of stream (C-S,C-G) are carried in



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   either an I-PMSI or in an aggregated S-PMSI, then the procedures
   specified so far make it possible for an egress PE to receive more
   than one copy of each data packet.  Additional procedures are needed
   to either make this impossible, or to ensure that the egress PE does
   not forward duplicates to the CE routers.

   This section covers only the situation where the C-trees are
   unidirectional, in either the ASM or SSM service models.  The case
   where the C-trees are bidirectional is considered separately in
   section 11.

   There are two cases where the procedures specified so far make it
   possible for an egress PE to receive duplicate copies of a multicast
   data packet.  These are:

      1. The first case occurs when both of the following conditions
         hold:

            a. an MVPN site that contains C-S or C-RP is multihomed to
               more than one PE, and

            b. either an I-PMSI or an aggregated S-PMSI is used for
               carrying the packets originated by C-S.

         In this case, an egress PE may receive one copy of the packet
         from each PE to which the site is homed.  This case is
         discussed further in section 9.2.

      2. The second case occurs when all of the following conditions
         hold:

            a. the IP destination address of the customer packet, C-G,
               identifies a multicast group that is operating in ASM
               mode, and whose C-multicast tree is set up using PIM-SM

            b. an MI-PMSI is used for carrying the data packets, and

            c. a router or a CE in a site connected to the egress PE
               switches from the C-RP tree to C-S tree.

         In this case, it is possible to get one copy of a given packet
         from the ingress PE attached to the C-RP's site, and one from
         the ingress PE attached to the C-S's site.  This case is
         discussed further in section 9.3.

   Additional procedures are therefore needed to ensure that no MVPN
   customer sees steady state multicast data packet duplication.  There
   are three procedures that may be used:



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      1. Discarding data packets received from the "wrong" PE

      2. Single Forwarder Selection

      3. Native PIM methods

   These methods are described in section 9.1.  Their applicability to
   the two scenarios where duplication is possible is discussed in
   section 9.2 and 9.3.


9.1. Methods for Ensuring Non-Duplication

   Every MVPN MUST use at least one of the three methods for ensuring
   non-duplication.


9.1.1. Discarding Packets from Wrong PE

   Per section 5.1.3, an egress PE, say PE1, chooses a specific upstream
   PE, for given (C-S,C-G).  When PE1 receives a (C-S,C-G) packet from a
   PMSI, it may be able to identify the PE that transmitted the packet
   onto the PMSI.  If that transmitter is other than the PE selected by
   PE1 as the upstream PE, then PE1 can drop the packet.  This means
   that the PE will see a duplicate, but the duplicate will not get
   forwarded.

   The method used by an egress PE to determine the ingress PE for a
   particular packet, received over a particular PMSI, depends on the
   P-tunnel technology that is used to instantiate the PMSI.  If the
   P-tunnel is a P2MP LSP, a PIM-SM or PIM-SSM tree, or a unicast
   P-tunnel that uses IP encapsulation, then the tunnel encapsulation
   contains information that can be used (possibly along with other
   state information in the PE) to determine the ingress PE, as long as
   the P-tunnel is instantiating an intra-AS PMSI, or an inter-AS PMSI
   which is supported by a non-segmented inter-AS tunnel.

   Even when inter-AS segmented P-tunnels are used, if an aggregated
   S-PMSI is used for carrying the packets, the tunnel encapsulation
   must have some information that can be used to identify the PMSI, and
   that in turn implicitly identifies the ingress PE.

   Consider the case of an I-PMSI that spans multiple ASes and that is
   instantiated by segmented Inter-AS P-tunnels.  Suppose it is carrying
   data this is traveling along a particular C-tree.  Suppose also that
   the C-root of that C-tree is multi-homed to two or more PEs, and that
   each such PE is in a different AS than the others.  Then if there is
   any duplicate traffic, the duplicates will arrive on a different



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   P-tunnel. Specifically, if the PE was expecting the traffic on an
   particular inter-AS P-tunnel, duplicate traffic will arrive either on
   an intra-AS P-tunnel (not an intra-AS segment of an inter-AS
   P-tunnel), or on some other inter-AS P-tunnel.  To detect duplicates
   the PE has to keep track of which inter-AS A-D route the PE uses for
   sending MVPN multicast routing information towards C-S/C-RP. The PE
   MUST process received (multicast) traffic originated by C-S/C-RP only
   from the Inter-AS P-tunnel that was carried in the best Inter-AS A-D
   route for the MVPN and that was originated by the AS that contains
   C-S/C-RP (where "the best" is determined by the PE). The PE MUST
   discard, as duplicates, all other multicast traffic originated by
   C-S/C-RP, but received on any other P-tunnel.

   If, for a given MVPN, (a) MI-PMSI is used for carrying multicast data
   packets, (b) the MI-PMSI is instantiated by a segmented Inter-AS
   P-tunnel, (c) C-S or C-RP is multi-homed to different PEs, and (d) at
   least two of such PEs are in the same AS, then depending on the
   tunneling technology used to instantiate the MI-PMSI, it may not
   always be possible for the egress PE to determine the upstream PE.
   In that case the procedure of section 9.1.2 or 9.1.3 must be used.

   N.B.: Section 10 describes an exception case where PE1 has to accept
   a packet even if it is not from the selected upstream PE.


9.1.2. Single Forwarder Selection

   Section 5.1 specifies a procedure for choosing a "default upstream PE
   selection", such that (except during routing transients) all PEs will
   choose the same default upstream PE.  To ensure that duplicate
   packets are not sent through the backbone (except during routing
   transients), an ingress PE does not forward to the backbone any
   (C-S,C-G) multicast data packet it receives from a CE, unless the PE
   is the default upstream PE selection.

   One difference in effect between this procedure and the procedure of
   section 9.1.1 is that this procedure sends only one copy of each
   packet to each egress PE, rather than sending multiple copies and
   forcing the egress PE to discard all but one.


9.1.3. Native PIM Methods

   If PE-PE multicast routing information for a given MVPN is being
   disseminated by running PIM over an MI-PMSI, then native PIM methods
   will prevent steady state data packet duplication.  The PIM Assert
   mechanism prevents steady state duplication in the scenario of
   section 9.2, even if Single Forwarder Selection is not done.  The PIM



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   Prune(S,G,rpt) mechanism addresses the scenario of section 9.3.


9.2. Multihomed C-S or C-RP

   Any of the three methods of section 9.1 will prevent steady state
   duplicates in the case of a multihomed C-S or C-RP.


9.3. Switching from the C-RP tree to C-S tree

9.3.1. How Duplicates Can Occur

   If some PEs are on the C-S tree and some on the C-RP tree then a PE
   may also receive duplicate data traffic after a (C-*,C-G) to
   (C-S,C-G) switch.

