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Versions: (draft-raggarwa-l3vpn-2547bis-mcast-bgp) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 RFC 6514

Network Working Group                                        R. Aggarwal
Internet Draft                                          Juniper Networks
Expiration Date: October 2009
Intended Status: Proposed Standard
                                                                E. Rosen
                                                     Cisco Systems, Inc.

                                                                T. Morin
                                                          France Telecom

                                                              Y. Rekhter
                                                        Juniper Networks




                                                          April 27, 2009


     BGP Encodings and Procedures for Multicast in MPLS/BGP IP VPNs


               draft-ietf-l3vpn-2547bis-mcast-bgp-07.txt

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that other
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   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
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   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt.

   The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.








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Copyright and License Notice

   Copyright (c) 2009 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors. All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents in effect on the date of
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   Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights
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   This document may contain material from IETF Documents or IETF
   Contributions published or made publicly available before November
   10, 2008.  The person(s) controlling the copyright in some of this
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   Without obtaining an adequate license from the person(s) controlling
   the copyright in such materials, this document may not be modified
   outside the IETF Standards Process, and derivative works of it may
   not be created outside the IETF Standards Process, except to format
   it for publication as an RFC or to translate it into languages other
   than English.


Abstract

   This document describes the BGP encodings and procedures for
   exchanging the information elements required by Multicast in MPLS/BGP
   IP VPNs, as specified in [MVPN].






















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Table of Contents

 1          Specification of requirements  .........................   4
 2          Introduction  ..........................................   5
 3          Terminology  ...........................................   5
 4          MCAST-VPN NLRI  ........................................   6
 4.1        Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D route  .............................   7
 4.2        Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route  .............................   8
 4.3        S-PMSI A-D route  ......................................   8
 4.4        Leaf A-D route  ........................................   9
 4.5        Source Active A-D route  ...............................  10
 4.6        C-multicast route  .....................................  11
 5          PMSI Tunnel attribute  .................................  12
 6          Source AS Extended Community  ..........................  14
 7          VRF Route Import Extended Community  ...................  15
 8          PE Distinguisher Labels Attribute  .....................  16
 9          MVPN Auto-Discovery/Binding  ...........................  17
 9.1        MVPN Auto-Discovery/Binding - Intra-AS Operations  .....  17
 9.1.1      Originating Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D routes  ................  17
 9.1.2      Receiving Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D routes  ..................  20
 9.2        MVPN Auto-Discovery/Binding - Inter-AS Operations  .....  21
 9.2.1      Originating Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D routes  ................  23
 9.2.2      When not to originate Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D routes  ......  24
 9.2.3      Propagating Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D routes  ................  24
 9.2.3.1    Propagating Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D routes - Overview  .....  24
 9.2.3.2    Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route received via EBGP  ...........  25
 9.2.3.2.1  Originating Leaf A-D route into EBGP  ..................  26
 9.2.3.3    Leaf A-D route received via EBGP  ......................  27
 9.2.3.4    Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route received via IBGP  ...........  28
 9.2.3.4.1  Originating Leaf A-D route into IBGP  ..................  30
 9.2.3.5    Leaf A-D route received via IBGP  ......................  30
 9.2.3.6    Optimizing Bandwidth by IP filtering on ASBRs  .........  31
10          Non-congruent Unicast and Multicast Connectivity  ......  32
11          Exchange of C-Multicast Routing Information among PEs  .  33
11.1        Originating C-multicast routes by a PE  ................  34
11.1.1      Originating routes: PIM as the C-Multicast protocol  ...  34
11.1.1.1    Originating Source Tree Join C-multicast route  ........  34
11.1.1.2    Originating Shared Tree Join C-multicast route  ........  34
11.1.2      Originating routes: mLDP as the C-Multicast protocol  ..  35
11.1.3      Constructing the rest of the C-multicast route  ........  35
11.1.4      Unicast Route Changes  .................................  37
11.2        Propagating C-multicast routes by an ASBR  .............  37



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11.3        Receiving C-multicast routes by a PE  ..................  38
11.3.1      Receiving routes: PIM as the C-Multicast protocol  .....  39
11.3.1.1    Receiving Source Tree Join C-multicast route  ..........  39
11.3.1.2    Receiving Shared Tree Join C-multicast route  ..........  40
11.3.2      Receiving routes: mLDP as the C-Multicast protocol  ....  40
11.4        C-multicast routes aggregation  ........................  41
12          Using S-PMSI A-D routes to Bind C-trees to P-tunnels  ..  42
12.1        Originating S-PMSI A-D routes  .........................  42
12.2        Handling S-PMSI A-D routes by ASBRs  ...................  44
12.2.1      Merging S-PMSI into an I-PMSI  .........................  45
12.3        Receiving S-PMSI A-D routes by PEs  ....................  46
13          Switching from Shared C-tree to Source C-tree  .........  47
13.1        Source Within a Site - Source Active Advertisement  ....  48
13.2        Receiving Source Active A-D route  .....................  49
13.2.1      Pruning Sources off the Shared Tree  ...................  50
14          Supporting PIM-SM without Inter-Site Shared C-trees  ...  51
14.1        Discovering Active Multicast Sources  ..................  51
14.2        Receiver(s) Within a Site  .............................  52
14.3        Receiving C-multicast routes by a PE  ..................  54
15          Carrier's Carrier  .....................................  54
16          Scalability Considerations  ............................  54
16.1        Dampening C-multicast routes  ..........................  55
16.1.1      Dampening withdrawals of C-multicast routes  ...........  56
16.1.2      Dampening Source/Shared Tree Join C-multicast routes  ..  57
16.2        Dampening withdrawals of Leaf A-D routes  ..............  57
17          Security Considerations  ...............................  57
18          IANA Considerations  ...................................  58
19          Acknowledgement  .......................................  59
20          Authors' Addresses  ....................................  59
21          References  ............................................  59
21.1        Normative References  ..................................  59
21.2        Informative References  ................................  60






1. Specification of requirements

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].








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2. Introduction

   This document describes the BGP encodings and procedures for
   exchanging the information elements required by Multicast in MPLS/BGP
   IP VPNs, as specified in [MVPN]. This document assumes a thorough
   familiarity with procedures, concepts and terms described in [MVPN].

   This document defines a new NLRI, MCAST-VPN NLRI. The MCAST-VPN NLRI
   is used for MVPN auto-discovery, advertising MVPN to I-PMSI tunnel
   binding, advertising (C-S, C-G) to S-PMSI tunnel binding, VPN
   customer multicast routing information exchange among PEs, choosing a
   single forwarder PE, and for procedures in support of co-locating a
   C-RP on a PE.

   This document specifies two new BGP attributes, P-Multicast Service
   Interface Tunnel (PMSI Tunnel) attribute, and PE Distinguisher Label
   attribute.

   This document also defines two new BGP Extended Communities, Source
   AS Extended Community and VRF Route Import Extended Community.


3. Terminology

   In the context of this document we will refer to the MVPN auto-
   discovery/binding information carried in BGP as "auto-discovery
   routes" ("A-D routes"). For a given MVPN there are the following
   types of A-D routes:

     + Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D route;

     + Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route;

     + S-PMSI A-D route;

     + Leaf A-D route;

     + Source Active A-D route.

   In the context of this document we will refer to the MVPN customers
   multicast routing information carried in BGP as "C-multicast routes".
   For a given MVPN there are the following types of C-multicast routes:

     + Shared Tree Join route;







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     + Source Tree Join route;


   For each MVPN present on a PE, the PE maintains a Tree Information
   Base (MVPN-TIB). This is the same as TIB defined in [RFC4601], except
   that instead of a single TIB a PE maintains multiple MVPN-TIBs, one
   per each MVPN.

   Throughout this draft we will use the term "VPN-IP route" to mean a
   route which is either in the VPN-IPv4 address family [RFC4364] or in
   the VPN-IPv6 address family [RFC4659].


4. MCAST-VPN NLRI

   This document defines a new BGP NLRI, called the MCAST-VPN NLRI.

   Following is the format of the MCAST-VPN NLRI:

                +-----------------------------------+
                |    Route Type (1 octet)           |
                +-----------------------------------+
                |     Length (1 octet)              |
                +-----------------------------------+
                | Route Type specific (variable)    |
                +-----------------------------------+


   The Route Type field defines encoding of the rest of MCAST-VPN NLRI
   (Route Type specific MCAST-VPN NLRI).

   The Length field indicates the length in octets of the Route Type
   specific field of MCAST-VPN NLRI.

   This document defines the following Route Types for A-D routes:

     + 1 - Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D route;
     + 2 - Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route;
     + 3 - S-PMSI A-D route;
     + 4 - Leaf A-D route;
     + 5 - Source Active A-D route.

   This document defines the following Route Types for C-multicast
   routes:







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     + 6 - Shared Tree Join route;
     + 7 - Source Tree Join route;

   The MCAST-VPN NLRI is carried in BGP [RFC4271] using BGP
   Multiprotocol Extensions [RFC4760] with an AFI of 1 or 2 and an SAFI
   of MCAST-VPN.  The NLRI field in the MP_REACH_NLRI/MP_UNREACH_NLRI
   attribute contains the MCAST-VPN NLRI (encoded as specified above).
   The value of the AFI field in the MP_REACH_NLRI/MP_UNREACH_NLRI
   attribute that carries the MCAST-VPN NLRI determines whether the
   Multicast Source and Multicast Group addresses carried in the S-PMSI
   A-D routes, Source Active A-D routes, and C-multicast routes are IPv4
   or IPv6 addresses (AFI 1 indicates IPv4 addresses, AFI 2 indicates
   IPv6 addresses).

   In order for two BGP speakers to exchange labeled MCAST-VPN NLRI,
   they must use BGP Capabilities Advertisement to ensure that they both
   are capable of properly processing such NLRI. This is done as
   specified in [RFC4760], by using capability code 1 (multiprotocol
   BGP) with an AFI of 1 or 2 and an SAFI of MCAST-VPN.

   The following describes the format of the Route Type specific MCAST-
   VPN NLRI for various Route Types defined in this document.


4.1. Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D route

   An Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D route type specific MCAST-VPN NLRI consists of
   the following:

                +-----------------------------------+
                |      RD   (8 octets)              |
                +-----------------------------------+
                |   Originating Router's IP Addr    |
                +-----------------------------------+

   The RD is encoded as described in [RFC4364].

   Usage of Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D routes is described in Section "MVPN
   Auto-Discovery/Binding - Intra-AS Operations".












Raggarwa                                                        [Page 7]

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4.2. Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route

   An Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route type specific MCAST-VPN NLRI consists of
   the following:

                +-----------------------------------+
                |      RD   (8 octets)              |
                +-----------------------------------+
                |      Source AS (4 octets)         |
                +-----------------------------------+

   The RD is encoded as described in [RFC4364].

   The Source AS contains an Autonomous System number.

   Two octets AS numbers are encoded in the two low order octets of the
   Source AS field, with the the two high order octets set to zero.

   Usage of Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D routes is described in Section "MVPN
   Auto-Discovery/Binding - Inter-AS Operations".


4.3. S-PMSI A-D route

   An S-PMSI A-D route type specific MCAST-VPN NLRI consists of the
   following:

                +-----------------------------------+
                |      RD   (8 octets)              |
                +-----------------------------------+
                | Multicast Source Length (1 octet) |
                +-----------------------------------+
                |  Multicast Source (Variable)      |
                +-----------------------------------+
                |  Multicast Group Length (1 octet) |
                +-----------------------------------+
                |  Multicast Group   (Variable)     |
                +-----------------------------------+
                |   Originating Router's IP Addr    |
                +-----------------------------------+

   The RD is encoded as described in [RFC4364].

   The Multicast Source field contains the C-S address. If the Multicast
   Source field contains an IPv4 address, then the value of the
   Multicast Source Length field is 32. If the Multicast Source field
   contains an IPv6 address, then the value of the Multicast Source
   Length field is 128.



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   The Multicast Group field contains the C-G address or C-LDP MP Opaque
   Value Element (use of C-LDP MP Opaque Value Element is described in
   Section "Receiving routes: mLDP as the C-Multicast protocol"). If the
   Multicast Group field contains an IPv4 address, then the value of the
   Multicast Group Length field is 32. If the Multicast Group field
   contains an IPv6 address, then the value of the Multicast Group
   Length field is 128.

   Usage of other values of the Multicast Source Length and Multicast
   Group Length fields is outside the scope of this document.

   Usage of S-PMSI A-D routes is described in Section "Using S-PMSI A-D
   routes to Bind C-trees to P-tunnels".


4.4. Leaf A-D route

   A Leaf A-D route type specific MCAST-VPN NLRI consists of the
   following:

                +-----------------------------------+
                |      Route Key (variable)         |
                +-----------------------------------+
                |   Originating Router's IP Addr    |
                +-----------------------------------+


   Leaf A-D routes may be originated as a result of processing a
   received Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route or S-PMSI A-D route. A Leaf A-D
   route is originated in these situations only if the received route
   has a PMSI Tunnel attribute whose "Leaf Information Required" bit is
   set to 1.

   If a Leaf A-D route is originated as a result of processing one of
   the received routes specified in the previous paragraph, the Route
   Key of the Leaf A-D route is set to the NLRI of the received route.

   Details of the use of the Leaf A-D route may be found in Sections
   "Originating Leaf A-D route into EBGP", "Leaf A-D route received via
   EBGP", "Originating Leaf A-D route into IBGP", "Leaf A-D route
   received via IBGP", and "Receiving S-PMSI A-D routes by PEs".










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4.5. Source Active A-D route

   A Source Active A-D route type specific MCAST-VPN NLRI consists of
   the following:

                +-----------------------------------+
                |      RD   (8 octets)              |
                +-----------------------------------+
                | Multicast Source Length (1 octet) |
                +-----------------------------------+
                |   Multicast Source (Variable)     |
                +-----------------------------------+
                |  Multicast Group Length (1 octet) |
                +-----------------------------------+
                |  Multicast Group   (Variable)     |
                +-----------------------------------+

   The RD is encoded as described in [RFC4364].

   The Multicast Source field contains the C-S address. If the Multicast
   Source field contains an IPv4 address, then the value of the
   Multicast Source Length field is 32. If the Multicast Source field
   contains an IPv6 address, then the value of the Multicast Source
   Length field is 128.

   Use of the Source Active A-D routes with the Multicast Source Length
   field of 0 is outside the scope of this document.

   The Group Address field contains the C-G address. If the Multicast
   Group field contains an IPv4 address, then the value of the Multicast
   Group Length field is 32. If the Multicast Group field contains an
   IPv6 address, then the value of the Multicast Group Length field is
   128.

   Source Active A-D routes with a Multicast group belonging to the
   Source Specific Multicast (SSM) range (as defined in [RFC4607], and
   potentially extended locally on a router) MUST NOT be advertised by a
   router and MUST be discarded if received.

   Usage of Source Active A-D routes is described in Sections "Switching
   from Shared C-tree to Source C-tree", and "Supporting PIM-SM without
   Inter-Site Shared C-trees".









Raggarwa                                                       [Page 10]

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4.6. C-multicast route

   A Shared Tree Join route and a Source Tree Join route type specific
   MCAST-VPN NLRI consists of the following:

                +-----------------------------------+
                |      RD   (8 octets)              |
                +-----------------------------------+
                |    Source AS (4 octets)           |
                +-----------------------------------+
                | Multicast Source Length (1 octet) |
                +-----------------------------------+
                |   Multicast Source (Variable)     |
                +-----------------------------------+
                |  Multicast Group Length (1 octet) |
                +-----------------------------------+
                |  Multicast Group   (Variable)     |
                +-----------------------------------+

   The RD is encoded as described in [RFC4364].

   The Source AS contains an Autonomous System number. Two octets AS
   numbers are encoded in the low order two octets of the Source AS
   field.

   For a Shared Tree Join route the Multicast Source field contains the
   C-RP address; for a Source Tree Join route the Multicast Source field
   contains the C-S address. If the Multicast Source field contains an
   IPv4 address, then the value of the Multicast Source Length field is
   32. If the Multicast Source field contains an IPv6 address, then the
   value of the Multicast Source Length field is 128.

   The Group Address field contains the C-G address or C-MP Opaque Value
   Element. If the Multicast Group field contains an IPv4 address, then
   the value of the Multicast Group Length field is 32.  If the
   Multicast Group field contains an IPv6 address, then the value of the
   Multicast Group Length field is 128.

   Usage of C-multicast routes is described in Section "Exchange of C-
   Multicast Routing Information among PEs".











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5. PMSI Tunnel attribute

   This document defines and uses a new BGP attribute, called P-
   Multicast Service Interface Tunnel (PMSI Tunnel) attribute. This is
   an optional transitive BGP attribute. The format of this attribute is
   defined as follows:

                +---------------------------------+
                |  Flags (1 octet)                |
                +---------------------------------+
                |  Tunnel Type (1 octets)         |
                +---------------------------------+
                |  MPLS Label (3 octets)          |
                +---------------------------------+
                |  Tunnel Identifier (variable)   |
                +---------------------------------+

   The Flags field has the following format:

                 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
                +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                |  reserved   |L|
                +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   This document defines the following flags:

     + Leaf Information Required (L)

   The Tunnel Type identifies the type of the tunneling technology used
   to establish the PMSI tunnel. The type determines the syntax and
   semantics of the Tunnel Identifier field. This document defines the
   following Tunnel Types:

     + 0 - No tunnel information present
     + 1 - RSVP-TE P2MP LSP
     + 2 - mLDP P2MP LSP
     + 3 - PIM-SSM Tree
     + 4 - PIM-SM Tree
     + 5 - PIM-Bidir Tree
     + 6 - Ingress Replication
     + 7 - mLDP MP2MP LSP

   If the MPLS Label field is non-zero, then it contains an MPLS label
   encoded as 3 octets, where the high-order 20 bits contain the label
   value. Absence of MPLS Label is indicated by setting the MPLS Label
   field to zero.

   When the type is set to "No tunnel information present", the PMSI



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   Tunnel attribute carries no tunnel information (no Tunnel
   Identifier). This type is to be used only in the following case: to
   enable explicit tracking for a particular customer multicast flow (by
   setting the Leaf Information Required flag to 1), but without binding
   this flow to a particular provider tunnel (by omitting any tunnel
   information).

   When the type is set to RSVP-TE P2MP LSP, the Tunnel Identifier is
   <Extended Tunnel ID, Reserved, Tunnel ID, P2MP ID> as carried in the
   RSVP-TE P2MP LSP SESSION Object [RFC4875].

   When the type is set to mLDP P2MP LSP, the Tunnel Identifier is a
   P2MP FEC Element [mLDP].

   When the type is set to PIM-SM Tree, the Tunnel Identifier is <Sender
   Address, P-Multicast Group>. The node that originated the attribute
   MUST use the address carried in the Sender Address as the source IP
   address for the IP/GRE encapsulation of the MVPN data.

   When the type is set to PIM-SSM Tree, the Tunnel Identifier is <P-
   Root Node Address, P-Multicast Group>. The node that originates the
   attribute MUST use the address carried in the P-Root Node Address as
   the source IP address for the IP/GRE encapsulation of the MVPN data.
   The P-Multicast Group element of the Tunnel identifier of the Tunnel
   attribute MUST NOT be expected to be the same group for all Intra-AS
   A-D routes for the same MVPN. According to [RFC4607], the group
   address can be locally allocated by the originating PE without any
   consideration for the group address used by other PE on the same
   MVPN.

   When the type is set to PIM-Bidir Tree, the Tunnel Identifier is
   <Sender Address, P-Multicast Group>. The node that originated the
   attribute MUST use the address carried in the Sender Address as the
   source IP address for the IP/GRE encapsulation of the MVPN data.

   When the type is set to PIM-SM or PIM-Bidir tree, then the P-
   Multicast group element of the Tunnel identifier of the Tunnel
   attribute SHOULD be the same multicast group address for all Intra-AS
   I-PMSI A-D routes for the same MVPN originated by PEs within a given
   AS.  How this multicast group address is chosen is outside the scope
   of this specification.

   When the type is set to Ingress Replication the Tunnel Identifier
   carries the unicast tunnel endpoint IP address of the local PE that
   is to be this PE's receiving endpoint address for the tunnel.

   When the type is set to mLDP MP2MP LSP, the Tunnel Identifier is an
   MP2MP FEC Element [mLDP].



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   The use of mLDP MP2MP LSPs as Provider tunnels (P-tunnels) requires
   procedures which are outside the scope of this document.


   A router that supports the PMSI Tunnel attribute considers this
   attribute to be malformed if it either (a) contains an undefined
   Tunnel Type, or (b) the router can not parse the Tunnel Identifier
   field of the attribute as a tunnel identifier of the tunnel types
   specifed in the Tunnel Type field of the attribute.

   When a router that receives a BGP Update that contains the PMSI
   Tunnel attribute with its Partial bit set determines that the
   attribute is malformed, the router SHOULD treat this Update as though
   all the routes contained in this Update had been withdrawn.

   An implementation MUST provide debugging facilities to permit issues
   caused by malformed PMSI Tunnel attribute to be diagnosed. At a
   minimum, such facilities SHOULD include logging an error when such an
   attribute is detected.

   The PMSI Tunnel attribute is used in conjunction with Intra-AS I-PMSI
   A-D routes, Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D routes, S-PMSI A-D routes, and Leaf
   A-D routes.


6. Source AS Extended Community

   This document defines a new BGP extended community called Source AS.

   The Source AS is an AS specific extended community, of an extended
   type, and is transitive across AS boundaries [RFC4360].

   The Global Administrator field of this community MUST be set to the
   autonomous system number of the PE. The Local Administrator field of
   this community MUST be set to 0.

   If for a given MVPN BGP is used for exchanging C-multicast routes, or
   if segmented inter-AS tunnels are used, then when a PE that has sites
   of that MVPN connected to it originates a (unicast) route to VPN-IP
   addresses, the PE MUST include in the BGP Update message that carries
   this route the Source AS extended community.

   The usage of a received Source AS extended community is described in
   Section "Constructing the rest of the C-multicast route".







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7. VRF Route Import Extended Community

   This document defines a new BGP extended community called VRF Route
   Import.

   The VRF Route Import is an IP address specific extended community, of
   an extended type, and is transitive across AS boundaries [RFC4360].

   To support MVPN in addition to the import/export Route Target(s)
   extended communities used by the unicast routing, each VRF on a PE
   MUST have an import Route Target extended community, except if it is
   known a priori that none of the (local) MVPN sites associated with
   the VRF contain multicast source(s) and/or C-RP, in which case the
   VRF need not have this import Route Target.

   We refer to this Route Target as the "C-multicast Import RT", as this
   Route Target controls imports of C-multicast routes into a particular
   VRF.

   A PE constructs C-multicast Import RT as follows:

     + The Global Administrator field of the C-multicast Import RT MUST
       be set to an IP address of the PE. This address SHOULD be common
       for all the VRFs on the PE (e.,g., this address may be PE's
       loopback address).

     + The Local Administrator field of the C-multicast Import RT
       associated with a given VRF contains a 2 octets long number that
       uniquely identifies that VRF within the PE that contains the VRF
       (procedures for assigning such numbers are purely local to the
       PE, and outside the scope of this document).

   The way C-multicast Import RT is constructed, it uniquely identifies
   a VRF.

   A PE that has site(s) of a given MVPN connected to it needs to
   communicate the value of the C-multicast Import RT associated with
   the VRF of that MVPN on the PE to all other PEs that have sites of
   that MVPN. To accomplish this a PE that originates a (unicast) route
   to VPN-IP addresses MUST include in the BGP Updates message that
   carries this route the VRF Route Import extended community that has
   the value of the C-multicast Import RT of the VRF associated with the
   route, except if it is known a priori (e.g., via provisioning) that
   none of these addresses could act as multicast sources and/or RP, in
   which case the (unicast) route MUST NOT carry the VRF Route Import
   extended community.

   If a PE uses Route Target Constrain [RT-CONSTRAIN], the PE SHOULD



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   advertise all such C-multicast Import RTs using Route Target
   Constrains (note that doing this requires just a single Route Target
   Constraint advertisement by the PE). This allows each C-multicast
   route to reach only the relevant PE. To constrain distribution of the
   Route Target Constrain routes to the AS of the advertising PE these
   routes SHOULD carry the NO_EXPORT Community ([RFC1997]).

   Usage of VRF Route Import extended community is described in Section
   "Constructing the rest of the C-multicast route".


8. PE Distinguisher Labels Attribute

   This document defines a new BGP attribute, called PE Distinguisher
   Labels attribute. This is an optional transitive BGP attribute.  The
   format of this attribute is defined as follows:

            +---------------------------------+
            |           PE Address            |
            +---------------------------------+
            |     Label (3 octets)            |
            +---------------------------------+
            .......
            +---------------------------------+
            |           PE Address            |
            +---------------------------------+
            |     Label (3 octets)            |
            +---------------------------------+

   The Label field contains an MPLS label encoded as 3 octets, where the
   high-order 20 bits contain the label value.

   A router that supports the PE Distinguisher Labels attribute
   considers this attribute to be malformed if the PE Address field does
   not contain a unicast address. The attribute is also considered to be
   malformed if the PE Address field is expected to be an IPv4 address,
   and the length of the attribute minus 4 is not a multiple of 3, or
   the PE Address field is expected to be an IPv6 address, and the
   length of the attribute minus 16 is not a multiple of 3. (The length
   of the Route Type field of MCAST-VPN NLRI of the route that carries
   the PE Distinguisher Labels attribute provides the information on
   whether the PE Address field contains an IPv4 or IPv6 address.)

   When a router that receives a BGP Update that contains the PE
   Distinguisher Labels attribute with its Partial bit set determines
   that the attribute is malformed, the router SHOULD treat this Update
   as though all the routes contained in this Update had been withdrawn.




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   An implementation MUST provide debugging facilities to permit issues
   caused by malformed PE Distinguisher Label attribute to be diagnosed.
   At a minimum, such facilities SHOULD include logging an error when
   such an attribute is detected.

   Usage of this attribute is described in [MVPN].


9. MVPN Auto-Discovery/Binding

   This section specifies procedures for the auto-discovery of MVPN
   memberships and the distribution of information used to instantiate
   I-PMSIs.

   There are two MVPN auto-discovery/binding mechanisms, dubbed "intra-
   AS" and "inter-AS" respectively.

   The intra-AS mechanisms provide auto-discovery/binding within a
   single AS.

   The intra-AS mechanisms also provide auto-discovery/binding across
   multiple ASes when non-segmented inter-AS tunnels are being used.

   The inter-AS mechanisms provide auto-discovery/binding across
   multiple ASes when segmented inter-AS tunnels are being used.

   Note that if a multi-AS system uses option (a) of section 10 of
   [RFC4364], the notion of inter-AS tunnels does not apply, and so it
   needs only the intra-AS mechanisms.


9.1. MVPN Auto-Discovery/Binding - Intra-AS Operations

   This section describes exchanges of Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D routes
   originated/received by PEs within the same AS, or if non-segmented
   inter-AS tunnels are used, then by all PEs.



9.1.1. Originating Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D routes

   To participate in the MVPN auto-discovery/binding a PE router that
   has a given VRF of a given MVPN MUST, except for the cases specified
   further down in this section, originate an Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D route
   and advertises this route in IBGP. The route is constructed as
   follows.

   The route carries a single MCAST-VPN NLRI with the RD set to the RD



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   of the VRF, and the Originating Router's IP Address field set to the
   IP address that the PE places in the Global Administrator field of
   the VRF Route Import extended community of the VPN-IP routes
   advertised by the PE. Note that the <RD, Originating Router's IP
   address> tuple uniquely identifies a given multicast VRF.

   The route carries the PMSI Tunnel attribute if and only if an I-PMSI
   is used for the MVPN (the conditions under which an I-PMSI is used
   can be found in [MVPN]). Depending on the technology used for the P-
   tunnel for the MVPN on the PE, the PMSI Tunnel attribute of the
   Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D route is constructed as follows.

     + If the PE that originates the advertisement uses a P-Multicast
       tree for the P-tunnel for the MVPN, the PMSI Tunnel attribute
       MUST contain the identity of the tree (note that the PE could
       create the identity of the tree prior to the actual instantiation
       of the tree).

     + A PE that uses a P-Multicast tree for the P-tunnel MAY aggregate
       two or more MVPNs present on the PE onto the same tree. In this
       case in addition to carrying the identity of the tree, the PMSI
       Tunnel attribute MUST carry an MPLS upstream assigned label which
       the PE has bound uniquely to the MVPN associated with this update
       (as determined by its RTs).

       If the PE has already advertised Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D routes for
       two or more MVPNs that it now desires to aggregate, then the PE
       MUST re-advertise those routes. The re-advertised routes MUST be
       the same as the original ones, except for the PMSI Tunnel
       attribute and the label carried in that attribute.

     + If the PE that originates the advertisement uses ingress
       replication for the P-tunnel for the MVPN, the route MUST include
       the PMSI Tunnel attribute with the Tunnel Type set to Ingress
       Replication and Tunnel Identifier set to a routable address of
       the PE. The PMSI Tunnel attribute MUST carry a downstream
       assigned MPLS label. This label is used to demultiplex the MVPN
       traffic received over a unicast tunnel by the PE.

     + The Leaf Information Required flag of the PMSI Tunnel attribute
       MUST be set to zero, and MUST be ignored on receipt.

   Discovery of PE capabilities in terms of what tunnels types they
   support is outside the scope of this document. Within a given AS PEs
   participating in an MVPN are expected to advertise tunnel bindings
   whose tunnel types are supported by all other PEs that are
   participating in this MVPN and are part of the same AS. In addition,
   in the inter-AS scenario with non-segmented inter-AS tunnels, the



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   tunnel types have to be supported by all PEs that are participating
   in this MVPN, irrespective of whether these PEs are in the same AS or
   not.