   If PIM is being used on an MI-PMSI to disseminate multicast routing
   information, native PIM methods (in particular, the use of the
   Prune(S,G,rpt) message) prevent steady state data duplication in this
   case.

   If BGP C-multicast routing is being used, then the procedure of
   section 9.1.1, if applicable, can be used to prevent duplication.
   However, if that procedure is not applicable, then the procedure of
   section 9.1.2 is not sufficient to prevent steady state data
   duplication in all scenarios.

   In the scenario where (a) BGP C-multicast routing is being used, (b)
   there are inter-site shared C-trees, and (c) there are inter-site
   source C-trees, then additional procedures are needed.  To see this,
   consider the following topology:



                        CE1---C-RP
                         |
                         |
                  CE2---PE1-- ... --PE2---CE5---C-S
                              ...
           C-R1---CE3---PE3-- ... --PE4---CE4---C-R2



Suppose that C-R1 and C-R2 use PIM to join the (C-*,C-G) tree, where
C-RP is the RP corresponding to C-G.  As a result, CE3 and CE4 will send
PIM Join(*,G) messages to PE3 and PE4 respectively.  This will cause PE3
and PE4 to originate C-multicast Shared Tree Join Routes, specifying



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(C-*,C-G).  These routes will identify PE1 as the upstream PE.

Now suppose that C-S is a transmitter for multicast group C-G, and that
C-S sends its multicast data packets to C-RP in PIM register messages.
Then PE1 will receive (C-S,C-G) data packets from CE1, and will forward
them over an I-PMSI to PE3 and PE4, who will forward them in turn to CE3
and CE4 respectively.

When C-R1 receives (C-S,C-G) data packets, it may decide to join the
(C-S,C-G) source tree, by sending a PIM Join(S,G) to CE3.  This will in
turn cause CE3 to send a PIM Join(S,G) to PE3, which will in turn cause
PE3 to originate a C-multicast Source Tree Join Route, specifying
(C-S,C-G), and identifying PE2 as the upstream PE.  As a result, when
PE2 receives (C-S,C-G) data packets from CE5, it will forward them on a
PMSI to PE3.

At this point, the following situation obtains:

  - If PE1 receives (C-S,C-G) packets from CE1, PE1 must forward them on
    the I-PMSI, because PE4 is still expecting to receive the (C-S,C-G)
    packets from PE1.

  - PE3 must continue to receive packets from the I-PMSI, since there
    may be other sources transmitting C-G traffic, and PE3 currently has
    no other way to receive that traffic.

  - PE3 must also receive (C-S,C-G) traffic from PE2.

As a result, PE3 may receive two copies of each (C-S,C-G) packet.  The
procedure of section 9.1.2 (single forwarder selection) does not prevent
PE3 from receiving two copies, because it does not prevent one PE from
forwarding (C-S,C-G) traffic along the shared C-tree while another
forwards (C-S,C-G) traffic along a source-specific C-tree.

So if PE3 cannot apply the method of section 9.1.1 (discard packet from
wrong PE), perhaps because the tunneling technology does not allow the
egress PE to identify the ingress PE, then additional procedures are
needed.


9.3.2. Solution using Source Active A-D Routes

   The issue described in section 9.3.2 is resolved through the use of
   Source Active A-D Routes.  In the remainder this section, we provide
   an example of how this works, along with an informal description of
   the procedures.

   A full and precise specification of the relevant procedures can be



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   found in section 13 of [MVPN-BGP].  In the event of any conflicts or
   other discrepancies between the description below and the description
   in [MVPN-BGP], [MVPN-BGP] is to be considered to be the authoritative
   document.

   Please note that the material in this section only applies when
   inter-site shared trees are being used.

   Whenever a PE creates an (C-S,C-G) state as a result of receiving a
   C-multicast route for (C-S,C-G) from some other PE, and the C-G group
   is an ASM group, the PE that creates the state MUST originate a
   Source Active A-D route (see [MVPN-BGP] section 4.5).  The NLRI of
   the route includes C-S and C-G. By default, the route carries the
   same set of Route Targets as the Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D route of the
   MVPN originated by the PE.  Using the normal BGP procedures, the
   route is propagated to all the PEs of the MVPN. For more details see
   Section 13.1 ("Source Within a Site - Source Active Advertisement")
   of [MVPN-BGP].

   When as a result of receiving a new Source Active A-D route a PE
   updates its VRF with the route, the PE MUST check if the newly
   received route matches any (C-*,C-G) entries. If (a) there is a
   matching entry, (b) the PE does not have (C-S,C-G) state in its
   MVPN-TIB for (C-S,C-G) carried in the route, and (c) the received
   route is selected as the best (using the BGP route selection
   procedures), then the PE takes the following action:

     - If the PE's (C-*,C-G) state has a PMSI as a downstream interface,
       the PE acts as if all the other PEs had pruned C-S off the
       (C-*,C-G) tree.  That is,

         * If the PE receives (C-S,C-G) traffic from a CE, it does not
           transmit it to other PEs.

         * Depending on the PIM state of the PE's PE-CE interfaces, the
           PE may or may not need to invoke PIM procedures to prune C-S
           off the (C-*,C-G) tree by sending a PIM Prune(S,G,rpt) to one
           or more of the CEs.  This is determined by ordinary PIM
           procedures. If this does need to be done, the PE SHOULD delay
           sending the Prune until it first runs a timer; this helps
           ensure that the source is not pruned from the shared tree
           until all PEs have had time to receive the Source Active A-D
           route.

     - If the PE's (C-*,C-G) state does not have a PMSI as a downstream
       interface, the PE sets up its forwarding path to receive
       (C-S,C-G) traffic from the originator of the selected Source
       Active A-D route.



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   Whenever a PE deletes the (C-S,C-G) state that was previously created
   as a result of receiving a C-multicast route for (C-S,C-G) from some
   other PE, the PE that deletes the state also withdraws the Source
   Active A-D route (if there is one) that was advertised when the state
   was created.

   In the example topology of section 9.3.1, this procedure will cause
   PE2 to generate a Source Active A-D route for (C-S,C-G).  When this
   route is received, PE4 will set up its forwarding state to expect
   (C-S,C-G) packets from PE2.  PE1 will change its forwarding state so
   that (C-S,C-G) packets that it receives from CE1 are not forwarded to
   any other PEs.  (Note though that PE1 may still forward (C-S,C-G)
   packets received from CE1 to CE2, if CE2 has receivers for C-G and
   those receivers did not switch from the (C-*,C-G) tree to the
   (C-S,C-G) tree.)  As a result, PE3 and PE4 do not receive duplicate
   packets of the (C-S,C-G) C-flow.

   With this procedure in place, there is no need to have any kind of
   C-multicast route that has the semantics of a PIM Prune(S,G,rpt)
   message.