   The Next Hop field of the MP_REACH_NLRI attribute of the route SHOULD
   be set to the same IP address as the one carried in the Originating
   Router's IP Address field.

   By default the distribution of the Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D routes is
   controlled by the same Route Targets as the ones used for the
   distribution of VPN-IP unicast routes. That is, by default the Intra-
   AS I-PMSI A-D route MUST carry the export Route Target used by the
   unicast routing. If any other PE has one of these Route Targets
   configured as an import Route Target for a VRF present on the PE, it
   treats the advertising PE as a member in the MVPN to which the VRF
   belongs. The default could be modified via configuration by having a
   set of Route Targets used for the Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D routes being
   distinct from the ones used for the VPN-IP unicast routes (see also
   Section "Non-congruent Unicast and Multicast Connectivity").

   To constrain distribution of the intra-AS membership/binding
   information to the AS of the advertising PE the BGP Update message
   originated by the advertising PE SHOULD carry the NO_EXPORT Community
   ([RFC1997]).

   Note that if non-segmented inter-AS P-tunnels are being used, then
   the Intra-AS I-PMSI routes need to be distributed to other ASes and
   MUST NOT carry the NO_EXPORT community.

   When BGP is used to exchange C-multicast routes, if (a) it is known a
   priori that as a matter of policy none of the MVPN sites connected to
   a given PE are allowed to send multicast traffic to other sites of
   that MVPN (in other words, all these sites are only in the Receiver
   Sites set), (b) the PE does not use ingress replication for the
   incoming traffic of that MVPN, and (c) none of the other PEs that
   have VRFs of that MVPN use RSVP-TE P2MP LSP for that MVPN, then the
   local PE SHOULD NOT originate an Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D route.

   When BGP is used to exchange C-multicast routes, if it is known a
   priori that as a matter of policy none of the MVPN sites connected to
   a given PE can receive multicast traffic from other sites of that
   MVPN (in other words, all these sites are only in the Sender Sites
   set), and the PE uses ingress replication for that MVPN, then the PE
   SHOULD NOT originate an Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D route for that MVPN.







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9.1.2. Receiving Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D routes

   When a PE receives a BGP Update message that carries an Intra-AS I-
   PMSI A-D route such that (a) at least one of the Route Targets of the
   route matches one of the import Route Targets configured for a
   particular VRF on the local PE, (b) either the route was originated
   by some other PE within the same AS as the local PE, or the MVPN
   associated with the VRF uses non-segmented inter-AS tunnels, and (c)
   the BGP route selection determines that this is the best route with
   respect to the NLRI carried by the route, the PE performs the
   following.

   If the route does not carry the PMSI Tunnel Attribute and ingress
   replication is not used, either a) the PE that originated the route
   will be using only S-PMSIs to send traffic to remote PEs, or b) as a
   matter of policy, the PE that originated the route, cannot send
   multicast traffic from the MVPN sites connected to it to other sites
   of that MVPN (in other words, the sites connected to the PE are only
   in the Receiver Sites set).

   When BGP is used to exchange C-multicast routes, to distinguish
   between cases (a) and (b) we use the presence/absence of the VRF
   Route Import extended community in the unicast VPN routes, as
   follows. As specified in section "VRF Route Import Extended
   Community", if it is know a priori that none of the addresses carried
   in the NLRI of a given (unicast) VPN route could act as multicast
   sources and/or C-RP, then such a route does not carry the VRF Route
   Import extended community. Hence based on the UMH selection algorithm
   specified in [MVPN], such a route will be ineligible for the UMH
   selection. This implies that if a given VPN route is selected by the
   UMH selection procedures, and the PE that originates this VPN route
   also originates an Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D route, but this route does not
   carry the PMSI Tunnel attribute, then this PE will be using only S-
   PMSIs for sending (multicast) data.

   If the route carries the PMSI Tunnel attribute then:

     + If the Tunnel Type in the PMSI Tunnel attribute is set to Ingress
       Replication, then the MPLS label and the address carried in the
       Tunnel Identifier field of the PMSI Tunnel attribute should be
       used when the local PE sends multicast traffic to the PE that
       originated the route.

     + If the Tunnel Type in the PMSI Tunnel attribute is set to mLDP
       P2MP LSP, or mLDP MP2MP LSP, or PIM-SSM tree, or PIM-SM tree, or
       PIM-Bidir tree, the PE SHOULD join as soon as possible the P-
       Multicast tree whose identity is carried in the Tunnel
       Identifier.



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     + If the Tunnel Type in the PMSI Tunnel attribute is set to RSVP-TE
       P2MP LSP, then the PE that originated the route MUST establish an
       RSVP-TE P2MP LSP with the local PE as a leaf. This LSP may have
       been established before the local PE receives the route, or may
       be established after the local PE receives the route.

     + The receiving PE has to establish the appropriate state to
       properly handle the traffic received on the P-Multicast tree.

     + If the PMSI Tunnel attribute does not carry a label, then all
       packets that are received on the P-Multicast tree, as identified
       by the PMSI Tunnel attribute, are forwarded using the VRFs that
       has at least one of its import Route Targets that matches one of
       the Route Targets of the received Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D route.

     + If the PMSI Tunnel attribute has the Tunnel Type set to mLDP P2MP
       LSP, or PIM-SSM tree, or PIM-SM tree, or PIM-Bidir tree, or RSVP-
       TE P2MP LSP, and the attribute also carries an MPLS label, then
       this is an upstream assigned label, and all packets that are
       received on the P-Multicast tree, as identified by the PMSI
       Tunnel attribute, with that upstream assigned label are forwarded
       using the VRFs that has at least one of its import Route Target
       that matches one of the Route Targets of the received Intra-AS I-
       PMSI A-D route.

   Irrespective of whether the route carries the PMSI Tunnel attribute,
   if the local PE uses RSVP-TE P2MP LSP for sending (multicast) traffic
   from the VRF to the sites attached to other PEs, then the local PE
   uses the Originating Router's IP address information carried in the
   route to add the PE that originated the route as a leaf node to the
   LSP.


9.2. MVPN Auto-Discovery/Binding - Inter-AS Operations

   This section applies only to the case where segmented inter-AS
   tunnels are used.

   An Autonomous System Border Router (ASBR) may be configured to
   support a particular MVPN as follows:

     + An ASBR MUST be be configured with a set of (import) Route
       Targets (RTs) that specifies the set of MVPNs supported by the
       ASBR. These Route Targets control acceptance of Intra-AS/Inter-AS
       I-PMSI A-D routes by the ASBR. As long as unicast and multicast
       connectivity are congruent, this could be the same set of Route
       Targets as the one used for supporting unicast (and therefore
       would not require any additional configuration above and beyond



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       of what is required for unicast). Note that instead of being
       configured, the ASBR MAY obtain this set of (import) Route
       Targets (RTs) by using Route Target Constrain [RT-CONSTRAIN].

     + The ASBR MUST be (auto-)configured with an import Route Target
       called "ASBR Import RT". ASBR Import RT controls acceptance of
       Leaf A-D routes and C-multicast routes by the ASBR, and is used
       to constrain distribution of both Leaf A-D routes and C-multicast
       routes (see Section "Exchange of C-Multicast Routing Information
       among PEs").

       ASBR Import RT is an IP address specific Route Target. The Global
       Administrator field of the ASBR Import RT MUST be set to the IP
       address carried in the Next Hop of all the Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D
       routes and S-PMSI A-D routes advertised by this ASBR (if the ASBR
       uses different Next Hops, then the ASBR MUST be (auto-)configured
       with multiple ASBR Import RTs, one per each such Next Hop). The
       Local Administrator field of the ASBR Import RT MUST be set to 0.

       If the ASBR supports Route Target Constrain [RT-CONSTRAIN], the
       ASBR SHOULD advertise its ASBR Import RT within its own AS using
       Route Target Constrains. To constrain distribution of the Route
       Target Constrain routes to the AS of the advertising ASBR these
       routes SHOULD carry the NO_EXPORT Community ([RFC1997]).

     + The ASBR MUST be configured with the tunnel types for the intra-
       AS segments of the MVPNs supported by the ASBR, as well as
       (depending on the tunnel type) the information needed to create
       the PMSI attribute for these tunnel types. Note that instead of
       being configured, the ASBR MAY derive the tunnel types from the
       Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D routes received by the ASBR.

     + If the ASBR originates an Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route for a
       particular MVPN present on some of the PEs within its own AS, the
       ASBR MUST be (auto-)configured with an RD for that MVPN. It is
       RECOMMENDED that one of the following two options be used:

       (1) To allow more aggregation of Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D routes it is
       recommended that all the ASBRs within an AS that are configured
       to originate an Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route for a particular MVPN
       be configured with the same RD (although for a given MVPN each AS
       may assign this RD on its own, without coordination with other
       ASes).

       (2) To allow more control over spreading MVPN traffic among
       multiple ASBRs within a given AS it is recommended for each ASBR
       to have a distinct RD per each MVPN, in which case such an RD
       SHOULD be auto-configured.



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   If an ASBR is configured to support a particular MVPN, the ASBR MUST
   participate in the intra-AS MVPN auto-discovery/binding procedures
   for that MVPN within the ASBR's own AS, as specified in Section "MVPN
   Auto-Discovery/Binding - Intra-AS Operations".

   Moreover, in addition to the above the ASBR performs procedures
   described in Sections "Originating Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D routes", "When
   not to originate Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D routes", and "Propagating Inter-
   AS I-PMSI A-D routes".


9.2.1. Originating Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D routes

   For a given MVPN configured on an ASBR when the ASBR determines
   (using the intra-AS auto-discovery procedures) that at least one of
   the PEs of its own AS has (directly) connected site(s) of the MVPN,
   the ASBR originates an Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route and advertises it in
   EBGP. The route is constructed as follows:

     + The route carries a single MCAST-VPN NLRI with the RD set to the
       RD configured for that MVPN on the ASBR, and the Source AS set to
       the Autonomous System number of the ASBR.

     + The route carries the PMSI Tunnel attribute if and only if an I-
       PMSI is used for the MVPN. The Tunnel Type in the attribute is
       set to Ingress Replication; the Leaf Information Required flag is
       set to 1; the the attribute carries no MPLS labels.

     + The Next Hop field of the MP_REACH_NLRI attribute is set to a
       routable IP address of the ASBR.

     + The default policy for aggregation of Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D routes
       into an Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route is that a given Inter-AS I-PMSI
       A-D route aggregates only the Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D routes that
       carry exactly the same set of RTs (note that this set may have
       just one RT). In this case an Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route
       originated by an ASBR carries exactly the same RT(s) as the RT(s)
       carried by the Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D routes that the ASBR
       aggregates into that Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route. An implementation
       MUST support the default policy for aggregation of Intra-AS I-
       PMSI A-D routes into an Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route.

     + The default policy for aggregation could be modified via
       configuration on the ASBR. An implementation MAY support such
       functionality.  Modified policy MUST include rules for
       constructing RTs carried by the Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D routes
       originated by the ASBR.




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   An Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route for a given <AS, MVPN> indicates
   presence of the MVPN sites connected to one or more PEs of the AS.

   An Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route originated by an ASBR aggregates Intra-
   AS I-PMSI A-D routes originated within the ASBR's own AS.  Thus while
   the Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D routes originated within an AS are at the
   granularity of <PE, MVPN> within that AS, outside of that AS the
   (aggregated) Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D routes could be at the granularity
   of <AS, MVPN>.


9.2.2. When not to originate Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D routes

   If for a given MVPN and a given AS all of its sites connected to the
   PEs within the AS known a priori to have no multicast sources, then
   ASBRs of that AS MAY refrain from originating an Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D
   route for that MVPN at all.


9.2.3. Propagating Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D routes

   An Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route for a given MVPN originated by an ASBR
   within a given AS is propagated via BGP to other ASes.


9.2.3.1. Propagating Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D routes - Overview

   Suppose that an ASBR A installs an Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route for MVPN
   V that originated at a particular AS, AS1. The BGP next hop of that
   route becomes A's "upstream multicast hop" on a multicast
   distribution tree for V that is rooted at AS1. When the Inter-AS I-
   PMSI A-D routes have been distributed to all the necessary ASes, they
   define a "reverse path" from any AS that supports MVPN V back to AS1.
   For instance, if AS2 supports MVPN V, then there will be a reverse
   path for MVPN V from AS2 to AS1. This path is a sequence of ASBRs,
   the first of which is in AS2, and the last of which is in AS1. Each
   ASBR in the sequence is the BGP next hop of the previous ASBR in the
   sequence on the given Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route.

   This reverse path information can be used to construct a
   unidirectional multicast distribution tree for MVPN V, containing all
   the ASes that support V, and having AS1 at the root. We call such a
   tree an "inter-AS tree". Multicast data originating in MVPN sites
   connected to PEs within a given AS will travel downstream along the
   tree which is rooted at that AS.

   The path along an inter-AS tree is a sequence of ASBRs; it is still
   necessary to specify how the multicast data gets from a given ASBR to



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   the set of ASBRs which are immediately downstream of the given ASBR
   along the tree. This is done by creating "segments": ASBRs in
   adjacent ASes will be connected by inter-AS segments, ASBRs in the
   same AS will be connected by "intra-AS segments".

   An ASBR initiates creation of an intra-AS segment when the ASBR
   receives an Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route from an EBGP neighbor.
   Creation of the segment is completed as a result of distributing via
   IBGP this route within the ASBR's own AS.

   For a given inter-AS tunnel each of its intra-AS segments could be
   constructed by its own independent mechanism. Moreover, by using
   upstream assigned labels within a given AS multiple intra-AS segments
   of different inter-AS tunnels of either the same or different MVPNs
   may share the same P-Multicast tree.

   If the P-Multicast tree that serves as a particular intra-AS segment
   of an inter-AS tunnel is created by a multicast control protocol that
   uses receiver-initiated joins (e.g, mLDP, any PIM variant), and this
   P-Multicast tree does not aggregate multiple segments, then all the
   information needed to create that segment is present in the PMSI
   Tunnel attribute of the Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D routes. But if the P-
   Multicast tree that serves as the segment is created by a protocol
   that does not use receiver-initiated joins (e.g., RSVP-TE, ingress
   unicast replication), or if this P-Multicast tree aggregates multiple
   segments (irrespective of the multicast control protocol used to
   create the tree), then it is also necessary to use Leaf A-D routes.
   The precise conditions under which Leaf A-D routes need to be used
   are described in subsequent sections.

   Since (aggregated) Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D routes could have granularity
   of <AS, MVPN>, an MVPN that is present in N ASes could have total of
   N inter-AS tunnels. Thus for a given MVPN the number of inter-AS
   tunnels constituting the I-PMSIs is independent of the number of PEs
   that have this MVPN.

   The precise rules for distributing and processing the Inter-AS I-PMSI
   A-D routes across ASes are given in the following sections.


9.2.3.2. Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route received via EBGP

   When an ASBR receives from one of its EBGP neighbors a BGP Update
   message that carries an Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route, if (a) at least
   one of the Route Targets carried in the message matches one of the
   import Route Targets configured on the ASBR, and (b) the ASBR
   determines that the received route is the best route for its NLRI,
   the ASBR re-advertises this route to other PEs and ASBRs within its



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   own AS (handling of this route by other PEs and ASBRs is described in
   Section "Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route received via IBGP").

   When re-advertising an Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route the ASBR MUST set
   the Next Hop field of the MP_REACH_NLRI attribute to a routable IP
   address of the ASBR.

   If the received Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route carries the PMSI Tunnel
   attribute, then depending on the technology used to instantiate the
   intra-AS segment of the inter-AS tunnel the ASBR constructs the PMSI
   Tunnel attribute of the re-advertised Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route as
   follows.

     + If the ASBR uses ingress replication for the intra-AS segment of
       the inter-AS tunnel, the re-advertised route MUST carry the PMSI
       Tunnel attribute with the Tunnel Type set to Ingress Replication,
       but no MPLS labels.

     + If the ASBR uses a P-Multicast tree for the intra-AS segment of
       the inter-AS tunnel, the PMSI Tunnel attribute MUST contain the
       identity of the tree (note that the ASBR could create the
       identity of the tree prior to the actual instantiation of the
       tree). If in order to instantiate the tree the ASBR needs to know
       the leaves of the tree, then the ASBR obtains this information
       from the Leaf A-D routes received from other PEs/ASBRs in ASBR's
       own AS (as described in Section "Leaf A-D route received via
       IBGP") by setting the Leaf Information Required flag in the PMSI
       Tunnel attribute to 1.

     + An ASBR that uses a P-Multicast tree as the intra-AS segment of
       the inter-AS tunnel MAY aggregate two or more MVPNs present on
       the ASBR onto the same tree. In this case in addition to the
       identity of the tree, the PMSI Tunnel attribute MUST carry an
       MPLS upstream-assigned label which the PE has bound uniquely to
       the MVPN associated with this update (as determined by its RTs).

       If the ASBR has already advertised Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D routes for
       two or more MVPNs that it now desires to aggregate, then the ASBR
       MUST re-advertise those routes. The re-advertised routes MUST be
       the same as the original ones, except for the PMSI Tunnel
       attribute and the MVPN label.


9.2.3.2.1. Originating Leaf A-D route into EBGP

   In addition the ASBR MUST send to the EBGP neighbor from whom it
   received the Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route, a BGP Update message that
   carries a Leaf A-D route constructed as follows.



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     + The route carries a single MCAST-VPN NLRI with the Route Key
       field set to the MCAST-VPN NLRI of the Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route
       received from that neighbor and the Originating Router's IP
       address set to the IP address of the ASBR (this MUST be a
       routable IP address).

     + The Leaf A-D route MUST include the PMSI Tunnel attribute with
       the Tunnel Type set to Ingress Replication, and the Tunnel
       Identifier set to a routable address of the advertising router.
       The PMSI Tunnel attribute MUST carry a downstream assigned MPLS
       label that is used by the advertising router to demultiplex the
       MVPN traffic received over a unicast tunnel from the EBGP
       neighbor.

     + The ASBR constructs an IP-based Route Target extended community
       by placing the IP address carried in the next hop of the received
       Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route in the Global Administrator field of
       the community, with the Local Administrator field of this
       community set to 0, and sets the Extended Communities attribute
       of the Leaf A-D route to that community. Note that this Route
       Target is the same as the ASBR Import RT of the EBGP neighbor
       from which the ASBR received the Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route.

     + The Next Hop field of the MP_REACH_NLRI attribute of the route
       SHOULD be set to the same IP address as the one carried in the
       Originating Router's IP Address field of the route.

     + To constrain the distribution scope of this route the route MUST
       carry the NO_ADVERTISE BGP community ([RFC1997]).

   Handling of this Leaf A-D route by the EBGP neighbor is described in
   Section "Leaf A-D route received via EBGP".

   The ASBR MUST set up its forwarding state such that packets that
   arrive on the one-hop ASBR-ASBR LSP, as specified in the PMSI Tunnel
   Attribute of the Leaf A-D route, are transmitted on the intra-AS
   segment, as specified in the PMSI Tunnel Attribute of the inter-AS I-
   PMSI A-D route that the ASBR re-advertises in its own AS. However,
   the packets MAY be filtered before forwarding, as specified in
   Section "Optimizing Bandwidth by IP filtering on ASBRs".


9.2.3.3. Leaf A-D route received via EBGP

   When an ASBR receives via EBGP a Leaf A-D route originated by its
   neighbor ASBR, if the Route Target carried in the Extended
   Communities attribute of the route matches one of the ASBR Import RT
   (auto)configured on the ASBR, the ASBR performs the following.



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   The ASBR finds an Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route whose MCAST-VPN NLRI has
   the same value as the Route Key field of the the Leaf A-D route.

   If the found Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route was originated by ASBR itself,
   then the ASBR sets up its forwarding state such that packets received
   on the intra-AS tunnels originating in the ASBR's own AS are
   transmitted on the one hop ASBR-ASBR LSP specified by the MPLS label
   carried in the PMSI Tunnel attribute of the received Leaf A-D route.
   (However the packets MAY be filtered before transmission as specified
   in Section "Optimizing Bandwidth by IP filtering on ASBRs"). The
   intra-AS tunnels are specified in the PMSI Tunnel attribute of all
   the Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D routes received by the ASBR that the ASBR
   aggregated into the Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route. For each of these
   intra-AS tunnels, if a non-zero MPLS label is carried in the PMSI
   Tunnel attribute (i.e aggregation is used) then only packets received
   on the inner LSP corresponding to that label MUST be forwarded, not
   the packets received on the outer LSP, as the outer LSP possibly
   carries the traffic of other VPNs.

   If the found Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route was originated by some other
   ASBR, then the ASBR sets up its forwarding state such that packets
   received on the intra-AS tunnel segment, as specified in the PMSI
   Tunnel attribute of the found Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route, are
   transmitted on the one hop ASBR-ASBR LSP, as specified by the MPLS
   label carried in the PMSI Tunnel attribute of the Leaf A-D route.


9.2.3.4. Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route received via IBGP

   In the context of this section we use the term "PE/ASBR router" to
   denote either a PE or an ASBR router.

   If a given Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route is received via IBGP by a BGP
   Route Reflector, the BGP Route Reflector MUST NOT modify the Next Hop
   field of the MP_REACH_NLRI attribute when re-advertising the route
   into IBGP (this is because the information carried in the Next Hop is
   used for controling flow of C-multicast routes, as specified in
   Section "Propagating C-multicast routes by an ASBR").

   If a given Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route is advertised within an AS by
   multiple ASBRs of that AS, the BGP best route selection performed by
   other PE/ASBR routers within the AS does not require all these
   PE/ASBR routers to select the route advertised by the same ASBR - to
   the contrary different PE/ASBR routers may select routes advertised
   by different ASBRs.

   When a PE/ASBR router receives from one of its IBGP neighbors a BGP
   Update message that carries an Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route, if (a) at



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   least one of the Route Targets carried in the message matches one of
   the import Route Targets configured on the PE/ASBR, and (b) the
   PE/ASBR determines that the received route is the best route to the
   destination carried in the NLRI of the route, the PE/ASBR performs
   the following operations.

   If the router is a PE, then the router imports the route into the
   VRF(s) that have the matching import Route Targets.

   If the router is an ASBR then the ASBR propagates the route to its
   EBGP neighbors. When propagating the route to the EBGP neighbors the
   ASBR MUST set the Next Hop field of the MP_REACH_NLRI attribute to a
   routable IP address of the ASBR. If the received Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D
   route carries the PMSI Tunnel attribute, then the propagated route
   MUST carry the PMSI Tunnel attribute with the Tunnel Type set to
   Ingress Replication; the attribute carries no MPLS labels.

   If the received Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route carries the PMSI Tunnel
   attribute with the Tunnel Type set to mLDP P2MP LSP, or PIM-SSM tree,
   or PIM-SM tree, or PIM-Bidir tree, the PE/ASBR SHOULD join as soon as
   possible the P-Multicast tree whose identity is carried in the Tunnel
   Identifier.

   If the received Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route carries the PMSI Tunnel
   attribute with the Tunnel Identifier set to RSVP-TE P2MP LSP, then
   the ASBR that originated the route MUST establish an RSVP-TE P2MP LSP
   with the local PE/ASBR as a leaf. This LSP MAY have been established
   before the local PE/ASBR receives the route, or MAY be established
   after the local PE receives the route.

   If the received Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route carries the PMSI Tunnel
   attribute with the Tunnel Type set to mLDP P2MP LSP, or RSVP-TE P2MP
   LSP, or PIM-SSM, or PIM-SM tree, or PIM-Bidir tree, but the attribute
   does not carry a label, then the P-Multicast tree, as identified by
   the PMSI Tunnel Attribute, is an intra-AS LSP segment that is part of
   the inter-AS Tunnel for the MVPN advertised by the Inter-AS I-PMSI A-
   D route and rooted at the AS that originated the Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D
   route. If the PMSI Tunnel attribute carries a (upstream assigned)
   label, then a combination of this tree and the label identifies the
   intra-AS segment. If the receiving router is an ASBR, this intra-AS
   segment may further be stitched to the ASBR-ASBR inter-AS segment of
   the inter-AS tunnel. If the PE/ASBR has local receivers in the MVPN,
   packets received over the intra-AS segment must be forwarded to the
   local receivers using the local VRF.







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9.2.3.4.1. Originating Leaf A-D route into IBGP

   If the Leaf Information Required flag in the PMSI Tunnel attribute of
   the received Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route is set to 1, then the PE/ASBR
   MUST originate a new Leaf A-D route as follows.

     + The route carries a single MCAST-VPN NLRI with the Route Key
       field set to the MCAST-VPN NLRI of the Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route
       received from that neighbor, and the Originating Router's IP
       address set to the IP address of the PE/ASBR (this MUST be a
       routable IP address).

     + If the received Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route carries the PMSI Tunnel
       attribute with the Tunnel Type set to Ingress Replication, then
       the Leaf A-D route MUST carry the PMSI Tunnel attribute with the
       Tunnel Type set to Ingress Replication. The Tunnel Identifier
       MUST carry a routable address of the PE/ASBR. The PMSI Tunnel
       attribute MUST carry a downstream assigned MPLS label that is
       used to demultiplex the MVPN traffic received over a unicast
       tunnel by the PE/ASBR.

     + The PE/ASBR constructs an IP-based Route Target community by
       placing the IP address carried in the next hop of the received
       Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route in the Global Administrator field of
       the community, with the Local Administrator field of this
       community set to 0, and sets the Extended Communities attribute
       of the Leaf A-D route to that community.

     + The Next Hop field of the MP_REACH_NLRI attribute of the route
       SHOULD be set to the same IP address as the one carried in the
       Originating Router's IP Address field of the route.

     + To constrain the distribution scope of this route the route MUST
       carry the NO_EXPORT BGP community ([RFC1997]).

     + Once the Leaf A-D route is constructed, the PE/ASBR advertises
       this route into IBGP.


9.2.3.5. Leaf A-D route received via IBGP

   When an ASBR receives via IBGP a Leaf A-D route, if the Route Target
   carried in the Extended Communities attribute of the route matches
   one of the ASBR Import RT (auto)configured on the ASBR, the ASBR
   performs the following.

   The ASBR finds an Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route whose MCAST-VPN NLRI has
   the same value as the Route Key field of the the Leaf A-D route.



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   The received route may carry either (a) no PMSI Tunnel attribute, or
   (b) the PMSI Tunnel attribute, but only with the Tunnel Type set to
   Ingress Replication.

   If the received route does not carry the PMSI Tunnel attribute, the
   ASBR uses the information from the received route to determine the
   leaves of the P-Multicast tree rooted at the ASBR that would be used
   for the intra-AS segment associated with the found Inter-AS I-PMSI A-
   D route. The IP address of a leaf is the IP address carried in the
   Originating Router's IP address field of the received Leaf A-D route.

   If the received route carries the PMSI Tunnel attribute with the
   Tunnel Type set to Ingress Replication the ASBR uses the information
   carried by the route to construct the intra-AS segment with ingress
   replication.


9.2.3.6. Optimizing Bandwidth by IP filtering on ASBRs

   An ASBR that has a given Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route MAY discard some
   of the traffic carried in the tunnel specified in the PMSI Tunnel
   attribute of this route if the ASBR determines that there are no
   downstream receivers for that traffic.

   When BGP is being used to distribute C-multicast routes, an ASBR that
   has a given Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route MAY discard traffic from a
   particular customer multicast source C-S and destined to a particular
   customer multicast group address C-G that is carried over the tunnel
   specified in the PMSI Tunnel attribute of the route, if none of the
   C-multicast routes on the ASBR with RD and Source AS being the same
   as the RD and Source AS of the Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route matches the
   (C-S,C-G) tuple. A C-multicast route is said to match a (C-S,C-G)
   tuple, if it is a Source Tree Join route with Multicast Source set to
   C-S and Multicast Group set to C-G, or a Shared Tree Join route with
   Multicast Group set to C-G.

   The above procedures MAY also apply to an ASBR that originates a
   given Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route. In this case the ASBR applies them
   to the traffic carried over the tunnels specified in the PMSI Tunnel
   attribute of the Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D routes that the ASBR aggregates
   into the Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route, and whose tails are stiched to
   the one-hop ASBR-ASBR tunnel specified in the Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D
   route.








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10. Non-congruent Unicast and Multicast Connectivity

   It is possible to deploy MVPN such the multicast routing and the
   unicast routing are "non-congruent". For instance, the CEs may be
   distributing to the PEs a special set of unicast routes that are to
   be used exclusively for the purpose of upstream multicast hop
   selection, and not used for unicast routing at all. (For example,
   when BGP is the CE-PE unicast routing protocol, the CEs may be using
   SAFI 2 ("Network Layer Reachability Information used for multicast
   forwarding" [IANA-SAFI]), and either IPv4 or IPv6 AFI to distribute a
   special set of routes that are to be used for, and only for, upstream
   multicast hop selection.) In such a situation, we will speak of the
   MVPN as having two VRFs on a given PE, one containing the routes that
   are used for unicast, the other containing the unicast routes that
   are used for upstream multicast hop (UMH) selection. We will call the
   former the "unicast routing VRF", and the latter the "UMH VRF"
   (upstream multicast hop VRF).

   In this document, when we speak without qualification of the MVPN's
   VRF, then if the MVPN has both a unicast VRF and a UMH VRF, we are
   speaking of the UMH VRF. (Of course, if there is no separate UMH VRF,
   then we are speaking of the unicast VRF.)

   If there is a separate UMH VRF, it MAY have its own import and export
   Route Targets, different from the ones used by the unicast VRF. These
   Route Targets MUST be used to control distribution of auto-discovery
   routes. In addition, the export Route Targets of the UMH VRF are
   added to the Route Targets used by the unicast VRF when originating
   (unicast) VPN-IP routes. The import Route Targets associated with a
   given UMH VRF are used to determine which of the received (unicast)
   VPN-IP routes should be accepted into the UMH VRF.

   If a PE maintains an UMH VRF for that MVPN, then it is RECOMMENDED
   that the UMH VRF should use the same RD as the one used by the
   unicast VRF of that MVPN.