   It is worth noting that if, as a result of this procedure, a PE sets
   up its forwarding state to receive (C-S,C-G) traffic from the source
   tree, the UMH is not necessarily the same as it would be if the PE
   had joined the source tree as a result of receiving a PIM Join for
   the same source tree from a directly attached CE.

   Note that the mechanism described in section 7.4.1 can be leveraged
   to advertise an S-PMSI binding along with the source active messages.
   This is accomplished by using the same BGP Update message to carry
   both the NLRI of the S-PMSI A-D route and the NLRI of the Source
   Active A-D route.  (Though an implementation processing the received
   routes cannot assume that this will always be the case.)


10. Eliminating PE-PE Distribution of (C-*,C-G) State

   In the ASM service model, a node that wants to become a receiver for
   a particular multicast group G first joins a shared tree, rooted at a
   rendezvous point.  When the receiver detects traffic from a
   particular source it has the option of joining a source tree, rooted
   at that source.  If it does so, it has to prune that source from the
   shared tree, to ensure that it receives packets from that source on
   only one tree.

   Maintaining the shared tree can require considerable state, as it is
   necessary not only to know who the upstream and downstream nodes are,
   but to know which sources have been pruned off which branches of the



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   share tree.

   The BGP-based signaling procedures defined in this document and in
   [MVPN-BGP] eliminate the need for PEs to distribute to each other any
   state having to do with which sources have been pruned off a shared
   C-tree.  Those procedures do still allow multicast data traffic to
   travel on a shared C-tree, but they do not allow a situation in which
   some CEs receive (S,G) traffic on a shared tree and some on a source
   tree.  This results in a considerable simplification of the PE-PE
   procedures with minimal change to the multicast service seen within
   the VPN.  However, shared C-trees are still supported across the VPN
   backbone.  That is, (C-*,C-G) state is distributed PE-PE, but (C-*,
   C-G, RPT-bit) state is not.

   In this section, we specify a number of optional procedures which go
   further, and which completely eliminate the support for shared
   C-trees across the VPN backbone.  In these procedures, the PEs keep
   track of the active sources for each C-G.  As soon as a CE tries to
   join the (*,G) tree, the PEs instead join the (S,G) trees for all the
   active sources.  Thus all distribution of (C-*,C-G) state is
   eliminated.  These procedures are optional because they require some
   additional support on the part of the VPN customer, and because they
   are not always appropriate.  (E.g., a VPN customer may have his own
   policy of always using shared trees for certain multicast groups.)
   There are several different options, described in the following
   sub-sections.


10.1. Co-locating C-RPs on a PE

   [MVPN-REQ] describes C-RP engineering as an issue when PIM-SM (or
   BIDIR-PIM) is used in "Any Source Multicast (ASM) mode" [RFC4607] on
   the VPN customer site. To quote from [MVPN-REQ]:

   "In some cases this engineering problem is not trivial: for instance,
   if sources and receivers are located in VPN sites that are different
   than that of the RP, then traffic may flow twice through the SP
   network and the CE-PE link of the RP (from source to RP, and then
   from RP to receivers) ; this is obviously not ideal.  A multicast VPN
   solution SHOULD propose a way to help on solving this RP engineering
   issue."

   One of the C-RP deployment models is for the customer to outsource
   the RP to the provider. In this case the provider may co-locate the
   RP on the PE that is connected to the customer site [MVPN-REQ]. This
   section describes how anycast-RP can be used for achieving this. This
   is described below.




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10.1.1. Initial Configuration

   For a particular MVPN, at least one or more PEs that have sites in
   that MVPN, act as an RP for the sites of that MVPN connected to these
   PEs.  Within each MVPN all these RPs use the same (anycast) address.
   All these RPs use the Anycast RP technique.


10.1.2. Anycast RP Based on Propagating Active Sources

   This mechanism is based on propagating active sources between RPs.


10.1.2.1. Receiver(s) Within a Site

   The PE that receives C-Join for (*,G) does not send the information
   that it has receiver(s) for G until it receives information about
   active sources for G from an upstream PE.

   On receiving this (described in the next section), the downstream PE
   will respond with Join for (C-S,C-G). Sending this information could
   be done using any of the procedures described in section 5.  Only the
   upstream PE will process this information.


10.1.2.2. Source Within a Site

   When a PE receives PIM-Register from a site that belongs to a given
   VPN, PE follows the normal PIM anycast RP procedures. It then
   advertises the source and group of the multicast data packet carried
   in PIM-Register message to other PEs in BGP using the following
   information elements:

     - Active source address

     - Active group address

     - Route target of the MVPN.

   This advertisement goes to all the PEs that belong to that MVPN. When
   a PE receives this advertisement, it checks whether there are any
   receivers in the sites attached to the PE for the group carried in
   the source active advertisement. If yes, then it generates an
   advertisement for (C-S,C-G) as specified in the previous section.







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10.1.2.3. Receiver Switching from Shared to Source Tree

   No additional procedures are required when multicast receivers in
   customer's site shift from shared tree to source tree.


10.2. Using MSDP between a PE and a Local C-RP

   Section 10.1 describes the case where each PE is a C-RP.  This
   enables the PEs to know the active multicast sources for each MVPN,
   and they can then use BGP to distribute this information to each
   other.  As a result, the PEs do not have to join any shared C-trees,
   and this results in a simplification of the PE operation.

   In another deployment scenario, the PEs are not themselves C-RPs, but
   use MSDP [RFC3618] to talk to the C-RPs.  In particular, a PE that
   attaches to a site that contains a C-RP becomes an MSDP peer of that
   C-RP.  That PE then uses BGP to distribute the information about the
   active sources to the other PEs.  When the PE determines, by MSDP,
   that a particular source is no longer active, then it withdraws the
   corresponding BGP update.  Then the PEs do not have to join any
   shared C-trees, but they do not have to be C-RPs either.

   MSDP provides the capability for a Source Active (SA) message to
   carry an encapsulated data packet.  This capability can be used to
   allow an MSDP speaker to receive the first (or first several)
   packet(s) of an (S,G) flow, even though the MSDP speaker hasn't yet
   joined the (S,G) tree.  (Presumably it will join that tree as a
   result of receiving the SA message that carries the encapsulated data
   packet.)  If this capability is not used, the first several data
   packets of an (S,G) stream may be lost.

   A PE that is talking MSDP to an RP may receive such an encapsulated
   data packet from the RP.  The data packet should be decapsulated and
   transmitted to the other PEs in the MVPN.  If the packet belongs to a
   particular (S,G) flow, and if the PE is a transmitter for some S-PMSI
   to which (S,G) has already been bound, the decapsulated data packet
   should be transmitted on that S-PMSI.  Otherwise, if an I-PMSI exists
   for that MVPN, the decapsulated data packet should be transmitted on
   it.  (If a MI-PMSI exists, this would typically be used.)  If neither
   of these conditions hold, the decapsulated data packet is not
   transmitted to the other PEs in the MVPN.  The decision as to whether
   and how to transmit the decapsulated data packet does not effect the
   processing of the SA control message itself.

   Suppose that PE1 transmits a multicast data packet on a PMSI, where
   that data packet is part of an (S,G) flow, and PE2 receives that
   packet from that PMSI.  According to section 9, if PE1 is not the PE



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   that PE2 expects to be transmitting (S,G) packets, then PE2 must
   discard the packet.  If an MSDP-encapsulated data packet is
   transmitted on a PMSI as specified above, this rule from section 9
   would likely result in the packet's getting discarded.  Therefore, if
   MSDP-encapsulated data packets being decapsulated and transmitted on
   a PMSI, we need to modify the rules of section 9 as follows:

      1. If the receiving PE, PE2, has already joined the (S,G) tree,
         and has chosen PE1 as the upstream PE for the (S,G) tree, but
         this packet does not come from PE1, PE2 must discard the
         packet.

      2. If the receiving PE, PE2, has not already joined the (S,G)
         tree, but is a PIM adjacency to a CE that is downstream on the
         (*,G) tree, the packet should be forwarded to the CE.


11. Support for PIM-BIDIR C-Groups

   In BIDIR-PIM, each multicast group is associated with an RPA
   (Rendezvous Point Address).  The Rendezvous Point Link (RPL) is the
   link that attaches to the RPA.  Usually it's a LAN where the RPA is
   in the IP subnet assigned to the LAN.  The root node of a BIDIR-PIM
   tree is a node that has an interface on the RPL.

   On any LAN (other than the RPL) that is a link in a PIM-bidir tree,
   there must be a single node that has been chosen to be the DF.  (More
   precisely, for each RPA there is a single node that is the DF for
   that RPA.)  A node that receives traffic from an upstream interface
   may forward it on a particular downstream interface only if the node
   is the DF for that downstream interface.  A node that receives
   traffic from a downstream interface may forward it on an upstream
   interface only if that node is the DF for the downstream interface.

   If, for any period of time, there is a link on which each of two
   different nodes believes itself to be the DF, data forwarding loops
   can form. Loops in a bidirectional multicast tree can be very
   harmful.  However, any election procedure will have a convergence
   period.  The BIDIR-PIM DF election procedure is very complicated,
   because it goes to great pains to ensure that if convergence is not
   extremely fast, then there is no forwarding at all until convergence
   has taken place.

   Other variants of PIM also have a DF election procedure for LANs.
   However, as long as the multicast tree is unidirectional,
   disagreement about who the DF is can result only in duplication of
   packets, not in loops.  Therefore the time taken to converge on a
   single DF is of much less concern for unidirectional trees and it is



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   for bidirectional trees.

   In the MVPN environment, if PIM signaling is used among the PEs, then
   the standard LAN-based DF election procedure can be used.  However,
   election procedures that are optimized for a LAN may not work as well
   in the MVPN environment.  So an alternative to DF election would be
   desirable.

   If BGP signaling is used among the PEs, an alternative to DF election
   is necessary.  One might think that the "single forwarder selection"
   procedures described in sections 5 and 9 could be used to choose a
   single PE "DF" for the backbone (for a given RPA in a given MVPN).
   However, that is still likely to leave a convergence period of at
   least several seconds during which loops could form, and there could
   be a much longer convergence period if there is anything disrupting
   the smooth flow of BGP updates.  So a simple procedure like that is
   not sufficient.

   The remainder of this section describes two different methods that
   can be used to support BIDIR-PIM while eliminating the DF election.


11.1. The VPN Backbone Becomes the RPL

   On a per MVPN basis, this method treats the whole service provider(s)
   infrastructure as a single RPL (RP Link). We refer to such an RPL as
   an "MVPN-RPL".  This eliminates the need for the PEs to engage in any
   "DF election" procedure, because PIM-bidir does not have a DF on the
   RPL.

   However, this method can only be used if the customer is
   "outsourcing" the RPL/RPA functionality to the SP.

   An MVPN-RPL could be realized either via an I-PMSI (this I-PMSI is on
   a per MVPN basis and spans all the PEs that have sites of a given
   MVPN), or via a collection of S-PMSIs, or even via a combination of
   an I-PMSI and one or more S-PMSIs.


11.1.1. Control Plane

   Associated with each MVPN-RPL is an address prefix that is
   unambiguous within the context of the MVPN associated with the
   MVPN-RPL.

   For a given MVPN, each VRF connected to an MVPN-RPL of that MVPN is
   configured to advertise to all of its connected CEs the address
   prefix of the MVPN-RPL.



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   Since in PIM Bidir there is no Designated Forwarder on an RPL, in the
   context of MVPN-RPL there is no need to perform the Designated
   Forwarder election among the PEs (note there is still necessary to
   perform the Designated Forwarder election between a PE and its
   directly attached CEs, but that is done using plain PIM Bidir
   procedures).

   For a given MVPN a PE connected to an MVPN-RPL of that MVPN should
   send multicast data (C-S,C-G) on the MVPN-RPL only if at least one
   other PE connected to the MVPN-RPL has a downstream multicast state
   for C-G. In the context of MVPN this is accomplished by requiring a
   PE that has a downstream state for a particular C-G of a particular
   VRF present on the PE to originate a C-multicast route for (C-*,
   C-G).  The RD of this route should be the same as the RD associated
   with the VRF. The RTs carried by the route should be such as to
   ensure that the route gets distributed to all the PEs of the MVPN.


11.1.2. Data Plane

   A PE that receives (C-S,C-G) multicast data from a CE should forward
   this data on the MVPN-RPL of the MVPN the CE belongs to only if the
   PE receives at least one C-multicast route for (C-*, C-G).
   Otherwise, the PE should not forward the data on the RPL/I-PMSI.

   When a PE receives a multicast packet with (C-S,C-G) on an MVPN-RPL
   associated with a given MVPN, the PE forwards this packet to every
   directly connected CE of that MVPN, provided that the CE sends Join
   (C-*,C-G) to the PE (provided that the PE has the downstream
   (C-*,C-G) state). The PE does not forward this packet back on the
   MVPN-RPL.  If a PE has no downstream (C-*,C-G) state, the PE does not
   forward the packet.


11.2. Partitioned Sets of PEs

   This method does not require the use of the MVPN-RPL, and does not
   require the customer to outsource the RPA/RPL functionality to the
   SP.