   If an MVPN site is multi-homed to several PEs, then to support non-
   congruent unicast and multicast connectivity, on each of these PEs
   the UMH VRF of the MVPN MUST use its own distinct RD (although on a
   given PE the RD used by the UMH VRF SHOULD be the same as the one
   used by the unicast VRF).

   If an MVPN has a UMH VRF distinct from its unicast VRF, then one
   option to support non-congruency is by exchanging the routes from/to
   that UMH VRF by using the same AFI/SAFI as used by the routes from
   the unicast VRF.

   Another option is to exchange the routes from/to the UMH VRF using



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   the IPv4 or IPv6 AFI (as appropriate), but with the SAFI set to
   "Multicast for BGP/MPLS IP Virtual Private Networks (VPNs)" [IANA-
   SAFI]. The NLRI carried by these routes is defined as follows:

            +---------------------------+
            |   Length (1 octet)        |
            +---------------------------+
            |   Prefix (variable)       |
            +---------------------------+

         The use and the meaning of these fields are as follows:

         a) Length:

         The Length field indicates the length in bits of the address
         prefix plus the label(s).

         b) Prefix:

         The Prefix field contains a Route Distinguisher as defined
         in [RFC4364] prepended to an IPv4 or IPv6 address prefix,
         followed by enough trailing bits to make the end of the
         field fall on an octet boundary. Note that the value of
         trailing bits is irrelevant.

   These routes MUST carry the VRF Route Import Extended Community.  If
   for a given MVPN BGP is used for exchanging C-multicast routes, or if
   segmented inter-AS tunnels are used, then these routes also MUST
   carry the Source AS extended community.

   The detailed procedures for selecting forwarder PE in the presence of
   such routes are outside the scope of this document. However, this
   document requires these procedures to preserve the constrains imposed
   by the single forwarder PE selection procedures, as specified in
   [MVPN].


11. Exchange of C-Multicast Routing Information among PEs

   VPN C-Multicast Routing Information is exchanged among PEs by using
   C-multicast routes that are carried using MCAST-VPN NLRI. These
   routes are originated and propagated as follows.









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11.1. Originating C-multicast routes by a PE

   Part of the procedures for constructing MCAST-VPN NLRI depend on the
   multicast routing protocol between CE and PE (C-multicast protocol).


11.1.1. Originating routes: PIM as the C-Multicast protocol

   The following specifies construction of MCAST-VPN NLRI of C-multicast
   routes for the case where the C-multicast protocol is PIM. These C-
   multicast routes are originated as a result of updates in (C-S, C-G),
   or (C-*, C-G) state learnt by a PE via the C-multicast protocol.

   Note that creation and deletion of (C-S, C-G, RPTbit) states on a PE
   when the C-multicast protocol is PIM do not result in any BGP
   actions.


11.1.1.1. Originating Source Tree Join C-multicast route

   Whenever (a) a C-PIM instance on a particular PE creates a new (C-
   S,C-G) state, and (b) the selected upstream PE for C-S (see [MVPN])
   is not the local PE, then the local PE MUST originate a a C-multicast
   route of a type Source Tree Join. The Multicast Source field in the
   MCAST-VPN NLRI of the route is set to C-S, the Multicast Group field
   is set of C-G.

   This C-multicast route is said to "correspond" to the C-PIM (C-S,C-G)
   state.

   The semantics of the route is that the PE has one or more receivers
   for (C-S, C-G) in the sites connected to the PE (the route has the
   (C-S, C-G) Join semantics).

   Whenever a C-PIM instance on a particular PE deletes a (C-S,C-G)
   state, the corresponding C-multicast route MUST be withdrawn.  (The
   withdrawal of the route has the (C-S, C-G) Prune semantics).  The
   MCAST-VPN NLRI of the withdrawn route is carried in the
   MP_UNREACH_NLRI attribute.


11.1.1.2. Originating Shared Tree Join C-multicast route

   Whenever (a) a C-PIM instance on a particular PE creates a new
   (C-*,C-G) state, and (b) the selected upstream PE for the C-RP
   corresponding to the C-G (see [MVPN]) is not the local PE, then the
   local PE MUST originate a a C-multicast route of a type Shared Tree
   Join. The Multicast Source field in the MCAST-VPN NLRI of the route



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   is set to the C-RP address. The Multicast Group field in the MCAST-
   VPN NLRI is set to the C-G address.

   This C-multicast route is said to "correspond" to the C-PIM (C-*,C-G)
   state.

   The semantics of the route is that the PE has one or more receivers
   for (C-*, C-G) in the sites connected to the PE (the route has the
   (C-*, C-G) Join semantics).

   Whenever a C-PIM instance on a particular PE deletes a (C-*,C-G)
   state, the corresponding C-multicast route MUST be withdrawn.  (The
   withdrawal of the route has the (C-S, C-G) Prune semantics).  The
   MCAST-VPN NLRI of the withdrawn route is carried in the
   MP_UNREACH_NLRI attribute.


11.1.2. Originating routes: mLDP as the C-Multicast protocol

   The following specifies construction of MCAST-VPN NLRI of C-multicast
   routes for the case where the C-multicast protocol is mLDP [mLDP].

   Whenever a PE receives from one of its CEs a P2MP Label Map <X, Y, L>
   over interface I, where X is the Root Node Address, Y is the Opaque
   Value, and L is an MPLS label, the PE checks whether it already has
   state for <X, Y> in the VRF associated with the CE. If yes, then all
   the PE needs to do in this case is to update its forwarding state by
   adding <I, L> to the forwarding state associated with <X, Y>.

   If the PE does not have state for <X, Y> in the VRF associated with
   the CE, then the PE constructs a Source Tree Join C-multicast route
   whose MCAST-VPN NLRI contains X as the Multicast Source field, and Y
   as the Multicast Group field.

   Whenever a PE deletes a previously created <X, Y> state that had
   resulted in originating a C-multicast route, the PE withdraws the C-
   multicast route. The MCAST-VPN NLRI of the withdrawn route is carried
   in the MP_UNREACH_NLRI attribute.


11.1.3. Constructing the rest of the C-multicast route

   The rest of the C-multicast route is constructed as follows (the same
   procedures apply to both PIM and mLDP as the C-Multicast protocol).

   The local PE executes the procedures of [MVPN] to find the selected
   Upstream Multicast Hop (UMH) route and the selected upstream PE for
   the address carries in the Multicast Source field of MCAST-VPN NLRI.



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   From the selected UMH route the local PE extracts (a) the autonomous
   system number of the upstream PE (as carried in the Source AS
   extended community of the route), and (b) the C-multicast Import RT
   of the VRF on the upstream PE (the value of this C-multicast Import
   RT is the value of the VRF Route Import Extended Community carried by
   the route). The Source AS field in the C-multicast route is set to
   that autonomous system. The Route Target Extended Community of the C-
   multicast route is set to that C-multicast Import RT.

   If there is more than one (remote) PE that originates the (unicast)
   route to the address carried in the Multicast Source field of the
   MCAST-VPN NLRI, then the procedures for selecting the UMH route and
   the upstream PE to reach that address are as specified in [MVPN].

   If the local and the upstream PEs are in the same AS, then the RD of
   the advertised MCAST-VPN NLRI is set to the RD of the VPN-IP route
   that contains the address carried in the Multicast Source field.

   The C-multicast route is then advertised into IBGP.

   If the local and the upstream PEs are in different ASes, then the
   local PE finds in its VRF an Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route whose Source
   AS field carries the autonomous system number of the upstream PE.
   The RD of the found Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route is used as the RD of
   the advertised C-multicast route. The local PE constructs an IP-based
   Route Target community by placing the next hop of the found Inter-AS
   I-PMSI A-D route in the Global Administrator field of this community,
   with the Local Administrator field of this community set to 0, and
   adds this community to the Extended Communities attribute of the C-
   multicast route. (Note that this Route Target is the same as the ASBR
   Import RT of the ASBR identified by the next hop of the found Inter-
   AS I-PMSI A-D route.)

   Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D routes are not used to support non-segmented
   inter-AS tunnels. To support non-segmented inter-AS tunnels, if the
   local and the upstream PEs are in different ASes, the local system
   finds in its VRF an Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D route from the upstream PE
   (the Originating Router's IP Address field of that route has the same
   value as the one carried in the VRF Route Import of the (unicast)
   route to the address carried in the Multicast Source field). The RD
   of the found Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D route is used as the RD of the
   advertised C-multicast route. The Source AS field in the C-multicast
   route is set to value of the Originating Router's IP Address field of
   the found Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D route.

   The Next Hop field of the MP_REACH_NLRI attribute MUST be set to a
   routable IP address of the local PE.




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   If the next hop of the found (Inter-AS or Intra-AS) I-PMSI A-D route
   is an EBGP neighbor of the local PE, then the PE advertises the C-
   multicast route to that neighbor. If the next hop of the found
   (Inter-AS or Intra-AS) I-PMSI A-D route is within the same AS as the
   local PE, then the PE advertises the C-multicast route into IBGP.


11.1.4. Unicast Route Changes

   The particular UMH route that is selected by a given PE for a given
   C-S may be influenced by the network's unicast routing. In that case,
   a change in the unicast routing may invalidate prior choices of the
   UMH route for some C-S. If this happens, the local PE MUST execute
   the UMH route selection procedures for C-S again. If the result is
   that a different UMH route is selected, then for all C-G, any
   previously originated C-multicast routes for (C-S,C-G) MUST be re-
   originated.

   Similarly, if a unicast routing change results in a change of the UMH
   route for a C-RP, then for all C-G such that C-RP is the RP
   associated with C-G, any previously originated C-multicast routes for
   (C-*,C-G) MUST be re-originated.


11.2. Propagating C-multicast routes by an ASBR

   When an ASBR receives a BGP Update message that carries a C-multicast
   route, if at least one of the Route Targets of the route matches one
   of the ASBR Import RTs (auto)configured on the ASBR, the ASBR finds
   an Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route whose RD and Source AS matches the RD
   and Source AS carried in the C-multicast route.  If no matching route
   is found, the ASBR takes no further actions.  If a matching route is
   found, the ASBR proceeds as follows.

   To support non-segmented inter-AS tunnels, instead of matching the RD
   and Source AS carried in the C-multicast route against the RD and
   Source AS of an Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route, the ASBR should match it
   against the RD and the Originating Router's IP Addr of the Intra-AS
   I-PMSI A-D routes.

   The ASBR first checks if it already has one or more C-multicast
   routes that have the same MCAST-VPN NLRI as the newly received route.
   If such route(s) already exists, the ASBR keeps the newly received
   route, but SHALL NOT re-advertise the newly received route.
   Otherwise, the ASBR re-advertises the route, as described further
   down.

   When an ASBR receives a BGP Update message that carries a withdraw of



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   a previously advertised C-multicast route, the ASBR first checks if
   it already has at least one other C-multicast route that has the same
   MCAST-VPN NLRI. If such a route already exists, the ASBR processes
   the withdrawn route, but SHALL NOT re-advertise the withdraw.
   Otherwise, the ASBR re-advertises the withdrawal of the previously
   advertised C-multicast route, as described below.

   If the ASBR is the ASBR that originated the found Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D
   route, then before re-advertising the C-multicast route into IBGP the
   ASBR removes from the route the Route Target that matches one of the
   ASBR Import RTs (auto)configured on the ASBR.

   If the ASBR is not the ASBR that originated the found Inter-AS I-PMSI
   A-D route, then before re-advertising the C-multicast route, the ASBR
   modifies the Extended Communities attribute of the C-multicast route
   by replacing the Route Target of the route that matches one of the
   ASBR Import RTs (auto)configured on the ASBR with a new Route Target
   constructed as follows. The new Route Target is an IP-based Route
   Target that has the Global Administrator field set to the Next Hop of
   the found Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route, and Local Administrator field of
   this community set to 0.  Note that this newly constructed Route
   Target is the same as the ASBR Import RT of the ASBR identified by
   the next hop of the found Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route. The rest of the
   Extended Communities attribute of the route SHOULD be passed
   unmodified.

   The Next Hop field of the MP_REACH_NLRI attribute SHOULD be set to an
   IP address of the ASBR.

   If the Next Hop field of the MP_REACH_NLRI of the found (Inter-AS or
   Intra-AS) I-PMSI A-D route is an EBGP neighbor of the ASBR, then the
   ASBR re-advertises the C-multicast route to that neighbor. If the
   Next Hop field of the MP_REACH_NLRI of the found (Inter-AS or Intra-
   AS) I-PMSI A-D route is an IBGP neighbor of the ASBR, the ASBR re-
   advertises the C-multicast route into IBGP. If it is the ASBR that
   originated the found Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route in the first place,
   then the ASBR just re-advertises the C-multicast route into IBGP.



11.3. Receiving C-multicast routes by a PE

   When a PE receives a C-multicast route the PE checks if any of the
   Route Target communities carried in the Extended Communities
   attribute of the route match any of the C-multicast Import RTs
   associated with the VRFs of any MVPN maintained by the PE. If no
   match is found the PE SHOULD discard the route. Otherwise, (if a
   match is found), the PE checks if the address carried in the



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   Multicast Source field of the C-multicast route matches one of the
   (unicast) VPN-IP routes advertised by PE from the VRF. If no match is
   found the PE SHOULD discard the route. Otherwise, (if a match is
   found), the PE proceeds as follows, depending on the multicast
   routing protocol between CE and PE (C-multicast protocol).


11.3.1. Receiving routes: PIM as the C-Multicast protocol

   The following described procedures when PIM is used as the multicast
   routing protocol between CE and PE (C-multicast protocol).

   Since C-multicast routing information is disseminated by BGP, PIM
   messages are never sent from one PE to another.


11.3.1.1. Receiving Source Tree Join C-multicast route

   If the received route has the route type set to Source Tree Join,
   then the PE creates a new (C-S, C-G) state in its MVPN-TIB from the
   Multicast Source and Multicast Group fields in the MCAST-VPN NLRI of
   the route, if such a state does not already exist.

   If the local policy on the PE is to bind (C-S, C-G) to an S-PMSI,
   then the PE adds the S-PMSI to the outgoing interface list of the (C-
   S, C-G) state, if it is not already there. Otherwise, the PE adds an
   I-PMSI to the outgoing interface list of the (C-S, C-G) state, if it
   is not already there.

   When, for a said VRF, the last Source Tree Join C-multicast route for
   (C-S, C-G) is withdrawn, resulting in the situation where the VRF
   contains no Source Tree Join C-multicast route for (C-S, C-G) the PE
   MUST remove the I-PMSI/S-PMSI from the outgoing interface list of the
   (C-S, C-G) state. Depending on the (C-S, C-G) state of the PE-CE
   interfaces, this may result in the PE using PIM procedures to prune
   itself off the (C-S, C-G) tree.  If C-G is not in the SSM range for
   the VRF, then removing the I-PMSI/S-PMSI from the outgoing interface
   list of the (C-S, C-G) state SHOULD be done after a delay that is
   controlled by a timer.  The value of the timer MUST be configurable.