11.2.1. Partitions

   Consider a particular C-RPA, call it C-R, in a particular MVPN.
   Consider the set of PEs that attach to sites that have senders or
   receivers for a BIDIR-PIM group C-G, where C-R is the RPA for C-G.
   (As always we use the "C-" prefix to indicate that we are referring
   to an address in the VPN's address space rather than in the



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   provider's address space.)

   Following the procedures of section 5.1, each PE in the set
   independently chooses some other PE in the set to be its "upstream
   PE" for those BIDIR-PIM groups with RPA C-R.  Optionally, they can
   all choose the "default selection" (described in section 5.1), to
   ensure that each PE to choose the same upstream PE.  Note that if a
   PE has a route to C-R via a VRF interface, then the PE may choose
   itself as the upstream PE.

   The set of PEs can now be partitioned into a number of subsets.
   We'll say that PE1 and PE2 are in the same partition if and only if
   there is some PE3 such that PE1 and PE2 have each chosen PE3 as the
   upstream PE for C-R.  Note that each partition has exactly one
   upstream PE.  So it is possible to identify the partition by
   identifying its upstream PE.

   Consider packet P, and let PE1 be its ingress PE.  PE1 will send the
   packet on a PMSI so that it reaches the other PEs that need to
   receive it.  This is done by encapsulating the packet and sending it
   on a P-tunnel.  If the original packet is part of a PIM-BIDIR group
   (its ingress PE determines this from the packet's destination address
   C-G), and if the VPN backbone is not the RPL, then the encapsulation
   MUST carry information that can be used to identify the partition to
   which the ingress PE belongs.

   When PE2 receives a packet from the PMSI, PE2 must determine, by
   examining the encapsulation, whether the packet's ingress PE belongs
   to the same partition (relative to the C-RPA of the packet's C-G)
   that PE2 itself belongs to.  If not, PE2 discards the packet.
   Otherwise PE2 performs the normal BIDIR-PIM data packet processing.
   With this rule in place, harmful loops cannot be introduced by the
   PEs into the customer's bidirectional tree.

   Note that if there is more than one partition, the VPN backbone will
   not carry a packet from one partition to another.  The only way for a
   packet to get from one partition to another is for it to go up
   towards the RPA and then to go down another path to the backbone.  If
   this is not considered desirable, then all PEs should choose the same
   upstream PE for a given C-RPA.  Then multiple partitions will only
   exist during routing transients.










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11.2.2. Using PE Distinguisher Labels

   If a given P-tunnel is to be used to carry packets traveling along a
   bidirectional C-tree, then, EXCEPT for the case described in sections
   11.1 and 11.2.3, the packets that travel on that P-tunnel MUST carry
   a PE Distinguisher Label (defined in section 4), using the
   encapsulation discussed in section 12.3.

   When a given PE transmits a given packet of a bidirectional C-group
   to the P-tunnel, the packet will carry the PE Distinguisher Label
   corresponding to the partition, for the C-group's C-RPA, that
   contains the transmitting PE.  This is the PE Distinguisher Label
   that has been bound to the upstream PE of that partition; it is not
   necessarily the label that has been bound to the transmitting PE.

   Recall that the PE Distinguisher Labels are upstream-assigned labels
   that are assigned and advertised by the node that is at the root of
   the P-tunnel.  The information about PE Distinguisher labels is
   distributed with Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D routes and/or S-PMSI A-D routes
   by encoding it into the PE Distinguisher Label attribute carried by
   these routes

   When a PE receives a packet with a PE label that does not identify
   the partition of the receiving PE, then the receiving PE discards the
   packet.

   Note that this procedure does not necessarily require the root of a
   P-tunnel to assign a PE Distinguisher Label for every PE that belongs
   to the tunnel.  If the root of the P-tunnel is the only PE that can
   transmit packets to the P-tunnel, then the root needs to assign PE
   Distinguisher Labels only for those PEs that the root has selected to
   be the UMHs for the particular C-RPAs known to the root.


11.2.3. Partial Mesh of MP2MP P-Tunnels

   There is one case in which support for BIDIR-PIM C-groups does not
   require the use of a PE Distinguisher Label.  For a given C-RPA,
   suppose a distinct MP2MP LSP is used as the P-tunnel serving that
   partition.  Then for a given packet, a PE receiving the packet from a
   P-tunnel can be inferred the partition from the tunnel.  So PE
   Distinguisher Labels are not needed in this case.









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12. Encapsulations

   The BGP-based auto-discovery procedures will ensure that the PEs in a
   single MVPN only use tunnels that they can all support, and for a
   given kind of tunnel, that they only use encapsulations that they can
   all support.


12.1. Encapsulations for Single PMSI per P-Tunnel

12.1.1. Encapsulation in GRE

   GRE encapsulation can be used for any PMSI that is instantiated by a
   mesh of unicast P-tunnels, as well as for any PMSI that is
   instantiated by one or more PIM P-tunnels of any sort.


   Packets received        Packets in transit      Packets forwarded
   at ingress PE           in the service          by egress PEs
                           provider network

                           +---------------+
                           |  P-IP Header  |
                           +---------------+
                           |      GRE      |
   ++=============++       ++=============++       ++=============++
   || C-IP Header ||       || C-IP Header ||       || C-IP Header ||
   ++=============++ >>>>> ++=============++ >>>>> ++=============++
   || C-Payload   ||       || C-Payload   ||       || C-Payload   ||
   ++=============++       ++=============++       ++=============++


   The IP Protocol Number field in the P-IP Header MUST be set to 47.
   The Protocol Type field of the GRE Header is set to either 0x800 or
   0x86dd, depending on whether the C-IP Header is IPv4 or IPv6
   respectively..

   When an encapsulated packet is transmitted by a particular PE, the
   source IP address in the P-IP header must be the same address that
   the PE uses to identify itself in the VRF Route Import Extended
   Communities that it attaches to any of VPN-IP routes eligible for UMH
   determination that it advertises via BGP (see section 5.1).

   If the PMSI is instantiated by a PIM tree, the destination IP address
   in the P-IP header is the group P-address associated with that tree.
   The GRE key field value is omitted.

   If the PMSI is instantiated by unicast P-tunnels, the destination IP



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   address is the address of the destination PE, and the optional GRE
   Key field is used to identify a particular MVPN.  In this case, each
   PE would have to advertise a key field value for each MVPN; each PE
   would assign the key field value that it expects to receive.

   [RFC2784] specifies an optional GRE checksum, and [RFC2890] specifies
   an optional GRE sequence number fields.

   The GRE sequence number field is not needed because the transport
   layer services for the original application will be provided by the
   C-IP Header.

   The use of GRE checksum field must follow [RFC2784].

   To facilitate high speed implementation, this document recommends
   that the ingress PE routers encapsulate VPN packets without setting
   the checksum, or sequence fields.