   The purpose of this timer is to ensure that the PE does not stop
   forwarding (C-S, C-G) onto a PMSI tunnel until all the PEs of the
   same MVPN have had time to receive the withdrawal of the Source
   Active A-D route for (C-S, C-G) (see Section 13.1 "Source Within a
   Site - Source Active Advertisement"), and the PE connected to C-RP
   starts forwarding (C-S, C-G) on the C-RPT.

   Note that before the PE stops forwarding (C-S, C-G), there is a



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   possibility to have (C-S, C-G) packets being sent at the same time on
   the PMSI by both the local PE and the PE connected to the site that
   contains C-RP. This would result in a transient unnecessary traffic
   on the provider backbone. However, no duplicates will reach customer
   hosts subscribed to C-G as long as the downstream PEs apply
   procedures described in section 9.1 of [MVPN].


11.3.1.2. Receiving Shared Tree Join C-multicast route

   If the received route has the route type set to Shared Tree Join,
   then the PE creates a new (C-*, C-G) state in its MVPN-TIB with the
   RP address for that state taken from the Multicast Source, and C-G
   for that state taken from the Multicast Group fields of the MCAST-VPN
   NLRI of the route, if such a state does not already exist. If there
   is no S-PMSI for (C-*, C-G), then the PE adds I-PMSI to the outgoing
   interface list of the state if it is not already there. If there is
   an S-PMSI for (C-*, C-G), then the PE adds S-PMSI to the outgoing
   interface list of the state if it is not already there.

   When, for a said VRF, the last Shared Tree Join C-multicast route for
   (C-*, C-G) is withdrawn, resulting in the situation where the VRF
   contains no Shared Tree Join C-multicast route for (C-*, C-G) the PE
   MUST remove the I-PMSI/S-PMSI from the outgoing interface list of the
   (C-*, C-G) state. Depending on the (C-*, C-G) state of the PE-CE
   interfaces, this may result in the PE using PIM procedures to prune
   itself off the (C-*, C-G) tree.


11.3.2. Receiving routes: mLDP as the C-Multicast protocol

   The following described procedures when mLDP is used as the multicast
   routing protocol between CE and PE (C-multicast protocol).

   When mLDP is used as a C-multicast protocol, the only valid type of a
   C-multicast route that a PE could receive is a Source Tree Join C-
   multicast route.

   When the PE receives a Source Tree Join C-multicast route, the PE
   applies, in the scope of this VRF, the P2MP mLDP procedures for a
   transit node using the value carried in the Multicast Source field of
   the route as the C-Root Node Identifier, and the value carried in the
   Multicast Group of the route as the C-LDP MP Opaque Value Element.

   If there is no S-PMSI for <C-Root Node Identifier, C-LDP MP Opaque
   Value Element> then the PE creates and advertises an S-PMSI as
   described in Section "Using S-PMSI A-D routes to Bind C-trees to P-
   tunnels" using C-Root Node Identifier as the value for the Multicast



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   Source field of the S-PMSI A-D route and C-LDP MP Opaque Value
   Element as the value for the Multicast Group field of the route.

   To improve scalability when mLDP is used as the C-Multicast protocol
   for a given MVPN, within each AS that has sites of that MVPN
   connected to the PEs of that AS, all the S-PMSIs of that MVPN MAY be
   aggregated into a single P-Multicast tree (by using upstream assigned
   labels).


11.4. C-multicast routes aggregation

   Note that C-multicast routes are "de facto" aggregated by BGP. This
   is because the MCAST-VPN NLRIs advertised by multiple PEs, for a C-
   multicast route for a particular C-S and C-G (or a particular C-* and
   C-G) of a given MVPN are identical.

   Hence a BGP Route Reflector or ASBR that receives multiple such
   routes with the same NLRI will re-advertise only one of these routes
   to other BGP speakers.

   This implies that C-multicast routes for a given (S,G) of a given
   MVPN originated by PEs that are clients of a given Route Reflector
   are aggregated by the Route Reflector. For instance, if multiple PEs
   that are clients of a Route Reflector, have receivers for a specific
   SSM channel of a MVPN, they will all advertise an identical NLRI for
   the "Source Tree Join" C-multicast route. However only one C-
   multicast route will be advertised by the Route Reflector for this
   specific SSM channel of that MVPN, to other PEs and Route Reflectors
   that are clients of the Route Reflector.

   This also implies that an ASBR aggregates all the received C-
   multicast routes for a given (S,G) (or a given (*,G)) of a given MVPN
   into a single C-multicast route.

   To further reduce the routing churn due to C-multicast routes changes
   a Route Reflector that re-advertises a C-multicast route SHOULD set
   the Next Hop field of the MP_REACH_NLRI attribute of the route to an
   IP address of the Route Reflector. Likewise, an ASBR that re-
   advertises a C-multicast route SHOULD set the Next Hop field of the
   MP_REACH_NLRI attribute of the route to an IP address of the ASBR.

   Further a BGP receiver, that receives multiple such routes with the
   same NLRI for the same C-multicast route, will potentially create
   forwarding state based on a single C-multicast route. As per the
   procedures described in Section "Receiving C-Multicast Routes by a
   PE", this forwarding state will be the same as the state that would
   have been created based an other route with same NLRI.



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12. Using S-PMSI A-D routes to Bind C-trees to P-tunnels

   This section describes BGP-based procedures for using S-PMSIs A-D
   routes to bind (C-S, C-G) trees to P-tunnels.


12.1. Originating S-PMSI A-D routes

   The following describes procedures for originating S-PMSI A-D routes
   by a PE.

   The PE constructs the MCAST-VPN NLRI of an S-PMSI A-D route for a
   given (C-S, C-G) as follows.

     + The RD in this NLRI is set to the RD of the MVPN's VRF associated
       with (C-S, C-G).

     + The Multicast Source field MUST contain the source address
       associated with the C-multicast stream, and the Multicast Source
       Length field is set appropriately to reflect this.

     + The Multicast Group field MUST contain the group address
       associated with the C-multicast stream, and the Multicast Group
       Length field is set appropriately to reflect this.

     + The Originating Router's IP Address field MUST be set to the IP
       address that the (local) PE places in the Global Administrator
       field of the VRF Route Import extended community of the VPN-IP
       routes advertised by the PE. Note that the <RD, Originating
       Router's IP address> tuple uniquely identifies a given multicast
       VRF.

   The PE constructs the rest of the S-PMSI A-D route as follows.

   Depending on the type of a P-Multicast tree used for the P-tunnel,
   the PMSI tunnel attribute of the S-PMSI A-D route is constructed as
   follows:

     + The PMSI tunnel attribute MUST contain the identity of the P-
       Multicast tree (note that the PE could create the identity of the
       tree prior to the actual instantiation of the tree).

     + If in order to establish the P-Multicast tree the PE needs to
       know the leaves of the tree within its own AS, then the PE
       obtains this information from the Leaf A-D routes received from
       other PEs/ASBRs within its own AS (as other PEs/ASBRs originate
       Leaf A-D routes in response to receiving the S-PMSI A-D route) by
       setting the Leaf Information Required flag in the PMSI Tunnel



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       attribute to 1.

     + If a PE originates S-PMSI A-D routes with the Leaf Information
       Required flag in the PMSI Tunnel attribute set to 1, then the PE
       MUST be (auto)configured with an import Route Target, which
       controls acceptance of Leaf A-D routes by the PE. (Procedures for
       originating Leaf A-D routes by the PEs that receive the S-PMSI A-
       D route are described in section "Receiving S-PMSI A-D routes by
       PEs.)

       This Route Target is IP address specific. The Global
       Administrator field of this Route Target MUST be set to the IP
       address carried in the Next Hop of all the S-PMSI A-D routes
       advertised by this PE (if the PE uses different Next Hops, then
       the PE MUST be (auto)configured with multiple import RTs, one per
       each such Next Hop). The Local Administrator field of this Route
       Target MUST be set to 0.

       If the PE supports Route Target Constrain [RT-CONSTRAIN], the PE
       SHOULD advertise this import Route Target within its own AS using
       Route Target Constrains. To constrain distribution of the Route
       Target Constrain routes to the AS of the advertising PE these
       routes SHOULD carry the NO_EXPORT Community ([RFC1997]).

     + A PE MAY aggregate two or more S-PMSIs originated by the PE onto
       the same P-Multicast tree. If the PE already advertises S-PMSI A-
       D routes for these S-PMSIs, then aggregation requires the PE to
       re-advertise these routes. The re-advertised routes MUST be the
       same as the original ones, except for the PMSI tunnel attribute.
       If the PE has not previously advertised S-PMSI A-D routes for
       these S-PMSIs, then the aggregation requires the PE to advertise
       (new) S-PMSI A-D routes for these S-PMSIs. The PMSI Tunnel
       attribute in the newly advertised/re-advertised routes MUST carry
       the identity of the P-Multicast tree that aggregates the S-PMSIs.
       If at least some of the S-PMSIs aggregated onto the same P-
       Multicast tree belong to different MVPNs, then all these routes
       MUST carry an MPLS upstream assigned label [RFC5331].

       If all these aggregated S-PMSIs belong to the same MVPN, and this
       MVPN uses PIM as its C-multicast routing protocol, then the
       corresponding S-PMSI A-D routes MAY carry an MPLS upstream
       assigned label [RFC5331]. Moreover, in this case the labels MUST
       be distinct on a per MVPN basis, and MAY be distinct on a per
       route basis.

       If all these aggregated S-PMSIs belong to the MVPN(s) that use
       mLDP as its C-multicast routing protocol, then the corresponding
       S-PMSI A-D routes MUST carry an MPLS upstream assigned label



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       [RFC5331], and these labels MUST be distinct on a per route (per
       mLDP FEC) basis, irrespective of whether the aggregated S-PMSIs
       belong to the same or different MVPNs.


   The Next Hop field of the MP_REACH_NLRI attribute of the route SHOULD
   be set to the same IP address as the one carried in the Originating
   Router's IP Address field.


   By default the set of Route Targets carried by the route MUST be
   constructed as follow:

     + If there is a (unicast) VPN-IP route to C-S originate from the
       VRF, but no (unicast) VPN-IP route to C-RP originated from the
       VRF, then the set of Route Targets is set to a set intersection
       between the set of Route Targets carried in the intra-AS I-PMSI
       A-D route originated from the VRF, and the set of Route Targets
       carried by the (unicast) VPN-IP route to C-S.

     + If there is no (unicast) VPN-IP route to C-S originated from the
       VRF, but there is a (unicast) VPN-IP route to C-RP originated
       from the VRF, then the set of Route Targets is set to a set
       intersection between the set of Route Targets carried in the
       intra-AS I-PMSI A-D route originated from the VRF, and the set of
       Route Targets carried by the (unicast) VPN-IP route to C-RP.

     + If there is a (unicast) VPN-IP route to C-S originate from the
       VRF, and a (unicast) VPN-IP route to C-RP originated from the
       VRF, then the set of Route Targets is set to a set intersection
       between the set of Route Targets carried in the intra-AS I-PMSI
       A-D route originated from the VRF, and the set union of Route
       Targets carried by the (unicast) VPN-IP route to C-S and the
       (unicast) VPN-IP route to C-RP.

   In all of the above cases an implementation MUST allow to modify the
   default via configuration.



12.2. Handling S-PMSI A-D routes by ASBRs

   Procedures for handling an S-PMSI A-D route by ASBRs (both within and
   outside of the AS of the PE that originates the route) are the same
   as specified in Section "Propagating Inter-AS Auto-Discovery
   Information", except that instead of Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D routes the
   procedures apply to S-PMSI A-D routes.




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12.2.1. Merging S-PMSI into an I-PMSI

   Consider the situation where:

     + An ASBR is receiving (or expecting to receive) inter-AS (C-S, C-
       G) data from upstream via an S-PMSI.

     + The ASBR is sending (or expecting to send) the inter-AS (C-S, C-
       G) data downstream via an I-PMSI.

   This situation may obtain if the upstream providers have a policy of
   using S-PMSIs but the downstream providers have a policy of using I-
   PMSIs. To support this situation, an ASBR MAY, under certain
   conditions, merge one or more upstream S-PMSIs into a downstream I-
   PMSI.

   An S-PMSI (corresponding to a particular S-PMSI A-D route) MAY be
   merged by a particular ASBR into an I-PMSI (corresponding to a
   particular Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route) if and only if the following
   conditions all hold:

     + BGP is used to exchange C-multicast routes.

     + The S-PMSI A-D route and the Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route originate
       in the same AS. The Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route carries the
       originating AS in the Source AS field of the NLRI of the route,
       and also in the AS_PATH attribute of the route. The S-PMSI A-D
       route carries the originating AS in the AS_PATH attribute of the
       route.

     + The S-PMSI A-D route and the Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route have
       exactly the same set of RTs.

     + For each (C-S,C-G) mentioned in the S-PMSI route, if the ASBR has
       installed a Source Tree Join (C-S, C-G) C-multicast route, then
       the S-PMSI route was originated by the upstream PE of the C-
       multicast route. The address of the upstream PE is carried in the
       RT of the C-multicast route. The address of the PE that
       originated the S-PMSI route is carried in the Originating
       Router's IP Addr field of the MCAST-VPN NLRI of the route.

     + The ASBR supports the optional capability to discard (C-S, C-G)
       traffic received on an I-PMSI.

   An ASBR performs merging by stitching the tail end of the P-tunnel,
   as specified in the the PMSI Tunnel Attribute of the S-PMSI A-D route
   received by the ASBR, to the to the head of the P-tunnel, as
   specified in the PMSI Tunnel Attribute of the Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D



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   route re-advertised by the ASBR.

   IP processing during merge: If an ASBR merges an (C-S, C-G) S-PMSI A-
   D route into an Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route, the ASBR MUST discard all
   (C-S, C-G) traffic it receives on the tunnel advertised in the I-PMSI
   A-D route.

   An ASBR that merges an S-PMSI A-D route into an Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D
   route MUST NOT re-advertise the S-PMSI A-D route.


12.3. Receiving S-PMSI A-D routes by PEs

   Consider a PE that receives an S-PMSI A-D route. If one or more of
   the VRFs on the PE have their import Route Targets that contain one
   or more of the Route Targets carried by the received S-PMSI A-D
   route, then for each such VRF (and associated with it MVPN-TIB) the
   PE performs the following.

   Procedures for receiving an S-PMSI A-D route by a PE (both within and
   outside of the AS of the PE that originates the route) are the same
   as specified in Section "Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route received via IBGP"
   except that (a) instead of Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D routes the procedures
   apply to S-PMSI A-D routes, and (b) a PE performs procedures
   specified in that section only if in addition to the criteria
   specified in that section one of the following is true:

     + the PE originates a Source Tree Join (C-S, C-G) C-multicast
       route, and the upstream PE of that route is the PE that
       originates the S-PMSI A-D route, or

     + the PE does not originate a Source Tree Join (C-S, C-G) C-
       multicast route, but originates a Shared Tree Join (C-*, C-G) C-
       multicast route, and the best (as determined by the BGP route
       selection procedures) Source Active A-D route for (C-S, C-G)
       selected by the PE is originated by the same PE as the one that
       originates the S-PMSI A-D route, or

     + the PE does not originate a Source Tree Join (C-S, C-G), has not
       received any Source Active A-D routes for (C-S, C-G), but does
       originate a Shared Tree Join (C-*, C-G) route, and the upstream
       PE for that route is the PE that originates the received S-PMSI
       A-D route.