12.1.2. Encapsulation in IP

   IP-in-IP [RFC2003] is also a viable option.  The following diagram
   shows the progression of the packet as it enters and leaves the
   service provider network.


   Packets received        Packets in transit      Packets forwarded
   at ingress PE           in the service          by egress PEs
                           provider network

                           +---------------+
                           |  P-IP Header  |
   ++=============++       ++=============++       ++=============++
   || C-IP Header ||       || C-IP Header ||       || C-IP Header ||
   ++=============++ >>>>> ++=============++ >>>>> ++=============++
   || C-Payload   ||       || C-Payload   ||       || C-Payload   ||
   ++=============++       ++=============++       ++=============++

   When the P-IP Header is an IPv4 header, its Protocol Number field is
   set to either 4 or 41, depending on whether the C-IP header is an
   IPv4 header or an IPv6 header, respectively.

   When the P-IP Header is an IPv6 header, its Next Header field is set
   to either 4 or 41, depending on whether the C-IP header is an IPv4
   header or an IPv6 header, respectively.

   When an encapsulated packet is transmitted by a particular PE, the
   source IP address in the P-IP header must be the same address that



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   the PE uses to identify itself in the VRF Route Import Extended
   Communities that it attaches to any of VPN-IP routes eligible for UMH
   determination that it advertises via BGP (see section 5.1).


12.1.3. Encapsulation in MPLS

   If the PMSI is instantiated as a P2MP MPLS LSP or a MP2MP LSP, MPLS
   encapsulation is used. Penultimate-hop-popping MUST be disabled for
   the LSP.

   If other methods of assigning MPLS labels to multicast distribution
   trees are in use, these multicast distribution trees may be used as
   appropriate to instantiate PMSIs, and appropriate additional MPLS
   encapsulation procedures may be used.


   Packets received        Packets in transit      Packets forwarded
   at ingress PE           in the service          by egress PEs
                           provider network

                           +---------------+
                           | P-MPLS Header |
   ++=============++       ++=============++       ++=============++
   || C-IP Header ||       || C-IP Header ||       || C-IP Header ||
   ++=============++ >>>>> ++=============++ >>>>> ++=============++
   || C-Payload   ||       || C-Payload   ||       || C-Payload   ||
   ++=============++       ++=============++       ++=============++



12.2. Encapsulations for Multiple PMSIs per P-Tunnel

   The encapsulations for transmitting multicast data messages when
   there are multiple PMSIs per P-tunnel are based on the encapsulation
   for a single PMSI per P-tunnel, but with an MPLS label used for
   demultiplexing.

   The label is upstream-assigned and distributed via BGP as specified
   in section 4.  The label must enable the receiver to select the
   proper VRF, and may enable the receiver to select a particular
   multicast routing entry within that VRF.









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12.2.1. Encapsulation in GRE

   Rather than the IP-in-GRE encapsulation discussed in section 12.1.1,
   we use the MPLS-in-GRE encapsulation.  This is specified in
   [MPLS-IP].  The GRE protocol type MUST be set to 0x8847. [The reason
   for using the unicast rather than the multicast value is specified in
   [MPLS-MCAST-ENCAPS].


12.2.2. Encapsulation in IP

   Rather than the IP-in-IP encapsulation discussed in section 12.1.2,
   we use the MPLS-in-IP encapsulation.  This is specified in [MPLS-IP].
   The IP protocol number MUST be set to the value identifying the
   payload as an MPLS unicast packet. (There is no "MPLS multicast
   packet" protocol number.)


12.3. Encapsulations Identifying a Distinguished PE

12.3.1. For MP2MP LSP P-tunnels

   As discussed in section 9, if a multicast data packet is traveling on
   a unidirectional C-tree, it is highly desirable for the PE that
   receives the packet from a PMSI to be able to determine the identity
   of the PE that transmitted the data packet onto the PMSI.  The
   encapsulations of the previous sections all provide this information,
   except in one case.  If a PMSI is being instantiated by a MP2MP LSP,
   then the encapsulations discussed so far do not allow one to
   determine the identity of the PE that transmitted the packet onto the
   PMSI.

   Therefore, when a packet traveling on a unidirectional C-tree is
   traveling on a MP2MP LSP P-tunnel, it MUST carry, as its second
   label, a label that has been bound to the packet's ingress PE.  This
   label is an upstream-assigned label that the LSP's root node has
   bound to the ingress PE and has distributed via the PE Distinguisher
   Labels attribute of a PMSI A-D Route (see section 4).  This label
   will appear immediately beneath the labels that are discussed in
   sections 12.1.3 and 12.2.

   A full specification of the procedures for advertising and for using
   the PE Distinguisher Labels in this case is outside the scope of this
   document.







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12.3.2. For Support of PIM-BIDIR C-Groups

   As was discussed in section 11, when a packet belongs to a PIM-BIDIR
   multicast group, the set of PEs of that packet's VPN can be
   partitioned into a number of subsets, where exactly one PE in each
   partition is the upstream PE for that partition.  When such packets
   are transmitted on a PMSI, then unless the procedures of section
   11.2.3 are being used, it is necessary for the packet to carry
   information identifying a particular partition. This is done by
   having the packet carry the PE Distinguisher Label corresponding to
   the upstream PE of one partition.  For a particular P-tunnel, this
   label will have been advertised by the node that is the root of that
   P-tunnel. (A full specification of the procedures for advertising PE
   Distinguisher Labels is out of the scope of this document.)

   This label needs to be used whenever a packet belongs to a PIM-BIDIR
   C-group, no matter what encapsulation is used by the P-tunnel.  Hence
   the encapsulations of section 12.2 MUST be used.  If the P-tunnel
   contains only one PMSI, the PE label replaces the label discussed in
   section 12.2 If the P-tunnel contains multiple PMSIs, the PE label
   follows the label discussed in section 12.2.

   In general, PE Distinguisher Labels can be carried if the
   encapsulation is MPLS or MPLS-in-IP or MPLS-in-GRE.  However,
   procedures for advertising and using PE Distinguisher Labels when the
   encapsulation is LDP-based MP2P MPLS is outside the scope of this
   specification.


12.4. General Considerations for IP and GRE Encaps

   These apply also to the MPLS-in-IP and MPLS-in-GRE encapsulations.


12.4.1. MTU (Maximum Transmission Unit)

   It is the responsibility of the originator of a C-packet to ensure
   that the packet is small enough to reach all of its destinations,
   even when it is encapsulated within IP or GRE.

   When a packet is encapsulated in IP or GRE, the router that does the
   encapsulation MUST set the DF bit in the outer header.  This ensures
   that the decapsulating router will not need to reassemble the
   encapsulating packets before performing decapsulation.

   In some cases the encapsulating router may know that a particular
   C-packet is too large to reach its destinations.  Procedures by which
   it may know this are outside the scope of the current document.



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   However, if this is known, then:

     - If the DF bit is set in the IP header of a C-packet that is known
       to be too large, the router will discard the C-packet as being
       "too large", and follow normal IP procedures (which may require
       the return of an ICMP message to the source).

     - If the DF bit is not set in the IP header of a C-packet that is
       known to be too large, the router MAY fragment the packet before
       encapsulating it, and then encapsulate each fragment separately.
       Alternatively, the router MAY discard the packet.

   If the router discards a packet as too large, it should maintain OAM
   information related to this behavior, allowing the operator to
   properly troubleshoot the issue.

   Note that if the entire path of the P-tunnel does not support an MTU
   that is large enough to carry the a particular encapsulated C-packet,
   and if the encapsulating router does not do fragmentation, then the
   customer will not receive the expected connectivity.


12.4.2. TTL (Time to Live)

   The ingress PE should not copy the TTL field from the payload IP
   header received from a CE router to the delivery IP or MPLS header.
   The setting of the TTL of the delivery header is determined by the
   local policy of the ingress PE router.


12.4.3. Avoiding Conflict with Internet Multicast

   If the SP is providing Internet multicast, distinct from its VPN
   multicast services, and using PIM based P-multicast trees, it must
   ensure that the group P-addresses that it used in support of MPVN
   services are distinct from any of the group addresses of the Internet
   multicasts it supports.  This is best done by using administratively
   scoped addresses [ADMIN-ADDR].

   The group C-addresses need not be distinct from either the group
   P-addresses or the Internet multicast addresses.










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12.5. Differentiated Services

   The setting of the DS (Differentiated Services) field in the delivery
   IP header should follow the guidelines outlined in [RFC2983].
   Setting the EXP field in the delivery MPLS header should follow the
   guidelines in [RFC3270]. An SP may also choose to deploy any of
   additional Differentiated Services mechanisms that the PE routers
   support for the encapsulation in use.  Note that the type of
   encapsulation determines the set of Differentiated Services
   mechanisms that may be deployed.


13. Security Considerations

   This document describes an extension to the procedures of [RFC4364],
   and hence shares the security considerations described in  [RFC4364]
   and [RFC4365].

   When GRE encapsulation is used, the security considerations of
   [MPLS-IP] are also relevant.  The security considerations of
   [RFC4797] are also relevant as it discusses implications on packet
   spoofing in the context of BGP/MPLS IP VPNs.

   The security considerations of [MPLS-HDR] apply when MPLS
   encapsulation is used.

   This document makes use of a number of control protocols: PIM
   [PIM-SM], BGP [MVPN-BGP], mLDP [MLDP], and RSVP-TE [RSVP-P2MP].
   Security considerations relevant to each protocol are discussed in
   the respective protocol specifications.

   If one uses the UDP-based protocol for switching to S-PMSI (as
   specified in Section 7.2.1), then an S-PMSI Join message (i.e., a UDP
   packet with destination port 3232 and destination address
   ALL-PIM-ROUTERS) that is not received over a PMSI (e.g., one received
   directly from a CE router) is an illegal packet and MUST be dropped.

   The various procedures for P-tunnel construction have security issues
   that are specific to the way that the P-tunnels are used in this
   document.  When P-tunnels are constructed via such techniques as PIM,
   mLDP, or RSVP-TE, it is important for each P or PE router receiving a
   control message MUST ensure that the control message comes from
   another P or PE router, not from a CE router.  (Interpreting an mLDP
   or PIM or RSVP-TE control message from a CE router as referring to a
   P-tunnel would be a bug.)

   A PE MUST NOT accept BGP routes of the MCAST-VPN address family from
   a CE.



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   If BGP is used as a CE-PE routing protocol, then when a PE receives
   an IP route from a CE, if this route carries the VRF Route Import
   extended community, the PE MUST remove this community from the route
   before turning it into a VPN-IP route. Routes that a PE advertises to
   a CE MUST NOT carry the VRF Route Import extended community.

   An ASBR may receive, from one SP's domain, an mLDP, PIM, or RSVP-TE
   control message that attempts to extend a P-tunnel from one SP's
   domain into another SP's domain.  This is perfectly valid if there is
   an agreement between the SPs to jointly provide an MVPN service.  In
   the absence of such an agreement, however, this could be an
   illegitimate attempt to intercept data packets.  By default, an ASBR
   MUST NOT allow P-tunnels to extend beyond AS boundaries.  However, it
   MUST be possible to configure an ASBR to allow this on a specified
   set of interfaces.

   Many of the procedures in this document cause the SP network to
   create and maintain an amount of state which is proportional to
   customer multicast activity.  If the amount of customer multicast
   activity exceeds expectations, this can potentially cause P and PE
   routers to maintain an unexpectedly large amount of state, which may
   cause control and/or data plane overload.  To protect against this
   situation an implementation should provide ways for the SP to bound
   the amount of state it devotes to the handling of customer multicast
   activity.

   In particular, an implementation SHOULD provide mechanisms that allow
   a SP to place limitations on the following:

     - total number of (C-*,C-G) and/or (C-S,C-G) states per VRF

     - total number of P-tunnels per VRF used for S-PMSIs

     - total number of P-tunnels traversing a given P router

   A PE implementation MAY also provide mechanisms that allow a SP to
   limit the rate of change of various MVPN-related states on PEs, as
   well as the rate at which MVPN-related control messages may be
   received by a PE from the CEs and/or sent from the PE to other PEs.

   An implementation that provides the procedures specified in Sections
   10.1 or 10.2 MUST provide the capability to impose an upper bound on
   the number of Source Active A-D routes generated, and on how
   frequently they may be originated. This MUST be provided on a per PE,
   per MVPN granularity.

   Lack of the mechanisms that allow a SP to limit the rate of change of
   various MVPN-related states on PEs, as well as the rate at which



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   MVPN-related control messages may be received by a PE from the CEs
   and/or sent from the PE to other PEs may result in the control plane
   overload on the PE, which in turn would adversely impact all the
   customers connected to that PE, as well as to other PEs.

   See also the security considerations of [MVPN-BGP].


14. IANA Considerations

   Section 7.2.1.1 defines the "S-PMSI Join Message", which is carried
   in a UDP datagram whose port number is 3232.  This port number is
   already assigned by IANA to "MDT port".  IANA should now have that
   assignment reference this document.

   IANA should create a registry for the "S-PMSI Join Message Type
   Field".  Assignments are to be made according to the policy "IETF
   Review" as defined in [RFC5226].  The value 1 should be registered
   with a reference to this document.  The description should read "PIM
   IPv4 S-PMSI (unaggregated)".