   If the received S-PMSI A-D route has a PMSI Tunnel attribute with the
   Leaf Information Required flag set to 1, then the PE originates a
   Leaf A-D route. The Route Key of the Leaf A-D route is set to the
   MCAST-VPN NLRI of the S-PMSI A-D route. The rest of the Leaf A-D



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   route is constructed using the same procedures as specified in
   section "Originating Leaf A-D route into IBGP", except that instead
   of originating Leaf A-D routes in response to receiving Inter-AS I-
   PMSI A-D routes the procedures apply to originating Leaf A-D routes
   in response to receiving S-PMSI A-D routes.

   In addition to the procedures specified in Section "Inter-AS I-PMSI
   A-D route received via IBGP" the PE MUST set up its forwarding path
   to receive (C-S, C-G) traffic from the tunnel advertised by the S-
   PMSI A-D route (the PE MUST switch to the S-PMSI).

   If a PE that is a leaf node of a particular Selective tunnel
   determines that it no longer needs to receive any of (C-S, C-G)s
   carried over that tunnel, the PE SHOULD prune itself off that tunnel.
   Procedures for pruning are specific to a particular tunneling
   technology.


13. Switching from Shared C-tree to Source C-tree

   The procedures defined in this section only apply when the C-
   multicast routing protocol is PIM [RFC4601], moreover only apply for
   the multicast ASM mode, and MUST NOT be applied to Multicast Group
   addresses belonging to the SSM range. The procedures also MUST NOT be
   applied when the C-multicast routing protocol is BIDIR-PIM [RFC5015].

   The procedures of this section are applicable only to MVPNs that use
   both shared (i.e., rooted at a C-RP) and source (i.e., rooted at a C-
   S) inter-site C-trees.

   These procedures are not applicable to MVPNs that do not use shared
   inter-site C-trees and rely solely on source inter-site C-trees.  See
   section ""Supporting PIM-SM without Inter-Site C-Shared Trees" for
   the procedures applicable to that scenario.

   Whether a given MPVN uses both inter-site shared and source C-trees
   or not must be known a priori (e.g., via provisioning).

   In the scenario where an MVPN customer switches from an C-RP based
   tree (RPT) to the shortest path tree (SPT), in order to avoid packet
   duplication choosing of a single consistent upstream PE, as described
   in [MVPN], may not suffice. To illustrate this consider a set of PEs
   {PE2, PE4, PE6} that are on the C-RP tree for (C-*, C-G) and have
   chosen a consistent upstream PE, as described in [MVPN], for (C-*, C-
   G) state. Further this upstream PE, say PE1, is using an MI-PMSI for
   (C-*, C-G). If a site attached to one of these PEs, say PE2, switches
   to the C-S tree for (C-S, C-G), PE2 generates a Source Tree Join C-
   multicast route towards the upstream PE that is on the path to C-S,



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   say PE3. PE3 also uses the MI-PMSI for (C-S, C-G), as PE1 uses for
   (C-*, C-G). This results in {PE2, PE4, PE6} receiving duplicate
   traffic for (C-S, C-G) - both on the C-RP tree (from PE1) and C-S
   tree (from PE3). If it is desirable to suppress receiving duplicate
   traffic then it is necessary to choose a single forwarder PE for (C-
   S, C-G). The following describes how this is achieved.


13.1. Source Within a Site - Source Active Advertisement

   Whenever as a result of receiving a Source Tree Join C-multicast
   route for (C-S, C-G) from some other PE the local PE adds either the
   S-PMSI or I-PMSI to the outgoing interface list of the (C-S, C-G)
   state (see Section 11.3.1.1 "Receiving Source Tree Join C-multicast
   route"), the local PE MUST originate a Source Active A-D route if the
   PE has not originated such route already. The route carries a single
   MCAST-VPN NLRI constructed as follows:

     + The RD in this NLRI is set to the RD of the VRF of the MVPN on
       the PE.

     + The Multicast Source field MUST be set to C-S. The Multicast
       Source Length field is set appropriately to reflect this.

     + The Multicast Group field MUST be set to C-G. The Multicast Group
       Length field is set appropriately to reflect this.

   The Next Hop field of the MP_REACH_NLRI attribute MUST be set to the
   IP address that the PE places in the Global Administrator field of
   the VRF Route Import extended community of the VPN-IP routes
   advertised by the PE from the MVPN's VRF.

   The route SHOULD carry the same set of Route Targets as the Intra-AS
   I-PMSI A-D route of the MVPN originated by the PE.

   Using the normal BGP procedures the Source Active A-D route is
   propagated to all the PEs of the MVPN.

   Note that the advertisement of a Source Active A-D route for a given
   (C-S, C-G) could be combined, if desired, with the advertisement of
   an S-PMSI A-D route for the same (C-S, C-G) This is accomplished by
   using the same BGP Update message to carry both the NLRI of the S-
   PMSI A-D route and the NLRI of the Source Active A-D route.

   Note that even if the originating PE advertises both the Source
   Active A-D route and the S-PMSI A-D route in the same BGP Update
   message, an implementation can not assume that all other PEs will
   receive both of these routes in the same Update message.



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   Whenever as a result of receiving a withdrawal of the previousely
   advertise Source Tree Join C-multicast route for (C-S, C-G), the PE
   is going to remove the S-PMSI/I-PMSI from the outgoing interface list
   of the (C-S, C-G) state, the local PE MUST also withdraw the Source
   Active A-D route for (C-S, C-G), if such a route has been advertised.

   Note that if the PE is also acting as a C-RP, but inter-site shared
   trees are being used, the reception of a PIM Register message by the
   PE does not result in the origination of a Source Active A-D route.



13.2. Receiving Source Active A-D route

   When a PE receives a new Source Active A-D route from some other PE,
   the PE finds a VRF whose import Route Targets match one or more of
   the Route Targets carried by the route. If the match is found, then
   the PE updates the VRF with the received route.

   We say that a given (C-S, C-G) Source Active A-D route stored in a
   given VRF on a PE matches a given (C-*, C-G) entry present in the
   MVPN-TIB associated with the VRF if C-G carried by the route is the
   same as C-G of the entry, and the PE originates a Shared Tree Join C-
   multicast route for the same C-G as C-G of the entry.

   When (as a result of receiving PIM messages from one of its CEs) a PE
   creates in one of its MVPN-TIBs a (new) (C-*, C-G) entry with a non-
   empty outgoing interface list that contains one or more PE-CE
   interfaces, the PE MUST check if it has any matching Source Active A-
   D routes. If there is one or more such matching route, such that the
   PE does not have (C-S, C-G) state in its MVPN-TIB for (C-S, C-G)
   carried in the route, then the PE selects one of them (using the BGP
   route selection procedures), and sets up its forwarding path to
   receive (C-S, C-G) traffic from the tunnel the originator of the
   selected Source Active A-D route uses for sending (C-S, C-G).

   When as a result of receiving a new Source Active A-D route a PE
   updates its VRF with the route, the PE MUST check if the newly
   received route matches any (C-*, C-G) entries. If (a) there is a
   matching entry, (b) the PE does not have (C-S, C-G) state in its
   MVPN-TIB for (C-S, C-G) carried in the route, and (c) the received
   route is selected as the best(using the BGP route selection
   procedures), then the PE sets up its forwarding path to receive (C-S,
   C-G) traffic from the tunnel the originator of the selected Source
   Active A-D route uses for sending (C-S, C-G).

   Note that if the PE is also acting as a C-RP, and inter-site shared
   trees are being used, the BGP Source Active A-D routes do not replace



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   the MSDP or PIM-based Anycast RP peerings among C-RPs that would be
   needed to disseminate source discovery information among C-RPs.


13.2.1. Pruning Sources off the Shared Tree

   In addition to the procedures in the previous section, a PE applies
   the following procedure when importing a Source Active A-D route for
   (C-S,C-G) into a VRF.

   The PE finds an (C-*, C-G) entry in the MVPN-TIB whose C-G is the
   same as C-G carried in the Multicast Group field of the Source Active
   A-D route.

   If the outgoing interface list (oif) for the found (C-*, C-G) entry
   in the MVPN-TIB on the PE contains either I-PMSI or S-PMSI, and the
   PE does not originate the Source Tree Join C-multicast route for (C-
   S, C-G) (where C-S is address carried in the Multicast Source field,
   and C-G is the address carried in the Multicast Group field of the
   received Source Active A-D route), then the PE MUST transition the
   (C-S, C-G, rpt) downstream state machine on I-PMSI/S-PMSI to the
   Prune state. [Conceptually the C-PIM state machine on the PE will act
   "as if" it had received Prune (C-S, C-G,Rpt) on I-PMSI/S-PMSI,
   without actually having received one.] Depending on the (C-S,C-G,rpt)
   state of the PE-CE interfaces, this may result in the PE using PIM
   procedures to prune C-S off the (C-*,C-G) tree.

   Transitioning the state machine to the Prune state SHOULD be done
   after a delay that is controlled by a timer. The value of the timer
   MUST be configurable. The purpose of this timer is to ensure that C-S
   is not pruned off the shared tree until all PEs have had time to
   receive the Source Active A-D route for (C-S, C-G).

   Note that before C-S is prune off the shared tree, there is a
   possibility to have (C-S,C-G) packets be sent at the same time on the
   PMSI by distinct PEs. This would result in a transient unnecessary
   traffic on the provider backbone. However, no duplicates will reach
   customer hosts subscribed to C-G as long as the downstream PEs apply
   procedures described in section 9.1 of [MVPN].

   The PE MUST keep the (C-S, C-G, rpt) downstream state machine on I-
   PMSI/S-PMSI in the Prune state for as long as (a) the outgoing
   interface list (oif) for the found (C-*, C-G) entry in the MVPN-TIB
   on the PE contains either I-PMSI or S-PMSI, and (b) the PE has at
   least one Source Active A-D route for (C-S, C-G), and (c) the PE does
   not originate the Source Tree Join C-multicast route for (C-S, C-G).
   Once either of these conditions become no longer valid, the PE MUST
   transition the (C-S, C-G, rpt) downstream state machine on I-PMSI/S-



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   PMSI to the NoInfo state.

   Note that changing the state on the downstream state machine on I-
   PMSI/S-PMSI, as described above, does not imply exchanging PIM
   messages over I-PMSI/S-PMSI.

   Note also, that except for the scenario described in the third
   paragraph of this section, in all other scenarios relying solely on
   PIM procedures on the PE is sufficient to ensure the correct behavior
   when pruning sources off the shared tree.



14. Supporting PIM-SM without Inter-Site Shared C-trees

   The procedures defined in this section only apply when the C-
   multicast routing protocol is PIM [RFC4601], moreover only apply for
   the multicast ASM mode, and MUST NOT be applied to Multicast Group
   addresses belonging to the SSM range. The procedures also MUST NOT be
   applied when the C-multicast routing protocol is BIDIR-PIM [RFC5015].

   The procedures of this section are applicable only to MVPNs that do
   not use inter-site shared (i.e., rooted at a C-RP) C-trees.

   These procedures are not applicable to MVPNs that use both shared and
   shortest path inter-site C-trees. See section "Switching from Shared
   C-trees to Source C-trees" for the procedures applicable to that
   scenario.

   Whether a given MPVN uses inter-site shared C-trees or not must be
   known a priori (e.g., via provisioning).


14.1. Discovering Active Multicast Sources

   A PE can obtain information about active multicast sources within a
   given MVPN in a variety of ways. One way is for the PE to act as a
   fully functional customer RP (C-RP) for that MVPN. Another way is to
   use PIM Anycast RP procedures [PIM-ANYCAST-RP] to convey information
   about active multicast sources from one or more of the MVPN C-RPs to
   the PE. Yet another way is to use MSDP [MSDP] to convey information
   about active multicast sources from the MVPN C-RPs to the PE.

   When a PE using any of the above methods first learns of a new
   (multicast) source within that MVPN, the PE constructs a Source
   Active A-D route, and sends this route to all other PEs that have one
   or more sites of that MVPN connected to them. The route carries a
   single MCAST-VPN NLRI constructed as follows:



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     + The RD in this NLRI is set to the RD of the VRF of the MVPN on
       the PE.

     + The Multicast Source field MUST be set to the source IP address
       of the multicast data packet carried in the PIM-Register message
       (RP/PIM register case) or of the MSDP Source-Active message (MSDP
       case). The Multicast Source Length field is set appropriately to
       reflect this.

     + The Multicast Group field MUST be set to the group IP address of
       the multicast data packet carried in the PIM-Register message
       (RP/PIM register case) or of the MSDP Source-Active message (MSDP
       case). The Multicast Group Length field is set appropriately to
       reflect this.

   The Next Hop field of the MP_REACH_NLRI attribute MUST be set to the
   IP address that the PE places in the Global Administrator field of
   the VRF Route Import extended community of the VPN-IP routes
   advertised by the PE.

   The route SHOULD carry the same set of Route Targets as the Intra-AS
   I-PMSI A-D route of the MVPN originated by the PE.

   Using the normal BGP procedures the Source Active A-D route is
   propagated to all the PEs of the MVPN.

   When a PE that previously advertised a Source Active A-D route for a
   given (multicast) source learns that the source is no longer active
   (the PE learns this by using the same mechanism by which the PE
   learned that the source was active), the PE SHOULD withdraw the
   previously advertised Source Active route.


14.2. Receiver(s) Within a Site

   A PE follows the procedures specified in Section "Originating C-
   multicast routes by a PE", except that the procedures specified in
   Section "Originating Shared Tree Join C-multicast route" are replaced
   with the procedures specified in this Section below.

   When a PE receives a new Source Active A-D route, the PE finds a VRF
   whose import Route Targets match one or more of the Route Targets
   carried by the route. If the match is found, then the PE updates the
   VRF with the received route.

   We say that a given (C-S, C-G) Source Active A-D route stored in a
   given VRF matches a given (C-*, C-G) entry present in the MVPN-TIB
   associated with the VRF if C-G carried by the route is the same as C-



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   G of the entry.

   When (as a result of receiving PIM messages from one of its CEs) a PE
   creates in one of its MVPN-TIBs a (new) (C-*, C-G) entry with a non-
   empty outgoing interface list that contains one or more PE-CE
   interfaces, the PE MUST check if it has any matching Source Active A-
   D routes. If there is one or more such matching routes, and the best
   path to C-S carried in the matching route(s) is reachable through
   some other PE, then for each such route the PE MUST originate a
   Source Tree Join C-multicast route. If there is one or more such
   matching routes, and the best path to C-S carried in the matching
   route(s) is reachable through a CE connected to the PE, then for each
   such route the PE MUST originate a PIM Join (C-S, C-G) towards the
   CE.