   [PIM-ATTRIB] establishes a registry for "PIM Join Attribute Types".
   IANA should assign the value 1 to the "MVPN Join Attribute", and
   should reference this document.


15. Other Authors

   Sarveshwar Bandi, Yiqun Cai, Thomas Morin, Yakov Rekhter, IJsbrands
   Wijnands, Seisho Yasukawa


16. Other Contributors

   Significant contributions were made Arjen Boers, Toerless Eckert,
   Adrian Farrel, Luyuan Fang, Dino Farinacci, Lenny Giuliano, Shankar
   Karuna, Anil Lohiya, Tom Pusateri, Ted Qian, Robert Raszuk, Tony
   Speakman, Dan Tappan.













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17. Authors' Addresses

   Rahul Aggarwal (Editor)
   Juniper Networks
   1194 North Mathilda Ave.
   Sunnyvale, CA 94089
   Email: rahul@juniper.net



   Sarveshwar Bandi
   Motorola
   Vanenburg IT park, Madhapur,
   Hyderabad, India
   Email: sarvesh@motorola.com



   Yiqun Cai
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   170 Tasman Drive
   San Jose, CA, 95134
   E-mail: ycai@cisco.com



   Thomas Morin
   France Telecom R & D
   2, avenue Pierre-Marzin
   22307 Lannion Cedex
   France
   Email: thomas.morin@francetelecom.com



   Yakov Rekhter
   Juniper Networks
   1194 North Mathilda Ave.
   Sunnyvale, CA 94089
   Email: yakov@juniper.net











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Internet Draft    draft-ietf-l3vpn-2547bis-mcast-09.txt    November 2009


   Eric C. Rosen (Editor)
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   1414 Massachusetts Avenue
   Boxborough, MA, 01719
   E-mail: erosen@cisco.com



   IJsbrand Wijnands
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   170 Tasman Drive
   San Jose, CA, 95134
   E-mail: ice@cisco.com



   Seisho Yasukawa
   NTT Corporation
   9-11, Midori-Cho 3-Chome
   Musashino-Shi, Tokyo 180-8585,
   Japan
   Phone: +81 422 59 4769
   Email: yasukawa.seisho@lab.ntt.co.jp



18. Normative References

   [MLDP] I. Minei, K., Kompella, I. Wijnands, B. Thomas, "Label
   Distribution Protocol Extensions for Point-to-Multipoint and
   Multipoint-to-Multipoint Label Switched Paths",
   draft-ietf-mpls-ldp-p2mp-08.txt, October 2009

   [MPLS-HDR] E. Rosen, et. al., "MPLS Label Stack Encoding", RFC 3032,
   January 2001

   [MPLS-IP] T. Worster, Y. Rekhter, E. Rosen, "Encapsulating MPLS in IP
   or Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE)", RFC 4023, March 2005

   [MPLS-MCAST-ENCAPS] T. Eckert, E. Rosen, R. Aggarwal, Y. Rekhter,
   "MPLS Multicast Encapsulations", RFC 5332, August 2008

   [MPLS-UPSTREAM-LABEL] R. Aggarwal, Y. Rekhter, E. Rosen, "MPLS
   Upstream Label Assignment and Context-Specific Label Space", RFC
   5331, August 2008

   [MVPN-BGP], R. Aggarwal, E. Rosen,  T. Morin, Y. Rekhter,  C.
   Kodeboniya, "BGP Encodings for Multicast in MPLS/BGP IP VPNs",



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   draft-ietf-l3vpn-2547bis-mcast-bgp-08.txt, September 2009

   [OSPF] J. Moy, "OSPF Version 2", RFC 2328, April 1998

   [OSPF-MT} P. Psenak, S. Mirtorabi, A. Roy, L. Nguyen, P.
   Pillay-Esnault, "Multi-Topology (MT) Routing in OSPF", RFC 4915, June
   2007

   [PIM-ATTRIB], A. Boers, IJ. Wijnands, E. Rosen, "The PIM Join
   Attribute Format", RFC 5384, November 2008

   [PIM-SM]  "Protocol Independent Multicast - Sparse Mode (PIM-SM)",
   Fenner, Handley, Holbrook, Kouvelas, August 2006, RFC 4601

   [RFC2119] "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
   Levels.", Bradner, March 1997

   [RFC4364] "BGP/MPLS IP VPNs", Rosen, Rekhter, et. al., February 2006

   [RFC4659] "BGP-MPLS IP Virtual Private Network (VPN) Extension for
   IPv6 VPN", De Clercq, et. al., RFC 4659, September 2006

   [RSVP-OOB] Z. Ali, G. Swallow, R. Aggarwal, "Non PHP behavior and
   Out-of-Band Mapping for RSVP-TE LSPs",
   draft-ietf-mpls-rsvp-te-no-php-oob-mapping-03.txt, October 2009

   [RSVP-P2MP] R. Aggarwal, D. Papadimitriou, S. Yasukawa, et. al.,
   "Extensions to RSVP-TE for Point-to-Multipoint TE LSPs", RFC 4875,
   May 2007


19. Informative References

   [ADMIN-ADDR] D. Meyer, "Administratively Scoped IP Multicast", RFC
   2365, July 1998

   [BIDIR-PIM] "Bidirectional Protocol Independent Multicast
   (BIDIR-PIM)" M.  Handley, I. Kouvelas, T. Speakman, L. Vicisano, RFC
   5015, October 2007

   [BSR] "Bootstrap Router (BSR) Mechanism for PIM", N. Bhaskar, et.
   al., RFC 5059, January  2008

   [MVPN-REQ] T. Morin, Ed., "Requirements for Multicast in L3
   Provider-Provisioned VPNs", RFC 4834, April 2007

   [RFC2003] C. Perkins, "IP Encapsulation within IP", RFC 2003, October
   1996



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   [RFC2784] D. Farinacci, et. al., "Generic Routing Encapsulation",
   March 2000

   [RFC2890] G. Dommety, "Key and Sequence Number Extensions to GRE",
   September 2000

   [RFC2983] D. Black, "Differentiated Services and Tunnels", October
   2000

   [RFC3270] F. Le Faucheur, et. al., "MPLS Support of Differentiated
   Services", May 2002

   [RFC3618] B. Fenner D. Meyer, "Multicast Source Discovery Protocol",
   October 2003

   [RFC4365], E. Rosen, " Applicability Statement for BGP/MPLS IP
   Virtual Private Networks (VPNs)", February 2006

   [RFC4607] H. Holbrook, B. Cain, "Source-Specific Multicast for IP",
   August 2006

   [RFC4797] Y. Rekhter, R. Bonica, E. Rosen, "Use of Provider Edge to
   Provider Edge (PE-PE) Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) or IP in
   BGP/MPLS IP Virtual Private Networks", January 2007

   [RFC5226] Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an
   IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226, May 2008.
























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