   When as a result of receiving a new Source Active A-D route a PE
   updates its VRF with the route, the PE MUST check if the newly
   received route matches any (C-*, C-G) entries. If there is a matching
   entry, and the best path to C-S carried in the (A-D) route is
   reachable through some other PE, the PE MUST originate a Source Tree
   Join C-multicast route for the (C-S, C-G) carried by the route. If
   there is a matching entry, and the best path to C-S carried in the
   (A-D) route is reachable through a CE connected to the PE, the PE
   MUST originate a PIM Join (C-S, C-G) towards the CE.

   Construction and distribution of the Source Tree Join C-multicast
   route follows the procedures specified in Section "Originating Source
   Tree Join C-multicast route", except that the Multicast Source
   Length, Multicast Source, Multicast Group Length, and Multicast Group
   fields in the MCAST-VPN NLRI of the Source Tree Join C-multicast
   route are copied from the corresponding field in the Source Active A-
   D route.

   A PE MUST withdraw a Source Tree Join C-multicast route for (C-S, C-
   G) if, as a result of having received PIM messages from one of its
   CEs, the PE creates a Prune (C-S, C-G, RPT-bit) upstream state in one
   of its MVPN-TIBs, but has no (C-S, C-G) Joined state in that MVPN-
   TIB, and had previously advertised the said route.  (This is even if
   the VRF associated with the MVPN-TIB still has a (C-S, C-G) Source
   Active A-D route).

   A PE MUST withdraw a Source Tree Join C-multicast route for (C-S, C-
   G) if the Source Active A-D route that triggered the advertisement of
   the C-multicast route is withdrawn.

   When a PE deletes the (C-*, C-G) state (e.g., due to to receiving PIM
   Prune (C-*, C-G) from its CEs), the PE MUST withdraw all the Source
   Tree Join C-multicast routes for C-G that have been advertised by the



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   PE, except for the routes for which the PE still maintains the
   corresponding (C-S, C-G) state.

   Even though PIM is used as a C-multicast protocol, procedures
   described in Section "Originating Shared Tree Join C-multicast route"
   do not apply here, as only the Source Tree Join C-multicast routes
   are exchanged among PEs.


14.3. Receiving C-multicast routes by a PE

   In this model the only valid type of a C-multicast route that a PE
   could receive is a Source Tree Join C-multicast route. Processing of
   such a route follows the procedures specified in Section "Receiving
   Source Tree Join C-multicast route".


15. Carrier's Carrier

   A way to support the Carrier's Carrier model is provided by using
   mLDP as the CE-PE multicast routing and label distribution protocol,
   as specified in this document.


   To improve scalability it is RECOMMENDED that for the Carrier's
   Carrier scenario within an AS all the S-PMSIs of a given MVPN be
   aggregated into a single P-Multicast tree (by using upstream assigned
   labels).


16. Scalability Considerations

   A PE should use Route Target Constrain [RT-CONSTRAIN] to advertise
   the Route Targets that the PE uses for the VRF Route Imports extended
   community (note that doing this requires just a single Route Target
   Constraint advertisement by the PE). This allows each C-multicast
   route to reach only the relevant PE, rather than all the PEs
   participating the an MVPN.

   To keep the intra-AS membership/binding information within the AS of
   the advertising router the BGP Update message originated by the
   advertising router SHOULD carry the NO_EXPORT Community ([RFC1997]).

   An Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route originated by an ASBR aggregates Intra-
   AS I-PMSI A-D routes originated within the ASBR's own AS.  Thus while
   the Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D routes originated within an AS are at the
   granularity of <PE, MVPN> within that AS, outside of that AS the
   (aggregated) Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D routes are at the granularity of



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   <AS, MVPN>. An Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D route for a given <AS, MVPN>
   indicates the presence of or or more sites of the MVPN connected to
   the PEs of the AS.

   For a given inter-AS tunnel each of its intra-AS segments could be
   constructed by its own mechanism. Moreover, by using upstream
   assigned labels within a given AS multiple intra-AS segments of
   different inter-AS tunnels of either the same or different MVPNs may
   share the same P-Multicast tree.

   Since (aggregated) Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D routes may have granularity of
   <AS, MVPN>, an MVPN that is present in N ASes would have total of N
   inter-AS tunnels. Thus for a given MVPN the number of inter-AS
   tunnels is independent of the number of PEs that have this MVPN.

   Within each Autonomous System BGP Route reflectors can be partitioned
   among MVPNs present in that Autonomous System so that each partition
   carries routes for only a subset of the MVPNs supported by the
   Service Provider. Thus no single Route Reflector is required to
   maintain routes for all MVPNs. Moreover, Route Reflectors used for
   MVPN do not have to be used for VPN-IP routes (although they may be
   used for VPN-IP routes as well).

   As described in Section "C-multicast routes aggregation", C-multicast
   routes for a given (S,G) of a given MVPN originated by PEs that are
   clients of a given Route Reflector are aggregated by the Route
   Reflector. Therefore, even if within a Route Reflector cluster there
   are multiple C-multicast routes for a given (S,G) of a given MVPN,
   outside of the cluster all these routes are aggregated into a single
   C-multicast route. Additional aggregation of C-multicast routes
   occurs at ASBRs, where an ASBR aggregates all the received C-
   multicast routes for a given (S,G) of a given MVPN into a single C-
   multicast route. Moreover, both Route Reflectors and ASBRs maintain
   C-multicast routes only in the control plane, but not in the data
   plane.


16.1. Dampening C-multicast routes

   The rate of C-multicast routing changes advertised by a PE is not
   necessarily directly proportional to the rate of multicast routing
   changes within the MVPN sites connected to the PE, as after the first
   (C-S,C-G) Join originated within a site, all the subsequent Joins for
   same (C-S,C-G) originated within the sites of the same MVPN connected
   to the PE do not cause origination of new C-multicast routes by the
   PE.

   Depending on how multicast VPN is engineered, dynamic addition and



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   removal of P2MP RSVP-TE leaves through advertisement/withdrawal of
   Leaf A-D routes, will happen. Dampening techniques can be used to
   limit corresponding processing.

   To lessen the control plane overhead associated with processing of C-
   multicast routes, this document proposes OPTIONAL route dampening
   procedures similar to what is described in RFC2439. The following
   OPTIONAL procedures can be enabled on a PE, ASBR, or BGP Route
   Reflector advertising or receiving C-multicast routes.


16.1.1. Dampening withdrawals of C-multicast routes

   A PE/ASBR/Route Reflector can OPTIONALLY delay the advertisement of
   withdrawals of C-multicast routes. An implementation SHOULD provide
   the ability to control the delay via a configurable timer, possibly
   with some backoff algorithm to adapt the delay to multicast routing
   activity.

   Dampening of withdrawals of C-multicast routes does not impede the
   multicast join latency observed by MVPN customers, and also does not
   impede the multicast leave latency observed by a CE, as multicast
   forwarding from the VRF will stop as soon as C-multicast state is
   removed in the VRF.

   The potential drawbacks of dampening of withdrawals of C-multicast
   routes are:

     + Until the withdrawls are actually sent, multicast traffic for the
       C-multicast routes in question will be continued to be
       transmitted to the PE, which will just have to discard it. Note
       that the PE may receive useless (multicast) traffic anyway,
       irrespective of dampening of withdrawals of C-multicast routes
       due to the use of I-PMSIs.

     + Any state in the upstream PEs that would be removed as a result
       of processing the withdrawls will remain until the withdrawls are
       sent.

   Discussion on whether the potential drawbacks mentioned above are of
   any practical significance is outside the scope of this document.










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16.1.2. Dampening Source/Shared Tree Join C-multicast routes

   A PE/ASBR/Route Reflector can OPTIONALLY delay the advertisement of
   Source/Shared Tree Join C-multicast routes. An implementation SHOULD
   provide the ability to control the delay via a configurable timer,
   possibly with some backoff algorithm to adapt the delay to multicast
   routing activity.

   Dampening Source/Shared Tree Join C-multicast routes will not impede
   multicast join latency observed by a given MVPN, except if the PE
   advertising the Source/Shared Tree Join C-multicast route for a
   particular C-S/C-RP is the first to do so for all the sites of the
   MVPN that share the same upstream PE with respect to the C-S/C-RP.


16.2. Dampening withdrawals of Leaf A-D routes

   Similarly to the procedures proposed above for withdrawal of C-
   multicast routes, dampening can be applied to the withdrawal of Leaf
   A-D routes.




17. Security Considerations

   The mechanisms described in this document could re-use the existing
   BGP security mechanisms.

   When C-multicast routing information is exchanged among PEs using
   BGP, an implementation SHOULD provide the ability to rate limit BGP
   messages used for this exchange. This SHOULD be provided on a per PE,
   per MVPN granularity.

   An implementation SHOULD provide capabilities to impose an upper
   bound on the number of S-PMSI A-D routes, as well as on how
   frequently they may be originated. This SHOULD be provided on a per
   PE, per MVPN granularity.

   In conjunction with the procedures specified in Section "Supporting
   PIM-SM without Inter-Site Shared C-trees" an implementation SHOULD
   provide capabilities to impose an upper bound on the number of Source
   Active A-D routes, as well as on how frequently they may be
   originated. This SHOULD be provided on a per PE, per MVPN
   granularity.

   In conjunction with the procedures specified in Section "Switching
   from Shared C-tree to Source C-tree" limiting the amount of (C-S,C-G)



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   state would limit the amount of Source Active A-D route, as in the
   context of this section Source Active A-D routes are created in
   response to Source Tree Join C-multicast routes, and Source Tree Join
   C-multicast routes are created as a result of creation of (C-S, C-G)
   state on PEs. However, to provide an extra level of robustness in the
   context of these procedures an implementation MAY provide
   capabilities to impose an upper bound on the number of Source Active
   A-D routes, as well as on how frequently they may be originated.
   This MAY be provided on a per PE, per MVPN granularity.

   Section "Dampening withdrawals of C-multicast routes" describes
   optional procedures for dampening withdrawals of C-multicast routes.
   It is RECOMMENDED that an implementation supports such procedures.

   Section "Dampening withdrawals of Leaf A-D routes" describes optional
   procedures for dampening withdrawals of Leaf A-D routes.  It is
   RECOMMENDED that an implementation supports such procedures.

   A PE router MUST NOT accept from CEs routes with MCAST-VPN SAFI.

   If BGP is used as a CE-PE routing protocol, then when PE receives a
   route from CE, if this route carries the VRF Route Import extended
   community, the PE MUST remove this community from the route before
   turning it into a VPN-IP route. Routes that a PE advertises to a CE
   MUST NOT carry the VRF Route Import extended community.


18. IANA Considerations

   This document defines a new BGP Extended Community called Source AS.
   This community is 2-octet AS specific, of an extended type, and is
   transitive.

   This document defines a new BGP Extended Community called VRF Route
   Import. This community is IP address specific, of an extended type,
   and is transitive.

   This document defines a new NLRI, called MCAST-VPN, to be carried in
   BGP using multiprotocol extensions. It requires assignment of a new
   SAFI.

   This document defines a new BGP optional transitive attribute, called
   PMSI Tunnel.








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19. Acknowledgement

   Some of the text in Section "Supporting PIM-SM without Inter-Site
   Shared C-trees" has been taken almost verbatim from RFC3618. We would
   like to thank Chaitanya Kodeboniya for helpful discussions.  We would
   also like to thank members of the L3VPN IETF Working Group for
   insightful comments and review.


20. Authors' Addresses

   Rahul Aggarwal
   Juniper Networks
   1194 North Mathilda Ave.
   Sunnyvale, CA 94089
   Email: rahul@juniper.net

   Eric C. Rosen
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   1414 Massachusetts Avenue
   Boxborough, MA, 01719
   E-mail: erosen@cisco.com

   Thomas Morin
   France Telecom R & D
   2, avenue Pierre-Marzin
   22307 Lannion Cedex
   France
   Email: thomas.morin@francetelecom.com

   Yakov Rekhter
   Juniper Networks
   1194 North Mathilda Ave.
   Sunnyvale, CA 94089
   Email: yakov@juniper.net



21. References

21.1. Normative References

   [IANA-SAFI] http://www.iana.org/assignments/safi-namespace

   [MVPN] E. Rosen, R. Aggarwal [Editors], "Multicast in MPLS/BGP IP
   VPNs", draft-ietf-l3vpn-2547bis-mcast

   [RFC1997] R. Chandra, P. Traina, T. Li, "BGP Communities Attribute",



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   RFC1997, August 1996.

   [RFC2119] "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
   Levels.", Bradner, RFC2119, March 1997.

   [RFC4271] Rekhter, Y., Li, T., Hares, S., "A Border Gateway Protocol
   4 (BGP-4)", RFC 4271, January 2006

   [RFC4760] Bates, T., Rekhter, Y., Chandra, R., and D. Katz,
   "Multiprotocol Extensions for BGP-4", RFC 4760, January 2007.

   [RFC4360] Sangli, S., Tappan, D., and Y. Rekhter, "BGP Extended
   Communities Attribute", RFC 4360, February 2006.

   [RFC4364] E. Rosen, Y. Rekhter, "BGP/MPLS IP Virtual Private Networks
   (VPNs)", RFC4364, February 2006

   [RFC4601] B. Fenner et. al., "Protocol Independent Multicast - Sparse
   Mode (PIM-SM): Protocol Specification (Revised)", RFC 4601, August
   2006

   [RFC4659] J. De Clercq et. al., "BGP-MPLS IP Virtual Private Network
   (VPN) Extension for IPv6 VPN", RFC 4659, September 2006




21.2. Informative References

   [RFC5331] R. Aggrwal, Y. Rekhter, E. Rosen, " MPLS Upstream Label
   Assignment and Context Specific Label Space", RFC 5331, August 2008

   [RT-CONSTRAIN] P. Marques et. al., "Constrained Route Distribution
   for Border Gateway Protocol/MultiProtocol Label Switching (BGP/MPLS)
   Internet Protocol (IP) Virtual Private Networks (VPNs)", RFC 4684,
   November 2006

   [mLDP] I. Minei et. al., "Label Distribution Protocol Extensions for
   Point-to-Multipoint and Multipoint-to-Multipoint Label Switched
   Paths", draft-ietf-mpls-ldp-p2mp

   [RFC4607] H. Holbrook, B. Cain "Source-Specific Multicast for IP",
   RFC 4607, August 2006

   [RFC5015] M. Handley et. al., "Bidirectional Protocol Independent
   Multicast (BIDIR-PIM)", RFC5015, October 2007

   [RFC4875] R. Aggarwal et. al., "Extensions to RSVP-TE for Point-to-



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   Multipoint TE LSPs", RFC 4875, May 2007

   [PIM-ANYCAST-RP] D. Farinacci, Y. Cai, "Anycast-RP using PIM" RFC
   4610, August 2006

   [MSDP] B. Fenner, D. Meyer, "Multicast Source Discovery Protocol
   (MSDP)", RFC3618, October 2003












































Raggarwa                                                       [Page 61]


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